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E.N.S.D.B Formaci贸n complementaria

Jessica Barrera llB

INTRODUCCION: I hope this document helps you to understand English and hopefully you will find answer to your questions.

Unit 1


Ought to:

"Ought to" is used to advise or make recommendations. "Ought to" also expresses assumption or expectation as well as strong probability, often with the idea that something is deserved. "Ought not" (without "to") is used to advise against doing something, although Americans prefer the less formal forms "should not" or "had better not."


You ought to stop smoking. (Recommendation) Jim ought to get the promotion. It is expected because he deserves it. This stock ought to increase in value. (Probability) Mark ought not drink so much. Advice against something (notice there is no "to")



"Should" is most commonly used to make recommendations or give advice. It can also be used to express obligation as well as expectation.


When you go to Berlin, you should visit the palaces in Potsdam. (Recommendation)

You should focus more on your family and less on work. Advice

I really should be in the office by 7:00 AM. (Obligation)

By now, they should already be in Dubai.( Expectation)

Had better:

We use “had better” plus the infinitive without “to” to give advice. Although “had” is the past form of “have”, we use “had better” to give advice about the present or future. •

You'd better tell her everything.

I'd better get back to work.

We'd better meet early.

The negative form is “had better not”.

You'd better not say anything.

I'd better not come.

We'd better not miss the start of his presentation.

Unit 2

Comparative and superlatives

In linguistics, the comparative is a syntactic construction that serves to express a comparison between two (or more) entities or groups of entities in quality, quantity, or degree; it is one of the degrees of comparison, alongside the positive and the superlative. The comparative is signaled in English by the suffix -er or by a word of comparison (as, more, less) and the conjunction- or preposition-like word as or than. The comparative is frequently associated with adjectives and adverbs because these words take the -er suffix or modifying word more or less (e.g. faster, more intelligent, less wasteful); it can also, however, appear when no adjective or adverb is present, for instance with nouns (e.g. more men than women). The syntax of comparative constructions is poorly understood due to the complexity of the data. In particular, the comparative frequently occurs with independent mechanisms of syntax such as coordination and forms of ellipsis (gapping, pseudogapping, null complement

anaphora, stripping, and verb phrase ellipsis). The interaction of the various mechanisms complicates the analysis. Most if not all languages have some means of forming the comparative, although these means can vary significantly from one language to the next.

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