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FT D RA NIGHT TIME DESIGN

A LONDON STRATEGY1


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INTRODUCTION

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CONTEXTUAL RESEARCH

ACOUSTIC STRATEGY

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NIGHT TIME SERVICES

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LIGHTING STRATEGY

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SOCIABILITY

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SOCIO ECONOMIC

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URBAN DESIGN

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INTRODUCTION

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A TWENTY-FOUR HOUR CITY IS A CITY THAT TAKES A HOLISTIC APPROACH TO SPATIAL PLANNING.

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Yet all too often spatial design is applied to the daylight hours. Designing for the night is neglected and the potential to support the night time economy is lost. Under the driving force of the Mayor of London and Greater London Authority, the night time economy has become a forefront topic in discussions around the future of London due to the sharp decline in night time venues across London.

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Supporting the Mayor’s vision to improve the night time economy, this publication begins to imagine a series of design proposals and improvements which advocate a new way of strategising the city. Set out in motion are the ephemeral, spatial and social possibilities that our city should acknowledge and design for, in order to truly assist the twenty-four hour city cycle. At the core is an industry that is both recognised and respected around the world as an international night time destination. A design guide does not aim to sanitise a world which has been predominately driven by cultural and behavioural changes but deal with the current climate of our modern day society in response to the ever changing socio-economic urban context in which the night time economy exists. In principle, the guide provides city-making to encourage new developments and strengthen the night time industry in its rich fabric.

According to the UN, by 2050 over 80% of the world’s population will live in urban areas. This can be seen as a challenge, or an opportunity.

here is n t ne s eci c a t s l e the r le s that ha e een noted in the night economy but a series of robust steps that could be taken to support, educate and re-think how to spatially design at night. In response to the introduction of London’s twenty-four hour Underground and Overground system and the future development of HS1, HS2, Crossrail 1 and Cross Rail 2, the publication was created in ambition to improve the quality of life for all those who work, enjoy and are th irectl an in irectl affecte the night ti e ec n 7

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CONTEXTUAL RESEARCH

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723,00 night-time workers are directly supported by the night time economy

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40% of the £66bn esitmate for the total UK night time economy is represented by London

1.26m jobs exist overall because of the night time economy

£77m a year is projected to be added to London’s economy by 2023 because of the Night Tube

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2,200 new jobs could be added to the services


107,136 people are employed in the transport and storage sector

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97,125 people are employed in the hotels and restuarants industry

100,000 people predicted to travel on the Night Tube on both Friday and Saturday nights

ÂŁ2bn growth added each year by 2030

35% of London’s grassroots music venues have been lost Data and imagery taken from Greater London Authority document: 11 Cultural and Night-Time Economy Supplementary Planning Guidance


WHAT HA P P E N S DURING THE NIGHT?

Pleasure is where city dwellers seek escapism, culture and adventure, which largely consists of nightclubs, pubs and bars. Those thrill seeking are portrayed as social nuisances due to factors such as noise ll ti n an litter es ite this the night c ntri tes signi cantl t the UK’s overall economy. London’s planning system has little night urban design guidance in place to deal with such factors. During the social recreational hours expressive creativity occurs and this is imperative to London’s identity in order to complete globally on an economic, tourism and cultural level.

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London is recognised as a global city that exists twenty four hours a day, seven days a week. As part of a greater initiative to transform itself into a 24-hour city, the Greater London Authority has developed a Night Time Commission, launched a 24-hour tube system (with continued expansion) and introduced a Night Czar.

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London, one of the largest cities in the world, needs to be esigne t r efficientl f r t ent f r h rs a a in r er t achieve a sustainable rhythm for its inhabitants. Under the cover of darkness, two systems work alongside one another to occupy the night. One is purely for pleasure, the other is for employment, energy and economy. Although the two systems sometimes do not always support the other, both predominately exist together. Interwoven through employment, the night time economy caters for socialeconomic growth within a city. However, the relationship between the two can become fractious and this where the negative connotations of the night are publicised.

