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STUDIO JOURNAL Jeremy Cheang Jenn Ren

AIR


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Studio AIR

ABPL 30048

Studio Air engages and explores the impact of computation and architectural design within the current built environment. It is through undertaking studio exercises in design which demands greater synthesis of diverse requirement that such tools are increasingly valuable. The need for resolved designs encapsulates several tectonic strategies that Studio Air along with Studio Earth and Studio Water equip us with the necessary knowledge in the built environment. In response to the digitally driven age whereby the demand for computational knowledge is increasing exponentially, Studio Air creates a discourse for understanding the significance of the participation of architecture within the design practice, and in which it has already been explored by many in the turn of the century. Likes of Zaha Hadid and Shigeru Ban for instance has developed vibrant and influential areas in contemporary architectural practice. The technologies enabled by computing has catapulted architecture into a vast unexplored territory, therefore, the sociocultural stimulation has already begun to redefine architecture. Fundamentally, Air seeks to expose the frailty in unsustainable design methods, and re-consider established design work flows. Contemporary design is critically driven by new forms of thinking, such that digital design method become more relevant and necessary for current issues. By building upon a relationship that synthesizes associative and performance based processes, the conventional relationships between ideation and making of form and material is evolved. The introduction to the principles of computation will serve as a platform for interrogating the advantages of digital design in this pivotal point in history, therefore this studio will nonetheless piece together the key topics in relation to the disruptive potency of digital architecture and visualize the integration of parametric models into the principles and values of architecture.

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Contents 0.0 Introduction 1.0 Part A_ Conceptualization

A.1 Design Futuring

A.2 Design Computation

A.3 Composition/Generation

A.4 Conclusion

A.5 Learning Outcomes

A.6 Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches

2.0 Part B_ Criteria Design

B.1 Research Field

B.2 Case Study 1.0

B.3 Case Study 2.0

B.4 Techniques: Development

B.5 Techniques: Prototypes

B.6 Techniques: Proposal

B.7 Learning Objectives and Outcomes

B.8 Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches

3.0 Part C: Detailed Design

C.1 Design Concept

C.2 Tectonic Elements and Prototypes

C.3 Final Detail Model

C.4 Learning Objectives and Outcomes

4.0 Appendix

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0.0 Introduction 8


0.1 Design Journal This journal intends to illustrate the learning process and exploration of digital design as a tool. More specifically, it engages with digitally generated design through grasshopper, a parametric plug-in for Rhinoceros 3D. The journal is archived progressively to demonstrate an understanding for digitally-driven design, as well as informing the individual processes through a narrative of diagrams, annotations and reflections. Each part, (marked A,BC...) marks a deeper engagement with the subject, and in turn generates a formalized design through these progressions towards the end of the subject. I hope that the ideas proposed within this journal will not only encourage a deeper appreciation for digitally generated design, but also uncover the possibilities in which parametric design can contribute for in the realm of architecture.

Introduction : Journal

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0.2 Biography I’m

Jeremy, currently pursuing a Bachelor degree in Environments ( Majoring in Architecture) at the University of Melbourne’s Melbourne School of Design. From an early age, i have been riveted by the beautiful and elegant forms of architecture. What began as a hobby of drawing and sketching developed into a fervor of infatuation with abstract forms of art. The notion of architectural thinking and making fascinated me and has inspired me to enroll in an architecture school. Similarly, I am interested in the notion of making, formalizing my thoughts and turning it into reality, hence my aspiration to set foot on the path towards an architectural career. My bachelor degree marks my first step into the realm of designing for the environment, both natural and the built environments. Here within, i have embraced a multitude of interdisciplinary notions related to architecture, one being the traditional culture of studios in architecture schools. These sessions of intense discussion and critique helps to develop deeper architectural thinking, building on a set of apparatus for learning architecture. For instance, there is a strong focus on discovery of one self’s interest and passion and another, the challenge of developing the necessary skills used in practice. In my opinion, the manifestation of architecture dialectic is boundless. One must define and create architecture based on their own terms, resulting in the immense diversity in creative form. The point of divergence from the clusters of ideals is the confidence to present our own conceptualizations. For this reason, i have committed myself to understanding architecture as a means of creating a balance between the appreciation for beauty and functionality. As digital design tools become increasingly significant, i have also begun to integrate it within my design process. We have transverses into a point in history whereby knowledge becomes obsolete very quickly, therefore enabling one self to acquire knowledge from the wealth of resources to be crucially vital. Above all, i have been fortunate to have been raised in a sustainable balanced environment, and I would like to develop my inventory of digital computational methods with my design approach to harmonize the virtual with the conceptual.

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FIG.1: AA Visiting School Melbourne 2015, Catalytic Interventions: Design Methods 1.0 (Auxilliary Envelopes)

FIG.2: Studley Park Boathouse, (designed in the manner of Louis Kahn), Studio Water: Studying the Masters.

