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52 째 Walkable and Cyclable City

Collaboration project

Technical University Delft, Netherlands Ryerson University Toronto, Canada


Colofon

Accomplished 04-06-2014 Collaboration project between students from Technical University Delft and Ryerson University Toronto.


Acknowledgements Team NL and Team CAN want to take this possibility to thank everyone who made this fun and educational collaboration project possible. We want to thank Anke van Hal as the initiator of the group ‘Passion for the Existing Living-environment’ and our link to the Parallel52 network. She has encouraged our collaboration and gave us the opportunity to present our findings to the Parallel52 network. Furthermore, we want to thank our team members who were so hospitable to welcome the teams in their homes for the meetings when the universities were closed.


6


PREFACE This booklet is a result of a project started by Jessica de Boer and Erik Dral from the group ‘Passion for the Existing Living-environment’ (Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands), and Marta Karlova and Julia Mozheyko from Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada. They came with the idea of a collaboration between students from the RU Toronto and TU Delft to find out more about how to make a city more sustainable in terms of walkability and cyclability. Setting up the collaboration has been inspired by the collaboration of Canada and the Netherlands in the organization called Parallel52. On the 1st of March 2014 our collaboration project started officially. During several weeks both teams worked intensively on creating a toolbox based on our personal experiences for a walkable and cyclable city. To let the collaboration go well despite of the great distance and differences in time zone, we met almost every Saturday through virtual meetings. In these meetings analyses and ideas were exchanged. During the week both teams worked on the analyses and the final products. We hope you enjoy reading the booklet as much as we enjoyed the collaboration!

7


CONTENTS Let’s introduce ourselves: Team NL - 10 Team CAN - 12 Introduction - 14 Definitions - 16 History of Cycling from 1900 - 18 Policies - 20 - Comparison Amsterdam and Toronto - 22 - Dutch Policies - 24 - More bicycle parking at stations - 24 - Stimulating to travel by bike and public transport - 25 - The missing link in the byclicle network in Amsterdam - 26 - Busiest routes in relation to traffic safety - 27

Amsterdam, The Netherlands - 28

- Amsterdam - 33 - How far can you get in an hour from Ams. Central Station? - 34 - Cycling at every age - 38 - From residential area to city centre - 40 - Personal Routes - 56 - Heleen - Delft - 62 - Nina - Delft - 72 - Oswaldo - Delft - 82 - Emily - Delft - 90

8


Toronto, Canada - 96

- Toronto - 101 - Bike lanes and Public Transport - 102 - From Toronto Union Station to... in an hour - 106 - Diversity in People, Neighbourhoods and Mobility - 110 - Personal Routes - 112 - Margot - Cyclist - 112 - Teresa - Commuter - 126 - Ki - Pedestrian - 138 - Lily - Pedestrian - 146

Conclusion (What can we learn from both cities) - 155 Bibliography - 158 Informative Movies - 167 Meeting pictures - 168

9


10


Team NL Jessica de Boer

Erik Dral

Heleen van Russen Groen

Oswaldo Heinen

Nina Kuipers

Emily Frances Parry 11


12


13


INTRODUCTION Canada and the Netherlands might be not the first two countries that pop into your mind when you think of two countries to compare. They are about seven hours of flying apart and Canada is about 267 times as big as the Netherlands. Canada has a population density about 3.5 inh/km2 and the Netherland has a population density of about 450 inh/km2. Still it is possible to make a comparison when the focus is put on two cities: Toronto, the hometown of the students of Team CAN, and Amsterdam, the capital of the Netherlands and a city Team NL can familiarize with and where they feel at ease. Toronto is bigger than Amsterdam, but the numbers of inhabitants are comparable. Toronto has a surface of 630 km2 and has a population density of 4151 inh/km2. Amsterdam has a surface of 219 km2 (of which 54 km2 is water) and has a population density of 4921 inh/km2.1,2,3,4 To come to a subject to analyse and compare the two countries/cities with, both teams gave their ideas on what is important for their country. Team CAN mentioned that their cities are largely designed for cars and that they would like to see walking and cycling to be more promoted trough design. In the Netherlands walking and cycling in cities and even cycling inbetween cities is very usual and although there 14

are many cars, they definitely don’t dominate the streetscape like they do in Canada. The goal of the collaboration was to create a toolbox for walkable and cyclable cities, based on the team members’ own experiences. The toolbox is based on three determining factors: Climate, culture and geography. These factors provide the basis for a country to make walkability and cyclability possible. The factors that can be influenced are policy and design. When policies and design make it impossible to cycle or walk comfortably in a city, not many people will do so. To analyse walkability and cyclability in both countries, the teams focus on policies and design. To determine the tools to improve walkability and cyclability, both teams look for lessons to be learned from each other’s countries that can improve the situation in their own country. The booklet exists out of two parts. The first part is the analyses of the Netherlands and Amsterdam and its policies. The second part is the analyses of Canada and Toronto and its policies. Next to the analyses of the cities as a whole, different routes are pointed out in which the design is made visible through pictures and sections. In the conclusions the lessons that can be learned from each other are listed.


15


DEFINITIONS

Amenities Facilities that allow an individual to fulfill basic functions. Such facilities may include, but are not limited to, grocery stores, retail stores, schools, libraries, police stations, hospitals or walk-in clinics, etc.

Cyclability The individual’s ability to reach the majority of essential amenities as well as one’s most frequent destinations by riding a bicycle. A maximum half hour cycling radius defines if a destination is within cyclable distance.

Density The concentration of people in a space. In an urban setting, density is often expressed as a ratio of an X number of people per 1 Km2.

Jaywalking The act of crossing the street in a place, where there is no designated crossing, streetlight or traffic signs.

Population The number of people living in a given area at a given time period. 16


Streetscape Landscaping along the streets, such as grass, trees or landscape.

Street Furniture Objects on the street that are designed to provide pedestrian comfort and safety. Such objects include benches, street lights, bus shelters, trash and recycling bins, etc.

Sustainability The capacity to last. For example, a sustainable urban plan is one that is maintained by the residents and the city alike.

Urban Planning Design of city streets, blocks, parks and other public areas.

Walkability The individual’s ability to reach the majority of essential amenities as well as one’s most frequent destinations by walking. A maximum half hour walking radius defines if a destination is within walkable distance.

