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200 Slides

A study of minute bodies by means of a microscope By Jeremy Wood

Bacterial - Viral - Fungal - Parasitic - Plants - Animals MMXVII 1


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Š Jeremy Wood 2017 Jeremy Wood asserts the moral right to be identified as the author of this work All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publishers.

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JEREMY WOOD 200 Slides

Microscopy - Biology - Science - Cells - Microbiology Bacterial - Viral - Fungal - Parasitic Plants - Animals www.jeremywoodart.com

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Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye). There are three well-known branches of microscopy: optical, electron, and scanning probe microscopy. Optical and electron microscopy involve the diffraction, reflection, or refraction of electromagnetic radiation/electron beams interacting with the specimen, and the collection of the scattered radiation or another signal in order to create an image. This process may be carried out by wide-field irradiation of the sample (for example standard light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) or by scanning of a fine beam over the sample (for example confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy). Scanning probe microscopy involves the interaction of a scanning probe with the surface of the object of interest. The development of microscopy revolutionized biology, gave rise to the field of histology and so remains an essential technique in the life and physical sciences.

The first detailed account of the interior construction of living tissue based on the use of a microscope did not appear until 1644, in Giambattista Odierna’s L’occhio della mosca, or The Fly’s Eye. It was not until the 1660s and 1670s that the microscope was used extensively for research in Italy, the Netherlands and England. Marcelo Malpighi in Italy began the analysis of biological structures beginning with the lungs. Robert Hooke’s Micrographia had a huge impact, largely because of its impressive illustrations. The greatest contribution came from Antonie van Leeuwenhoek who achieved up to 300 times magnification. He sandwiched a v. small glass ball lens between the holes in two metal plates riveted together and with an adjustable by screws needle attached to mount the specimen. Then, Van Leeuwenhoek discovered red blood cells and spermatozoa and helped popularise microscopy as a technique. On 9 October 1676, he reported the discovery of micro-organisms. The performance of light microscopy depends as much on how the sample is illuminated as on how it is observed. Early instruments were limited until this principle was fully appreciated and developed, and until electric lamps were available as light sources. The first piece of fiction to involve the microcosm was probably Fitz-James O’Brien’s “The Diamond Lens,” which tells the story of a scientist who invents a powerful microscope and discovers a beautiful woman living in a microscopic world inside a drop of water. In 1893 August Köhler developed a key principle of sample illumination, Köhler illumination, which is central to achieving the theoretical limits of light microscopy. This method of sample illumination produces even lighting and overcomes the limited contrast and resolution imposed by early techniques of sample illumination. Further developments in sample illumination came from the discovery of phase contrast by Frits Zernike in 1953, and differential interference contrast illumination by Georges Nomarski in 1955; both of which allow imaging of unstained, transparent samples.

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Types of microscope slides are described by standard abbreviations.

ABBREVIATION MEANING wm Whole mount (entire specimen or organism) st Stained ls Longitudinal section cs Cross-section sec Section sm Smear sq Squashed preparation df Darkfield

THE MICROSCOPE 40X-2500X Siedentopf Trinocular Compound Microscope Total magnification: 40X-100X-250X-400X-1000X-2500X Eyepieces: wide field WF10X/18 and WF25X Objectives: achromatic DIN 4X, 10X, 40X (spring),100X (spring, oil) THE CAMERA Canon EOS 600D Microscope Adapter for Canon Digital SLR with 2X lens

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THE MICROSCOPE 40X-2500X Siedentopf Trinocular Compound Microscope Total magnification: 40X-100X-250X-400X-1000X-2500X

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Eyepieces: wide field WF10X/18 and WF25X Objectives: achromatic DIN 4X, 10X, 40X (spring),100X (spring, oil)

THE CAMERA Canon EOS 600D Microscope Adapter for Canon Digital SLR with 2X lens

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Here I have used an image of a micrometer calibration slide overlayed on a live image of a specimen at 100x and 250x magnification. The canon digital camera is supplied with an EOS Utility and you can see the relevant settings I have used.

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SPECIMENS - Ant, w.m. - Ascaris Egg, w.m. - Ascaris, c.s. - Aspergillus, w.m - Bacillus, smear - Bamboo, w.m. - Bee Wings, w.m. - Bee Worker Leg-Composite, w.m. - Blood Fluke-Eggs w.m. - Bone Marrow Mammal, smear - Broad Bean Radical Tip, l.s. - Butterfly Leg, w.m. - Butterfly Wings Ocales, w.m. - Callistemon Bottle Brush, w.m. - Cerebrum Mammal, sec. - Ciliated Epithelium, sec. - Coprinus Mushroom Set, c.s. - Cotton Flea, w.m. - Cotton Stem, c.s. - Cucurbita Stem, l.s. - Cyclops, w.m. - Dandelion Seed, w.m. - Daphnia, w.m. - Dense Connective Tissue, sec. - Dog Cardiac Muscle, l.s. - Dog Duodenum, c.s. - Dog Esophagus, c.s. - Dog ILeum, c.s. - Dog Jejunum, c.s. - Dog Pancreas, sec. - Dog Rectum, c.s. - Dog Skeletal Muscle, l.s. & c.s. - Dog Small Intestine, sec. - Dog Smooth Muscle, l.s. & c.s. - Dog Spleen, sec. - Dog Squamous Epithelium, w.m. - Dog Stomach, sec. - Dog Trachea, c.s. - Dog Ureter, c.s. - Earthworm, c.s. - Euglena, w.m. - Feather, w.m. - Fern Prothallia, w.m. - Frog Blastula, sec. - Frog Epidermic Cell, sec. - Frog Liver, sec. - Frog Lung, sec. - Frog Spermary, sec. - Hibiscus rosa-sinensis , w.m. - Honeybee Mouth Parts, w.m. - Housefly Mouth Parts, w.m.

- Hydra, c.s. - Ipomoea Leaf, c.s. - Ipomoea Root, sec. - Lilium Anther, c.s. - Lilium Ovary, c.s. - Marchantia Mature Sporophyte, l.s. - Meiosis-Lillitrm Pollen,w.m. - Mixed Bacteria, smear - Mosquito Larva, w.m. - Mosquito Mouth Parts, w.m. - Mosquito Wings, w.m. - Nervous Tissue, sec. - Onion Epidermis, w.m. - Paramecium, w.m. - Penicillium, w.m. - Pig Motor Nerve, w.m. - Pine Leaf, c.s. - Pine Root, c.s. - Pine Stem, c.s. - Pine Young Staminate Cone, l.s. - Pollen Gem, w.m. - Pumpkin Stem, c.s. - Rabbit Arteriole, c.s. - Rabbit Artery and Vein, c.s. - Rabbit Hyaline Cartilage, sec. - Rabbit Lymph Node, sec. - Rabbit Spinal Cord, c.s. - Rabbit Testis, sec. - Rhizopus, w.m. - Rice Weevil, w.m. - Spirogyia Conjugation, w.m. - Stem-Collenchyma, c.s. - Stem-Parenchyma, c.s. - Stem-Sclerenchyma, c.s. - Stem-Tracheid, l.s - Stomata-Vicia Faba Leaf, w.m. - Sunflower Stem, c.s. - Tilia Stem, c.s. - Tomato Flesh, w.m. - Volvox, w.m.