FIG.3: Secretes, Studio Water: Tectonic Studies Introduction: Biography and Personal Works 11


Part A: Conceptualisation 12


A.1 Design Futuring

Case Study 1: Contemplating the Void: The Museum as a Catalyst

Case Study 2: Church on Mount Rokko

A.2 Design Computation

Case Study 1: M1 Textile Hybrid

Case Study 2: Spoorg & SWARM

A.3 Composition & Generation

Case Study 1: Galaxy Soho

Case Study 2: ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014–15;

A.4 Conclusion A.5 Learning Outcomes A.6 Algorithmic Sketchbook

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A.1 Design Futuring

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n recent years, the growing concern of the impacts in relation to design practice is resonated in the the book ‘Design Futuring’ by Tony Fry. Many design practices adopted over the past century have been linked with environmental degradation for the sake of development 1. Fry claims that the age of modernisation has instead moved us into a state of defuturing, whereby our selfish indulgences are no longer sustainable, and thus result of us panicking in anticipation for a cataclysmic end to the status quo. Therefore, he poses a questions which challenges us as designers to anticipate unseen forces of change,bluntly questioning, “how can a future be secured by design?” Unfortunately, the criticisms surrounding the influences of architectural design puts the the discipline into a paradoxical confusion. According to Dunne, traditional methods of precendential studies alone are insufficient, demanding alternatives to catalyse changes in hope of avoiding the impending catastrophe of modern civilisation 2. He suggests that the means are within reach, as the tools needed to redirect the destructive momentum are already readily accessible, whilst it is a matter of embracing bolder design alternatives. Against this backdrop, the cultural paradigm shift of the digital age puts us in an advantageous prospect to exploit the technological advancements of late3. This is coming about as a result of the exploration of the algorithm as a means of computational designing, therefore positioning technology as one that works directly with natural forces and processes rather than against them, which also echoes at our growing awareness of the needs of the future and speculation on alternatives to respond to the ongoing decay of our socio-economic dilemma. In view of the resounding sentiments from Fry and Dunne, architecture is in a pivotal moment where the design of the built environment can invoke change and begin to challenge the current unsustainable way of living. The spaces we design are a reflection of the values we embrace over time, and it is for this reason that computational processes can enable buildings to take on an adaptive and responsive approach to natural context. The shift from human managed design parameters to more responsive digital design instruments is capable of bridging a crucial link to a brighter future The following precedents explores architecture’s ability to influence the attitudes and states of mind with humanity. Through these precedents, we begin to observe how architecture proposes changes and understanding of our environment and encourages the field to to explore new typologies and alternatives for our future.

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1.

Tony Fry, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice. (Oxford: Berg, 2008), pp. 16. (pp.4)

2.

Dunne, Anthony & Raby, Fiona, Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press, 2013) pp. 1-9, 33-45 . (pp.6)

3.

Jeremy Rifkin, ‘The Third Industrial Revolution’ in Engineering & Technology , (2008): pp.26-27. (pp.26)

4.

Fry., (pp.3).


“..we are now at a point when it can no longer be assumed that we, en masse,have a future. If we do, it can only be by design against the still accelerating defuturing condition of unsustainability (which is the essence of any material condition of unsustainability as it acts to take futures away from ourselves and other living species). We human beings unwittingly have created this condition through the consequences of our anthropocentric mode of worldly habitation, which has been amplified by the kinds of technologies we have created and our sheer numbers...� - Tony Fry, Design Futuring.

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CASE STUDY 1 : CONTEMPLATING THE VOID: THE MUSEUM AS A CATALYST BARKOW LEIBINGER

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n recent architecture, design has prioritised an engagement with time through its creation of temporary and highly exible structures. In finding inspiration and drive in the chaos and fragmentation of today’s world, the architects of present are asked to produce critical design suited for a contemporary approach. It no longer only centres on aesthetics but rather encompasses a range of criterion for optimisation. One such example is an competition entry themed “Contemplating the Void” by Berlin-based practice Barkow Leibinger. The installation that sits majestically is constructed based on a suspended chandelier which consists of large 18-foot diameter bundle of 8-inch diameter individual, clear Plexiglas tubes. The sculptural articulation of the honeycomb-like tube-mass functions both as a ornament as well as dialectic, one which pairs in supposition with the emblematic spiral ramp of the museum. In contemplating the notion of sculptural architecture, it engages directly with the contemporary as well as reflecting at the past. Whilst it is used as a gift, the notion of visual ornaments invoke certain possibilities for the future. The architect intends to remember the past, yet utilizes a set of instruments that represent the intellectual framework of the present. The ontological shift is not apparent, yet the design bridges past and future possibilities .

in commemoration of the 15th anniversary of the museum, yet such visionary designs serve as a memory embedded in the present, which will question prevailing values and their underlying assumption in the future. Thereupon, in designing for the future it is necessary for imagination to be freely circulated. By generating alternatives, conceptual designs that pushes the boundary of current technology collectively contributes to futuring design. These elements are united under the auspices of ‘re-directive practice’ which allows common objectives to be pursued by different means 3. Under the overarching concept of a thinking and reversing the state of defuturing, designer thus holds the power to redirect the trajectory of human development, and mobilise design intelligence that evolves within an autopoietic system of communications. Practitioners such as Barkow Leigbinger brings forwards conceptual ideas that might not reach the final stages of design, yet it enriches the collective discipline for transformative design work.