17


The bicycle looked like temporary bikes. The Dutch lieutenant Van Wachtendonk designed the first foldable bike. They were meant to serve the military but were offered to civilians too.1

In these years they experimented with aerodynamic bikes like the ‘belly bike’ and the ‘recumbent bike’2

Because of the hyperinflation of the Weimar Republic, the relatively cheap German bikes made our country into a bike republic. During the war, it was easier to transport goods by bike.3

The car became more widely available to everyone.4

650.000

800.000

765.000

Population11 515.000

In these years about 3000 people lost their lives because of accidents with bikes on unsafe roads, of which 450 where children. Families that lost a family member through a bike accident fought for safer bike lanes.5

872.000

Amsterdam 1910’s

1940’s

1950’s

1960’s

Toronto Transportation commision (TTC), a city-owned streetcar operator, is created. First buses start operation.2 New Union Station opens.3

Draft Metropolitan Expressway Plan prepared for Toronto.1 Regent Park, Canada’s largest Social Housing Development, is built.4

Movement from the city to the suburbs.2 Yonge subway opens.5 Urban Renewal Movement- slums are demolished to make room for new development .1

Plans to eliminate all streetcar routes.1 Jane Jacobs moves to Toronto. “Stop Spadina Expressway” movements and “Streetcars for Toronto” group.6 Establishment of Go Transit.3

521.900

667.500

1.262.000

1.919.000

1920’s

Toronto

Electrified Streetcars and Industrialization facilitate Toronto’s urban growth. 1

Population12,13 376.500


The bike regains terrain but strikes continue. Roads were blocked by people with their bike to claim more space for the cyclist. This protest was held at Museumplein in Amsterdam.6

The protests that are pro-bikes continues. Getting the people who take decisions and those who have to draw plans for the streets to adopt the new ideas: that is where the real change started.7

Amsterdam puts effort in creating highways for cyclists. No crossings and always right of way. Which yields a lot of time saving entering and leaving the city from and to the suburbs.8

De first designs for the electrical bike originated from the end of the 20th century. From 2000 this use of these motorized bicycles started increasing in notable great amounts.9

850.000

675.000

690.000

734.540

1970’s

1980’s

Neighbourhood Development movement advocates mixed use, mixed-income neighbourhoods. St Lawrence commerwcial-residential project developed on a former industrial site.1

Neighbourhood Development movement federal and provincial grants were cut.1 Scarborough Rapid Transit line opens.3

2.628.000

2.998.900

Amsterdam develops a long term strategy in which the main goal is to respond to the growing amount of cyclists. Fast, safe and comfortable cycling through the city and parking your bike easily and safe are the stressed topics.10

810.084

2000’s

2010’s

Scarborough, Etobicoke, North York and East York are amalgamated into the Greater Toronto Area.7

Plans for Eglinton Crosstown LRT were proposed as part of “Transit City” light rail plan.8

Eglinton Crosstown line is moved underground.9 TTC budget cuts result in less frequent bus and streetcar service.10 First separated bicycle lane in the city opens along Sherbourne St.11

4.036.300

4.682.897

5.841.100

1990’s

19


POL

20


ICIES

21


Walking

Amsterdam

Toronto

Pedestrian-friendly signs

Signage prohibiting pedestrians

Minimum Sidewalk Width

No minimum. Average is 1,8 m. 1,2 m or less is often used too.1

1,8 m1

Fines for improper behaviour

â‚Ź 65 fines for walking when trafficlight is red.2

$50 - $110 CAD fines for jaywalking.2,3

Local Area maps/ signages

Crossing safety

22


Cycling

Amsterdam

Toronto

Cyclist-friendly signage

Signage prohibiting cyclists

Typical Bicycle lane width and number per road

2 m when in two ways no rules when one way1

1.5 m adjacent to curb, 1.8 m adjacent to parked cars1

Fines for improper behaviour

Missing lights â‚Ź 552 Crossing red light â‚Ź 903

Average fine-$110 CAD. Fines apply to roughly 40 different violations.4

Helmets required?

Helmets are not required. Only when going faster than 25 km/h (moped).4

Cyclists under 16 years of age without helmet can be fined $60 CAD.5

Cyclist turning/ stopping signals

23


More bicycle parking at stations More garages for bicycles at city centres and at stations. Bikes which are not parked properly, or are parked for over a month will be removed by the municipality. This leads to less abandoned bicycles, and more storage space.

24


Stimulating to travel by bike and public transport Possibility of taking your bycicle in the train (for free if it is foldable, or with a dayticket exluding the rushhour) Bike hire at train stations, possible with subsciption

25


The missing link in the byclicle network in Amsterdam10

26


Busiest routes in relation to traffic safety10

Legend Red = minimum 15 cyclist casualties per km in the period 2007 t / m 2009 Orange = 10-15 victims per km in the period 2007 till 2009 Purple = Routes where in the evening peak (16.00 - 18.00) More than 1,500 cyclists pass 27


Amster

The Netherla


rdam

ands


32


AMSTERDAM Amsterdam is a typical example of the Dutch cities in which a bike is part of the street scene. It is impossible to imagine the city without these means of transportation. Although not every street has a separate cycling lane, Typical for our cycling routes is that we can really call them a route. It is possible to cycle from one city to another. In a respectively safe way. Cities are not only connected by highways, but also by cycling routes.

33


N

By Car

N

By Train

N

By Bike

34

From Amsterdam To ...


Central Station In an HOUR By Metro

N

By Tram

N

By Foot

35


N

By Bike

36


N

By Foot

37


Everyone cycles, In the Netherlands, everyone who is capable of cycling will use the bike as a means of transport. In a recreational form, going to work, going to school, as means to stay fit. We don’t need to think about what to wear before we grab our bikes. Cycling in your Gala-dress is totally possible.

38

As soon as a dutch kid is able to sit, our parents will take us with them on the bike. We grow up cycling. And we will keep on cycling our whole life.


no matter what AGE we are

39


A: Residential Area Waddenweg

Buiksloterweg

Haarlemmerstraat

Raadhuisstraat Keizersgracht

B: Rijksmuseum at Museumplein City Centre

CYCLING THROUGH AMSTERDAM 4 40


41


P

1.50m travel lane sidewalk (slow)

parking lane

P

green zone wide with travel lane streetlights 1.00m bike lane

WADDENWEG

42

green zone with streetlights

wide travel lane

1.00m bike lane

0

1

2

3

4

5

parking lane

travel lane 1.50m (slow) sidewalk


43

WADDENWEG


streetcard lane

division lane with streetlights

streetcard lane

channel

border

BUIKSLOTERWEG

44

bank

4.00 m bikelane

lawn


45

BUIKSLOTERWEG


2.75m sidewalk

1.80m sidewalk

5.50m bike lane cars are a ‘guest’

parkingspace

HAARLEMMERSTRAAT

46

0

1

2

3

4

5


47

HAARLEMMERSTR.


