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Technology for Sustainable Energy David Smeulders Professor of Energy Technology EEI Scientific Director Curacao, March 29th 2012


Factsheet TU/e • • • • •

9 Departments 7500 students 3000 staff (of which 2000 research staff) Annual turnover 350 M$


Factsheet Energy Technology • 3 part-time professors • Small scale LNG (Imtech) • Heat storage materials (TCM, ECN) • Biomass torrefaction

• 6 associate/assistant professors • 20 PhD students • 7 technical staff


Every day: 13 billion liters of oil

323 m

224 m


Primary energy demand per year (2010) Mtoe

Mboe

PJ (1015 J)

World

12 000

90 000

500 000

NL

100

730

4 200

NL Electricity: 20 KWh/p/d Curacao: 15 kWh/p/d


12 000 Mtoe = 12 billion toe NL: 100 Mtoe = 0,8 % US: 2286 Mtoe = 19 %

World energy consumption increases in 2035 by 36% primarily in non-OECD countries (China: +75%) Source: IEA WEO 2010, BP Stat. Review of World Energy 2010


How much oil is left ? 30 years

Source: IEA World Energy Outlook 2008

6


Source: BP Stat. Review of World Energy 2010


EU comission Energy Roadmap 2050 • First tool of the EU energy strategy: energy efficiency • Second major pre-requisite: higher share of renewable energy • Storage technologies • Sufficient interconnection capacity and a smarter grid • Managing variations of renewable power in some local areas with renewables elsewhere

• • • •

Improved research, more efficient policies & support schemes Gas will be critical for transformation Carbon Capture and Storage to be applied from around 2030 Current trend scenario: Low nuclear, assuming no new nuclear being built besides already under construction Energy Roadmap 2050, draft 2011


TU/e Strategic Areas, Themes, Top Sectors Energy (ca. 400 fte)

Health (ca. 250 fte)

Built Environment Future Fuels Energy Conversion Fusion Energy Chemistry Energy High Tech S&M Life Sciences Logistics

◊ ◊ ◊

Themes Smart Environment Smart Diagnosis Smart Interventions NL Top Sectors ◊ ◊ ◊

Smart Mobility (ca. 230 fte)

Automotive Technology Intelligent Transport Systems Freight Transport and Logistics Mobility andTraffic ◊ ◊ ◊ ◊


University of Technology Eindhoven, Research Area Energy Future Fuels

Built Environment

Fusion

Energy Conversion


TU/e : Fuel Production & Combustion  Future Fuels Production  Gassification, pyrolysis  Cleaning (plasma, catalysis, oxidation)  XTL synthesis (catalysis)  Fission processes (e.g. CO2)

 Clean Combustion Concepts  MILD  PCCI

in EEI


High energy density makes liquid fuels essential Roadmap 

2010-2030:

Synfuels (fossil with biomass)

Thermo-chemical

 coal/gass/biomass

Bio-chemical

 many (catalytic routes)

 2020-2050:

1e phase Sunfuels (mainly biomass)

Thermo-chemical

 biomass

Bio-chemical

 biorefinery

 Post 2050: 

 gassification,pyrolysis,synthesis

 gassification,pyrolysis,synthesis

2e phase Sunfuels (biomass & solar based process)

Sunlight  CO2 reduction + H2O fission

 fuel synthesis


Phase Transitions Research Liquefied Natural Gas

Facts and figures LNG: condensation at -162 C at 1 bar density 0.5 g/cc energy density 60% of diesel fuel 2004: 7% of world’s natural gas demand, rapid demand increase condensing contaminants H2S, H2O, CO2


Offshore LNG production Shell Prelude (planning: 2017)

•Production •Cleaning CO2/H2S/H2 O MEA 500 x 75 m •Liquefaction  (-162 0C) •Storage •Offloading


LNG TR&D Organisation Structure

Board TNO, VSL, 3TU

Advisory Board

Directors team TNO, VSL, 3TU

Steering Group Offshore LNG

Steering Group Small scale LNG

Steering Group Traditional LNG

Steering Group LNG Metrology


how to make it real: our technology Aquaver patented technology is based on vacuum driven membrane distillation, which delivers a high flux and true multi-effect distillation with very good energy recovery. The process runs at low temperature levels and is fully flexible. The basic principle of standard Membrane Distillation (MD) is simple: Boiling feed water flows into a channel bordered by a microporous, hydrophobic membrane. Due to surface tension the liquid cannot enter the membrane. However, the difference in temperature and vapor pressure on both sides of the membrane forces the water-vapor to pass the membrane. Condensation of the vapor to a distillate occurs on the other side. Non-volatiles stay in the feed and are rejected with the brine.


from natural energy... Pure water, from natural energy sources.