1.

Guggenheim Museum, ‘Contemplating the Void’ in The Museum as Catalyst: Proposals. (Guggenheim Museum, accessed 6th March 2016) <http://web.guggenheim.org/exhibitions/void/>

2.

Schumacher, Patrik (2011). The Autopoeisis of Architecture: A New Framework for Architecture (Chichester: Wiley), pp. 1-28

3.

Whilst this entry was never materialized, in order for designs to be critically evaluated, it must be made physical in order to embody values relevant to the concept2. Nevertheless, there is only so much space for an installation

Frank Barkow, ‘Fabricating Design: A Revolution of Choice’ in Architecture Design, Special Issue: The New Structuralism: Design, Engineering and Architectural Technologies, Journal, Volume 80: Issue 4, (2010) pp. 94–101.

4.

Dunne,. pp. 1-9, 33-45

5.

Figure 1:Design proposal by Berlin based firm, Barkow Leibinger for a competition themed, Contemplating the Void. Retrieved from, <http://web.guggenheim.org/ exhibitions/void/#/proposals>

< Figure .1: Design proposal by Berlin based firm, Barkow Leibinger for a competition themed, Contemplating the Void. [5] 17


CASE STUDY 2. CHAPEL OF THE WIND/ CHURCH ON MOUNT ROKKO; TADAO ANDO ARCHITECT AND ASSOCIATES

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While much attention has been give to the past and future in building design, the temporal domain in which life takes place- the present- has tended to be overlooked1. Fusing the notion of senses in an ocular centric society is fundamental to the development of humanistic architecture in the digital ages, where atmospheric qualities are directly inflicted onto one’s emotional response. Therefore, it demonstrates the moment when architecture as a profession and as a theory began to distance itself from compositional technique.

The church emphasised on a new sensibility in architectural design, that of sensory and atmospheric thinking. It effortlessly sits against the backdrop of the landscape, utilising its context to express materiality and context through the warm glow of concrete slabs, it achieves the virtual contact with nature, through a framed landscape view and a lavish display of light. The effect is reinforced by the contrast of the colourful garden and the solemn monochromatic room.

These elements are omi-and ever-present, in the sense of being everywhere and in a constant state of flux. Such a project is integral to developing how architecture defines the future and how it anticipates the reaction of its users 3. Whilst the architect is balancing the act of uncertainty4, he proposes a design in which would then influence the use and the way they interact with it. The manner in which this project embraces the surrounding environment and equally enables an appreciation of space is testament to architecture’s role in instigating environmental change and designing for a new future.

n similar fashion, Tadao Ando’s symbolic Chapel of the Wind is a project which is indicative of architecture’s ability to stimulate senses through the interaction with the spaces within. This small chapel located on Mount Rokko, near Kobe, completes the trilogy of Christian religious facilities designed by Tadao Ando in the mid-eighties. The chapel at Mount Rokko is a synthesis of its predecessors and stresses the architect’s effort to establish a link between the religious space and nature1.

The project explores the manner in which materials is conceived , as one of experience through time. This shows a great deal of contrast with the modernizing and postmodernist doctrines that pervaded the built environment and signifies an important turn in our understanding of architecture today. In this chapel, Ando uses his familiar vocabulary: simple geometry, the meticulously studied and delicate play of light and shadows, as well as the modulated exposed concrete surfaces that dialogue with the metal and glass. His work on the the Chapel of the Wind succeeded in redefining the identity of raw material finishes through expressive cultural context and haptic-sensorial designing.

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1.

Kevin Nute, ‘The Presence of the Weather’ in Architecture Design , Architecture Timed: Designing With Time in Mind, Journal, Volume 86: Issue 1(2016), pp. 66–73.

2.

Juhani Pallasma, ‘Inhabiting Time’ in Architecture Design , Architecture Timed: Designing With Time in Mind, Volume 86: Issue 1(2016), pp. 50–53.

3.

Dunne,. pp. 1-9, 33-45

4.

Fry,. pp. 16.

5.