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Many industries that exist during night help sustain the city whilst most of its dwellers sleep. Without them, the city could not exist. From train drivers to electrical engineers to hospital/social work to night time industry employment the list could go on. For some, these jobs are a vocational choice due to the love for their profession, however for others, such jobs have a level of precarity and are a way f n ing nancial s rt in the cit t s rt the sel es here is no consideration for these workers when designing for the night. They are expected to travel through the darkness, uncomfortable and unwelcoming situations in order to commute from their home to employment.


midday

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midnight

DUSK

NIGHT SHIFT

setting of the sun and slow transition of the city into darkness

around the clock and night time industry workers

HAPPY HOUR

AFTER HOURS

social extension of the work day

late night social activities

DINING + EATING OUT

EARLY RISERS

social gathering of groups of people over food and drink

early morning city employment and industries

CULTURAL EVENTS

DAWN

visits to cultural institutions within the city

the day city starts again

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WHAT IS AT STAKE?

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Loss of culture. Grass root music venues. Nightclubs. London’s identity. A creative industry. Night-time employment satisfaction. Sustainable twenty-four hour design. A healthier, vibrant and liveable city. Sense of community. Social inclusion and activity. Added economy to London. Night time tourism. Retention of community value to city dwellers.

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The underlying problem is simple and responds to an aspect that has been long overlooked by planners and designers: most cities weren’t designed for darkness. he ifference et een a an night is n t in acti it t in perception. The night is perceived as negative space where crime, antis cial eha i r an c n icts ha en n a entall it c es down to the perception that the day time is for work, and night time is for fun. However, people must work during the night in order for the fun to exist. As a result, cities are designed for the day time and become licensed and restricted at night. There is a balance between a proactive day time planning system but a reactive system exists during the night s ff cating all the n erf l things that e ist he ene ts f the night time economy are overshadow by its negative connotations.

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A NIGHT TUBE FOR PLEASURE SEEKERS AND NIGHT WORKERS.

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The introduction of the weekend night tube is a central to the development of the city’s vision for a successful twenty-four hour city. Movement, is where both industries of entertainment and professional employment cross in the ‘in-between’ infrastructural space of transport, whether it be a bus stop, a taxi collection point or most commonly used, a Underground or Overground station since the introduction of the Night Tube. This is where the support lies at night and provides the platform for night time design to become authoritative in the daily built environment.

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Unfortunately, the current system runs over the weekend only, from Friday evening to Monday morning, which favours considerably the arts and entertainment industry. During the week, those who work in similar and other night time industries a face a long struggle to get home via bus routes that can be unpredictable and have long waiting times. A lonely and dark commute compared to the light and busy commute of the day. If, following the Mayor of London’s suggested plan to roll out more twenty-four hour stations open for more days within the city, becomes a realisation, then the transport hubs are central to the cycle of twentyfour hour design.

Transport for London expects that nearly 180,000 trips will be made on the night tube between 00:30 and 06:00 where economic activity at night supports one in eight jobs in London. The night tube would give London a £360m boost over the next 30 years.

Even if the network is not active during the week, there is no reason to stop the station, as a base, being active in hosting and supporting the night. As an empty neutral territory they can becomes safe spaces and act as assistance for those travelling at night. Historically, although the tube was originally intended for transport during the day, it had adapted to match the current circumstances of life where it was open for city dwellers to seek refuge during the world war. With an increase in population and land value, it is time again for the station to adapt and deal with the socioeconomic climate with which it sits.

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WHO ARE THE KEY CITY DWELLERS THAT USE LONDON‘S TRANSPORT AT NIGHT?

