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Name: ________________________________________ Chapter 9

Period: _____________

Animals follow these levels of organization:

–Tissues are _____________ that perform a specific function –Organs are _____________ that perform specific functions Animals

•Functions of Animals: –Obtaining ___________________ and ____________________ –_____________________________________________ (maintain homeostasis) –____________________________ –____________________________

•Obtaining food and oxygen –All animals are ____________________________ • Carnivores- feed on _________________________ • Herbivores- feed on _________________________ • Omnivores- eat _________________________________________

–All animals need ________________ (__________________________) 1


•Keeping conditions stable –Must maintain a __________________ _____________________ within their bodies

• homeostasis

–Animals adapt to the ___________________ that they live in to do this

•Movement –Must move in some _______________ at some point in ___________________ –Most animals move ____________ throughout their lives –Use to obtain ______________ or ______________________________ •Reproduction –Most animals reproduce ___________________________ -Fertilization of male ___________________ and female ____________

–Some animals can also reproduce _______________________ (ex: hydra)

•Classification of animals –Animals are classified according to how they are ________________________________ to other ___________________________

•body structure, development and DNA

–Two groups: _______________________ (backbone) and ___________________________ (no backbone)

•Vertebrates: –________________________________________________

•Invertebrates : • about _______________ of animals are invertebrates • Examples: _____________ ____________________________________________ 2


•Symmetry in animals –Animals have one of two types of symmetry: • _________________________________________ • _________________________________________

•Radial Symmetry –The ____________________ body parts of animals with radial symmetry are _________________ __________________ around a central point.

–Do not have distinct ________________ or _________________________ –All live _______________ –Do not move fast- stay in ______________ spot and moved along by __________________________________________ or creep along the bottom

–Examples: __________________________________________________________

•Bilateral Symmetry –________________________ and _________________________ –_____________ end that goes first as the __________________ moves 3


–Move _________________ and more _____________________ than __________________ symmetry animals

–Sense _____________ in the front that pick up what’s in front of them –Examples: ____________________________________ Sponges

•___________________________- means NO BACKBONE •Live all over the world –Mostly _______________, but also freshwater _________________________

•Adults are ____________________ –They _____________________

•Water currents carry _____________ and _________________ to them –Also take away _________________________________________ •Body Structure –____________________________________ –Never have ________________ or ___________________ –_____________________________ with a large opening at one end –Have many _______________ covering its _______________ -In the Phylum "Porifera"

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Sponge

Collar Cell Four Main Parts of a Sponge

•Collar Cell- _________________ structures that beat ____________________ –moving water through the sponge and trap food

•Spike- _______________________________ form a rigid frame –helps support and protect the sponge’ s body

•Jelly-like Cell- among the _________________, do ___________________________ and _________________________________

•Pore- water moves into the ________________________ ____________________ through small __________________all over the sponge’ s body

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•Obtaining food and oxygen –Eat _____________________________ organisms that they filter from the water

–Captured by ____________________________ –________________________________________ digest them –Gets ___________________ from the _____________________ •Reproduction –Reproduce both _____________________ and ____________________ –Use ___________________ to reproduce ______________________ •Small, new sponges grow from the sides of an

________________ and

then ______________________________!!!

–Sponges can reproduce______________________________ •DO NOT HAVE SEPARATE _________________ –Each organism produces both gametes •______________________ are released into the water and _____________ to fertilize its ______________________

•______________________ develop and are carried away by _________ _____________________ (settle and grow)

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Cnidarians

•Pronounced “ni-dare-ee-unz” •Use ________________________ cells

to capture ____________ and __________

__________________________

•They are ________________________________ •Examples: Jellyfish, corals, sea anemones •Body Structure –Two body plans •Looks like a vase or an upside down bowl

–__________________ symmetry –Central ___________________ _____________________ –Tentacles with ________________________________

•Vase shaped body

structure is also called a __________________

Draw an example here:

–Example: ______________________ –Mouth opens at __________ and ____________________ out from around the _______________________

–Usually attached to _______________________ 7


•Bowl shaped body structure is also called a ___________ Draw an example here:

–Ex. _________________________ –Swims ____________________ in water –Mouths open _________________ and _______________ also face _____________________

•Obtaining food –Use _____________________________ to capture food –Stinging cells contain a ______________________ structure that has many _____________________ spines

–“_______________________________”prey and releases a ____________ –Pull prey into ______________ structure and then into hollow __________________________________

