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Human Body Part I

Name: ____________________ Period: ________

Bones, Muscles, and Skin Levels of Organization

•Organ Systems –Human body is made up of _______________________________________ Skeletal System

•Has 5 major functions: –1. Provides __________________________________________ –2. Enables you to _____________________ –3. Protects your ______________________ –4. Produces ______________________________ –5. Stores ____________________ and other materials until your body needs them____________________

Skeleton

•It provides _________________________________________ for organs •The vertebral column is the ____________________ of the skeleton –All of the bones in the ____________________

are in some way

____________________ to it

Skeletal Joints •A ____________________ is a place in the body where _________________________ come together

–They allow bones to __________________________________________ 1


•Immovable Joints –provide ________________________________________ •Movable Joints –allow the body to ___________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

Types of Movable Joints

•1. Hinge Joint –___________________________________________________ –Example: Knee or Elbow

•2. Ball and Socket Joint –____________________________________ –Ex. Shoulder and Hips

•3. Pivot Joints –___________________________________________________ –Ex. Neck

•4. Gliding Joint –__________________________________________________ –Ex. Wrist or Ankle

Movable Joints

•Ligaments –Strong ____________________ tissues that hold movable joints together

–Hold ____________________ to ____________________

•Cartilage –a type of connective tissue that is ___________________________ than bone. It keeps bones from ____________________________________ each other.

–Protection ____________________ bones= ____________________

•Tendon –a type of connective tissue that is the __________________________. –Holds ____________________ to ____________________ –Part of the ____________________ system 2


BONES •Are living structures that undergo _____________________________________ as your body ____________________

Bone Structure •Compact bone –___________________________________layer that is found under the bone’ s outer membrane

•Spongy bone –____________________ the compact bone, has _______________ spaces within it. ____________________ and ____________

•Marrow –_________ connective tissue- ____________________ of the bone –Red Marrow –produces _______________________________________ –Yellow Marrow –stores __________________________________________

Bone Growth

•Bones are ____________________ •They contain ____________________ and ____________________ –__________________________________________

•We form ____________________ bone tissue as we ____________________ Bone Development

•_______________ gets ________________ by __________ tissue as you grow –This is why people “ _________________”as they age, we are _____________ Osteoporosis

•Mineral ___________________ can lead to this condition in which the body’ s bones become ____________________ and ____________________ easily

•Consuming enough ____________________ helps ____________________ osteoporosis 3


Muscular System

•There are two types of muscle –1. Involuntary muscles –muscles that are ___________under your conscious control. Responsible for __________________ and __________________food

–2. Voluntary muscles –muscles that are ____________________ your conscious control. Example is ____________________

Three types of muscle tissue

•1. ____________________ muscle •2. ____________________ muscle •3. ____________________ muscle Skeletal Muscle

•Attached to ____________________ of your skeleton and provide the _________ that moves your bones

•At each end is a ____________________ which is a strong connective tissue that connects muscle to bone

–Appear ____________________ or ____________________ Smooth Muscle

•____________________ muscles that work ____________________ to control movements in your body

–Examples are the ___________of the stomach and ____________________ –Not ____________________

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Cardiac Muscle

•Found in your ____________________ only and is like a combination of ____________________ and ____________________ muscle

•Is striated and ____________________ •____________________ get tired Muscles work in pairs

•Muscle cells can only ____________________, not ____________________, so skeletal muscles must work in ____________________.

•While one _________________, the other muscle in the pair _________________ The Skin

•Largest ____________________!! and ____________________ the body •____________________ the ____________________ of water •____________________ the body from _________________________________ •Regulates ________________________________________________ •Eliminates ____________________ •Gathers information about the environment- ____________________ •Produces ____________________ Epidermis

•Outer layer of the skin-____________________ •____________________ have nerves or blood vessels •Protects the ____________________ •Produces ____________________ which is the pigment that gives the skin ____________________ 5


Dermis

•____________________ layer of the skin •Contains nerves, blood vessels, sweat glands, hairs, and oil glands •Has ____________________ and ____________________ Digestive System Functions of the Digestive System 1. To break down food into _________________________________________ 2. To absorb the ____________________ into the ____________________ and carry ___________________________________________________ 3. To eliminate ____________________ from the ____________________

Digestion

•It is the process by which your body ____________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

•There are two kinds of digestion –1. ____________________ (physically breaking food down) –2. ____________________ (chemically breaking food down) Absorption

•When ____________________ pass through the wall of your ____________________ system into your ____________________

•The organs in the digestive system total about ____________________ long from beginning to end (27 feet!)

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The Mouth

•Does both ____________________ and ____________________ digestion –Mechanical: ____________________________________________ –Chemical: _______________________________________________ •Saliva contains ____________________ that speed up chemical reactions in the body Esophagus 1. Epiglottis –a flap of tissue that ___________________________________ 2. Esophagus –a muscular tube that connects the ___________________to the ____________________ 3. Mucus –a __________________________________ that lines the esophagus

Digestion process

•After food enters the esophagus, __________________ of __________________ muscles push food toward the ____________________

•The involuntary waves of muscle contraction are called ____________________ Stomach

•A J-____________________, ____________________ pouch that is located in the ____________________

•Most _________________ and some _________________ digestion occurs here Final Digestion and Absorption •After the _________________ ___________________ leaves the stomach, it enters the _______________________

•Small intestine –almost all ____________________ digestion and ___________ of ____________________ takes place here

–It is named for its ________________________________ 7


Absorption in the Small Intestine

•Small intestine has villi that cover the surface and absorb nutrient molecules Liver