Figure.2 Church on Mount Rokko by Tadao Ando and Architects, Retrieved from,. < http://architecturalmoleskine.blogspot.com.au/2011/09/tadao-ando-chapelin-mt-rokko.html>

> Figure 2: Church on Mount Rokko by Tadao Ando and Architects. [ 5]


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A.2 Design Computation

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n response to the underlying ‘defuturing’ state, the consequences of our designs handed down from the past are beginning to expose its apparent repercussions.1 Growing pressure to reverse the declining conditions have initiated a new form of formal design thinking within the past decades. Over this period, many have begun to establish a mutual relationship with digital devices that allows humans to work with nature to produce desirable outcomes in the field of architecture, better known as ‘human-computer symbiosis’. 2 The fundamental idea associated with the human-computer interaction stems from the notion of communicative flow of information in the design process. 3 Historically, computing power has shifted the traditional design process in relation to the communicative phase. The unorthodox ical method of drawing using a scroll-wheel mouse not only altered the medium in which architectural drawings are presented, a third dimension has emerged in the design production, allowing 2D drawings to be illustrated in 3-dimensional forms. This plays a significant role in the problem solving phase, stepping into an era of performative architecture. In line with that thought, this symbiotic relationship pushes beyond the envelope of human capabilities, with the digital devices providing the necessary computing power along with problem-solving skills of the human analytical power to generate analyses that potentially influence architectural design processes. Computerization therefore allows for further explorative study for new ideas and provides the basis in the next stage of the design cycle such as synthesizing solutions, which brings us towards the idea of computing design. Alongside the accelerated analytical process, the computerization of data allows digital devices to assist in exploring new forms and design through form finding tools.4 At this stage, we encounter a threshold whereby we succumb to the computational capabilities of machines to provide viable solutions as informed ‘insights’. Using these possible solutions, we are then brought into the picture once again, to use our creative expressions to further mould the preferable design goals. As briefly mentioned before, design futuring confronts impractical design methods and urges future generations to be environmentally conscious, as such, the role of computation becomes clearer. The era of performalism (performance and form design) uses the computation power of technology to customise analytical tools for optimizing designs which are generally more climate responsive, at the same time aesthetically radical. 5 Concurrently, the usage of digital devices has redefined how architects work. Architects with programming and scripting skills can not only mechanically generate 3D models in virtual space but also invigorate the practice with new approaches in design exploration, performance simulation and fabrication. Following Schumacher’s vision of autopoietic system of architecture, it is described the building or design intelligence is built through external inputs and internal knowledge accumulation.6 Drawing from the wealth of opensource data stored in databases, different fields of studies begin to contribute to the design process, forming calculated simulations that involves a collaborative culture in architectural design.

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Consequently, a new generation of generative processes and techniques derived from topological, non-Euclidean geometric spaces, parametric design and morphogenesis have already introduce radically distinct forms. This is made possible through the exposure of free-form geometries such as NURBS curves, sequentially expanding the geometric vocabulary of architects to have more flexibility to express their design. Similarly, these advancements stimulated a new material culture and are introducing integrated digital fabrication techniques.7 By condensing the workflow from designing to fabrication, digital computerization has made significant impact on the production/construction processes too. This convergence of communicative mediums, analytical and production will shape the building industry as the scales are amplified once greater research is completed. Not only that, optimizing production and design components can increase efficiency and reduction of material waste. 8 Conclusively, computation engages with the design process directly/indirectly in the dynamic landscape of architecture . As we are all aware of, architectural expression is seeing a paradigm shift once again as these new technologies continue to open up new frontiers.The gradual design phenomena as seen in Gehry’s Guggenheim in Bilbao signifies the transformation of the modernist movement, similar to prior pivotal architectural movements over the past millenia. 9 In our context however,the profound changes to the environment are driven by inroads in new understanding of materials and optimised workflows.The discovery of generative systems in computation espouses the values of structurally efficient forms alongside expressive interpretations of the new generation.10 These factors have put increasing demands for design computation to stimulate new creation of ideas, which at the same time are strategic, applied and performance oriented. Therefore, the prevailing conditions necessitates change, and computerization to computation offers a solution in the architectural design process.

1.

Tony Fry, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice. (Oxford: Berg, 2008), pp. 16. (pp.4)

2.

J. C. R. Licklider, ‘Man-Computer Symbiosis’, IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, volume HFE-1,(1960), pages 4-11.

3.

Kalay and Yehuda E, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press,2004), pp. 5-25.

4.

Wolf Mangelsdorf, ‘Structuring Strategies for Complex Geometries’,in Architecture Design, Special Issue: The New Structuralism: Design, Engineering and Architectural Technologies. Volume 8, Issue 4 (2010). pp.40-45.a

5.

Grobman, Y and Neumann, E. (eds):, in Performalism: Form and Performance in Digital Architecture, (Tel Aviv Museum of Art Publications, 2008), Tel Aviv, pp.98-105.

6.

Schumacher, Patrik (2011). The Autopoeisis of Architecture: A New Framework for Architecture (Chichester: Wiley), pp. 1-28

7.

Achim Menges, ‘Computational Material Culture’ in Architectural Design: Special Issue:Parametricism 2.0: Rethinking Architecture’s Agenda for the 21st Century, Volume 86,Issue 2(2016). Pp.76-83.; Kolarevic and Branko, ‘Mass-Customization’, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003) pp. 3-62. (pp52)

8.