4.00m sidewalk

parking lane

parking lane

streetcard lane streetcard lane

3.00m covered sidewalk

wide travel lane with wide travel lane with bike sharrows bike sharrows

RAADHUISSTRAAT

48

0

1

2

3

4.00m sidewalk

4

5


49

RAADHUISSTRAAT


2.00m one way travel sidewalk lane shared with cyclists

stairs to entrances

50

quay with parkingspaces and street furniture berthzone

channel

KEIZERSGRACHT

quay with parkingspaces berthzone and street furniture

one way travel 2.00m sidewalk lane shared with cyclists stairs to entrances


51

KEIZERSGRACHT


THE BICYCLE ROUTE THROUGH THE RIJKSMUSEUM MIGHT BE THE MOST BEAUTIFUL IN THE WORLD. IT HAS BEEN A BATTLE OF 10 YEARS TO REMAIN THE UNDERPASS OF THE RIJKSMUSEUM AS A CYCLING ROUTE. AND EVEN MORE IMPORTANT; IT IS A FREE VALUABLE ADDITION TO THE COLLECTION OF THE MUSEUM. WHICH IS FURTHERMORE ALMOST AS KNOWN AS THE ‘NACHTWACHT’.


MUSEUMSTRAAT - RIJKSMUSEUM

54

0

1

2

3

4

5


RIJKSMUSEUM

MUSEUMSTRAAT 55


N

Footprint City Centre of AMSTERDAM

56

1:1

Footprint City Centre of DELFT


SWAPPING PLACES FOR PERSONAL ROUTES Going from Capital City to Home City Altough some tourists tend to think Holland is the capital city of Amsterdam, instead of it being the other way around; Amsterdam still has this character that almost every foreigner seems to know or have an idea of. Typical for Amsterdam are also the many many bikes and cyclists moving through the city. In comparison to Toronto, Amsterdam is almost 3 times as small. Since most of us do not live in Amsterdam but in Delft or at least go to the Technical University here, we thought it might be a better idea to do our personal cycling/walking experience routes in this Delft. Delft is even smaller than Amsterdam. To give you an impression of scale, the two city centres are placed net to each other in the same scale. In experience, the city centre of Delft could be interpreted as the village version of Amsterdam. Everything is a bit smaller in scale but has the same type of atmosphere. From now on, we will switch to Delft. Just like Amsterdam, Delft has a monumental building we can walk and cycle right through!

57


‘DELFT IS LIKE THE VILLAGE VERSION OF AMSTERDAM. INSTEAD OF WALKING AND CYCLING THROUGH THE RIJKSMUSEUM, YOU CAN WALK AND CYLE THROUGH THE OOSTPOORT. IT IS THE ONLY CITY GATE THAT HAS BEEN REMAINED, DELFT USED TO HAVE 8 DIFFERET CITY GATES. THE GATE IS ALMOST AN ATTRACTION FOR THE PEDESTRIAN OF CYCLIST’ - NINA


60


FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE All of our personal routes will be a route from (A) our home to (B) our faculty; The Faculty of Architecture, which is situated between the city centre and the TU Campus. Since we all live in different parts of Delft we all take a different route when going to the faculty and going back home. In this coming chapter you will find out what kind of situations we come across along our routes. Every dot on the route represents a place of which we’ve made a section in form of a street profile in order to clearify the different situations.

B

Streetprofile

A 61


A

Name: Heleen van Russen Groen Age: 24 Lives in: Delft Study: Master of Science Architecture, Urbanism and Building Sciences Frequency: Daily

62

B


63


OUDE DELFT

64


65

OUDE DELFT


‘I ALWAYS FEEL HONORED TO LIVE AT THE OUDE DELFT, A CANAL IN THE CITY CENTRE OF DELFT. THE STREET IN FRONT OF OUR HOUSE IS A SHARED SPACE, NOT ONLY FOR ROAD USERS – PEDESTRIANS, CYCLISTS AND SOME CARS – BUT ALSO FOR ALL THE STUDENT WHO PUT THEIR CHAIRS AND TABLES ON THE STREET AND PARKING SPACES TO SIT OUTSIDE WHEN THE WEATHER IS GOOD ENOUGH. LARGE GROUPS OF TOURISTS ARE TAKING PICTURES IN FRONT OF OUR HOUSE, WHICH IS VERY ANNOYING WHEN YOU’RE RUNNING LATE FOR SCHOOL. MOST OF THEM DON’T REACT WHEN YOU RING YOUR BIKE BELL; I THINK THEY AREN’T USED TO ALL THE CYCLISTS THAT TRY TO PASS.’ - HELEEN


GISTSTRAAT

68


69

GISTSTRAAT


KANAALWEG

70


71

KANAALWEG


Name: Nina Kuipers Age: 23 Lives in: Delft Study: Master of Science Architecture, Urbanism and Building Sciences Frequency: Daily

B

A

72


73


P

P

PAPSOUWSELAAN

74


75

PAPSOUWSE LAAN


‘WHEN I STEP OUT OF MY HOUSE THIS IS THE FIRST THING I SEE HAPPENING ON STREET. THERE’S ALWAYS A LOT TO SEE. THIS ROUNDABOUT CONSISTS OF MANY LAYERS. TO MAKE EVERYTHING MORESYNOPTIC. CARS, CYCLISTS AND PEDESTRIANS ALL HAVE THEIR OWN LANES AND MOVE IN CIRCLES/HEXAGONS. THE TRAMS AND BUSSES CROSS THE ROUDABOUT. TRAMS MAKE A TURN AND BUSSES GO STRAIGHT THROUGH THE ROUNDABOUT’ - NINA


Car is a guest (one way)

P

WESTLANDSEWEG

78 P

P

P


79

WESTLANDSE WEG


ZUIDWAL

80


81

ZUIDWAL


Name: Oswaldo Heinen Age: 30 Lives in: Delft Study: Master of Science Architecture, Urbanism and Building Sciences Frequency: Daily

A

82

B


83


VOORHOFDREEF

84


85

VOORHOFDREEF


KRUITHUISWEG

86


87

KRUITHUISWEG


Mekelpark

88


89

MEKELPARK


Name: Emily Frances Parry Age: 24 Lives in: Delft Study: Bachelor Architecture Frequency: daily

90

A

B


91


P

MICHIEL DE RUYTERWEG

92

P


93

M. DE RUYTERWEG


P

JULIANALAAN

94


95

JULIANALAAN


Toronto Canada


o


98 100


99 101


102


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101 103


NP

NP

NP

NP

N

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N

$PVWHUGDP%LF\FOH5RXWH6\VWHP JUHHQ

102


N

NP

NP

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103


104 106


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From Toronto To ...

By Car

N

By Train

N

106 108

5km

10 km

5km

10 km


Union Station In an HOUR

By Bike

By Foot

N

N

5km

10 km

5km

10 km

107 109


N

1 hr Cycling Radius, Downton Toronto.

1km

108 110

2 km


N

1 hr Walking Radius, Downton Toronto.

