APA Formatting and Style Guide
General Format • • • • •
Typed, double-spaced and justified (8.5”x11”) 1” margins on all sides Font: Times New Roman, size 12 Page header: title in the upper left-hand of every page Page number: in the upper right-hand side of every page
4 Sections: 1. Title page
2. Abstract 3. Main Body 4. References
Page header: include â€œRunning headâ€? + full title (capitalized) title flush left + page number flush right.
Title: in the upper half of the page, centered name (no title or degree) + affiliation (university, etc.)
Page header: do NOT include “Running head:” Abstract (centered, at the top of the page)
Write a 150-to 250-word summary of your paper in an accurate, concise, and specific manner. Type the paragraph in block format—do not indent.
Keywords: (italicized) include a list of keywords to help researchers find your work in databases.
Main Body •Number the first text page as page number 3
•Type and center the title of the paper centered, at the top of the page •Type the text double-spaced with all sections following each
other without a break •Identify the sources you use in the paper in parenthetical intext citations •Format tables and figures
•It should appear at the end of your paper. •Center the title (References) at the top of the page. Do not bold it. •Double-space reference entries. •Flush left the first line of the entry and indent subsequent lines (hanging indentation) •Order entries alphabetically by the author’s surnames.
References: Basics •Last name first followed by initials.
•Alphabetize by the last name. •More than one article by the same author should be listed in order by the year of publication, starting with the earliest. •Italicize titles of longer works such as books and
• Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections.
References: Basics •Capitalize: All major words in journal titles. The first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle
(books, chapters, articles, or Web pages) The first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word.
Making the References List 1. Identify the type of source: Is it a book? A journal article? A webpage? 2. Find a sample of citing this type of source in the textbook
or in the OWL APA Guide: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ 3. â€œMirrorâ€? the sample 4. Make sure that the entries are listed in the alphabetical order and the subsequent lines are indented (Recall References: Basics)
References List: Author/Authors •Single Author (Last name first, followed by author initials) Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 7-10. •Two Authors (List by their last names and initials. Use the ampersand instead of "and") Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 66, 1034-1048.
•Three to Seven Authors (List by last names and initials; commas separate author names, while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand) Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., Harlow, T., & Bach, J. S. (1993). There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1190-1204.
References List: Articles in Periodicals Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages.
Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.
Article in Journal Paginated by Volume
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31.
Article in Magazine
Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today, pp. 1A, 2A. Article in a Newspaper
References List: Books Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.
Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation. Plath, S. (2000). The unabridged journals K.V. Kukil, (Ed.). New York, NY: Anchor.
Edited Book, No Author
Edited Book with an Author
O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: Metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York, NY: Springer. Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
References List: Electronic Sources Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 149. Retrieved from http://www.alistapart.com/articles/writeliving Smyth, A. M., Parker, A. L., & Pease, D. L. (2002). A study of enjoyment of peas. Journal of Abnormal Eating, 8(3), 120-125. Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com
Feminism. (n.d.). In EncyclopĂŚdia Britannica online. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/724633/feminis m
Article from an Online Periodical
Article from a Database
Online Encyclopedia and Dictionaries
In-text Citations: Basics •In-text citations help readers locate the cited source in the References section of the paper. •Whenever you use a source, provide in parenthesis: •the author’s name and the date of publication •for quotations and close paraphrases, provide the author’s name, date of publication, and a page number •If you use the exact words of another author, put those in between quotation marks. •If you eliminate one or more words, show the reader by using ellipsis: three dots, with a space after each. •If you add one or more words, put those in brackets. According to Professor Paul Museen, an expert in child psychology, “Young children *aged 4-6+ are usually less cautious of their behavior. They tend to participate in … more dangerous activities and are more likely to take risks” (1997, pp. 33-34).
Short Quotations â€˘Include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses. According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199). Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers? â€˘If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation. She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.
Long Quotations â€˘A direct quotation of more that 40 words must: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Be separated from the main text (free-standing block) Omit quotation marks Be indented 5 spaces (1/2 inch from the left margin) Maintain double-spacing throughout. Have the parenthetical citation come after the closing punctuation mark
Jones's (1998) study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)
Formatting Quotations •When quoting, introduce the quotation with a signal phrase. Make sure to include the author’s name, the year of publication, the page number, but keep the citation brief—do not repeat the information. Caruth (1996) states that a traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (p.11). A traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (Caruth, 1996, p.11).
Formatting a Summary or Paraphrase •Provide the author’s last name and the year of publication in parenthesis after a summary or a paraphrase. Though feminist studies focus solely on women's experiences, they err by collectively perpetuating the masculine-centered impressions (Fussell, 1975).
•Include the author’s name in a signal phrase followed by the year of publication in parenthesis. Recently, the history of warfare has been significantly revised by Higonnet et al (1987), Marcus (1989), and Raitt and Tate (1997) to include women’s personal and cultural responses to battle and its resultant traumatic effects. •When including the quotation in a summary/paraphrase, also provide a page number in parenthesis after the quotation. According to feminist researchers Raitt and Tate (1997), “It is no longer true to claim that women's responses to the war have been ignored” (p. 2).
Signal Words •Introduce quotations with signal phrases, e.g. According to X. (2008), “….” (p.3). X. (2008) argues that “……” (p.3). •Use such signal verbs as: acknowledged, contended, maintained, responded, reported, argued, concluded, etc. •Use the past tense or the present perfect tense of verbs in signal phrases
In-Text Citations: Author/Authors •When the parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them in the same way they appear in the reference list—the author’s name, the year of publication—separated by a semi-colon. (Kachru, 2005; Smith, 2008) •When citing a work with two authors, use “and” in between authors’ name in the signal phrase yet “&” between their names in parenthesis. According to feminist researchers Raitt and Tate (1997), “It is no longer true to claim that women's responses to the war have been ignored” (p. 2). Some feminists researchers question that “women's responses to the war have been ignored” (Raitt & Tate, 1997, p. 2).
•When citing a work with three to five authors, identify all authors in the signal phrase or in parenthesis. (Harklau, Siegal, and Losey, 1999) •In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses. (Harklau et al., 1993) •When citing a work with six and more authors, identify the first author’s name followed by “et al.”
Smith et al. (2006) maintained that…. (Smith et al., 2006)
In-Text Citations: Citing Indirect Sources â€˘If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses.
Johnson argued that...(as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102).
In-Text Citations: Electronic Sources â€˘If possible, cite an electronic document the same as any other document by using the author-date style. If electronic source lacks page numbers, locate and identify paragraph number/paragraph heading (Âś or para.) According to Smith (1997), ... (Mind over Matter section, para. 6). â€˘If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n.d." (for "no date"). Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA," n.d.).
References and Additional APA Resources • The Purdue OWL (slightly modified): http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/ 560/01/ • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. • APA’s website: http://www.apastyle.org/