Nick Dunn, Digital Fabrication in Architecture,(Laurence King, 2012).

9.

Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, Theories of the Digital in Architecture, (London; New York: Routledge,2014), pp. 1–10.

10.

Patrik Schumacher, ‘Parametricism 2.0: Gearing Up to Impact the Global Built Environment’, in Architectural Design. Special Issue: Parametricism 2.0: Rethinking Architecture’s Agenda for the 21st Century, Volume 86, Issue 2(2016).pp.8–17.

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CASE STUDY 1: HETEROGENEOUS FORCES AND ARTICULATED MATERIAL FORM M1 TEXTILE HYBRID SEAN AHLQUIST & JULIAN LIENHARD

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ne example of the deep integration of computational software is the fabrication of articulated material forms led by Sean Ahlquist at the Institute for Computational Design and Julian Lienhard from the Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE). Part of his portfolio includes a captivating translucent structure that morphs membrane like textile with the use of tension members composed of actively bent composite rods.1 While the abstract form looms above ground in a feather-like manner,one wonders how the permeable structure is able to hold itself up only through tension, and how it balances the structural performance and the tensile fabric in moment. Radical and awe-inspiring structures such as these requires a great depth of knowledge of the material, in order to control and manipulate such complex geometrical forms.

> Figure 3: M1 Textile Hybrid Installation [7] > Figure 4: Bottom view of the Tensile Structure of the M1 Textile Hybrid Proptotype [8]

1.

Sean Ahlquist, ‘Membrane Morphologies: Heterogeneous Forces and Articulated Material Form’, Architectural Design Special Issue: Material Synthesis: Fusing the Physical and the Computational, Volume 85, Issue 5,(2015), pp.80-85.

2.

Ibid., p...

3.

Neri Oxman, ‘Programming Matter’, in Architectural Design Special Issue: Higher Integration in Morphogenetic Design, Volume 82,Issue 2, (2012), pp.88-95.

4.

Sean Ahlquist, ‘Membrane Morphologies: Heterogeneous Forces and Articulated Material Form’, in Architectural Design Special Issue: Material Synthesis: Fusing the Physical and the Computational, Volume 85, Issue 5,(2015), pp.80-85.

5.

Kolarevic and Branko,’The Digital Continuum’, in Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003) pp. 3-62. (pp59)

6.

Achim Menges and Steffen Reicher, ‘Material Capacity: Embedded Responsiveness’, in Architectural Design Special Issue: Material Computation: Higher Integration in Morphogenetic Design, Volume 82,Issue 2, (2012), pp 52–59. in

7.

Figure 3: M1 Textile Hybrid Installation. Retrieved from, <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/ wp-content/gallery/m1_completed/1-13-0_textile-hybrid-complete-gopr2013_jl.jpg>

8.

Figure 4: Tensile structure of the M1 Textile Hybrid prototype. Retrieved from, < http:// www.str-ucture.com/was/forschungsprojekte/reference/textilhybrid-icditke/`>

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Generally, the project aims to develop an understanding for the material, along with its physical properties, that expands the formal vocabulary through tailoring structural interactions between differentiated textiles and fibre-composite rods2. For the overall framework of the textile hybrid, the design team programmed a structural analysis software, FEA (Finite Element Analysis) that optimizes the structural performance through a process called form finding. This software is fed with user-generated inputs such as measurements from scaled bendingactive prototypes and a set of programmed procedures in SOFiSTiK software. Therefore, the designer is first required to perform studies to obtain information about the properties of the material. This sequential procedure goes back and forth between computational operations and manual prototyping, highlighting the need of human as the mediator between knowledge and process. Nevertheless, within the sequence of

form-finding, the physical model established the explicit steps necessary to re-generate the structural behaviour of a given material, allowing the computer to ‘programme’ physical matter. 3 In the article, the key idea of prototyping materials and its role in the design process . Although they operated computational operations through self-developed software to enhance the results, physical prototypes establish tacit knowledge and an understanding of parameters for a specific design instance.4 Such ‘insights’ serve as a benchmark for exploration of the differentiated and verified modules using the computational method of simulation. Put simply, when both methods work in parallel, it accelerates the production of prototypes, significantly changing the analytical and design process. More importantly, it displays a symbiotic relationship in the design process, one that is interdependent, therefore showing a growing reliance on digital computation to generate precise abstract forms required for construction. In essence, material functionality is supporting new approaches to fabrication techniques and structural forms.6 Inventive ways of understanding material properties is conducted through parallel processes which again justifies the need for specialised computational algorithms to put together complex informations of natural materials. The automation in information processing extends beyond the manipulation of physical properties of materials, and latest technologies are already developing strategies that allow separate materials to function together.


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CASE STUDY 2: SWARM ALGORITHM [SPLINE GRAFT] /SERVO [SPOORG]; KRETS & ASMUND IZAKI.