•Movement –Most can move to

_____________________ danger and _____________ food

–_____________________ swim –Hydras do ___________________________ –Sea anemones _____________________ and _____________________

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•Reproduction –Reproduce both __________________ and _____________________ –Use ____________________ for asexual –Some polyps can ____________ to form _____________ new organisms! –Sexual reproduction • Some have sexes in _______________ organism • Some have ______________ separate sexes

•Some cnidarians live in _____________________ –a group of many individual animals

•Stony Coral-How coral reefs are formed. –________________________________**** –The cnidarian _________________, and then produces a ____________ ________________ skeleton around itself

–Coral polyps reproduce ________________________ –When the polyp ________________, its skeleton ___________ –The coral will add up and grow _____________________ –Home to more species of ___________________ and _____________________ than any other ___________________________ on Earth!!!

•Portuguese Man-of-War –Colony that acts as a __________________________ _____________________ 9


–Man-of-War can have ________ of individual ______________________ –Top is a ___________________ _________________________________ that allows colony to _________

–The different polyps have different ______________ -Some catch prey, others digest prey, and some are for reproduction

Worms •Three major types of worms –1. ______________________________________ •Belong to the phylum Platyhelminthes –2. ______________________________________ •Belong to the phylum Nematoda –3. ______________________________________ •Belong to the phylum Annelida

Freaky Fact

•A giant gippsland earthworm can grow to be more than 1 meter long!

It is

one of approximately 1,000 earthworm species found in Australia.

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Body Structure

•______________________________ •Have long, ___________________________ bodies ___________________ legs •Have _____________________ symmetry

(have a head and tail end)

•Have ________________________, __________________, and __________ systems Nervous System

•Have a _____________ •Have ___________________ ________________________ (sensitive to light, touch and vibrations) Reproduction

•Both __________________________ and _____________________ reproduction •Some worms are specifically __________

and _____________ (like humans)

•Other worms have __________________ male AND female parts –A worm with both male and female sex organs does not usually _______________________ its own eggs. Instead two _____________________ mate and exchange ____________________________

•Asexual reproduction occurs by

breaking into _________________ and

__________________________ a new body!

•FACT: if you cut some kinds of worms into several pieces, a whole new worm forms from each piece!!

–Do you remember the other organism that we discussed that can regenerate a new body? _____________________________

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Flatworms

•They are _____________ and as soft as ______________ •Most are ______________________________ •Some can be __________________ (do not live in or in another organism) •Examples include: _______________ _____________________________ Planarians

•_____________________________ flatworms •Also are __________________

(they feed on ______________________________

matter)

•Also are ____________________ (will attack any

___________________ smaller

than they are) How are worms predators?

•____________________ onto their _____________________ •Insert a ______________________________ into the other organism •____________________________ flow out of the planarian and _______________ the food

•The juices _____________________ food and the planarian ________________ up the partly digested _________________ Tapeworms

•______________________________ •Live by __________________________ food

from the hosts

__________________________________ 12


•Can even live in ___________________________

•1. Tapeworm larvae can infect a ______ when the dog eats ________ _________________ such as a rabbit

•2. The ____________ tapeworm uses ________________ on its head to dig into the ________________ of the dog’ s ________________________________

•3. The tapeworm ____________ as it absorbs food from the dog’ s intestine. Then the tapeworm produces_____________ and ____________. Fertilized _______________ leave the digestive system along with the dog's _______________. 4. The fertilized eggs ___________ on grass and other _______________ eaten by rabbits. After the rabbits eat the ______,the larva hatch out. Roundworms

•Live in ____________________ _________________________ •Have _________________ bodies •Have a digestive system that is like a ______________________ (open at both ends)

•Have a __________-_____________ digestive tract • Food enters their ______________ and wastes exit through their ________ at the other end of the worm

•Body Structure –Segmented bodies, have bodies made up of many ______________________ sections called ________________________

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–Have a ________________________ of nerve tissue called a ________________ and a digestive tube that runs the length of the worm’ s body

–Have a _______________ digestive system with _________________________ Circulatory System

•Have a ________________________ circulatory system –Blood moves only within a connected network of tubes called _____________________ ____________________

–Can move blood around an animal’ s body much more ________________________than an _____________________________ Earthworms and the environment

•They help people by _________________ the ___________.

They tunnel

through the soil and _________________ the soil, which allows for _____________________________________________________ to move through it.

•Earthworm ____________________ also make the soil more _____________________!

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ch 9 STUDENT NOTES