Tourists

Museums

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Galleries

Promoters

Public Service

Fire safety

Bouncers Transport for London

Taxi Drivers

Protective Service Workers Building Security

Environmental Health

HT E NIG TH

Waiting Staff

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Police

Journailism

National Health Service Performers

W OR

Staying late at work

Licensed Premises Owners Chefs

INDIR ECT LY

Late night sport games viewing

NG RI DU

DIRECT LY W OR K

Nightclubs attendees

HT G I Social drinkers EN H T Bartenders Hospitality Workers

Theatre attendess

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NG I R

Those who partake in solicit acivities

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Music gig attendees

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ASURE AND ENTER E L TA P INM NG I K EN E E Those who eat out T S

Distribution + Logistics

Office Cleaners Engineers


ALTHOUGH A PERMANENT FRAMEWORK, THE NIGHTLY OCCURRENCE ON THE TUBE ARE TEMPORARY EVENTS.

Anything can happen during the night at London and although the mode of transport and working hours adhere to time, those seeking entertainment tend to be more unpredictable. There are various factors to consider such as date, time of day, weather, time of month. Shown below is the average arrivals and departures across London’s night tube stations.

Seeking Entertainment

Professional Employment

Dining and eating out

Daylight work commute

Visits to cultural and music events

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Late night entertainment

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Socialising with colleagues, peers and friends

Hospitality work commute Music, art and cultural institution workers Direct night employment Indirect night employment

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SPATIAL STRATEGIES FOR THE NIGHT.

The ethnographic diversity across London is tremendous. Where tube stati ns an night ti e in str nes are inherentl ifferent the re-design considerations should change accordingly. From abundant business districts, to quiet residential zones to the myriad centre of night entertainment. The strategies put forward begin to tackle the design of stations that already exist and the future infrastructural developments of London’s transport network such as HS1, HS2 and Cross Rail whilst also proposing public realm strategies that should be considered when designing for the night.

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There are six key design categories that need to be considered and addressed when designing a night time strategy and tube stations to holistically exist successfully over twenty four hours.

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Acoustic Strategy Lighting Strategy

Night Time Services Sociabilty

Socioeconomic Urban Design

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ACOUSTIC STRATEGY

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OPPORTUNITIES OF CHANGE

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Underground stations are noisy environments due to the disruption of trains arriving and departing. However, they are concealed units where the sound of interchange occurs without polluting noise to the street level. At night these stations could become a location where musical creativity could be harnessed and experimented with. For Overground stations, which sit at street level, there are opportunities to create ac stic ffer nes t hel eal ith the e ent of people between station and street.

TYPES OF INTERVENTION The proposals look at public strategy when controlling the movement of people to help mitigate noise pollution levels, whilst simultaneously suggesting infrastructural changes on the late night journeys to improve overall noise pollution levels. Where mentioned, some of the acoustic interventions can be read in conjunction with other proposals described in other sections of the guide.

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FT PERFORMANCE

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A1

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NEW AUDIO ICONS

Design and allot entertainment space within stations to centralise a programme of performances on the transport network. Currently busking spots are available at a few stations, however, they are not designed, undervalued and feature only one type of performance. By providing a carefully considered professional stage this could add vibrancy to the night time spaces. Sheltered within a station this opportunity could provide a much need creative output for musical and performance experimentation for entertainers str ggling t n a latf r in London.

Update the PA system announcements t re ect the t e f e le sing the station by creating a set of commands for night time use. Instructions or sounds produced before the trains arrival sh l s n ifferentl t that after departure. There should be potential to use the PA system to play softer sounds underground to encourage calmness on the journey home, similar to meditation techniques.

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A4

CIVIC STOPS

DIRECTIONAL PATHS

The most active bus stops that are used during the night are situated near to or at stations and along major roads/pedestrian routes. A new type of civic stop is proposed to tackle late night disturbances in residential areas. Designed to respond to its particular geographical location, an acoustic barrier a s r s an e ects n ise a a fr areas of high density residential homes. The civic stops are adaptive to their built environment and designed to reduce the nuisance when groups of people are situated outside one space for too long.

