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Chapter 7

Name: _____________________ Period: _____

Viruses  A virus is ___________________________________________________________  THEY ARE NOT CELLS!!!!! o Why???  Do not use ________ to grow  Do not _______________________________________________, or excrete wastes  Viruses can __________________ or ________________________  _____________________ o Why?? __________________________________________________________  Viruses infect organisms from __________________________________________  The organism that a virus _________________ inside of is called a ________ o ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________  Viruses are __________________________ o Organisms that _______________________ a host and cause it ________

Structure of Viruses  ______________________ than cells  Vary in ______________ and __________________ o Round, rods, bricks, threads, bullets, or robot-like  ______________________-a virus that __________________ a bacteria 1


 All viruses have two basic parts: o 1. ___________________________ o 2. ______________________________________________________________

Protein coat  _________________ the virus  Each virus has ________________ surface ___________________  These allow the virus to attach to certain cells in the ________  Works like a ___________________________ o Very specific  Because of this, a certain virus can attach _________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ o Ex: Cold virus can only attach to the cells in the ________ and ________

Inner Core  Contains the ________ or genetic material of the __________

Drawing of a Virus:

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How Viruses Multiply  Once inside a cell, the virus’ s _____________ takes over many of the cell’ s ________________  It _____________ the cell to ___________ the virus’ s ____________ and genetic material  These proteins and genetic material than _____________ into ________ ________ (JUST LIKE A MILITARY INVASION)  Some take over the cell’ s _____________________________ , and some ________ Active Viruses  These viruses __________________ take over their ________ ’cell’ s functions  The ____________ cell makes copy after copy of ___________________________  When it is full of new viruses, the host cell _______________________________ ___________________________________________________ Hidden Viruses  These viruses ________________ immediately become active  The virus’ s genetic material ______________ the host’ s genetic material  The virus _________ seem to ____________ the host and may stay ___________ for years  Each time the host cell ____________ , its genetic material also gets __________ on to the _____________ cells  Under certain conditions , the ____________ genetic material will become __________________ (stress often sets these off)  Now it ________ ________ the cell’ s functions  ________ new viruses and bursts open 3


Viruses and Disease  Viruses cause _________________  Some are __________ and you soon get better o ______________________  Some have _____________ consequences and are _______________ o ________  Viruses can cause disease in other _______________ besides humans  Apple mosaic viruses makes ____________________________________________ Viral diseases (diseases caused by a virus) can be __________ in many ways: o 1. __________ with a contaminated object o 2. ___________ of an _______________________ animal o 3. Tiny droplets of ________________ (cough or sneeze) o 4. Contact with _______________________ (blood, semen, etc)

Treating Viral Diseases  THEY ARE NOT ANY CURES FOR VIRUSES  Over-the-counter medicines can only _____________________________ o Rest, plenty of fluids, and well-balanced ideas are the only things you can do

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Preventing Viral Disease  1. Vaccine o Substance __________________ into the body to _______________ the production of chemicals that _________________ specific disease causing viruses o Made of _____________________ or _____________ viruses  2. Keep your body healthy!!! o _______________________________ o ______________________________________________________________

What is it?? They thrive in your container of yogurt. They lurk in your kitchen sponge. They coat your skin and swarm inside your nose. You cannot escape them because they live almost everywhere. There are more of these organisms in your mouth than there are people on Earth!! What are they??? ________________________

Bacteria  ___________________ in the 1600’ s  Found by ________________________________________ on accident  ______________________ organisms  ____________________(cells do not contain a nucleus)  Do ______have _____________________or _____________________in their cells  _______________cells are surrounded by a ______________________________  May also have a _________________ (a long ______ structure that helps a cell to ______________ ) 5


Bacterial Cell Sizes  They _______ greatly in _____________  Can be as ______ as the _________ at the end of this sentence.  An _____________________ is about 0.5 to 1 ________________ (that’ s one millionth of a meter!!)

Bacterial Cell Shapes Are either: 1.___________________ 2.___________________ 3.___________________  The ______ makeup of the ________________________ determines the ___________________

How do bacteria obtain food and energy?  Bacteria must have a _____________ of _________ and a way of ______________ __________ the food to ____________________________________________

Obtaining Food  Some are _________________________ (can make ________________ food)  Others are _________________________ (cannot make their own food). These organisms ______________ other ______________ or the food that other organisms ______________.