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SPECIMENS

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- Ant, w.m. d.f. 100X - 250X

Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera. Ants evolved from wasp-like ancestors in the Cretaceous period, about 99 million years ago and diversified after the rise of flowering plants. More than 12,500 of an estimated total of 22,000 species have been classified. They are easily identified by their elbowed antennae and the distinctive node-like structure that forms their slender waists. Ants form colonies that range in size from a few dozen predatory individuals living in small natural cavities to highly organised colonies that may occupy large territories and consist of millions of individuals. Larger colonies consist mostly of sterile, wingless females forming castes of “workers”, “soldiers”, or other specialised groups. Nearly all ant colonies also have some fertile males called “drones” and one or more fertile females called “queens”. The colonies are described as superorganisms because the ants appear to operate as a unified entity, collectively working together to support the colony. Ants have colonised almost every landmass on Earth. The only places lacking indigenous ants are Antarctica and a few remote or inhospitable islands. Ants thrive in most ecosystems and may form 15–25% of the terrestrial animal biomass. Their success in so many environments has been attributed to their social organisation and their ability to modify habitats, tap resources, and defend themselves. Their long co-evolution with other species has led to mimetic, commensal, parasitic, and mutualistic relationships.

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- Ascaris Egg, w.m. d.f. 250X - 1000X - 2500X

Ascaris is a genus of parasitic nematode worms known as the “small intestinal roundworms”, which is a type of helminth. One species, Ascaris lumbricoides, affects humans and causes the disease ascariasis. Another species, Ascaris suum, typically infects pigs. Parascaris equorum, the equine roundworm, is also commonly called an “Ascarid”. Their eggs are deposited in feces and soil. Plants with the eggs on them infect any organism that consumes them. A. lumbricoides is the largest intestinal roundworm and is the most common helminth infection of humans worldwide. Infestation can cause morbidity by compromising nutritional status, affecting cognitive processes, inducing tissue reactions such as granuloma to larval stages, and by causing intestinal obstruction, which can be fatal.

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- Ascaris, c.s. 100X

Ascaris is a genus of parasitic nematode worms known as the “small intestinal roundworms”, which is a type of helminth. One species, Ascaris lumbricoides, affects humans and causes the disease ascariasis. Another species, Ascaris suum, typically infects pigs. Parascaris equorum, the equine roundworm, is also commonly called an “Ascarid”. Their eggs are deposited in feces and soil. Plants with the eggs on them infect any organism that consumes them. A. lumbricoides is the largest intestinal roundworm and is the most common helminth infection of humans worldwide. Infestation can cause morbidity by compromising nutritional status, affecting cognitive processes, inducing tissue reactions such as granuloma to larval stages, and by causing intestinal obstruction, which can be fatal.

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- Aspergillus, w.m 250X - 1000X - 2500X

Aspergillus is a genus consisting of a few hundred mould species found in various climates worldwide. Aspergillus was first catalogued in 1729 by the Italian priest and biologist Pier Antonio Micheli. Viewing the fungi under a microscope, Micheli was reminded of the shape of an aspergillum (holy water sprinkler), from Latin spargere (to sprinkle), and named the genus accordingly. Today, aspergillum is also the name of an asexual spore-forming structure common to all Aspergillus species; around one-third of species are also known to have a sexual stage.

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- Bacillus, smear 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

Bacillus is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped (bacillus) bacteria and a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Bacillus species can be obligate aerobes (oxygen reliant), or facultative anaerobes (having the ability to be aerobic or anaerobic). They will test positive for the enzyme catalase when there has been oxygen used or present.[2] Ubiquitous in nature, Bacillus includes both free-living (nonparasitic) and parasitic pathogenic species. Under stressful environmental conditions, the bacteria can produce oval endospores that are not true ‘spores’, but to which the bacteria can reduce themselves and remain in a dormant state for very long periods.

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- Bacillus, smear. d.f. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

Bacillus is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped (bacillus) bacteria and a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Bacillus species can be obligate aerobes (oxygen reliant), or facultative anaerobes (having the ability to be aerobic or anaerobic). They will test positive for the enzyme catalase when there has been oxygen used or present. Ubiquitous in nature, Bacillus includes both free-living (nonparasitic) and parasitic pathogenic species. Under stressful environmental conditions, the bacteria can produce oval endospores that are not true ‘spores’, but to which the bacteria can reduce themselves and remain in a dormant state for very long periods.

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- Bamboo, w.m. 250X - 1000X - 2500X

The bamboos Listeni are a subfamily (Bambusoideae) of flowering perennial evergreen plants in the grass family Poaceae. Giant bamboos are the largest members of the grass family. In bamboo, the internodal regions of the stem are usually hollow and the vascular bundles in the cross section are scattered throughout the stem instead of in a cylindrical arrangement. The dicotyledonous woody xylem is also absent. The absence of secondary growth wood causes the stems of monocots, including the palms and large bamboos, to be columnar rather than tapering. Bamboos include some of the fastest-growing plants in the world, due to a unique rhizome-dependent system. Certain species of bamboo can grow 91 cm (3 ft) within a 24-hour period, at a rate of almost 4 cm (1.5 in) an hour (a growth around 1 mm every 90 seconds, or one inch every 40 minutes). Bamboos are of notable economic and cultural significance in South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia, being used for building materials, as a food source, and as a versatile raw product. Bamboo has a higher compressive strength than wood, brick, or concrete and a tensile strength that rivals steel. The word bamboo comes from the Kannada term bambu, which was introduced to English through Indonesian and Malay.

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- Bee Wings, w.m. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax. Bees are a monophyletic lineage within the superfamily Apoidea, presently considered as a clade Anthophila. There are nearly 20,000 known species of bees in seven to nine recognized families,[1] though many are undescribed and the actual number is probably higher. They are found on every continent except Antarctica, in every habitat on the planet that contains insect-pollinated flowering plants. The wings of the honeybee, like those of most insects, are thin, flat and two-layered. The front pair is much longer than the rear. The worker’s wings are used both for flight and for ventilating the hive, while the drone and the queen use theirs for flight only.

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- Bee Worker Leg-Composite, w.m. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

A worker bee is any female (eusocial) bee that lacks the full reproductive capacity of the colony’s queen bee; under most circumstances, this is correlated to an increase in certain non-reproductive activities relative to a queen, as well. Worker bees occur in many bee species other than honey bees, but this is by far the most familiar colloquial use of the term. Workers gather pollen into the pollen baskets on their back legs, to carry back to the hive where it is used as food for the developing brood. Pollen carried on their bodies may be carried to another flower where a small portion can rub off onto the pistil, resulting in cross pollination. Almost all of civilization’s food supply (maize is a noteworthy exception) depends greatly on crop pollination by honey bees, whether directly eaten or used as forage crops for animals that produce milk and meat. Nectar is sucked up through the proboscis, mixed with enzymes in the stomach, and carried back to the hive, where it is stored in wax cells and evaporated into honey.