•Located in the ________________________ portion of the abdomen and it is the ____________________ organ in the body

•It produces ____________________ which breaks up ______________________ •Bile is stored in the ____________________ Pancreas

•A triangular organ that lies ____________________ the ____________________ and the first part of the ____________________

•It produces ____________________ that flow into the small intestine and break down ____________________________________________________ Large Intestine

•The last section of the Digestive system. •It is about ________________________________ •Contains ____________________ that feed on the material passing through it •____________________ is absorbed into the ____________________ and the remaining material is readied to be ____________________ from the body

Elimination

•Rectum –the _____________ of the large intestine, is a ___________________ •Anus –a ____________________ opening at the end of the rectum

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The Body’ s Transport System: Circulatory System and Cardiovascular System •It carries needed ____________________ to cells –Blood carries ____________________ from your ____________________ to ____________________

•It carries ____________________ products ___________from the cells –Blood carries _________________ to lungs where it is ___________________ •Blood contains cells that ____________________ The Heart

•A hollow, muscular organ that _____________ ____________throughout the body •Every time the heart _______________, it pushes blood through the __________ ___________________________ of the ____________________ system Structure of the heart

•Atrium = two _______________ chambers of the heart that __________ blood that comes _________________________________

•Ventricle = Two _______________ chambers of the heart that _______________ _________________ of the heart

•Septum = _______________________ the two ____________ of the heart •Valve = _________________________________ that prevents blood from flowing ____________________ Heartbeat Regulation

•Pacemaker = a group of heart cells that sends out ____________________ that make the heart muscle ____________________

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3 types of blood vessels

•1. Arteries = blood vessels that carry blood ________________ from the heart –____________________ = ____________________ •2. Capillaries = narrow vessels where substances are ____________________ between the ____________________ and ____________________

–____________________ between __________ and ________________

•3. Veins = vessels that carry blood ____________________ to the heart Arteries

•Have very ____________________ walls •Your ____________________ is caused by the alternating __________________ and ____________________ of the artery wall

Capillaries

•Materials are exchanged between the ____________________ and the body’ s ____________________ by ____________________ (High to low)

•Capillary walls are only ______________________ thick Veins

•Have ____________________ thick layers with ____________________ in the ____________________ layer

•These walls are generally ____________________ than those of the ___________________ but ___________________ than ___________________

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Blood Flow Pattern

•Loop 1 –Blood travels from the ____________________ to the ____________________ and then back to the ____________________

•Loop 2 –Blood is pumped from the ____________________ through the ____________________ and then returns again to the ___________________

•Lets Draw it! (Blood Flow Pattern)

Blood Pressure

•Caused by the ________________ with which the ventricles _________________ •The first number is a measure of the blood pressure while the ________________ ___________________________and pump blood into the ________________

•The second number measures the blood pressure while the ventricles ____________________

•Normal Blood Pressure is: ____________________ Blood

•Blood is made up of four components: –1. ____________________ –2. _______________________________ (RBC’ s) –3. _______________________________ (WBC’ s) –4. ____________________ 11


Plasma

•The ____________________ part of the blood •90% of plasma is ____________________ •Carries ____________________ (glucose, fats, vitamins and minerals) and ____________________ messengers around the body

•____________________ in color Red Blood Cells

•Take up ____________________ in the ____________________ and deliver it to ____________________ in the body

•Produced in ____________________ •Made up mostly of ____________________ which is an iron-containing protein that binds chemically to ____________________

•Live only about ____________________ •RBC’ s ____________________ a nucleus White Blood Cells

•The body’ s ____________________ fighters •Produced in the ____________________ •____________________ than red blood cells •Have a ____________________ •Can live for ____________________or even ____________________ Platelets

•Cell fragments that form ______________________________--

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•When you cut yourself, platelets help form the blood clot that _______________ the ___________________________.

•Do not have a nucleus •A ________________is a ___________ blood clot on the skin _______________ Blood Types

•There are four types of blood: –1. ____________________ –2. ____________________ –3. ____________________ –4. ____________________

•Blood types are determined by proteins known as _________________________ Marker Molecules

•They determine your ____________________and the type of blood that you can safely ____________________in ____________________

•Involves the presence of certain ____________________on the surface of the RBC’ s.

•There are two antigens:

–___________ –___________ •If there are only ____ antigens, the person has type ____ blood. •If there are only ____ antigens, the person has type ____ blood. •If there are __________antigens, the person has type ______ blood. 13


•If there are neither ____ nor ____ antigens, the person has type ____ blood. Who can receive blood??

•People with type AB can receive blood from type ___________________ •____________________________________________. •People with type O can only receive blood from type ______ but can give to type ____________________

•__________________________________________. •People with type A can receive blood from ____________________. •People with type B can receive blood from ____________________. Rh Factors

–Another group of antigens on the ____________________of RBC’ s. –____________________different combinations • Those with RBC’ s that contain one or more of the Rh factors are called ____ • Those with RBC’ s that do not contain the factors are called _______ Lymphatic System

•A network _________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ (drainage system)

–Kind of like rain gutters after a rainstorm, carrying the ____________________ _____________________________________

•Used to ____________________ out your body

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Lymph

•The ____________________ that is inside the lymphatic system •Consists of ____________________ and dissolved ____________________ such as ____________________

•Also has ________________________________________________ in it Lymph Nodes

•Filter ____________________, trapping ____________________ and other microorganisms that cause ____________________

•When fighting an ____________________, the lymph nodes _________________

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Part I STUDENT NOTES