By understanding the currently used pedestrian routes within a 1km radius of a station, a public realm strategy should be devised to promote particular paths to be taken during the night in order to limit the number passing through compact residential areas. This could be achie e alternati e night a n ing to alleviate noise pollution.

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A6

ACOUSTIC MATERIALITY

IMPROVED THRESHOLDS

stati n nee s ifferent ac stic properties when dealing with a public entrance hall compared to tunnels or to a platform. There should be a clear design distinction and variation in acoustic zones by the materiality chosen. With a clear aim of creating comforting and interesting acoustically protected spaces at night. Consideration should also be taken to the advice and design guidance given by the Act of Change Principle.

Tackling large groups of people waiting outside station entrances at night through creating an ac stic a t n s ffer zone in front of station entrances. This should be attempted in order to decrease the noise generated by the public. By redesigning the threshold, there should be emphasis on orientating the public away from any major residential areas. If the station is within a residential area, then the ffer ne sh l e incl e within the station’s built entrance.

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DISTRACTION TACTICS

Food outlets, night premises and station staff sh l e a le t han t l lli s or similar, which acts as a distraction technique for people who may be too intoxicated to behave appropriately at night l signi cantl re ce the noise nuisance being caused.

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A8 SEPARATION FOR COMFORT

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Propose that during the hours of 00:00 - 06:00, carriages are separated into entertainment and quiet carriages. Giving night time workers the choice to not be disrupted by noise on their nightly commute.

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B

LIGHTING STRATEGY

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OPPORTUNITIES OF CHANGE

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Lighting at night is imperative, however, the city has not yet matched the technological advances of the new systems available. As we move towards a future where successful twenty-four hour city infrastructural planning is something that has to be taken seriously, the adaptability of lighting designs and schemes for the night time realm must be actively reformed. TYPES OF INTERVENTION From the idea of lighting autonomy to collaborative engagement, there is an endless set of possibilities and changes that could occur during the night. This allows for a chance for culture to thrive through artistic proposals and experimentative environments but also sensitively consider and respond to those who work during the night on a regular basis and the effect arti cial lighting has n their l ng ter health The type of interventions suggested are broad and to be interpreted based on location and the activities that occur during the twenty-four hour cycle of activity.

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GRADIENT THRESHOLDS

Moving from a dark street to brightly lit environment can be damaging to both eyes and the body’s natural rhythm. Gradient thresholds allow for a steady change in lighting levels making the environment less harsh to experience. Changing the visual accessibility from street to space at night.

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B2

ARTISTIC ILLUMINAT ION

Inspire night time culture artistically. A chance for industries to collaborate with local communities, authorities and artists through an out reach programme where creative lighting strategies are devised. To bring pleasure and enjoyment to the street-scape at night through themes and types of lighting that is associated with the night time industry. This is encouraged in both temporary and permanent format.

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LINEAR LIGHTING

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UPLIT SPACE

Linear lighting is suggested to encourage direct movement through the station and public realm. Used as a subliminal method to usher members of the public to their destination. Linear lighting gives a sense of urgency. Also linear lighting iff ses light er a larger area rather than using down lights which can cause a greater contrast between dark and light, which will make public realm routes feel safer at night.

Spaces of safety that are less threatening should be created through illuminating alls ar s fr the r his brightens and overexposes the volume of space not only making it look bigger than it is but creates an evenly lit environment where little shadow is cast. This type of lighting should be used in public places of social gathering inside or outside of stations.

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NIGHT TUBE STATION

B5

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NIGHT TUBE STATION

ILLUMINATED WAY-FINDING

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ADAPTIVE ENVIRONMENT

Navigating London at night can some times prove problematic, an obstacle which can be made worse when under the in ence es n ing the c l r associated to each tube line, illuminated signs navigate and give geographical orientation to transport infrastructure. This proposal is corresponding with A2, directional paths, to encourage pedestrians to take appropriate routes to limit the number passing through residential areas.