1km

2 km

109


e Diversity in People

110 112

In Toronto, ZHDUHLPPHUVHGLQDFXOWXUDOO\ GLYHUVHHQYLURQPHQW

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2XU FLW\ LV D UHĂ HFWLRQ RI our multiculturalism and so DUH RXU VWUHHWV VTXDUHV SDUNV SOD\JURXQGVDQGVFKRRO\DUGV

The commute is as diverse as our people DQG RXU GHV WLQDWLRQV DUH DV GLYHUVH DV RXU PRGHVRIDUULYDO


e, Neighborhoods, and Mobility

111 113


My daily bikeride to school usually takes 30 minutes. During rush hour, it’s a ORQJGLI¿FXOWMRXUQH\GXULQJZKLFK,KDYHWR ZHDYHEHWZHHQKRQNLQJFDUVDQG DZNZDUGO\VTXHH]HEHWZHHQSHGHVWULDQV RQVLGHZDONVDQGFURVVZDONV

Cyclist Name: Margot Age: 23 Lives in: Study: Architectural Science Frequency: Daily

Ryerson nC Ca Campus mpus

1112 2 114


EASTERN PATH

A:: Residential A Re Reside esi e ssii Area A

113 11

01 115


RESIDENTIAL FRONT YARD SETBACK

1.50m SIDEWALK

1.50m SIDEWALK

RESIDENTIAL FRONT YARD SETBACK

116 0

1

2

3

4

5


Residential streets in Toronto DUHRIWHQTXLWHXQRUJDQL]HGDQGPDQ\ GRQ¶WHYHQKDYHODQHVHSDUDWHUVSDLQWHG EHFDXVHWKH\DUHXVXDOO\TXLWHHPSW\ DQGGRQ¶WKDYHPXFKWUDI¿F6R WKH\DUHXVXDOO\SUHWW\VDIHWR bike on.

East End, Beaches Beaches - East York Residential 10m Maximum

115

SOUTHWOOD DR

street: nieghbourhood: ward: zoning (general use): zoning height on street:

117


2.50m sidewalk

116 118

wide travel lane w. streetcar lane bike sharrows

1.00m street funiture

streetcar lane

wide travel lane w. bike sharrows

2.50m sidewalk

1.00m street funiture 0

1

2

3

4

5


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East End. Beaches Beaches - East York Residential mixed with retail 16m Maximum

117

QUEEN STREET E

street: nieghbourhood: ward: zoning (general use): zoning height on street:

119


3.00m SIDEWALK

2 LANE ROAD

4 LANE HIGHWAY (START RAMP)

4.50m 2 LANE BIKE PATH

2 LANE ROAD

118 0

120

1

2

3

4

5


7UDIÂżFLVSUHWW\GHQVHKHUH by the lakeshore as it is next to the KLJKZD\EXWWKLVLVRQHRIWKHUDUHSDUWV RI7RURQWRWKDWKDVGHGLFDWHGVHSDUDWHG lanes for cyclists. A lot of cyclists, rollerbladers, DQGMRJJHUVOLNHWRKDQJRXWDURXQG here by the lakeshore.

Lakeshore Blvd. East End, Leslieville Toronto- Danforth Mixed Mixed

119

LAKESHORE BLVD

street: nieghbourhood: ward: zoning (general use): zoning height on street:

121


ST. LAWRENCE MARKET

MARKET LANE ANE PAR PARK

120 0

122

1

2

3

4

5


There are some interesting SRFNHWVZLWKLQWKHFLW\ZLWKDW\SLFDO VWUHHWW\SRORJLHV7KH6W/DZUHQFH0DUNHW DUHDLVDSRSXODUSLFWXUHVTXHKDQJRXWVSRW DQGKDVZLGHVLGHZDONVDQGSDWLRVWKDWZHO FRPHQRQYHKLFXODUWUDI多F

Front Street East Corktown Toronto center - Rosedale Commercial Residential 23m Maximum

121

FRONT STREET E

street: nieghbourhood: ward: zoning (general use): zoning height on street:

123


122

3.00m sidewalk

travel lane

streetcar lane

streetcar lane

travel lane

3.00m sidewalk 0

124

1

2

3

4

5


$W\SLFDOGRZQWRZQFRUH VWUHHWORRNVOLNHWKLVVWUHHWFDUVDQGFDUV DSOHQW\ZLWKOLWWOHFRQVLGHUDWLRQIRUF\FOLVWV Cyclists and skateboarders CAN be found KHUHEXWWKH\KDYHWREHEUDYH

Garden District Toronto center - Rosedale Commercial Residential 23m Maximum

123

CHURCH STREET

street: nieghbourhood: ward: zoning (general use): zoning height on street:

125


MANY TORONTONIAN’S COMPUTE INTO THE DOWNTOWN CORE FROM THE EAST END OF THE CITY FOR SCHOOL OR WORK. THE NEIGHBORHOODS OF THE EAST END INCLUDE RIVERDALE, LESLIEVILLE, THE DANFORTH, AND THE BEACHES. ALTHOUGH PRIMARILY RESIDENTIAL, WITH SCHOOLS, HOSPITALS, LIBRARIES AND SHOPPING STREETS, THE CITY SKYLINE CAN BE VISIBLE AT TIMES, JUST A SHORT COMMUTE AWAY. EAST ENDERS CAN TAKE THE SUBWAY, BUS OR STREETCAR,WALK, BIKE, SKATEBOARD, ROLLER BLADE OR DRIVE INTO THE DOWNTOWN AREA.

124 126


125 127


,FRPPXWHIRUDQKRXUWR JHWWR7RURQWRXVLQJDPL[RISXEOLF WUDQVLWDQGZDONLQJ7KHGLVWDQFHZRXOGEH LPSRVVLEOHWRMXVWGRRQIRRWRURQELNH

Commuter Name: Teresa Age: 28 Lives in: Suburb Study: Architectural Science Frequency: Daily

A: Subur A Sub SSu bu b urb u rb R rb Ressdien sd n ntia tiaall Are tia Are rea ea

126 128 1


SUBURB COMMUTE

: Ryerson on nC Ca Campus m u

127 12

02 129


1.20m SIDWALK 1.00m GRASS/TILE

WIDE TRAVEL LANES

LEFT TURN LANE

1.5m SIDWALK

WIDE TRAVEL LANES 1.00m

1.20m TRAFFIC ISLAND

GRASS/TILE

128 0

130

1

2

3

4

5


$W\SLFDOVWUHHWLQWKHVXEXUEV MXVWRXWVLGHRI7RURQWRORRNVOLNHWKLV PDQ\ODQHVRIYHKLFXODUWUDI¿FVPDOOVLGHZDONV DQGYHU\IHZF\FOLVWV

129

STEELES AVENUE

street: Steeles Avenue City Brampton (GTA) zoning (general use): Industrial-commercial

131


13m PRIVATE PARKING

1m ISLAND

15m (varies) BUS DRIVEWAY

15m (varies) BUS TERMINAL- WAITING AREA

C.N.R. RAILWAY

130 0

132

1

2

3

4

5


Union station is the main hub for DOOSXEOLFWUDQVLW7KLVLVZKHUHLWDNH the bus to and from the city.