C

omputational design techniques are also engaging with us in another dimension that is more dynamic and interactive. Two explorative studies conducted by architecture research group KRETS and Asmund Izaki respectively uses parametric design to manipulate human interactions. This is an instance where algorithms are embedded in the living environment, which generates and modifies the response of its users.1 As such, this brings us back to the theory of parametric architecture that steps beyond mere representational 2D forms. This form of parametric application is beginning to digitally modify the spatial quality, exemplifying approaches in architecture that treats programs, algorithms and electronic infrastructures as architectural materials. The novel approach utilizes the computational ability to arrange data structures for the representation of space. 2 Therefore in these two projects, a reciprocative effect of the material responses instigates behavioural patterns that determines a specific action or response from its users.

computer symbiosis, whereby the approach anticipates a greater feedback of information that could reconfigure behavioural response mechanisms. Spatial environments are potential stimuli that promotes participation. Participatory models offer dynamic and intuitive relationships between the environment, observers and performers within the system, and it is through such models for interaction that it becomes apparent that architecture can serve as a host to enable scenario-based exchanges that amplify space as an interface for communication. 3 In short, the integration of behavioural response could inform spatial developments in the future through the simulation of parametrically driven designs.4

1.

Pablo Miranda Carranza, ‘Programs as Paradigms’, in Architectural Design Special Issue: Empathic Space: The Computation of Human-Centric Architecture, Volume 84, Issue 5, (2014). pp. 66-73.

2.

Ibid,. pp.64

3.

Theodore Spyropoulos, ‘Behavioural Complexity’, in Architectural Design Special Issue: Empathic Space: The Computation of Human-Centric Architecture, Volume 84, Issue 5, (2014). pp. 36-43. (pp.39)

4.

Asmund Izaki and Lucy Helme, ‘Encoding User Experiences’, in Architectural Design Special Issue: Empathic Space: The Computation of Human-Centric Architecture, Volume 84, Issue 5, (2014). pp. 114-121.

5.

> SPOORG, ASMUND IZAKI “the interaction and electronics of Spoorg, created with Åsmund Izaki for the design collaborative servo, 18 Atmel AVR microcontrollers generate sound responses to the movements of visitors. Similarly to how birds evolve and learn mating songs, each microcontroller wirelessly broadcasts its response pattern, which its neighbours then recombine with their own response schemes.”

> SPLINEGRAFT, JONAS RUNBERGER/ KRETS SplineGraft, developed with Jonas Runberger as part of the architecture research group KRETS, consists of a number of microcontrollers connected wirelessly, each modulating, through a set of muscle-wire actuators, the shape of a rectangular foam surface. Using a genetic algorithm, the installation tries to evolve movement patterns that promote the occupation of the area facing the installation.

Figure 4 : Swarm Algorithmic Diagram by Pablo Miranda Carranza. Retrieved from, <https://swarmarchitecture.files.wordpress.com/2010/11/swarmdiagw_03.jpg>

Thus, in addition to the types and diagrams mediating architecture’s representation through computers, it is interesting to consider the paradigms governing this use of computer programs as architectural material. The scope is shifted from considering strictly human behaviour towards understanding the behaviour of a responsive algorithmic system. As such, it latches on to the idea of human-

6.

Figure 5 : Servo Exploded Axonometric Diagram. Retrieved from, < http://www. servo-la.com/files/gimgs/6_spoorg6.jpg>

< Figure 4 : Swarm Algorithmic Diagram by Pablo Miranda Carranza > Figure 5: Servo Exploded Axonometric Diagram. 25


A. 3_Composition and Generation

T

he advent of computerized architecture has generated much debate around the polemic influence of computational design. In relation, ‘generative design’ was introduced as design tectonic that contrasts traditional compositional methods. Given the relevance of digital integration within design methods, the juxtaposition of ‘generation’ and ‘composition’ provides a clearer idea of their respective differences. Specifically, the method commonly associated with generative design is parametric design or rather algorithmic design, which is broadly defined as “a process based on algorithmic thinking that enables the expression of parameters and rules that, together, define, encode and clarify the relationship between design intent and design response.1 In the lectures, we have observed the chronological build up of parametric thinking from simple rules-based manipulation of data. Incidentally, architectural design has followed such methods data manipulation and is experiencing a shift away from compositional methods in design. 2 Advanced research in the field of technology has allowed designers to apply computational methods in which gave rise to generative architecture. However, this method is not unfamiliar in design, as it forms logical relationships which are rudimentary to many formal designs. Therefore composition and generation may not be entirely isolated. Traditional compositional methods differ from generative architecture due to its qualitative evaluation methods that are largely rational, putting strain on the creative productivity of architects. 3 As such, contemporary performative requirements limit compositional design possibilities, wherein generative design fits in as a middle ground which provides a trajectory towards greater design solutions. In 2008, Schumacher’s manifesto of Parametricism critically evaluated the radical dimension of digitally influenced design to provide a counterpoint to conventional tectonic topologies.4 This pivotal shift in design thought instigated debate for many, including Burry, a key figure in parametric design who acknowledges algorithmic design as a platform for informing ‘equilibrated design’ so long as a measure of control over the design is established. 5 Also, architectural perception has been gradually desensitized as the exposure to computation has distanced architects from traditional compositional techniques including the likes of Rem Koolhaas as seen in Seattle Public Library.6 Since then, scripting and algorithmic culture has stimulated and altered the architectural discipline in significant proportions. That is not to say that compositional methods are completely forgotten, as parameters of proportioning rules are still embedded within generative architecture, albeit in different relationships, ie.’specific instantiation of variables controlling relationships between geometrical elements’.7 Furthermore, the compositional language is morphing into an architectural style that adhere to a particular appearance, indicating a stylistic intentionality as a result of adopting generative methods. 8 Nevertheless,this architectural divergence has also lead to the belief that generative design does adhere to any particular style, but rather flexibly describing geometrical forms. 9 The concentration on stylistic expression has unfortunately led to the widespread misconception of prioritizing algorithmic thinking within generative design as ‘expressions 26


