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Curacao 2012 Durable Energy Conference Renewable Integration Issues Ron Willoughby – Vice President DNV KEMA Energy and Sustainability United States of America March 31, 2012


Topics  Part 1 – T&D System Challenges & Opportunities  Part 2 – Effects of Solar on the Distribution System  Part 3 – Role of the Smart Grid

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Topics  Part 1 – T&D System Challenges & Opportunities

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The Power System

G + T + D + L 4


Renewables Integration Issues  Impact of randomly placement  Integration out-pacing grid expansion  Dynamic control of real power limits, reactive power levels; i.e., to operate like traditional power plants  Lost revenue & cost recovery from net metering  Public acceptance (affects policy makers)

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Renewables Integration Issues (cont)         

Maintaining reliable system performance Adequacy of T & D lines System protection & control Dispatchable generation Use of energy storage Substation / distribution automation Data acquisition & management Compatibility / speed of communications Cyber security 6


Frequency Correction Using Storage

Source: CIGRE Biennial Session - 2010 7


Studies - Essential Planning Tool V-Control V-Flicker Fault Current Power Flow Protection Frequency

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Analysis Timeline Auto Control Realm

Real Time Ops Realm

Ops Planning & Sched Realm

Replacement Reserves Frequency Response

Harmonics

ISSUES

Regulation

Protection Stability

1 ms

1 cycle

Capacity

1 second

Economics Balancing /Dispatch

1 minute

10 minutes

1 hour

1 day

1 month

1 year

Time Step Increases STUDIES

Statistical Analysis of AGC and Transient Stability Balancing and Harmonics Spinning and Short Short Circuit Term Reserves Replacement Governor Response Storage Reserves

Production Costing Market Simulation Expansion Planning Long Term Generation, Transmission, DSM, and DG Investments

Emissions Performance

TOOLS

Power Factory PSSE DigSilent

KERMIT Simulation Tool

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ProMod GE MAP

KEMA Energy Ecology Model Traditional T-Planning


Renewables Integration – Lessons Learned System level - Most installations wind & solar. - Maintaining grid operations biggest challenge. Transmission level - Renewables remote from load, creating T-issues. Distribution level - Significant impacts on distribution protection.

>20% penetration starts to become problematic 10


Challenges / Opportunities  How to reduce integration costs?  How to simplify system protection?  How to simplify operations for operators?  How to add predictive load curves?  How to add predictive health monitoring?  How to manage as utility revenue source?

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Integration Example – Lanai PV Intermittent Renewable  Economic drivers, isolated grids, faster penetration

 PV Application - One project can drive “% penetration” above 20% 3.5 MW peak ~4 MW generation 1 MV PV

The transmission system

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EXAMPLE - Geothermal (Base Load Renewable) St Kitts-Nevis-Puerto Rico HVDC Feasibility Study  Connection routes - North or south? - Include St Croix? - Distance estimates  HVDC terminals, mono or bi-polar, etc?  Cable size / capacity  Voltage levels, losses  Capital costs for cables and terminals  Impacts on power system at all terminals  Cost savings / displaced fuels / other benefits 13


Nevis St Kitts

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Possible St Kitts-Nevis-Puerto Rico HVDC HVDC O/H

HVDC submarine cable

St Kitts-Nevis-Puerto Rico HVDC 15


Topics  Part 1 – T&D System Challenges & Opportunities  Part 2 – Effects of Solar on the Distribution System  Part 3 – Role of the Smart Grid

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Distribution PV – Benefits  Reduce conductor loading  Reduce losses  Delay capital upgrades  Improve voltage control (access to inverter controls)

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Example - Distribution Feeder  Distribution -

7.2 MW Peak 12.47 kV Rating 4.3 km (3-phase) 1 Transformer

 PV Site - 1.18 MW - 1.0 PF

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Peak Demand Reduced & Shifted Reduced Demand

Shifted Peak

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40 kW PV on Tuvalu

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40 kW PV on Tuvalu (cont) 21


Tuvalu from the Air 22


Loss of PV Output – Substation Voltage PV Site Outage 1.05

1.3 Sub PV

1.1 1.02 1

1.01

Seconds

23

700

650

600

550

500

450

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

0.9 50

1

PV Site

1.2

1.03

0

PU Voltage

1.04


Loss of PV Output – End-of-Feeder Voltage PV Site Outage 1

1.3 EOF PV

1.1 0.97 1

0.96

Seconds

24

700

650

600

550

500

450

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

0.9 50

0.95

PV Site

1.2

0.98

0

PU Voltage

0.99


Intermittency of PV Output 3.5

Output (kW)

3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 7:42

9:30

11:18

13:06

14:54

Time of Day

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16:42

18:31


Topics  Part 1 – T&D System Challenges & Opportunities  Part 2 – Effects of Solar on the Distribution System  Part 3 – Role of the Smart Grid

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Definition of Smart Grid

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Communication Building Blocks SCADA

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Data Drives T&D Technology Advances

> Renewables Integration > AMI Installed > Substation Upgrades

> > > > > >

> > AMI Functional > Distribution Automation (DA) > Volt-VAR Control > System Protection > Local SCADA > Multiple Automation Platforms >

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Advances in AMI Advanced DA & Volt-VAR Controls Distribution Storage Deployed Utility Scale Storage Deployed Electrification of Transportation Integrated T&D Substations Advanced System Protection Cyber Security Measures


Key Elements of a Smart Grid      

Distribution has bi-directional flows Great need for information exchange Integration of HVDC & power electronics Role of energy storage New concepts for operation & control New concepts for protection

Source: CIGRE Biennial Session - 2010 30


Example – Home Architecture

Source: IEEE Power & Energy, May/June 2010 31


Tonga from the Air 32


Backup Generator at Business in Tonga 33


Load Reduction by DSM Program

Source: KEMA Utility of the Future, Volume 3, 2010


www.dnvkema.com Ron Willoughby – Vice President DNV KEMA Energy and Sustainability United States of America


04. willoughby 31  

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