131

UNION TERMINAL

street: nieghbourhood: Downtown zoning height on street: 46m Maximum

133


132 0

134

1

2

3

4

5


6WUHHWVLQWKHGRZQWRZQFRUHDUHDOZD\V EXVWOLQJZLWKFDUVDQGSHGHVWULDQVDQG GRQ¶WIRUJHWWKHVXEZD\WKDWUXQV XQGHUJURXQGWKURXJKWKHFLW\

Yonge Street Downtown Toronto center - Rosedale Commercial Residential 46m Maximum

133

YONGE STREET

street: nieghbourhood: ward: zoning (general use): zoning height on street:

135


134 34 136

0

1

2

3

4

5


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Yonge Street Downtown - Dundas Square Toronto center - Rosedale Commercial Residential 46m Maximum

135

DUNDAS AVENUE

street: nieghbourhood: ward: zoning (general use): zoning height on street:

137


THIS TRAVEL FROM THE SUBURB OF BRAMPTON IS ONE OF MANY LONG COMMUTES INTO THE CITY VIA GO BUS OR TRAIN. THE GO TERMINALS ARE LOCATED IN AND ADJACENT TO UNION STATION WHICH IS IN THE HEART OF THE DOWNTOWN CORE. FROM HERE COMMUTERS CAN WALK OR TAKE THE TTC TO GET TO THEIR DESTINATION.

136 138


137 139


,OLYHSUHWW\FORVHWRVFKRRO,FKRRVH WRZDONUDWKHUWKDQELNHEHFDXVHLWÂśVXVXDOO\ so busy in this area that biking is not a YHU\VDIHRSWLRQ

Pedestrian Name: Ki Age: 25 Lives in: Kensington Market Study: Architectural Science Frequency: Daily

Ryerson nC Campus ampus us A:: Ken A en nsington i Market

138 8 140


139 13

03 141

DOWNTOWN WEST


3.00m sidewalk

travel lane w. bike sharrows

street furniture

140

1.00m bike lane

wide travel lane

streetcar lane

streetcar lane

travel lane

3.00m sidewalk

travel lane w. bike sharrows

street furniture

1.00m bike lane 0

142

1

2

3

4

5


6SDGLQDLVDEXV\PDLQVWUHHW ZLWKVHSDUDWHVWUHHWFDUODQHVDQGSUHWW\ ZLGHVLGHZDONV3HRSOHRIDOOVRUWVFRPH WKURXJKKHUHLQFOXGLQJF\FOLVWV

Spadina Avenue Downtown - ChinaTown Trinity - Spadina Commercial Residential 28m Maximum

141

SPADINA AVENUE

street: nieghbourhood: ward: zoning (general use): zoning height on street:

143


3.00m SIDEWALK

4 LANE STREET

LANDSCAPED ISLAND

4 LANE STREET

3.00m SIDEWALK

142 0

144

1

2

3

4

5


8QLYHUVLW\DYHQXHLVH[WUHPHO\ ZLGHDQGKDVDODQGVFDSHGLVODQGVWUHWFKLQJ DORQJLWIRUSHGHVWULDQVWRXVH+RZHYHU WKHUHDUHVRPDQ\YHKLFOHV]RRPLQJDURXQG WKDWWKHLVODQGLVPRVWO\MXVWXVHGDVD UHVWLQJSRLQWIRUSHRSOHFURVVLQJWKH street, and not so much for hanging out.

University Avenue Downtown west Trinity - Spadina Commercial Residential 76m Maximum

143

UNIVERSITY AVE

street: nieghbourhood: ward: zoning (general use): zoning height on street:

145


MANY TORONTONIANS LIVE AND WORK IN A DENSE AREA OF THE DOWNTOWN CORE WHERE THEY TAKE THE TTC, WALK, ROLLER BLADE, SKATEBOARD OR CYCLE AROUND. CHINATOWN IS A VERY DENSELY POPULATED NEIGHBOURHOOD WHERE TRAFFIC IS ALWAYS HEAVY AND MANY PEDESTRIANS AND CYCLISTS ARE ALWAYS ABOUT, EVEN ON RAINY DAYS. OTHER NEIGHBOURHOODS INCLUDE THE U OF T CAMPUS, AND KENSINGTON MARKET. 144

146


145 147


,ORYHELNLQJEXW,多QGF\FOLQJ in Toronto to be daunting. Various constraints LQFOXGLQJVDIHW\DQGZHDWKHUPDNHZDONLQJ P\SUHIHUUHGPHWKRGRIJHWWLQJDURXQG

A: Re Res esidential i n Area ea ea Pedestrian Name: Lily Age: 23 Lives in: Cabbagetown Study: Architectural Science Frequency: Daily

Ryerson nC Ca Campus aam mp


147 14

04 149

DOWNTOWN EAST


2.00m sidewalk

148 150

wide travel lane

1.00m street funiture 1.50m separated bike lane

2.00m sidewalk

wide travel lane

1.00m street funiture

1.50m separated bike lane

0

1

2

3

4

5


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Sherbourne Street Downtown Toronto Center - Rosedale Commercial Residential 16m Maximum

149

SHERBOURNE ST

street: nieghbourhood: ward: zoning (general use): zoning height on street:

151


1.25m 1.50m sidewalk street funiture

150

bike lane

wide travel lane

wide travel lane

1.25m 1.50m street funiture sidewalk bike lane

0

152

1

2

3

4

5


-DUYLVLVDOHVVEXV\VWUHHWWKDW as a result attracts cyclists. This is an H[DPSOHRIDVWUHHWZLWKELNHODQHVWKDW DUHQÂśWYHU\VRSKLVWLFDHG

Jarvis Street Downtown Toronto Center - Rosedale Commercial Residential 30m Maximum

151

JARVIS STREET

street: nieghbourhood: ward: zoning (general use): zoning height on street:

153


THIS AREA ADJACENT TO THE DOWNTOWN CORE INCLUDES CABAGETOWN, REGENT PARK, ST. JAMES TOWN AND THE RYERSON CAMPUS. THERE ARE MANY CYCLISTS. UPPER SHERBOURNE IS A GOOD EXAMPLE OF A SEPERATED BIKE LANE, HOWEVER THIS PATH IS UNNCONECTED FROM THE REST OF THE NETWORK AND IN SOME INSTANCES WILL COME TO AN ABRUPT END.

152 154


153 155


154


CONCLUSIONS The startingpoint of this collaboration was to find and share ideas and thoughts on two topics in order to make a toolbox for a sustainable city. We chose to do some research about two subjects: one that further developed in Canada, and one that is more developed in the Netherlands. But since there was not enough time to really go into two subjects we agreed to continue only with one subject; walkable and cyclable cities. In the conclusions we will not really come up with THE solution for a walkable and cyclable city. However, we did realise that it is very hard to change an existing city. There are more factors involved than just a design. Climate, scale, policies, culture, attitude and geography are all factors that are of influence on how a city is build up and functions.