Lighting technology has developed to a point where one type of emitted light is used to light space. Responsive lighting sh l e c ntr lle stati n staff an the council for the public realm, mode of transport and civic infrastructure depending on the season, time of year and activities that are taking place.

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CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS

B8

PLATFORMS

Light falls on a spectrum from cool (blue hues) to warm white (red hues) f r ill inate s aces an the arti cial nat re f this light can e th ene cial and damaging. Cool light subconsciously gives a sense of urgency, which should be used to move people along in a night time public realm strategy. However, continuous exposure to cool light can disturb the circadian rhythm therefore potentially causing long term health effects War light is f r ents f a se an can in ce the effects f slee It is less damaging and should be used in areas to encourage calm and relaxation.

Platforms can be dangerous places for intoxicated members of the public. For example at most stations, the platform edges are open with trains pulling past fast. Judgement and co-ordination are re ce e t the effects f alc h l consumption. Visually dangerous junctions can use lighting to highlight and place emphasis on edges and boundaries during the night.

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C

NIGHT TIME SERVICES

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Unfortunately, the systems and services of the night time economy are disconnected and there is little thought to the human life for which it supports; a real lack of personal support and protection to those working or enjoying the night. There is a undeniable chance for change and to humanise the night time ec n t tr l re ect the nee s f the t ent four city dwellers. TYPES OF INTERVENTION With the idea of humanising the systems and services of the night, the proposals looks at a lack of support for basic elements that already exist during the day but not at night. From a lack of public toilets to childcare and spaces for night time workers to seek refuge, these form core ideas moving forward when thinking about spatial design in infrastructural elements of the city.

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C1

SANCTURY

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Jane Smith

C2

ACCREDITATION

Within stations there should a provision of space available for workers to take sanctuary. Night time industry employees’ work can be precarious, usually underpaid and undervalued. There is little access to amenities during the night and the dark can be an isolating place. Suggestions follow an enclosed seated area, access to conveniences such as clean sanitary-ware, food and water, plus crèche services. See proposal C3.

Using the Oyster Card as support, a night time industry worker is accredited with a unique card which allows access to a small set of amenities. This accreditation give support and backing to a large community of people who currently are excluded from infrastructure that is accessible during the day. The maximum travel time on the card for each route is extended by two hours to allow for proposal C1.

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C3

NOURISHMENT

A change of variety in the type of food establishments have available moving away from congested fast food places, thus tackling a problem in both obesity and diversity for night time workers and those who enjoy the night. Similarly to festivals pop up food trucks with a permit on roads quieter at night for passers by or within a station improve the n rish ent n ffer

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SAFETY / SECURITY

raining f r all staff h r in the direct context of the night time economy should be put in place to help vulnerable people who may be trying to travel home. Correct support and advice needs to be ffere in th night esta lish ents an stations. If a member of the public needs help, secure and protected spaces within the station are made available until such person is of sound health to travel home relieving pressure on hospitals.

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HYDRATION POINTS

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TOILETS

Simple public water stations should be provided at all major transport infrastructure points within the city. Serving the city for twenty four hours a day, basic access to water can help deal with antisocial behaviour at night, where a member of the public may need help may sober up and behave accordingly outside the scope of night time venues.

Public toilets open at night are a necessity both within in the public urban realm and transport infrastructure. Alcohol is a diuretic and therefore as a preventative measure against illegal urination on private property, more toilets should be built. Unfortunately, London is lacking female public toilets especially; there should be focus on all genders being able to urinate safely and correctly at night.

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RUBBISH CONTROL

C8

CHILDCARE

More bins are needed to deal with food and drink waste during the night. Bins should be located close to night time premises. Bins should not be black and could be artistically coloured (example: glow in the dark paint) therefore becoming easily located in the dark. Reasonably, in stations there is a lack of bins due to past terror related incidents, however, temporary clear bins can be hooked to tube carriages rails, in order to promote waste disposal. Once at the end f the line the are efficientl c llecte At night the carriages are not as busy, therefore people can be vigilant.

