Plate Waste Study Dietetic Interns: Jessica Chang, Jennifer Lee The University of Texas School of Public Health Spring 2012

Rationale •  More foods wasted now vs. past? –  Increase in breakfast amount: students given 3-4 items instead of 2-3 items

•  Outside vender vs. in-house production? –  The need to determine if purchased items were preferred over items from in-house production

Objective •  To compare food waste between Straight Serve (SS) and Offer versus Serve (OvS) breakfast items

Background •  Locations: –  1 offer versus serve elementary school –  1 straight serve elementary school

•  Schools selected based on similarities in enrollment, demographic profiles, and other characteristics: –  Total number of students enrolled –  Title 1 eligibility –  Free/reduced lunch eligibility –  Percent at-risk –  Attendance rate

Methods •  Food Wasted –  Data collected by counting number of each item thrown away

•  Student Preference –  Data collected by asking students and cafeteria employees about preferences related to breakfast items

Food Wasted •  Number Prepared –  Number of each menu item prepared for breakfast

•  Number Left –  Number of each menu item remaining in cambros after breakfast was served

•  Number Taken –  Number of each item taken by students

Number Taken = Number Prepared – Number Left

Food Wasted •  Number Wasted –  Number of each menu item thrown away –  Visual Method Each item in the trash was rated based on this scale

Number Wasted = (Sum of percent wasted) ÷ 100

% Wasted = Number Wasted ÷ Number Taken

Percent Food Wasted in SS Number Prepared

Item

Number Left

Number Taken

Number Wasted

Percent Wasted (%)

Kolache, WG

151

0

151

6

3.97

Bf Ham and Cheese

151

6

145

21

14.48

Chicken Biscuit

165

5

160

5.5

3.44

Bran Mini Muffin

151

0

151

4

2.65

Banana

125

4

121

25.5

21.07

Juice, Apple, 6 oz.

275

5

270

7

2.59

1% milk

389

8

381

83.5

21.92

91

5

86

20

23.26

Skim milk

% Wasted = Number Wasted รท Number Taken

Percent Food Wasted in OvS Item

Number Prepared

Number Left

Number Taken

Number Wasted

Percent Wasted (%)

Kolache, WG

200

6

194

23.5

12.11

Cereal (CTC)

400

21

379

20.5

5.41

Cereal (HNC)

200

24

176

8

4.55

Bf Ham and Cheese

200

0

200

3.5

1.75

Chicken Biscuit

200

0

200

13

6.50

Bran Mini Muffin

120

9

111

0

0.00

Cinnamon Toast

256

40

216

15.5

7.18

Banana

300

40

260

30.75

11.83

1050

44

1006

53.75

5.34

1% milk

750

27

723

91

12.59

Skim milk

300

22

278

33

11.87

Juice, Apple, 6 oz.

CTC = Cinnamon Toast Crunch; HNC = Honey Nut Cheerios; Bf = Breakfast

Comparison of Number Taken and Percent Wasted in SS and OvS Item

SS Number Taken

SS Percent Wasted (%)

OvS Number OvS Percent Taken Wasted (%)

Kolache, WG

151

3.97

194

12.11

Bf Ham and Cheese

145

14.48

200

1.75

Chicken Biscuit

160

3.44

200

6.50

Bran Mini Muffin

151

2.65

111

0.00

Banana

125

21.07

260

11.83

Juice, Apple, 6 oz.

275

2.59

1006

5.34

1% milk

389

21.92

723

12.59

91

23.26

278

11.87

Cereal (CTC)

-

-

379

5.41

Cereal (HNC)

-

-

176

4.55

Cinnamon Toast

-

-

216

7.18

Skim milk

Comparison of Percent Wasted Between SS and OvS

Group A Breakfast Items Percent Wasted in SS and OvS

Group B Breakfast Items Percent Wasted in SS and OvS

Group C Breakfast Items Percent Wasted in SS and OvS

Student Preferences Students were asked: •  Why did you pick one item over another? •  What did you like/dislike about the item? •  What would you change about the item?