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Where do they get their energy from?  Bacteria need a ___________________________________________________  They get their ___________ from _______________________________________ in the process of ______________________ o Respiration is the process by which cells _________________________ simple food molecules to ______________________________ they contain Examples  _______________________ bacteria, found in ______________ , break down the __________ in _________ for food  _______________________ bacteria that cause the __________ , cloudy scum in some __________ use the sun’ s __________ to ______________________ o The ______________________ bacteria that are found in _______________ use ______________ energy from their ________________ to make ______

Reproduction  Bacteria can ______________________ by both asexual and sexual reproduction  Bacteria reproduce by a process called ___________________________ in which ______ cell divides to form _____________________________ o Asexual reproduction involves only ___________________________ and produces offspring that are _______________________________________  Some bacteria undergo __________________________________ where 2 parents combine their ______________________________ to produce a ______ organism  This is called ______________________ (where one bacterium _______________ some __________________________ to another bacterium through a __________ ______________ and after the transfer the cells __________________ ) 7


 Conjugation results in bacteria with new __________________________ of genetic material. Then when those bacteria divide by _____________________, the new combinations of genetic material pass to the _______________ .  Conjugation does ______ ______________ the number of bacteria, but it does result in ________________________________________________

Endospore Formation  An _____________________ is a small, rounded, thick-walled, resting cell that forms ___________ of a bacterial cell. It contains the cell’ s _______________ ______________ and some of its _______________________ .  Endospores can ______________ _____________________ , _______________ , and ________________ , and can survive for _________ _____________ .

Role of Bacteria in Nature  Bacteria are involved in: o ____________________________ production o Environmental ________________ _______________________ o Health ________________ and medicine ____________________

Protists  Protists are ______________ that ________________ be classified as ___________ _____________ or ________________  Remember…the “ odds and ends kingdom”

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Why is it called the odds and ends Kingdom??  Most are ______________________ but some can be ___________________  Some are ___________________ , some are ______________________ and others are ______  Some _____________ _____________ , while others ______ around ______ on their own

Animal-like Protists  ____________________, ____________________ and most are able to move from __________________________ to obtain food  Also known as _______________________

4 kinds of Protozoans 1. Protozoans with ___________________ (temporary bulges of the cell) 2. Protozoans with _______________ (hairlike ______________________ from cells that move with a ______________________ motion ) 3. Protozoans with ______________ (long, _____________________________ ) 4. Protozoans that are _________________ (all ______ on the cells and __________ __________ of their ___________ )

Plantlike Protists  Commonly called ______________________  All are __________________________  Come in many _________________________________ and __________________  Can be ____________________ or _____________________________

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6 kinds of Plantlike Protists 1. _________________ = _________________ with _________________ cell walls 2. _________________ = _________________ ________ surrounded by ______ ______ that look like a suit of armor 3. _________________ = _________, __________________ algae that are found mostly in _______________________. These can be _________________ under certain conditions 4. _________________ = multicellular, _______________________ 5. _________________ = contain green ____________ and are very ________________ . Live in both ________________________ and ____________________ 6. _________________ = these are the common _________________ . Also contain ____________, ____________, and ____________ pigments . (aka: kelp!)

Fungus like Protists  Are _________________ that have _________ _________ and _____________ to reproduce. All are able to _________ at some point in their lives.  There are three types of fungus-like protists o 1. _________________ o 2. _________________ o 3. _________________

Fungi  Fungi are _________________ that have ______ ______ , are _________________ that feed by _________________ their food, and use ___________ to reproduce .  They all need ___________ , ____________ places in which to __________

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Cell Structure  Can be really tiny ____________ organisms to __________ _______________ organisms  The cells of most fungi are arranged in _______________ called ______________.  Hyphae are the _________________________________________ that make up the _________________ of multicellular fungi

Obtaining food  Fungi absorb food through ______________ that grow _______ a food source

Reproduction in Fungi  Fungi usually reproduce by making ____________ . The _________________ ________________ are surrounded by a ____________________ ______________ and can be carried easily through ______ or ______ to new sites o Think about how this might happen!  Fungi produce _____________ in reproductive structures called _____________ ____________________  Unicellular ___________ ______ undergo a form of asexual reproduction called ____________________ o In budding, __________________________________. Instead, a small yeast cell grows from the body of a __________ cell in a way that is similar to the way a __________________________________________  Fungi can also reproduce __________________________ .  The hyphae of _________________________ and genetic material is _______________ . Eventually, a ______ reproductive structure grows from the joined hyphae and __________________ __________________ 11


Role of fungi in nature  Fungi provide _____________________________. ex: ______________________  They also play a role in _________________ and __________________ on Earth.  Some fungi cause ______________ while others ____________ disease. Classification of Fungi  There are three major groups of fungi: sac fungi, club fungi and zygote fungi

FUNGI

SAC FUNGI

CLUB FUNGI

ZYGOTE FUNGI

Spore Type:

Examples: Largest group!!!

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ch 7 student notes