Provisions of access to better child care services should be a priority at night. Public childcare is rarely available for working families during the night, s ething that can e e tre el iffic lt for single parents. In areas of high density night time work, there should be priority inclusion of night childcare services in the use of Community Infrastructure Levy in redevelopments.

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SOCIABILITY

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OPPORTUNITIES OF CHANGE

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The night time economy is a place in which relationships and friendships are sought, developed and maintained. Where the shackles of daytime comportment are left behind and the boundaries of social control are relaxed. The social context in which the night time economy sits is one of the major drivers for how successful the night is. There is potential for change in social hierarchies and how communities interact with each other from day to night.

TYPES OF INTERVENTION Most of the proposals look at social interaction et een ifferent e ers f lic n th a intimate and detached level. From tackling the problem of loneliness to community engagement that should active for the twenty four hour cycle within our cities.

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TENs

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GRASS ROOT RESIDENCY

24 hours

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come join us!

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LONELINESS

Foster grass root night time ventures ÂŁ within and venues by taking up residency designated space of either redeveloped station designs or future network rail infrastructure. Strengthen the social collective culture that manifests during the night by promoting developing local groups to host social events. Where young artists can collaborate to bring an extended type of event to the night s ccessf ll ef re n ing er anent residency within the cities fabric. To be considered with proposals A1 and E6.

Develop ways to tackle the issue of loneliness through promoted special social nights, which are not only centralised around drinking culture. Giving a sense of community in which relationships and friendships are sought, developed and maintained during the night.

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MIDNIGHT CHESS </> WANT TO LEARN HOW TO SCRIPT?

COME PLAY!

MONTHLY NIGHT TIME ECONOMY MEETING? What do you have to say?

lessons every Friday at 4am

Thursday at 9pm

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SALSA DANCING

POSITION AVAILABLE Security Guard Bar Staff Door Host

ALL WELCOME SUNDAY AT 2AM.

POSITION AVAILABLE

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Waiting Staff

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SOCIAL PROGRAMMES

LOCAL COMMUNICATION

Inject collective community programmes that exist during the day into the night. To stop a social segregation between those who work during the day and night and for citizens, whose body clocks run ifferentl t the rescri e s cietal norms.

Commission notice boards for the local community, which illustrates the activities taking place during the night. Opening up a visual dialogue, the community are made aware of what is happening during the night. There then should be opportunity for local involvement and job prospect. A communicative tool for discussions around what is happening in the night time economy.

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D5

GOVERNANCE

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MUTUAL SOLUTIONS come

Allow for self governed and autonomous communities to occur within the night time economy. Allow groups of people and businesses to work together without the continuous threat of licensing authorities. A reward should be given for professionalism and if problems arise, then night time spaces are collectively reviewed rather than individually to create resistance to the disappearance of night time industries.

To reduce local community fear join us! and problems faced with the night time economy. Local councils should hold frequent meetings to discuss and mediate problems that may be arising and try to reach a mutually acceptable solution, rather than an issue being reported and dealt with, without an open conversation in a hierarchical top down solution.

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MOBILE PHONE CULTURE

Use mobile phones as a tool for local authorities, communities and night time workers to acknowledge and understand the real time events and cultural shifts that occur during the night. Also, by watching social media outlets, there can be a greater understanding in the successes and weaknesses of the social environment during the night time economy.

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SAFE SPACES

come join us!

come join us! Within stations make provisions of space

that provides a place of safety for those who might need it, medical assessment, asic e ical treat ent rst ai supervised recovery. These spaces treat 10m night-time economy users or employees 10m 24 hours that have been injured, are intoxicated and are vulnerable for other reasons. They provide advice to those who are lost or canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t get themselves home or have a need for care.