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- Blood Fluke-Eggs w.m. 250X - 1000X

A genus of trematodes, Schistosoma, commonly known as blood-flukes, are parasitic flatworms responsible for a highly significant group of infections in humans termed schistosomiasis. Schistosomiasis is considered by the World Health Organization as the second most socioeconomically devastating parasitic disease, (after malaria), with hundreds of millions infected worldwide. Adult flatworms parasitize blood capillaries of either the mesenteries or plexus of the bladder, depending on the infecting species. They are unique among trematodes and any other flatworms in that they are dioecious with distinct sexual dimorphism between male and female. Thousands of eggs are released and reach either the bladder or the intestine (according to the infecting species), and these are then excreted in urine or feces to fresh water. Larvae must then pass through an intermediate snail host, before the next larval stage of the parasite emerges that can infect a new mammalian host by directly penetrating the skin.

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- Bone Marrow Mammal, smear 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

Bone marrow, also called myeloid tissue , soft, gelatinous tissue that fills the cavities of the bones. Bone marrow is either red or yellow, depending upon the preponderance of hematopoietic (red) or fatty (yellow) tissue. In humans the red bone marrow forms all of the blood cells with the exception of the lymphocytes, which are produced in the marrow and reach their mature form in the lymphoid organs. Red bone marrow also contributes, along with the liver and spleen, to the destruction of old red blood cells. Yellow bone marrow serves primarily as a storehouse for fats but may be converted to red marrow under certain conditions, such as severe blood loss or fever. At birth and until about the age of seven, all human marrow is red, as the need for new blood formation is high. Thereafter, fat tissue gradually replaces the red marrow, which in adults is found only in the vertebrae, hips, breastbone, ribs, and skull and at the ends of the long bones of the arm and leg; other cancellous, or spongy, bones and the central cavities of the long bones are filled with yellow marrow.

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- Broad Bean Radical Tip, l.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

Vicia faba, also known as the broad bean, fava bean, faba bean, field bean, bell bean, English bean, horse bean, Windsor bean, pigeon bean and tic(k) bean (bakulla in Nepalese ), is a species of flowering plant in the vetch and pea family Fabaceae. The origin of this legume is obscure, but it had been cultivated in the Middle East for 8,000 years before it spread to Western Europe. Fava or Broad beans have been found in the earliest human settlements. Remains are reported to have been found in Egyptian tombs.[citation needed] They probably originated in the Near East during the Neolithic Age and by the Bronze Age had spread to Northern Italy. They have been found in lakeside settlements in Switzerland and in Britain at Glastonbury. In Egypt, the beans were considered commoner food and were shunned by the upper classes. Fava beans were cultivated by the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans. In ancient Rome, they were used in funeral rites. Pythagoras forbade the eating of fava beans because they contained the souls of the dead. This once forbidden bean is also related to Favism, a genetic deficiency affecting Jews and other descendant of the Mediterranean. Initiates of the Eleusinian mysteries would drink the kykeon and visit the home of Kyamites, the Greek demigod of Fava beans.

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- Butterfly Leg, w.m. 100X - 250X - 1000X

Large articulated member attached to the terminal segment of the thorax and having powerful sensory organs. Coxa Anterior segment of the leg articulating with the thorax and the trochanter. Trochanter Segment of the leg between the hip and the femur. Femur Segment of the leg between the trochanter and the tibia. Tibia Segment of the leg between the femur and the tarsus. Tarsus Terminal segment of the leg, divided into five parts and having two claws. Claw Pointy fang-shaped structure attached to the tarsus and enabling the butterfly to cling to things and feed itself.

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- Butterfly Wings Scales, w.m. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

The name Lepidoptera (which includes butterflies and moths) means “scale wing� in Greek. These wing scales are tiny overlapping pieces of chitin on a butterfly or moth wing. The scales are outgrowths of the body wall and are modified, plate-like setae (hairs).

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Callistemon - Bottle Brush 100X - 250X

Callistemon species have commonly been referred to as bottlebrushes because of their cylindrical, brush like flowers resembling a traditional bottle brush. They are mostly found in the more temperate regions of Australia, especially along the east coast and typically favour moist conditions so when planted in gardens thrive on regular watering. However, two species are found in Tasmania and several others in the south-west of Western Australia. At least some species are drought-resistant and some are used in ornamental landscaping elsewhere in the world.

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- Cerebrum Mammal, sec. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

The cerebrum is a large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex (of the two cerebral hemispheres), as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb. In humans, the cerebrum is the uppermost region of the central nervous system. The telencephalon is the embryonic structure from which the cerebrum develops prenatally. In mammals, the dorsal telencephalon, or pallium, develops into the cerebral cortex, and the ventral telencephalon, or subpallium, becomes the basal ganglia. The cerebrum is also divided into approximately symmetric left and right cerebral hemispheres. With the assistance of the cerebellum, the cerebrum controls all voluntary actions in the body.

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- Ciliated Epithelium, sec. 250X - 1000X - 2500X

The respiratory epithelium lining the upper respiratory airways is classified as ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium. This designation is due to the arrangement of the multiple cell types composing the respiratory epithelium. While all cells make contact with the basement membrane and are, therefore, a single layer of cells, the nuclei are not aligned in the same plane. Hence, it appears as though several layers of cells are present and the epithelium is called pseudostratified. The majority of cells composing the ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium are of three types: ciliated cells, goblet cells, and basal cells. The ciliated cells are columnar epithelial cells with specialized ciliary modifications. Goblet cells, so named because they are shaped like a wine goblet, are columnar epithelial cells that contain membranebound mucous granules and secrete mucus, or epithelial lining fluid (ELF), the composition of which is tightly regulated; the mucus helps maintain epithelial moisture and traps particulate material and pathogens moving through the airway. and determines how well mucociliary clearance works. The basal cells are small, nearly cuboidal cells thought to have some ability to differentiate into other cells types found within the epithelium. For example, these basal cells respond to injury of the airway epithelium, migrating to cover a site denuded of differentiated epithelial cells, and subsequently differentiating to restore a healthy epithelial cell layer.

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- Coprinus Mushroom Set, c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

Coprinus is a small genus of mushroom-forming fungi consisting of Coprinus comatus (the shaggy mane) and several of its close relatives. Until 2001, Coprinus was a large genus consisting of all agaric species in which the lamellae autodigested to release their spores. (The black ink-like liquid this would create gave these species their common name “inky cap�.) Molecular phylogenetic investigation found that Coprinus comatus was only a distant relative of the other members of Coprinus, and was closer to genera in the Agaricaceae. Since Coprinus comatus is the type species of Coprinus, only that species and its close relatives C. sterquilinus and C. spadiceisporus retained the name of the genus. The majority of species of Coprinus were therefore reclassified into three genera placed in Psathyrellaceae: Coprinellus, Coprinopsis, and Parasola. Coprinus and these segregate genera are now referred to collectively as coprinoid fungi.