Our systems are almost energy-free when low temperature heat is available. They are designed to run from any renewables sources, such as solar, wind or biofuel, or from any waste heat.

Continuous fresh water from natural energy.


Humidity harvesting using water vapor selective membranes Daniel Bergmair

combining scientific excellence with commercial relevance


Water in 1m³ of air - in the Negev desert absolute humidity 35 100% 75% 50% 25%

30

absolute humidity [g/m³]

25

20

15 11.5 10

5

Negev (64%) 0

0

5

10

Negev desert in Israel: • annual av. Temp = 20°C • annual rel. humidity = 64%

15 Temperature [°C]

20

25

11.5 g(H2O) / m³ (air)

30


Dutch Rainmaker 2.0 medium cooling

water vapor stream

dry gases

warm & humid air

membrane unit

Air filter

water tank

vacuum pump

cooler to condense water vapor

warm & dry air


University of Technology Eindhoven, Research Area Energy Future Fuels

Built Environment

Fusion

Energy Conversion


From minimal dissatisfaction to optimized quality in an energy-positive and connected built environment Buildings today:  consume ~ 37% world energy  exploit ~ 40% of world resources  produce ~ 40% of world waste


Central, local and decentralized energy generation: two way smart grids and user interfacing


Research topics • • • • • • •

Heat storage materials (v. Steenhoven, Zondag) Cooling systems Smart grids (Kling) Lighting technologies Mechanics of building materials (Geers, Jos Brouwers) Building climate management (van den Bosch) Wireless energy transmission (Lomonova)


University of Technology Eindhoven, Research Area Energy Future Fuels

Built Environment

Fusion

Energy Conversion


ITER, Cadarache France

• 500 megawatts of output power during > 500 s for 50 megawatts of input • Construction start 2007, first plasma is expected in 2019 • DEMO (2-4 GW): proposed to bring fusion energy to commercial market


The seven challenges of fusion power

Heat

Complexity Flares

Insulation

ITER-NL

Fusion Fluid Dynamics Control Systems Plasma groups

Materials

Fusion Plasma groups Materials

Neutrons

Fuel


University of Technology Eindhoven, Research Area Energy Future Fuels

Built Environment

Fusion

Energy Conversion


Bulk-heterojunction solar cells light electron transfer

glass transparent electrode +

-

absorption

100 nm metal electrode

donor

acceptor

nanoscopic mixing of donor and acceptor to overcome ~10 nm exciton diffusion length

R. H. Friend et al., Nature 1995, 376, 498 A. J. Heeger et al., Science 1995, 270, 1789


What makes a solar cell efficient? I. Absorption efficiency Or how many photons are absorbed? II. Quantum efficiency Or how many photons are converted into electrons and collected? III. Energy efficiency Or what is the final (chemical) potential of the electrons generated? Shockley-Queisser limit: 31% efficiency for a single junction cell


Research topics • • • • •

Polymer solar cells (Janssen) Multi-junction cells Spectrum extension Beam focusing polycrystalline silicon (Kessels)


Solar PV: 300 kWh/year/m2 Yearly electricity consumption Curacao: 665 GWh (400 GWh business)

Households: one square kilometer solar PV


Gemasolar, Sevilla, Spain


Geothermal Energy Crust: -50 – 500 0C Outer mantle: 450 – 1400 0C Inner mantle: 1400 – 3000 0C Outer core: 2900 – 4000 0C Inner core: 4000 – 6700 0C


Enhanced Geothermal Systems

Soultz, France


Wind turbines: 18-26 kWh/y/m2 Business electricity Curacao 2010: 400 GWh ≈ 20 km2

Installed offshore wind Netherlands: 41 km2 (OWEZ, Amalia)


Conclusions and outreach • Future Fuels • • • •

Sunfuels and 2nd generation biofuels LNG Sea water harvesting Humidity harvesting

• Solar • Polymer and polycristalline • Electric cars • Smart grids

• Sustainable Energy Technology • Students training and exchange programme


04. smeulders