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ÂŁ

SOCIOECONOMIC

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Consumerism at night is most greatly contributed to by those who seek night time ventures, however there is little variety in the types of opportunities available. This is not just for those seeking pleasure, but also for those who work during the night. Access to amenities that are freely available during the day do not exist during the night. There is a possibility to create a variety of socioeconomic spaces which is accessible to those who work directly and indirectly in the night. TYPES OF INTERVENTION lic changes licensing reg lati ns an nancial contributions are where the most interesting changes that can occur during the night time economy. It is about make the night time economy accessible for all those who have access to it, not st a s eci c e gra hic

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TENs 1km

TENs

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10m

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24 hours 10m

24 hours

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LICENSING STRATEGY

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TEMPORARY EVENTS

rant e i le licensing h rs his can e achie e t ifferent a s irstl a staggered radial system is devised from night infrastructure where closing times are decided upon distance. This is allows for control over the vacating of night time premises at night to avoid large groups of people from multiple premises leaving together. Secondly, licenses sh l e e i le an ta e int consideration seasonal weather. Earlier closing times during the colder months to ensure safety, and extended hours during the summer to allow to give an extra economic income boost to the industry.

It should be Easier to obtain a Temporary Event Notice (TeN) for an empty premise within London. These spaces are a haven f r cri e an affects the h le ec n ic viability of the street. By making the access to TeN’s easier, it is a great way to encourage all types of community members involved in experimenting with the type of spaces that could exist within the night time economy.

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E3

TUBE LICENSING

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Granted alcohol drinking on designated tube carriages between 22.00 - 02.00 when the tube is used the most to transport to late night entertainment. This also promotes proposal A8 to develop a separation between the two distinct users of the night transport. It also supports clause C6 where extra r ish n the trans rt are c n ne to certain carriages. All drinking will be banned on carriages which are not given a licensed status. Random spot checks, similar to ticket inspections, to enable the r ce re is f ll e f n t a ne is handed out and the money directly ene ts the night t e

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E4

GRASS ROOT VENTURES

In conjunction with proposals A1 and D6, grass root residency should be reinforced in the redevelopment and design of night time spatial spaces. With reduced rents, due location and support from within a station, a programme is created for young artists to begin to establish themselves within the industry. Small in scale, there can be proof of professionalism and s ci ec n ic s ccess he r t secured by the residency can allow for a permanent home to be established elsewhere. Where the application process for a long-lasting license with the local licensing authority becomes easier and respected.

FT

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E5

D RA

Economic Scale:

VARIETY OF CHOICE

When granting licenses, there should be consideration to the type of spaces that already exist within the local community. There should be attempts to strengthen the diversity of licensed premises that are available during the night. Which also re ects the esire f r greater ariati n in the time of premises that exist, not just alcohol orientated venues. This also enc rages ifferent gr s f e le to be active within the city at night, the demand is there.

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E6

DECENTRALISATION

Create a mixture of night time businesses that exist within the night urban economy. Moving away from mainstream outlets here c r rate ran s are r t orientated and therefore monopolise areas of London with existing night life culture. There should be movement towards alternative individual creativeorientated businesses which are resistant an n the argins t ffer c lt ral outlets for local residences rather than being competitively priced out.

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Revised investment and night time levy spend on night time planning

Encourage a greater number of 24 hour varied licensed spaces

FT

24 HOUR SPACE

E7

D RA

Increased spending due to larger numbers of attendance as a result

E8

24 HOUR PREMISES

NIGHT TIME LEVY

Permit a greater number of twenty four hour premises in London, where the r gra e f the en e ffers a variety in the type of activities at night. If transport infrastructure is available for twenty-four then there is capacity for a venue to do so too. Activities that take lace ithin the s ace a ene t th those who seek enjoyment and those who work during the night.