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- Cotton Flea, w.m. d.f. 100X - 250X - 1000X

The cotton fleahopper is the most serious of the three species of plant bugs that attack cotton. The other two (not covered here) are the clouded plant bug, and tarnished plant bug. The cotton fleahopper egg is glistening white in color and found embedded in stem tissue. The egg shape is slightly curved, enlarged at one end and has a truncate flat cap at the other end. The small nymph (or immature) is white and translucent at first then becomes a pale green after feeding. Nymphs range in size from very small up to about 1/8 of an inch long. The nymphs have prominent scarlet colored eyes and resemble adults but have no wings. The adult is about 1/7 of an inch long. The pale green body is dotted with tiny dark spots. The cotton fleahopper hibernates (or overwinters) in the egg stage. Eggs of the cotton fleahopper hatch in 6 to 12 days and complete development to adult requires 16 to 29 days. Croton is the preferred food plant of this insect. However, it feeds on a large number of other host plants including cotton, horsemint, wild sunflower, and horsenettle. Tiny, active, hard-to-see nymphs and adults feed on juices of tender plant parts -especially the terminal buds and small squares. Deformed or ragged leaves are often seen as a result of this feeding. The greatest damage is to small squares that are no larger than a pinhead. They turn brown or black and shed after being fed upon. Heavily infested plants grow tall and whip-like, have restricted growth of fruiting branches, and usually produce only a few bolls near the top. The insect and its damage is thus hard to detect until economic losses have been sustained. It is a key pest in some important cottonproducing areas.

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- Cotton Stem, c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X

Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the family of Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will tend to increase the dispersal of the seeds. The plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa, and India. The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found in Mexico, followed by Australia and Africa. Cotton was independently domesticated in the Old and New Worlds. The fiber is most often spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. The use of cotton for fabric is known to date to prehistoric times; fragments of cotton fabric dated from 5000 BC have been excavated in Mexico and between 6000 BC and 5000 BC in the Indus Valley Civilization. Although cultivated since antiquity, it was the invention of the cotton gin that lowered the cost of production that led to its widespread use, and it is the most widely used natural fiber cloth in clothing today.

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- Cucurbita Stem, l.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

Cucurbita (Latin for gourd)[3] is a genus of herbaceous vines in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae, also known as cucurbits, native to the Andes and Mesoamerica. Five species are grown worldwide for their edible fruit, variously known as squash, pumpkin, or gourd depending on species, variety, and local parlance,[a] and for their seeds. First cultivated in the Americas before being brought to Europe by returning explorers after their discovery of the New World, plants in the genus Cucurbita are important sources of human food and oil. Other kinds of gourd, also called bottle-gourds, are native to Africa and belong to the genus Lagenaria, which is in the same family and subfamily as Cucurbita but in a different tribe. These other gourds are used as utensils or vessels, and their young fruits are eaten much like those of Cucurbita species. Most Cucurbita species are herbaceous vines that grow several meters in length and have tendrils, but non-vining “bush� cultivars of C. pepo and C. maxima have also been developed. The yellow or orange flowers on a Cucurbita plant are of two types: female and male. The female flowers produce the fruit and the male flowers produce pollen. Many North and Central American species are visited by specialist bee pollinators, but other insects with more general feeding habits, such as honey bees, also visit. The fruits of the genus Cucurbita are good sources of nutrients, such as vitamin A and vitamin C, among other nutrients according to species. The plants contain the toxins, such as cucurbitin, cucurmosin, and cucurbitacin. There is debate about the taxonomy of the genus, as the number of accepted species varies from 13 to 30. The five domesticated species are Cucurbita argyrosperma, C. ficifolia, C. maxima, C. moschata, and C. pepo. All of these can be treated as winter squash because the full-grown fruits can be stored for months; however, C. pepo includes some cultivars that are better used only as summer squash. Cucurbita fruits have played a role in human culture for at least 2,000 years. They are often represented in Moche ceramics from Peru. After Christopher Columbus’s arrival in the New World, paintings of squashes started to appear in Europe early in the sixteenth century. The fruits have many culinary uses including pumpkin pie, biscuits, bread, desserts, puddings, beverages, and soups. Pumpkins and other Cucurbita fruits are celebrated in festivals and in flower and vegetable shows in many countries.

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- Cyclops, w.m. 100X - 250X

Cyclops is one of the most common genera of freshwater copepods, comprising over 400 species . Together with other similar-sized non-copepod fresh-water crustaceans, especially cladocera, they are commonly called water fleas. The name Cyclops comes from the Cyclops of Greek mythology which shares the quality of having a single large eye, which may be either red or black in Cyclops. Cyclops individuals may range from ½–5 mm long and are clearly divided into two sections. The broadly oval front section comprises the head and the first five thoracic segments. The hind part is considerably slimmer and is made up of the sixth thoracic segment and the four legless pleonic segments. Two caudal appendages project from the rear. Although they may be difficult to observe, Cyclops has 5 pairs of legs. The long first antennae, 2 in number, are used by the males for gripping the females during mating. Afterwards, the female carries the eggs in two small sacs on her body. The larvae, or nauplii, are free-swimming and unsegmented. Cyclops has a cosmopolitan distribution in fresh water, but is less frequent in brackish water. It lives along the plant-covered banks of stagnant and slow-flowing bodies of water, where it feeds on small fragments of plant material, animals or carrion. It swims with characteristic jerky movements. Cyclops has the capacity to survive unsuitable conditions by forming a cloak of slime. Average lifespan is about 3 months.

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- Dandelion Seeds, w.m. d.f. 100X - 250X - 1000X

The species of Taraxacum are tap-rooted, perennial, herbaceous plants, native to temperate areas of the Northern Hemisphere. The genus contains many species which usually (or in the case of triploids, obligately) reproduce by apomixis, resulting in many local populations and endemism. In the British Isles alone, 234 microspecies are recognised in 9 loosely defined sections, of which 40 are “probably endemic”. In general, the leaves are 5–25 cm long or longer, simple, lobed, and form a basal rosette above the central taproot. The flower heads are yellow to orange coloured, and are open in the daytime, but closed at night. The heads are borne singly on a hollow stem (scape) that is usually leafless and rises 1–10 cm or more above the leaves. Stems and leaves exude a white, milky latex when broken. A rosette may produce several flowering stems at a time. The flower heads are 2–5 cm in diameter and consist entirely of ray florets. The flower heads mature into spherical seed heads called blowballs or clocks containing many single-seeded fruits called achenes. Each achene is attached to a pappus of fine hairs, which enable wind-aided dispersal over long distances. The flower head is surrounded by bracts (sometimes mistakenly called sepals) in two series. The inner bracts are erect until the seeds mature, then flex downward to allow the seeds to disperse. The outer bracts are often reflexed downward, but remain appressed in plants of the sections Palustria and Spectabilia. Some species drop the parachute from the achenes; the hair-like parachutes are called pappus, and they are modified sepals. Between the pappus and the achene is a stalk called a beak, which elongates as the fruit matures. The beak breaks off from the achene quite easily, separating the seed from the parachute.