Comments for Group A Items in SS and OvS Kolache!

Breakfast.Ham.and.Cheese!

!!

SS!

Cafeteria(Manager:( Students:( "Kolaches!are!one!of! ! Cheese!is!all!over!the! their!favorite!items."! place. ! ! Messy. ! ! Needs!more!meat ! ! Bread!is!too!hard,!chewy,! and!dry ! ! Some=mes!the!sandwich!is! overcooked. ! NOTE:!Unopened!packages! were!being!thrown!away!

Cafeteria(Employee:(( Students:( "Students!would! "Liked!it. ! only!eat!the!sausage! The!bread!part!is!too!dry. ! inside!and!throw!the! OvS! rest!away. ! Students:!! The!bread!part!is! too!hard!and!dry. !

Chicken. Biscuit!

Cereal.(CTC.&. HNC)!

Cafeteria( Manager:( "Chicken! biscuits!are! their!favorite! item."!

!! Students:( Students:( "The!inside!of! "Liked!the! the!bread!is! cereal. ! soggy. ! Liked! The!chicken!is! Cheerios,! really!good. ! Frosted!Flakes,! and!the! Cinnamon. !

Comments for Group B Items in SS and OvS Bran.Mini.Muﬃn!

!!

SS!

Banana!

Cafeteria(Manager:(( Cafeteria(Employee:! "Students!liked!the! Bananas!were!received!yesterday! blueberry!muﬃn! and!within!a!couple!hours!had! beJer. ! turned!black.!Turned!black! ! when!they!warmed!up.!When! Students:(( they!got!here!they!were!cold! "Too!sweet."! and!swea=ng.!This!is!the! second!=me!this!happened. !! Students:( Too!smushy. !"Looks!nasty. ! Note:!Bananas!were!black,!served! one!day!in!advance!because! they!were!black!

Cafeteria(Employee:( Students:( They!like!the!! "The!bananas!are!not!ready!to!! muﬃns!L!eat!it!right! eat!L!there!are!s=ll!green!parts. ! OvS! Away. They!liked!! the!muﬃns!we!used! . to!have!beJer. ! .

Apple. Juice!

Cinnamon. Toast!

!

!

Students:( "The!! juice!! is!really!! Good."!

Students:! Only! eat!the!inside! because!of!the! sugar!and!! BuJer."!"Liked! it."!

Comments for Group C Items in SS and OvS 1%.milk SS. . .

Skim.milk

Cafeteria(Manager:! Milk!is!wasted! even!when!juice!is!not!served. ! "Milk!is!wasted!everyday."!

Students:!"I!like!the!purple!milk! (1%),!but!I!like!the!chocolate!milk! OvS. the!most;!the!blue!milk!(skim)!just! doesn't!taste!good."!"I!only!like!the! . chocolate!milk."

Cafeteria(Employee:!"Usually!kids! just!throw!the!skim!milk!away,!but! we!s=ll!have!to!give!it!to!them."

NOTE:!The!distribu=on!of!skim!or!1%!milk!is!random!by!the!cafeteria!employees.! Many!unopened!milk!cartons!were!thrown!away.

Pictures

Summary •  Group A: 1.53%* higher waste of Group A breakfast items in SS compared to OvS •  Group B: 9.14%* higher waste of Group B breakfast items in SS compared to OvS •  Group C: 20.72% higher waste of milk (both skim and 1%) in SS compared to OvS *Excluding foods not served in SS

Limitations •  Cannot determine if lower food waste at OvS is due to the student s ability to choose between items •  Not all bags of trash were assessed •  Difference in side items served at each school: –  Banana was served on different days –  Cinnamon Toast was served at OvS on days the Mini Bran Muffin was served at SS

Conclusion •  Food waste is higher in SS compared to OvS •  Result may be due to differences in quality of food and preferences of students.

Breakfast Plate Waste

Plate waste