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Human Body Part II

Name: _______________________ Period: ____

Respiratory System Functions

•Moves _______________ from the ______________ environment into the ________________________

•Removes _________________________ and ________ from the body Respiration:

•The process in which ______________ and ______________ undergo a complex series of ______________ reactions inside cells to produce ______________

•Breathing is the movement of ____________________________________ •Respiration _________________________________ that fuels _________ and other cell processes

Removing Carbon Dioxide

•Respiration produces ___________and ___________and the body eliminates this through your ___________

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The Path of Air

•As air travels from the outside environment to the lungs, it passes through the ____________________________________________________

Nose •Lined with ___________which are tiny hair-like extensions that can move in a _________________________________________ •Air ___________the body here •Has ___________which ___________particles and keeps your nose lining from ________________________________

Pharynx

•The ___________ •Both the ___________and ___________connect to the pharynx Trachea

•The ___________ •Lined with ___________and ___________ •Normally only ___________travels through this Bronchi and Lungs •Bronchi –the ___________________that ___________air into the lungs •Lungs –the main ___________of the respiratory system •Alveoli –tiny ___________of lung tissue that are specialized for the movement of ___________between ___________and ___________ 2


Gas Exchange

•1. Air enters an ___________ •2. ___________passes through the wall of the alveolus and then through the ___________wall into the ___________

•3. ____________________ and ___________pass from the ___________into the ___________

Muscles for breathing -When you ___________, the diaphragm moves ___________and pressure in the lungs ___________ -This causes the ___________to move ___________ -When you ___________, the diaphragm moves ___________and the pressure in the lungs ___________ -This causes the ___________to move ___________

Breathing and Speaking

•Larynx –the __________________, is located in the ____ part of the ___________underneath the ___________

•Vocal cords –___________of connective tissue that produce your voice, ___________across the opening of the ___________

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Excretory System Excretion

•This is the system in the body that collects ___________produced by cells and ___________the wastes from the body

Structures

•Kidneys, urinary bladder and urethra are the structures that eliminate urea, water and other wastes Terms to know

•Urea -- a ___________that comes from the breakdown of ___________ •Urine –a watery ___________that contains ___________and other wastes

•Ureters –two ___________tubes that ___________urine from ___________to the ___________

•Urinary bladder –a sack-like ________________ organ that _________ urine

•Urethra –small tube that ___________urine

Kidneys •The ___________organs of the excretory system that ___________wastes by this process:

•1. Blood flows from an ___________into a ___________in the kidney 4


•2. Blood is ___________and urea, water, glucose is ___________ •3. Water and glucose are ___________________ into the ___________ •4. The remaining liquid is called ___________ Homeostasis

•Excretion maintains homeostasis by keeping the body’ s internal environment ___________and ___________of harmful levels of ___________

Other Excretion Organs •Lungs, Skin and the Liver –Lungs –When you ___________carbon dioxide and water are removed from the body

–Skin –sweat glands in the skin remove ___________and ___________in __________________________________

–Liver –___________down wastes before they can be ___________ The Immune System Barriers in the Body

•The skin, breathing passages, mouth and stomach trap and kill most _________________that you come in ___________with

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Inflammatory Response

•When body cells are ___________they release ___________and _________ from the blood vessels into nearby tissue

•The ___________white blood cells then ___________the ___________ and break them down

•When you get a ___________, it is helping your body fight ________________________

Immune System

•The cells react to each kind of ___________with a ___________targeted __________________________ at that pathogen

•Lymphocytes are the ___________that can tell between different kinds of pathogens Reminders…

•Pathogens = ____________________________________________________ –They are spread by human beings, soil, food and water, objects, and animals

Lymphocytes •There are two major kinds of lymphocytes •___________ •Major function is to identify ___________and __________________ one kind of pathogen from another 6


•___________ •Major function is to produce ___________that help destroy pathogens (produce _________________________________)

How they work •1. ___________recognizes a ___________and divides over and over. This produces ___________ T cells that also recognize the virus’ ___________

•2. Some T cells attack the _________________________cells of the respiratory system that contain the ___________. These T cells destroy the _______________ cells and the ___________

•3. Other T cells activate ___________to produce antibodies ___________ the virus’ antigens

•4. Antibodies then bind to ___________on the viruses they _____________________. The viruses _____________ together and are destroyed by ___________

Vocabulary

•1. Antigens = molecules that the immune system __________________ either as ___________of your body or as coming from ___________your body

•2. Antibody = ___________that help destroy pathogens

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AIDS

•_________________________________________________________ (AIDS) is a disease caused by a ___________ that attacks the ______________ system

•Caused by the __________________________________________________ (HIV) which is the only kind of ___________that can attack the immune system ___________and destroy ___________

•Spread through body fluids (___________,___________) Immunity

•The body’ s ability to destroy pathogens before they can cause disease •There are two types: –1. ___________= your own immune system produces antibodies in ___________to the ___________of a pathogen

–2. ___________= When antibodies that fight the pathogen come from another ___________versus their own body

Vaccine

•Helps you gain ___________immunity •It is the process by which _______________ ________________are put into a person’ s ___________

•They usually consist of ___________that have been _______________ 8


Antibiotics

•A chemical that kills _______________ or slows their _____________ without ___________________________body cells

•Cannot ___________ ___________illnesses only ________________ Noninfectious Diseases

•Diseases that are ___________caused by ________________________ (pathogens) in the body

–Examples: Cardiovascular disease, allergies, diabetes, and cancer

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Human Body II STUDENT NOTES