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Daphnia 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

Daphnia, a genus of small planktonic crustaceans, are 0.2–5 millimetres (0.01–0.20 in) in length. Daphnia are members of the order Cladocera, and are one of the several small aquatic crustaceans commonly called water fleas because their saltatory (Wiktionary) swimming style resembles the movements of fleas. Daphnia live in various aquatic environments ranging from acidic swamps to freshwater lakes, ponds, streams and rivers. The two most readily available species of Daphnia are D. pulex (small and most common) and D. magna (large). They are often associated with a related genus in the order Cladocera: Moina, which is in the Moinidae family instead of Daphniidae and is much smaller than D. pulex (approximately half the maximum length). Daphnia eggs for sale are generally enclosed in ephippia (a thick shell, consisting of two chitinous plates, that encloses and protects the winter eggs of a cladoceran)

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- Dense Connective Tissue, sec. 250X - 1000X - 2500X

Dense connective tissue, also called dense fibrous tissue, is a type of connective tissue with fibers as its main matrix element. The fibers are mainly composed of type I collagen. Crowded between the collagen fibers are rows of fibroblasts, fiber-forming cells, that generate the fibers. Dense connective tissue forms strong, rope-like structures such as tendons and ligaments. Tendons attach skeletal muscles to bones; ligaments connect bones to bones at joints. Ligaments are more stretchy and contain more elastic fibers than tendons. Dense connective tissue also make up the lower layers of the skin (dermis), where it is arranged in sheets.

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- Dog Cardiac Muscle, l.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is an involuntary, striated muscle that is found in the walls and histological foundation of the heart, specifically the myocardium. Cardiac muscle is one of three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle. These three types of muscle all form in the process of myogenesis. The cells that constitute cardiac muscle, called cardiomyocytes or myocardiocytes, predominantly contain only one nucleus, although populations with two to four nuclei do exist. The myocardium is the muscle tissue of the heart, and forms a thick middle layer between the outer epicardium layer and the inner endocardium layer. Coordinated contractions of cardiac muscle cells in the heart pump blood out of the atria and ventricles to the blood vessels of the left/body/systemic and right/lungs/pulmonary circulatory systems. This complex mechanism illustrates systole of the heart. Cardiac muscle cells, unlike most other tissues in the body, rely on an available blood and electrical supply to deliver oxygen and nutrients and remove waste products such as carbon dioxide. The coronary arteries help fulfill this function.

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- Dog Duodenum, c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

The dog duodenum is about 25cm long in canine species. The mesoduodenum is relatively long. The duodenum is the proximal part of the small intestine and extends from the pylorus of the stomach to the jejunum. It has descending and ascending portions and both portions have digestive and absorptive functions.

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- Dog Esophagus, c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

The esophagus is a muscular tube connecting the throat (pharynx) with the stomach. The esophagus is about 8 inches long, and is lined by moist pink tissue called mucosa. The esophagus runs behind the windpipe (trachea) and heart, and in front of the spine. Just before entering the stomach, the esophagus passes through the diaphragm. The upper esophageal sphincter (UES) is a bundle of muscles at the top of the esophagus. The muscles of the UES are under conscious control, used when breathing, eating, belching, and vomiting. They keep food and secretions from going down the windpipe. The lower esophageal sphincter (LES) is a bundle of muscles at the low end of the esophagus, where it meets the stomach. When the LES is closed, it prevents acid and stomach contents from traveling backwards from the stomach. The LES muscles are not under voluntary control.

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- Dog ILeum, c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

The ileum is the final section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds. In fish, the divisions of the small intestine are not as clear and the terms posterior intestine or distal intestine may be used instead of ileum. The ileum follows the duodenum and jejunum and is separated from the cecum by the ileocecal valve (ICV). In humans, the ileum is about 2–4 m long, and the pH is usually between 7 and 8 (neutral or slightly alkaline). Ileum is derived from the Greek word eilein, meaning “to twist up tightly.� In the dog the ileal orifice is located at the level of the first or second lumbar vertebra

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- Dog Jejunum, c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

The jejunum continues from the duodenum and leads into the ileum. It is the longest part of the small intestine and is highly coiled. It has digestive and absorptive functions. Jejunum occupies the ventral part of the abdominal cavity, filling those parts that are not occupied by other viscera. This produces species variation (see species differences). It lies on the abdominal floor, separated from the parietal peritoneum by the greater omentum. It is suspended by the mesentery (mesojejunum). This conveys the blood vessels and nerves and houses lymph nodes. The mesentery converges to its root. This is where the cranial mesenteric artery branches off from the aorta. In Dogs the jejunum lies roughly symmetrically about the midline. It contacts the liver, stomach and spleen cranially and urinary bladder ventrally.

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- Dog Pancreas, sec. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates. In humans, it is located in the abdominal cavity behind the stomach. It is an endocrine gland producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide which circulate in the blood. The pancreas is also a digestive organ, secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that assist digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. These enzymes help to further break down the carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in the chyme.

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- Dog Rectum, c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others.

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- Dog Skeletal Muscle, l.s. & c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

These muscles are called striated muscles and are voluntary muscles. They predominately attach to portions of the skeleton. They are involved with such things as walking, eating, tail wagging and eye movement.

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- Dog Small Intestine, sec. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

The small intestine extends from the pylorus of the stomach to the caecum. The small intestine recieves chyme from the stomach. It is the main site of chemical degradation and absorption of chyme. Fats are exclusively broken down in this part of the alimentary tract. Carbohydrates and proteins that are not degraded in the small intestine are available for microbial fermentation in the large intestine. The small intestine produces enzymes for digestion of protein, carbohydrate and fat and absorbs the products of their digestion. Enzymes are produced by glands in the intestinal wall and the pancreas. The gall bladder produces bile which emulsifies fats for digestion. Absorption is facilitated by ridges in the small intestine and by the presence of villi and microvilli.

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- Dog Smooth Muscle, l.s. & c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle. It is divided into two subgroups; the single-unit (unitary) and multiunit smooth muscle. Within single-unit cells, the whole bundle or sheet contracts as a syncytium (i.e. a multinucleate mass of cytoplasm that is not separated into cells). Multiunit smooth muscle tissues innervate individual cells; as such, they allow for fine control and gradual responses, much like motor unit recruitment in skeletal muscle. Smooth muscle is found within the walls of blood vessels (such smooth muscle specifically being termed vascular smooth muscle) such as in the tunica media layer of large (aorta) and small arteries, arterioles and veins. Smooth muscle is also found in lymphatic vessels, the urinary bladder, uterus (termed uterine smooth muscle), male and female reproductive tracts, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, arrector pili of skin, the ciliary muscle, and iris of the eye. The structure and function is basically the same in smooth muscle cells in different organs, but the inducing stimuli differ substantially, in order to perform individual effects in the body at individual times. In addition, the glomeruli of the kidneys contain smooth muscle-like cells called mesangial cells.