Revise the night time levy that businesses must pay. The contribution of this tax is not being felt immediately within the local community. Instead of 30% going to licensing organisations, it should go to local authority urban planning and communities groups. To work together to create, propose and design preventative measures for some of the negative actions that arise from the night time economy.

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FT

D RA 8.

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F

URBAN DESIGN

FT

OPPORTUNITIES OF CHANGE

D RA

Urban design for the night time economy is something that has had to evolve with the introduction and development of twenty-four hour infrastructure. However, the city is not designed for the dark. The future of architectural design in major cities may consist of an array of twenty-four hour spaces yet without rethinking the infrastructure to support and assist the night, there will be areas of fractious design that does not holistically shift from day to night. TYPES OF INTERVENTION Architecturally speaking, most of the proposals look at spatial strategies of interaction, adaptability and movement plus the idea of using temporary architecture to evoke changes. Night time infrastructure should be able to adapt to the environmental shifts that occur throughout the year.

55


F1

F2

Following proposal F1, temporary spaces should be explorative in the architectural design language expressed. Taking note from theatrical and festival set designs, they should be fun, engaging and experimentative to add vibrancy to the built environment during the night. Spaces to make night time architecture cultural.

With permission of the land owner, temporary architectural spaces do not need planning permission if they are in use under 28 days. Along with proposal E4 there is opportunity to build temporary spaces that exist for periods of time which can add cultural value and add a variety to the type of spaces that can exist during the night following the suggestion of proposal E3.

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D RA

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TEMPORARY SPACE

FT

PERFORMATIVE DESIGN

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FT D RA

F3

F4

FACADE DESIGN

STREET FRONTS

The external envelope of a building should be designed to be responsive twenty-four hours and should adapt to both daylight and night time conditions. There should be a duality in its purpose, that e hasises ifferent ele ents according to the time of day, year and climate. So that the public are able to establish the relationship the building has to the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cycle.

In high night time economy density areas, consider a public strategy that develops the use of the front façade as a way to illuminate the street rather than traditional lamp posts. To strengthen the streets visual language, encourage day time premises that are closed during the night to have creative shuttering to add a level of vibrancy and art to the street at night. Visually appealing to all people who exist during the night.

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Sui Generis:

t s eci call into any of the use classes

falling

A3: Restaurants and cafĂŠs A4: Drinking establishments

F5

ZONING

D RA

FT

A5: Hot food takeaways

F6

PLANNING

When granting the type of license for a night time business, consider zoning in stries c n g ring a strateg based on closing times, type of activity and proximity to transport infrastructure, there should be a clear separation away from areas of residential homes. Therefore, night time public realm strategy should be clear in directional movements, modes of social control and allow for night time institutions working together for support.

Where a night time premise may be forced to close, there should be priority given to a space within a similar planning category that adds cultural and social value to the area before granting permission to other types of developments. There should be more prominent cultural spatial design targets for London. The planning categories that should be favoured are the following S i eneris t s eci call falling int any of the use classes A3: Restaurants and cafĂŠs, A4 Drinking establishments and A5 Hot food takeaways (see C7 for further explanation on takeaways).

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Spatial Change:


FT D RA

F7

F8

STATION ROUTES

PUBLIC REALM

Consider when designing future network stations, which are to be used twenty-four h rs the ifferent e ers f the lic that will be using the transport during the night. There should be scope to allow for after hours re-direction and change of routes depending on numbers, time of night and type of usage. In conjunction with proposal A8, there could be separate routes taken for those who are working to those who are enjoying the night time economy to their proposed carriages for travel.

Where major routes of movement need to be recognised at night. Ensure that pathways and crossings are appropriately designed to respond to pedestrian movement during the night. Consider the spatial arrangements outside the front of a night time premise, for queues and passing pedestrians. See lighting strategy, Section A, for suggestions on how to illuminate these routes.

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60

FT

D RA

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Night Time Design_DRAFT  
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