of artistic or technophilic exuberance’. Algorithms provide a platform for computing complex arrangement of data, and the research and generative process that ensues. Its computation role is limited within producing systematically informed geometries and algorithmic procedures does not adequately address overshadowing trivial issues beyond variated geometries yet.10 In defence, Schumacher clarifies that “ parametric design is digitally intelligent architecture: a new style that exploits and extols, interprets and gives visible form to the technical logic of the new”.11 The adaptive nature of the logical system provides more than mere stylistic representations and computational capability for fabrication of non-euclidean geometries. But rather, generative architecture must be understood as a prompt that favors performance over esoteric design process fetishisms. Once preformative parameters are taken in consideration, it has the ability to manifest itself into differentiated geometries we now know as ‘generative designs’. The early stages of parametric design which Schumacher referred to as ‘adolescent’ has moved from a ‘testing ground’ towards greater maturity of strategic parametric applications . Just recently, Schumacher has reintroduced parametricism to critique the influence of parametric design in our time. He expresses parametric computation as a design approach capable of addressing new societal complexity due to its “versatile formal and spatioorganizational repertoire”.12 The skeptical attitudes and lack of emphasis on its advantages poses a challenge to convince the redefinition of compositional design within the new social dynamics of the Information Age.13 Therefore, the struggle to respond effectively to urban and architectural issues is challenging us to recognise that ‘algorithmic thought’ functioning in isolation puts us in disadvantage. For example,there is no deny that recent large scale projects such as Bao’an International Airport by Massimiliano Fuksas, was only possible through digitally-aided processes. The ability to digitally augment the human intellectual capability has far-reaching effects if its full potential is put into action.14 It is thus necessary for us to clarify any ambiguities and align our understanding of generative architecture as a significant step forward for embracing advanced compositional relationships.15 1.

Wassim Jabi, Parametric Design for Architecture, Laurence King (London), 2013, p 201. In Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, Definition of ‘Algorithm’, The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press1999), pp. 11-12.

2.

Brady Peters, ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, in Special Issue: Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought ,Architectural Design, Volume 83, Issue 2, (2013). pp. 08-15 (p.11)

3.

Kalay and Yehuda E, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press,2004), pp. 5-25.

4.

Patrik Schumacher,‘Parametricism as Style’, Parametricist Manifesto,Presented and discussed at the Dark Side Club1 , 11th Architecture Biennale, Venice,.(2008) Retrieved from, <http://www.patrikschumacher.com/Texts/Parametricism%20as%20Style.htm>

5.

Mark BurryW, ‘Essential Precursors to the Parametricism Manifesto’, in Architectural Design,Special Issue: Parametricism 2.0: Rethinking Architecture’s Agenda for the 21st Century, Volume 86, Issue 2(2016).pp.31–35.

6.

Brad Elias, ‘Generation/Composition’, Studio Air: Lecture 3 (2016). Retrieved from, <https://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au/bbcswebdav/pid-5260735-dt-content-rid-19507223_2/courses/ ABPL30048_2016_SM1/L03_S1_2016%281%29.pdf>

7.

John Frazer, ‘Parametric Computation: History and Future’,Architectural Design. Special Issue: Parametricism 2.0: Rethinking Architecture’s Agenda for the 21st Century, Volume 86, Issue 2(2016).pp.18–23.

8.

Patrik Schumacher, The Autopoiesis of Architecture, Vol I: A New Framework for Architecture and Vol II: A New Agenda for Architecture, John Wiley & Sons (Chichester), 2011 and 2012.

9.

John Frazer, ‘Parametric Computation: History and Future’,Architectural Design. Special Issue: Parametricism 2.0: Rethinking Architecture’s Agenda for the 21st Century, Volume 86, Issue 2(2016).pp.18–23.

10.