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- Dog Spleen, sec. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

The spleen (from Greek σπλήν) is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates. Similar in structure to a large lymph node, it acts primarily as a blood filter. The spleen plays important roles in regard to red blood cells (also referred to as erythrocytes) and the immune system. It removes old red blood cells and holds a reserve of blood, which can be valuable in case of hemorrhagic shock, and also recycles iron. As a part of the mononuclear phagocyte system, it metabolizes hemoglobin removed from senescent erythrocytes. The globin portion of hemoglobin is degraded to its constitutive amino acids, and the heme portion is metabolized to bilirubin, which is removed in the liver. The spleen synthesizes antibodies in its white pulp and removes antibody-coated bacteria and antibody-coated blood cells by way of blood and lymph node circulation.

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- Dog Squamous Epithelium, w.m. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

squamous epithelium (squama- + -ous) is that surface whose outermost (apical) layer consists of thin, flat cells called squamous epithelial cells. The epithelium may be composed of one layer of cells, in which case it is referred to as simple squamous epithelium, or it may possess multiple layers, referred to then as stratified squamous epithelium.

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- Dog Stomach, sec. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

The stomach is a muscular, hollow, dilated part of the gastrointestinal tract that functions as an important organ in the digestive system. The stomach is present in many animals including vertebrates, echinoderms, insects (mid-gut), and molluscs. In humans and many other vertebrates it is involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication (chewing). In most vertebrates, the stomach is located between the esophagus and the small intestine. It secretes digestive enzymes and gastric acid to aid in food digestion. The pyloric sphincter controls the passage of partially digested food (chyme) from the stomach into the duodenum where peristalsis takes over to move this through the rest of the intestines.

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- Dog Trachea, c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

The trachea, colloquially called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs. Only in the lungfish, where the lung is connected to the pharynx and the larynx, is it absent. The trachea extends from the larynx and branches into the two primary bronchi. At the top of the trachea the cricoid cartilage attaches it to the larynx. This is the only complete ring, the others being incomplete rings of reinforcing cartilage. The trachealis muscle joins the ends of the rings and these are joined vertically by bands of fibrous connective tissue – the annular ligaments of trachea. The epiglottis closes the opening to the larynx during swallowing.

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- Dog Ureter, c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

In anatomy, the ureters are tubes made of smooth muscle fibers that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. Histologically, the ureter contains transitional epithelium and an additional smooth muscle layer in the more distal one-third to assist with peristalsis.

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- Earthworm, c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida. Earthworms are commonly found living in soil, feeding on live and dead organic matter. An earthworm’s digestive system runs through the length of its body. It conducts respiration through its skin. It has a double transport system composed of coelomic fluid that moves within the fluid-filled coelom and a simple, closed blood circulatory system. It has a central and a peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system consists of two ganglia above the mouth, one on either side, connected to a nerve cord running back along its length to motor neurons and sensory cells in each segment. Large numbers of chemoreceptors are concentrated near its mouth. Circumferential and longitudinal muscles on the periphery of each segment enable the worm to move. Similar sets of muscles line the gut, and their actions move the digesting food toward the worm’s anus. Earthworms are hermaphrodites—each individual carries both male and female sex organs. They lack either an internal skeleton or exoskeleton, but maintain their structure with fluid-filled coelom chambers that function as a hydrostatic skeleton.

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- Euglena, w.m. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

Euglena is a genus of single-celled flagellate Eukaryotes. It is the best known and most widely studied member of the class Euglenoidea, a diverse group containing some 54 genera and at least 800 species. Species of Euglena are found in fresh and salt waters. They are often abundant in quiet inland waters where they may bloom in numbers sufficient to color the surface of ponds and ditches green (E. viridis) or red (E. sanguinea). The species Euglena gracilis has been used extensively in the laboratory as a model organism. Most species of Euglena have photosynthesizing chloroplasts within the body of the cell, which enable them to feed by autotrophy, like plants. However, they can also take nourishment heterotrophically, like animals. Since Euglena have features of both animals and plants, early taxonomists, working within the Linnaean three-kingdom system of biological classification, found them difficult to classify. It was the question of where to put such “unclassifiable� creatures that prompted Ernst Haeckel to add a third kingdom to the Animale and Vegetabile of Linnaeus: the Kingdom Protista.

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- Feather, w.m. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on coelurosaurian dinosaurs. They are considered the most complex integumentary structures found in vertebrates, and indeed a premier example of a complex evolutionary novelty. They are among the characteristics that distinguish the extant Aves from other living groups. Although feathers cover most parts of the body of birds, they arise only from certain well-defined tracts on the skin. They aid in flight, thermal insulation, and waterproofing. In addition, coloration helps in communication and protection. Plumology (or plumage science) is the name for the science that is associated with the study of feathers.

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- Fern Prothallia, w.m. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

A prothallium, or prothallus (from Latin pro = forwards and Greek (thallos) = twig) is usually the gametophyte stage in the life of a fern or other pteridophyte. Occasionally the term is also used to describe the young gametophyte of a liverwort or peat moss as well. The prothallium develops from a germinating spore. It is a short-lived and inconspicuous heart-shaped structure typically 2-5 millimeters wide, with a number of rhizoids (root-like hairs) growing underneath, and the sex organs: archegonium (female) and antheridium (male). Appearance varies quite a lot between species. Some are green and conduct photosynthesis while others are colorless and nourish themselves underground as saprotrophs.