155


Although the Dutch are supposed to be experts on this subject, we weren’t aware of how far integrated the bike is in our culture. We never think of how different our daily way of transport is compared to transferring oneself in other cities. Stolid as we are, we just see this as something normal. The Canadians made us realize really pretty quickly that our cycling system in the Netherlands is not as self-evident in other countries and their cities. In line with these thoughts the first reaction at the question what we could learn from the Canadians is very simple: not that much. It seemed like they could especially could learn a lot from the Dutch system. But after discussing the topic and seeing the results of the Canadian team, this was a bit short-sighted. While we as the Dutch team kept talking about cyclability, the Canadian team pointed out that we forgot the walkability of the city. When comparing both countries, one of the big difficulties is the difference in scale. While we are taking our bikes to go the University every day, most members of team Canada go by public transport and perhaps – though it sounds paradoxical - that is an important way of increasing the walkability of a city. If the distance is too big to overpass by bike or by foot you need another means of travelling. Within the Dutch cities – the radius in which you still can still cycle or even walk to another place – the public transport is mostly well regulated. There are trams, metro’s and busses. But if you need to go to another town or city, which in distance is comparable with the daily travel schedule of the Canadian students, there aren’t that many options left. You can only go by train and because of the small number of stations and nodes (if you compare it with the metro system) you mostly have to do some relatively complicated transits which take a lot of time. We could conclude that it is not the design of the public space we should learn from looking at Toronto to increase the (in this case) walkability, but the way public transport is deployed to make it easier and faster to travel by foot. 156


As Canadians we have always been envious of the Dutch for their advanced bike culture. Through this collaboration, we have learned a great deal about the sophisticated biking infrastructure available in the Netherlands, which we could adapt here in Toronto to best improve our system. Through our investigation we found much inadequacy, yet also great potential in Toronto’s biking infrastructure. As a result of our large scale, dense core, and sprawling outer limits, the bike lanes and routes within the city are extremely disconnected from one another. A continuous trip, a continuous trip on bike in the city is not very safe. Often bike lanes will come to an abrupt end, forcing cyclists to share vehicular lanes bustling with unyielding cars and transit. With this knowledge in mind, we were surprised to discover new types of separated lanes starting to be introduced to the city, pockets of the city with cyclable routes, and many future plans for constructing a more bicycle-friendly Toronto. Efforts to improve cycling in the city have popping up little by little, and surely more will follow suite. Asides from infrastructure, an extremely important factor separating us from the Dutch is that we lack the general acceptance of bicycles as the best form of transportation. If we can change the way people view cycling in the city as not a nuisance for drivers but as a serious method of transportation, we have a better chance of our city government putting money into the infrastructure required for safe and convenient cycling.

157


BIBLIOGRAPHY INTRODUCTION 1. [Ed.] (2014, May 24) Nederland http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nederland Retrieved on 29-05-2014 2. [Ed.] (2014, June 04) Amsterdam http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amsterdam Retrieved on 29-052014 3. [Ed.] (2014, March 26) Canada http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canada Retrieved on 29-05-2014 4. [Ed.](2014, March 24) Toronto http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toronto Retrieved on 29-05-2014 MAPS AND PHOTO’S FOR SECTIONS Google.maps Own Photo’s TIMELINE FACTS AMSTERDAM 1. Lesisz, R. (2004) Honderd jaar fietsen in Nederland 1850-1950, Over het begin van de fiets cultuur. University of Wrocław. (p. 13) 2. Lesisz, R. (2004) Honderd jaar fietsen in Nederland 1850-1950, Over het begin van de fiets cultuur. University of Wrocław. (p. 14) 3. Jordan, P. (2013) De Fietsrepubliek; Een geschiednis van fietsend Amsterdam. http://historiek. net/geflirt-op-de-fiets-met-anne-frank/33056/. Retrieved 2-6-2014 4. Vos, T (2013, August 10) Onderzoekje; Waarom is Fietsen Zo Populair in Nederland. http:// tijlvos.nl/onderzoekje-waarom-is-fietsen-zo-populair-in-nederland/. Retrieved 2-62014 158


5. Vos, T (2013, August 10) Onderzoekje; Waarom is Fietsen Zo Populair in Nederland. http:// tijlvos.nl/onderzoekje-waarom-is-fietsen-zo-populair-in-nederland/. Retrieved 2-62014 6. Vos, T (2013, August 10) Onderzoekje; Waarom is Fietsen Zo Populair in Nederland. http:// tijlvos.nl/onderzoekje-waarom-is-fietsen-zo-populair-in-nederland/. Retrieved 2-62014 7. de la Bruhèze, A.A.A.,Veraart, F.C.A. (1999) Fietsverkeer in praktijk en beleid in de twintig ste eeuw.http://www.timenco.be/pdf/64_SHT_Fvk_in_beleid_en_praktijk_in_20e_ eeuw.pdf Retrieved 02-06-2014 8. Beekmans, K. (1990, March 13) Amsterdam werkt aan ‘fietssnelwegen’ http://www.nrc.nl/ handelsblad/van/1990/maart/13/amsterdam-werkt-aan-fietssnelwegen-6925490 Retrieved 03-06-2014 9. (2013) Meer fietskilometers vooral door de electrische fiets. http://www.fietsberaad.nl/index. cfm?lan g=nl&section=nieuws&mode=newsArticle&repository=Meer+fietskilometers+voora l+door+de+elektrische+fiets Retrieved 03-06-2014 10. Gemeente Amsterdam (2012) Meerjarenplan fiets 2012-2016. Gemeente Amsterdam. Dienst infrastructuur, verkeer en vervoer. 11. O+S/DRO (http://www.os.amsterdam.nl/nieuwsasset/1079 Retrieved 03-06-2014

