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Roman Numerals What are Roman Numerals? Roman numerals are the numeric system representation of ancient Rome. Various combinations of the Latin alphabets form the roman numerals. The roman numerals do not have zero. Clock is the best example for the usage of roman numerals in our daily life. Basic Symbols of Roman Numerals There are seven basic symbols of Roman numerals, they are: I, V, X, L, C, D, and M. Each of these symbols have an equivalent numeral value. The value of symbol “I” is 1, “ V” is 5, “X” is 10, “L” is 50, “C” is 100, “D” is 500, “M” is 1000. How to read Roman Numerals? The roman numerals are represented using the set of symbols listed above. For example, MCXI is a roman number. This roman number is formed by combining the symbols. You can easily convert roman numerals into numbers by adding the value of each symbol present in the roman number. For example, the numerical equivalent of MCXI is 1000 (value of M) + 100 (value of C) + 10 (value of X) + 1 (value of I) = 1111. As you can see in the example above, the roman numerals are generally mentioned in the descending order of their values. When the symbols are combined in descending order, the roman numerals conversion is performed by adding the numerical values of the symbols. However, if a symbol with lesser value is mentioned before a symbol with higher value then you have to subtract its numerical values instead of performing addition. For example, consider the roman number MDMCXL. The conversion expression will be: 1000 + (1000 – 500) + 100 + (50 – 10) and the resultant number equivalent of MDMCXL will be 1640. Roman Numerals 1-10 Roman numerals to represent numbers 1-10 are: Arabic Numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Equivalent Roman Numerals I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X

Roman Numbers 1 – 100 Number 10 is represented as X, hence the numbers 11 to 19 will start with an X followed by the Roman numeral 1 to 9. For example, number 11 is represented as XI, 12 as XII, 13 as XIII and so on. Number 20


is represented in roman as XX. Thus, 21 is XXI, 22 is XXII and so on. Here is the roman number equivalent for numbers 10, 20, 30‌ Arabic Numbers 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Equivalent Roman Numerals X XX XXX XL L LX LXX LXXX XC C

Thus the roman numbers 1-100 are formed by combining the letters I, V, X, L and C. Remember, a symbol can be consecutively repeated only three times in a roman number.


What are Roman Numerals?