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- Frog Blastula, sec. 100X - 250X

The blastula (from Greek βλαστός (blastos), meaning “sprout”) is a hollow sphere of cells, referred to as blastomeres, surrounding an inner fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoele formed during an early stage of embryonic development in animals. Embryo development begins with a sperm fertilizing an egg to become a zygote which undergoes many cleavages to develop into a ball of cells called a morula. Only when the blastocoele is formed does the early embryo become a blastula. The blastula precedes the formation of the gastrula in which the germ layers of the embryo form. A common feature of a vertebrate blastula is that it consists of a layer of blastomeres, known as the blastoderm, which surrounds the blastocoele. In mammals the blastula is referred to as a blastocyst. The blastocyst contains an embryoblast (or inner cell mass) that will eventually give rise to the definitive structures of the fetus, and the trophoblast, which goes on to form the extra-embryonic tissues

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- Frog Early Gastrula, sec. 100X - 250X

Gastrulation is a phase early in the embryonic development of most animals, during which the single-layered blastula is reorganized into a trilaminar (“three-layered�) structure known as the gastrula. These three germ layers are known as the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Gastrulation takes place after cleavage and the formation of the blastula. Gastrulation is followed by organogenesis, when individual organs develop within the newly formed germ layers. Each layer gives rise to specific tissues and organs in the developing embryo. The ectoderm gives rise to epidermis, and to the neural crest and other tissues that will later form the nervous system. The mesoderm is found between the ectoderm and the endoderm and gives rise to somites, which form muscle; the cartilage of the ribs and vertebrae; the dermis, the notochord, blood and blood vessels, bone, and connective tissue. The endoderm gives rise to the epithelium of the digestive system and respiratory system, and organs associated with the digestive system, such as the liver and pancreas. Following gastrulation, cells in the body are either organized into sheets of connected cells (as in epithelia), or as a mesh of isolated cells, such as mesenchyme

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- Frog Epidermic Cell, sec. 100X - 250X - 1000X

The epidermis is the outer (epi in Greek meaning “over” or “upon”) of the two layers that make up the skin (or cutis), the inner layer being the dermis. It provides a barrier to infection from environmental pathogens and regulates the amount of water released from the body into the atmosphere through transepidermal water loss (TEWL). The outermost part of the epidermis is composed of a stratified layer of flattened cells, that overly a basal layer (stratum basale) composed of columnar cells arranged perpendicularly.

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- Frog Liver, sec. 100X - 250X - 1000X

The liver is a vital organ of vertebrates and some other animals. In the human, it is located in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen, below the diaphragm. The liver has a wide range of functions, including detoxification of various metabolites, protein synthesis, and the production of biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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- Frog Lung, sec. 100X - 250X - 1000X

The frog’s lungs are a pair of thin-walled sacs connected to the mouth through an opening, the glottis. The surface area of the lungs is increased by inner partitions which are richly supplied with blood vessels. The frog inflates its lungs by filling its mouth with air then closing its mouth closing the internal openings to its nostrils opening its glottis raising the floor of its mouth thus forcing air into the lungs. The frog’s skin serves as a supplementary organ of gas exchange. However, it must remain moist to do this, which is one reason that frogs, like other amphibians, live in moist places.

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- Frog Spermary, sec. 100X - 250X - 1000X

The sperm-gland, or spermatic organ, or seminal gonad, in which spermatozoa are generated, in its specialized condition in the higher animals known as the testis or testicle. The term is used in distinction from ovary, both spermaries and ovaries being gonads.

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Hibiscus rosa-sinensis 100X - 250X - 1000X

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was named in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus in his Species Plantarum. The Latin term rosa-sinensis literally means “rose of China”, though it is not closely related to the true roses. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is a bushy, evergreen shrub or small tree growing 2.5–5 m (8–16 ft) tall and 1.5–3 m (5–10 ft) wide, with glossy leaves and solitary, brilliant red flowers in summer and autumn. The 5-petaled flowers are 10 cm (4 in) in diameter, with prominent orange-tipped red anthers.

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- Honeybee Mouth Parts, w.m. 100X - 250X

The mouthparts of honeybees consist of a long tube and a hairy tongue for lapping up nectar and honey. They also use their tongues to pass liquid on to other bees. Honeybees also have chewing mandibles (a pair of jaws) that they use to eat pollen, dig nest burrows, manipulate beeswax and for defence.

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- Housefly Mouth Parts, w.m. 100X 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

The housefly is the typical sponging insect. The labium gives the description, being articulate and possessing at its end a sponge-like labellum. Paired mandibles and maxillae are present, but much reduced and non-functional. The labium forms a proboscis which is used to channel liquid food to the oesophagus. The housefly is able to eat solid food by secreting saliva and dabbing it over the food item. As the saliva dissolves the food, the solution is then drawn up into the mouth as a liquid. The labellum’s surface is covered by minute food channels, formed by the interlocking elongate hypopharynx and epipharynx, which form a tube leading to the oesophagus. The food channel draws liquid and liquified food to the oesophagus by capillary action.

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- Hydra, c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

Hydra is a genus of small, fresh-water animals of the phylum Cnidaria and class Hydrozoa, native to the temperate and tropical regions. Biologists are especially interested in Hydra because of their regenerative ability – they appear not to age or die of old age. Daniel Martinez claimed in a 1998 article in Experimental Gerontology that Hydra are biologically immortal. This publication has been widely cited as evidence that Hydra do not senesce (do not age), and that they are proof of the existence of non-senescing organisms generally. In 2010 Preston Estep published (also in Experimental Gerontology) a letter to the editor arguing that the Martinez data support rather than refute the hypothesis that Hydra senesce. The controversial unlimited life span of Hydra has attracted the attention of natural scientists for a long time. Research today appears to confirm Martinez’ study. Hydra stem cells have a capacity for indefinite self-renewal. The transcription factor, “forkhead box O” (FoxO) has been identified as a critical driver of the continuous self-renewal of Hydra. A drastically reduced population growth resulted from FoxO down-regulation, so research findings do contribute to both a confirmation and an understanding of Hydra immortality. While Hydra immortality is well-supported today, the implications for human aging are still controversial. There is much optimism; however, it appears that researchers still have a long way to go before they are able to understand how the results of their work might apply to the reduction or elimination of human senescence.

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- Ipomoea Leaf, c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

Ipomoea is the largest genus in the flowering plant family Convolvulaceae, with over 500 species. It is a large and diverse group with common names including morning glory, water convolvulus or kangkung, sweet potato, bindweed, moonflower, etc. The most widespread common name is morning glories, but there are also species in related genera bearing the same common name. Those formerly separated in Calonyction (Greek καλός, kalos, good and νύκτα, nycta, night) are called moonflowers. The generic name is derived from the Greek words ιπς (ips) or ιπος (ipos), meaning “worm” or “bindweed,” and όμοιος (homoios), meaning “resembling”. It refers to their twining habit. The genus occurs throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and comprises annual and perennial herbaceous plants, lianas, shrubs and small trees; most of the species are twining climbing plants.

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- Ipomoea Root, sec. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

Ipomoea is the largest genus in the flowering plant family Convolvulaceae, with over 500 species. It is a large and diverse group with common names including morning glory, water convolvulus or kangkung, sweet potato, bindweed, moonflower, etc. The most widespread common name is morning glories, but there are also species in related genera bearing the same common name. Those formerly separated in Calonyction (Greek καλός, kalos, good and νύκτα, nycta, night) are called moonflowers. The generic name is derived from the Greek words ιπς (ips) or ιπος (ipos), meaning “worm” or “bindweed,” and όμοιος (homoios), meaning “resembling”. It refers to their twining habit. The genus occurs throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and comprises annual and perennial herbaceous plants, lianas, shrubs and small trees; most of the species are twining climbing plants.