159


TIMELINE IMAGES AMSTERDAM 1. Lesisz, R. (2004) Honderd jaar fietsen in Nederland 1850-1950, Over het begin van de fietscul tuur. University of Wrocław. (p. 13) 2. Lesisz, R. (2004) Honderd jaar fietsen in Nederland 1850-1950, Over het begin van de fietscul tuur. University of Wrocław. (p. 14) 3. Jordan, P. (2013) De Fietsrepubliek; Een geschiednis van fietsend Amsterdam. http://historiek.net/ geflirt-op-de-fiets-met-anne-frank/33056/. Retrieved 2-6-2014 4.Vos, T (2013, August 10) Onderzoekje; Waarom is Fietsen Zo Populair in Nederland. http://tijlvos. nl/onderzoekje-waarom-is-fietsen-zo-populair-in-nederland/. Retrieved 2-6-2014 5. Vos, T (2013, August 10) Onderzoekje; Waarom is Fietsen Zo Populair in Nederland. http:// tijlvos.nl/onderzoekje-waarom-is-fietsen-zo-populair-in-nederland/. Retrieved 2-62014 6. Vos, T (2013, August 10) Onderzoekje; Waarom is Fietsen Zo Populair in Nederland. http:// tijlvos.nl/onderzoekje-waarom-is-fietsen-zo-populair-in-nederland/. Retrieved 2-62014 7. (2011, October 20) ‘A view from the cycle path’; Cycle protest posters Amsterdam 1980 http:// bicycledutch.wordpress.com/2011/10/20/how-the-dutch-got-their-cycling-infrastructure/ Retrieved 03-06-14 8. Fietsersbond Hengelo (2012) Fietssnelweg F35 http://hengelo.fietsersbond.nl/node/4592#.U49OnYsMa8, Retrieved on 03-06-2014 9. TREK (2014) Electrische fietsen http://www.trekbikes.com/nl/nl/collections/electric_assist_blx/ Retrieved on 03-06-2014 160


10. Gemeente Amsterdam (2012) Meerjarenplan fiets 2012-2016. Gemeente Amsterdam. Dienst infrastructuur, verkeer en vervoer. POLICIES IMAGES AMSTERDAM 1. TU Delft Bouwkunde (2000) Straten. http://ocw.tudelft.nl/courses/stedenbouw-in-de-delta/intro ductie/ stedenbouwkundige-basisbegrippen/straten/ Retrieved 04-06-2014 2. Boetes.nl (2014) Door rood bij verkeerslicht lopen. http://www.boetes.nl/boetesoverzicht/ver keer-op-de-weg/voetganger/door-rood-bij-verkeerslicht-lopen/ Retrieved 04-062014 POLICIES FACTS AMSTERDAM 1. Crow 230 (2011) Ontwerpwijzer fietsverkeer; Hoe breed moet een fietspad zijn? http://www. fietsersbond.nl/de-feiten/verkeer-en-veiligheid/infrastructuur/fietspaden/hoe-breed-moeteen-fietspad-zijn#.U48oGXYsMa8 Retrieved 04-06-2014 2. Boetes.nl (2014) Verlichting http://www.boetes.nl/boetesoverzicht/verkeer-op-de-weg/fiets/ver keersregels/verlichting Retrieved 04-06-2014 3. Boetes.nl (2014) door rood licht bij verkeerslicht. http://www.boetes.nl/boetesoverzicht/ver keer-op-de-weg/fiets/verkeersregels/door-rood/door-rood-bij-verkeerslicht-rijden retrieved 04-06-2014 Retrieved 04-06-2014 4. Ministere van Verkeer en Waterstaat (2009) Verkeer en meer;Voor wie geldt een helmplicht? https://www.jurofoon.nl/nieuws/3469-verkeer-en-meer-4-voor-wie-geldt-de-helmplicht Re trieved 04-06-2014

161


POLICIES TORONTO

&RYHU3DJH,PDJHV Ministry of Transportation, (2013). Driver's handbook. Retrieved from Queen's Printer for Ontario website: http://www.mto.gov.on.ca/english/dandv/driver/handbook/ Ministry of Transportation, Ontario Cycling Association. (20 Jan, 2011). "Young Cyclist Guide." Dangers: What to Watch for. Retrieved from website: http://www.dot.gov.nt.ca/_live/documents/content/youngcyclist1.pdf

,PDJHV 1. Ontario Ministry of Transportation. (Publisher). (2013, September 13). Regulatory Signs [Web Drawing]. Retrieved from http://www.mto.gov.on.ca/english/dandv/driver/handbook/section3.1.1.shtml 2. City of Toronto. (Publisher). Hand/Arm Signals for Cyclists [Web Drawing]. Retrieved from http://www1.toronto.ca/wps/portal/contentonly?vgnextoid=af6e0995bbbc1410VgnVCM10000071d60f89R CRD

7H[W 2. Ellison, M. (2013, September 05). Data shows Torontonians love to jaywalk — and sometimes pay the price. Toronto Star. Retrieved from http://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2013/09/05/data_shows_torontonians_love_to_jaywalk_and_sometime s_pay_the_price.html 3. Yang, J. (2010, January 27). Police crack down on downtown jaywalkers. Toronto Star. Retrieved from http://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2010/01/27/police_crack_down_on_downtown_jaywalkers.html 4. Breaton, S. (2013). The Toronto Cyclist Handbook. Retrieved from Cycle Toronto, PArtnership for Integration and Sustainable Transportation, Culture Link website: http://cycleto.ca/sites/default/files/handbook/cyclists_handbook_eng.pdf 5. Metro Toronto Police. (n.d.). Toronto bicycle laws and fines: an excerpt from you and your bicycle pamphlet. Retrieved from http://messarchives.com/messville/TO_FINES.HTM

158

162


TIMELINE TORONTO

,PDJHV

1. (1928, December 04). Safety Zones, St. Clair Ave. & Oakwood Ave. [Web Photo]. City of Toronto Archives, Series 71, it6503. Retrieved from http://www.blogto.com/city/2010/09/nostalgia_tripping_torontos_streetcar_suburbs/ 2. CTV Toronto. (Publisher). (2014, March 06). Union Station 1927 [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://toronto.ctvnews.ca/timeline-180-years-of-toronto-history-1.1717785 3.Toronto Star. (Publisher). (1971, April 13). Photograph of St. James Town [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.blogto.com/city/2014/04/st_james_town_and_the_messy_politics_of_urban_renewal/ 4. Toronto Star/ Star Archives. (Publisher). (2014, March 28). Yonge Subway Line Construction [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2014/03/28/happy_birthday_yonge_subway.html 5. Bond, C. (Publisher). (2012, December 03). Spadina Expressways protests [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.cathibond.com/2012/12/adventures-on-the-ebook-frontier-dispatch-fifteen/ 6. Tim. (Photographer). (2007, July 19). St. Lawrence Market [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.blogto.com/grocery/stlawrencemarket 7. Ray Corley, TTC Archives, Ontario Archives. (Contributors). (2013, July 20). Scarborough RT [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.blogto.com/city/2013/07/a_brief_history_of_the_scarborough_rt/ 8. Flack, D. (Contributor). (2010, December 10). Toronto map coaster [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.blogto.com/fashion_style/2010/12/how_cool_are_these_toronto_map_coasters/ 9. Metrolinx. (Contributor). (2013, April 05). Eglinton LRT, Scarborough RT and Toronto Subway map [Print Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2013/04/05/crosstown_lrt_eglintons_big_dig_ends_30_year_wait_for_r enewal.html 10. CTV News Toronto. (Publisher). (2013, June 10). Sherbourne Bicycle Lane [Web Photo]. Retrieved from http://toronto.ctvnews.ca/toronto-officially-opening-city-s-first-separated-bike-lanes-on-sherbourne1.1318809

163 159


7H[W 1. Hodge, G., & Gordon, D. L. (2008). Planning Canadian Communities: an introduction to the principles, practice, and participants (5th ed.). Toronto: Thomson Nelson. 2. Brader, M. [Ed.] (2012, April 21). A brief history of transit in Toronto. Retrieved from http://transit.toronto.on.ca/spare/0012.shtml 3. Mangione, K. (2014, March 06). Timeline: 180 years of Toronto history. CTV Toronto, Retrieved from http://toronto.ctvnews.ca/timeline-180-years-of-toronto-history-1.1717785 4. Yarhi, E. (2012). A Brief History of Regent Park. Retrieved from http://regentparkarts.ca/portfolios/a-brief-historyof-regent-park/ 5. Bow, J. (2013, September 02). A history of the original Yonge subway. Retrieved from http://transit.toronto.on.ca/subway/5102.shtml 6. Bond, C. (2012, December 03). Adventures on the ebook frontier – dispatch fifteen [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://www.cathibond.com/2012/12/adventures-on-the-ebook-frontier-dispatch-fifteen/ 7. Royson, J. (2008, January 08). Amalgamation: 10 years later. Toronto Star. Retrieved from http://www.thestar.com/news/2008/01/01/amalgamation_10_years_later.html 8. Curry, B. (2012, January 02). Eglinton LRT nation's costliest infrastructure project: magazine. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/toronto/toronto-lrt-is-canadas-costliestinfrastructure-project-magazine/article4085335/ 9. Kalinowski, T. (2013, April 05). Crosstown LRT: Eglinton’s big dig ends 30-year wait for renewal. Toronto Star. Retrieved from http://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2013/04/05/crosstown_lrt_eglintons_big_dig_ends_30_year_wait_for_r enewal.html 10. Alcoba, N. (2011, November 24). TTC service cuts will hit the busiest routes. National Post. Retrieved from http://news.nationalpost.com/2011/11/24/ttc-releases-list-of-streetcar-bus-routes-affected-by-cutbacks/ 11. Kitching, C. (2013, June 10). Toronto officially opening city's first separated bike lanes on Sherbourne: http://toronto.ctvnews.ca/toronto-officially-opening-city-s-first-separated-bike-lanes-on-sherbourne1.1318809

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12. OntarioGenWeb. (2014). Ontario population by cities. Retrieved from http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~canon/research-topic-misc-population.html 13. (2013). Population of census metropolitan areas (CANSIM, table 051-0046). Retrieved from Statistics Canada website: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/demo05a-eng.htm

TORONTO MAP AND DESCRIPTION

,PDJH Š OpenStreetMap Contributors. (Cartographer). Map of Toronto, Ontario [Web Map]. Retrieved from http://www.openstreetmap.org/#map=12/43.6766/-79.4092

7H[W 1. Statistics Canada, (2014). Population and dwelling counts, for census metropolitan areas, 2011 and 2006 censuses. Retrieved from Government of Canada website: http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/dppd/hlt-fst/pd-pl/Table-Tableau.cfm?T=205&S=3&RPP=50 3. Toronto's vital signs report 2013. (2013, October 01). Toronto Star. Retrieved from http://www.thestar.com/news/gta/vitalsigns/2013/10/01/torontos_vital_signs_report_2013.html 2. Demographia. (2014). Demographia world urban areas (built - up urban areas or world agglomerations). (10 ed., Vol. May , p. (201405 Revision)). Retrieved from http://demographia.com/db-worldua.pdf 3. Statistics Canada, (2013). Commuting to work: National household survey, 2011 (Catalogue no. 99 - 012 - 2011003). Retrieved from Minister of Industry website: http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/99-012-x/99012-x2011003_1-eng.pdf 4. Scallan, N. (2012, October 19). Density Toronto: As GTA population rises, so do expectations for denser living. Toronto Star. Retrieved from http://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2012/10/19/density_toronto_as_gta_population_rises_so_do_expectati ons_for_denser_living.html 5. Statistics Canada, Gegraphy Division. (2013). 2011 national household survey Toronto thematic map (Catalogue no. 99 - 012 - 2011003). Retrieved from Minister of Industry website: http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhsenm/2011/as-sa/map-carte/pdf/2011-99012-005-535-013-08-00-eng.pdf

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INFRASTRUCTURE COMPARISON

,PDJHV Google Maps. (Cartographer). Toronto Bicycling Trails Map [Web Map]. Retrieved from https://www.google.ca/maps/@43.6860838,-79.4819913,12z/data=!5m1!1e3 Google Maps. (Cartographer). Toronto Transit Map [Web Map]. Retrieved from https://www.google.ca/maps/@43.6823597,-79.429463,12z/data=!5m1!1e2

TORONTO RADII MAPS

,PDJHV Nokia, Earthstar Geographics SIO, Microsoft Corporation. (Contributors). Aerial Image of Toronto, Ontario [Web Map]. Retrieved from http://www.bing.com/maps/

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7H[W 1. Statistics Canada, (2013). Commuting to work: National household survey, 2011 (Catalogue no. 99 - 012 - 2011003). Retrieved from Minister of Industry website: http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/99-012-x/99012-x2011003_1-eng.pdf 2. Statistics Canada, Geography Division. (2013). 2011 National Household Survey Toronto Thematic Map (Catalogue no. 99 - 012 - 2011003). Retrieved from Minister of Industry website: http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhsenm/2011/as-sa/map-carte/pdf/2011-99012-005-535-013-08-00-eng.pdf 3. Hodge, G., & Gordon, D. L. (2008). Planning Canadian Communities: an introduction to the principles, practice, and participants (5th ed.). Toronto: Thomson Nelson.

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INFORMATIVE MOVIES - How the Dutch got their cycling infrastructure http://bicycledutch.wordpress.com/2011/10/20/how-the-dutch-got-their-cycling-infrastructure/ - Verkeer in Amsterdam 1920 / Traffic in Amsterdam 1920 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lyu-WC5uaWo - ‘If we had Dutch intersections, we would ride our bikes everywhere too’ http://knowmore.washingtonpost.com/2014/02/21/if-we-had-dutch-style-intersections-wed-rideour-bikes-everywhere-too/ - Cycling in the US from a Dutch perspective https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m2THe_10dYs&feature=youtu.be - How the dutch got their cycle paths https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XuBdf9jYj7o - The beauty and The Bike- British girls on a bike https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=M88sF-rvul0 - Portlandia Bike clip https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V3nMnr8ZirI

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Walkable and Cyclable Cities - the Netherlands and Canada  

Collaboration between students of the TU Delft, the Netherlands and RU Toronto, Canada to create a toolbox on walkable and cyclable cities.

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