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- Lilium Anther, c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

Lilium (members of which are true lilies) is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants growing from bulbs, all with large prominent flowers. Lilies are a group of flowering plants which are important in culture and literature in much of the world. Most species are native to the temperate northern hemisphere, though their range extends into the northern subtropics. Many other plants have “lily” in their common name but are not related to “true” lilies. The flowers are large, often fragrant, and come in a range of colours including whites, yellows, oranges, pinks, reds and purples. Markings include spots and brush strokes. The plants are late spring- or summer-flowering. Flowers are borne in racemes or umbels at the tip of the stem, with six tepals spreading or reflexed, to give flowers varying from funnel shape to a “Turk’s cap”. The tepals are free from each other, and bear a nectary at the base of each flower. The ovary is ‘superior’, borne above the point of attachment of the anthers. The fruit is a three-celled capsule.

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- Lilium Ovary, c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

Lilium (members of which are true lilies) is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants growing from bulbs, all with large prominent flowers. Lilies are a group of flowering plants which are important in culture and literature in much of the world. Most species are native to the temperate northern hemisphere, though their range extends into the northern subtropics. Many other plants have “lily” in their common name but are not related to “true” lilies. The flowers are large, often fragrant, and come in a range of colours including whites, yellows, oranges, pinks, reds and purples. Markings include spots and brush strokes. The plants are late spring- or summer-flowering. Flowers are borne in racemes or umbels at the tip of the stem, with six tepals spreading or reflexed, to give flowers varying from funnel shape to a “Turk’s cap”. The tepals are free from each other, and bear a nectary at the base of each flower. The ovary is ‘superior’, borne above the point of attachment of the anthers. The fruit is a three-celled capsule.

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- Marchantia Mature Sporophyte, l.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

Marchantia is a genus in the family Marchantiaceae of the order Marchantiales, a group of liverworts. The Marchantia thallus shows differentiation into two layers: an upper photosynthetic or assimilatory region and a lower storage region with a well-defined upper epidermis with air channels (barrel-shaped). The thallus features tiny cup-like structures called gemmae cups, which are used for asexual reproduction. The combination of barrel-shaped pores and gemmae cups are diagnostic of the genus. Multicellular purple colored scales and unicellular rhizoids are present on the ventral surface of the thallus.

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- Meiosis-Lillitrm Pollen,w.m. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

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- Mixed Bacteria, smear 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

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- Mosquito Larva, w.m. 100X -

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- Mosquito Mouth Parts, w.m. 100X - 250X - 1000X

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- Mosquito Wings, w.m. 100X - 250X - 1000X

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- Nervous Tissue, sec. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

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- Onion Epidermis, w.m. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

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143


- Paramecium, w.m. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

Paramecium is a genus of unicellular ciliated protozoan, commonly studied as a representative of the ciliate group. Paramecia are widespread in freshwater, brackish, and marine environments and are often very abundant in stagnant basins and ponds. Because some species are readily cultivated and easily induced to conjugate and divide, it has been widely used in classrooms and laboratories to study biological processes. Its usefulness as a model organism has caused one ciliate researcher to characterize it as the “white rat� of the phylum Ciliophora.

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- Paramecium conjugation, w.m. 250X - 1000X

Like all ciliates, Paramecia have a dual nuclear apparatus, consisting of a polyploid macronucleus, and one or more diploid micronuclei. The macronucleus controls non-reproductive cell functions, expressing the genes needed for daily functioning. The micronucleus is the generative, or germline nucleus, containing the genetic material that is passed along from one generation to the next. Paramecia reproduce asexually, by binary fission. During reproduction, the macronucleus splits by a type of amitosis, and the micronuclei undergo mitosis. The cell then divides transversally, and each new cell obtains a copy of the micronucleus and the macronucleus. Fission may occur spontaneously, in the course of the vegetative cell cycle. Under certain conditions, it may be preceded by self-fertilization (autogamy), or it may follow conjugation, a sexual phenomenon in which Paramecia of compatible mating types fuse temporarily and exchange genetic material. During conjugation, the micronuclei of each conjugant divide by meiosis and the haploid gametes pass from one cell to the other. The gametes of each organism then fuse to form diploid micronuclei. The old macronuclei are destroyed, and new ones are developed from the new micronuclei.

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- Penicillium, w.m. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

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149


- Pig Motor Nerve, w.m. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

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151


- Pine Leaf, c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

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153


- Pine Root, c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

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- Pine Stem, c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X

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- Pine Young Staminate Cone, l.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X

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- Pollen Gem, w.m. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

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- Pumpkin Stem, c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

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- Rabbit Arteriole, c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

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- Rabbit Artey and Vein, c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

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- Rabbit Hyaline Cartilage, sec. 100X - 250X - 1000X

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- Rabbit Lymph Node, sec. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

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- Rabbit Spinal Cord, c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X

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- Rabbit Testis, sec. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500X

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- Rhizopus, w.m. 100X - 250X - 1000X

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Rice Weevil 100X - w.m.

The rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae) is a stored product pest which attacks several crops, including wheat, rice, and maize. The adults are around 2 mm long with a long snout. The body color appears to be brown/black, but on close examination, four orange/red spots are arranged in a cross on the wing covers. It is easily confused with the similar looking maize weevil, but there are several distinguishing features: Adult rice weevils are able to fly,[3] and can survive for up to two years. Females lay 2-6 eggs per day and up to 300 over their lifetime. The female uses strong mandibles to chew a hole into a grain kernel after which she deposits a single egg within the hole, sealing it with secretions from her ovipositor. The larva develops within the grain, hollowing it out while feeding. It then pupates within the grain kernel and emerges 2–4 days after eclosion. Male S. orzyae produce an aggregation pheromone ((4S,5R)-5-Hydroxy-4-methylheptan-3-one) to which males and females are drawn. A synthetic version is available which attracts rice weevils, maize weevils and grain weevils. Females produce a pheromone which attracts only males.

IMAGE: Common stored grain pests, not shown to scale. Left to right, top to bottom: Rice weevil, Indian meal moth, Granary weevil and Flat grain beetle.

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- Spirogyia Conjugation, w.m. 100X - 250X - 1000X

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Stem-Collenchyma, c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X

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Stem-Parenchyma, c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500x

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Stem-Sclerenchyma, c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X

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Stem-Tracheid, l.s 100X - 250X - 1000X

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Stomata-Vicia Faba Leaf, w.m. 100X - 250X - 1000X

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Sunflower Stem, c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X

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Tilia Stem, c.s. 100X - 250X - 1000X

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Tomato Flesh, w.m. 100X - 250X - 1000X

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Volvox, w.m. 100X - 250X - 1000X - 2500x

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200 Slides

A study of minute bodies by means of a microscope By Jeremy Wood

Bacterial - Viral - Fungal - Parasitic - Plants - Animals MMXVII 200

200 slides  

Microscopy Biology Science Cells Microbiology Bacterial Viral Fungal Parasitic Plants Animals

200 slides  

Microscopy Biology Science Cells Microbiology Bacterial Viral Fungal Parasitic Plants Animals

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