Patrik Schumacher, ‘Parametricism 2.0: Gearing Up to Impact the Global Built Environment’, Architectural Design. Special Issue: Parametricism 2.0: Rethinking Architecture’s Agenda for the 21st Century, Volume 86, Issue 2(2016).pp.8–17.

11.

Ibid,. P 8-17

12.

Ibid,. P 8-17

13.

Ibid,. P 8-17

14.

Brady Peters, ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, in Special Issue: Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought ,Architectural Design, Volume 83, Issue 2, (2013). pp. 08-15 (p.11)

15.

John Fraser, ‘Creative Design and the Generative Evolutionary Paradigm’ in Peter J Bentley and Davide W Corne, Creative Evolutionary Architecture, Architectural Association (London), (1995).

< Box Morph (Tubes) Week 2 Algorithmic Exercise 27


> Figure 6 : Open Courtyard which facilitates circulatory paths in Beijingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Galaxy Soho.

28


CASE STUDY 1: GALAXY SOHO ZAHA HADID & PATRIK SCHUMACHER.

Z

HA’s (Zaha Hadid Architects and Associates] Galaxy Soho Megaplex in Beijing shows a computational approach that amalgamates a compositional technique with the generative process.1 The design redefines the traditional chinese courtyard and uses it as an analogical concept to initiate the design process. 2 From observation, the design pertains the enveloping character from its analogy which shows adherence to former compositional techniques. The design led by Zaha Hadid and Patrik Schumacher is composed of 5 continuous flowing volumes that are interchangeably set apart, fused or linked by stretched bridges. 3 Together, these volumes ‘adapt’ to each other, forming a compositional language of its own. The intention was to avoid corners or abrupt transitions that break the fluidity of its formal composition. In doing so, the generative process produced a design that attempts to create its own generative understanding of the design form using a bottom up strategy, consequently creating the ‘adaptive’ nature as seen on the overall structure. In addition,the power of generative architecture to evolve prior apprehension of ‘connectivity’ is presented in this precedent. Generative design methods are often unpredictable and leads us away from conventional understanding of formal logic. Through parametric sketching, Hadid and Schumacher discovered a unique form that is structurally feasible and convincingly supports their underlying design agenda. The generative process produced an alternative to traditional compositional methods in which the former is also able to address the architectural agenda and intent in reality.

informed the algorithmic sequence to generate an internal world of continuous open spaces. It follows a coherent formal logic of continuous curvilinearity generated through precise,explicit and encoded protocols in order to produce differentiated geometries.4 Clearly, the algorithm instead produced an abstractive form that is a far cry from its traditional composition. This unpredictability characteristic of generative design, leads to unanticipated results which are almost alien to traditional compositional methods. Although specific and specified parameters are implemented in algorithmic protocols, surprising and stunning results arise. The control of the designer can only extend so far when the complexities of simple rulebased sequences are manipulated beyond human intellectual capabilities. 5 As a result, galaxy soho’s immersive spaces are parametrically integrated within, radically re-inventing the chinese courtyard as seen from the perspective of the algorithm. The coalescing volumes with streamlined forms provide 360 panoramic views from the futuristic urban complex , solidifying the parametrically designed urban landmark as an answer to urban spatial constraints. 1.

Needless to say, the complexities of structural spatial arrangements in largescale projects necessitates the intervention of computerization to complete microtasks associated with the complications of the curvilinear geometries.Therefore, his project reconsiders how generative design can be efficiently composed, constructed and managed through computerization even when traditional compositional methods are embedded.

Patrik Schumacher, ‘Advancing Social Functionality Via Agent-Based Parametric Semiology’in Architectural Design: Special Issue:Parametricism 2.0: Rethinking Architecture’s Agenda for the 21st Century, Volume 86,Issue 2(2016). Pp.108-113.(p.109).

2.

ArchDaily, ;Galaxy Soho / Zaha Hadid Architects’ (2012), Accessed 17 Mar 2016. <http://www.archdaily.com/287571/galaxy-soho-zaha-hadidarchitects/>

3.

ArchDaily, ;Galaxy Soho / Zaha Hadid Architects’ (2012), Accessed 17 Mar 2016. <http://www.archdaily.com/287571/galaxy-soho-zaha-hadidarchitects/>

4.

Mark Fornes, ‘The Art of the Prototypical’, in Architectural Design: Special Issue:Parametricism 2.0: Rethinking Architecture’s Agenda for the 21st Century, Volume 86,Issue 2(2016). Pp.61-67.

5.

Ibid,. Pp.61-67.

6.

Figure 7 : Open Courtyard which facilitates circulatory paths in Beijing’s Galaxy Soho. Retrieved from, < http://www.archdaily.com/287571/galaxy-soho-zahahadid-architects/508ee0ab28ba0d7fe4000005-galaxy-soho-zaha-hadidarchitects-photo>

Furthermore,the functions and variables derived from traditional Chinese architecture 29


CASE STUDY 2. ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2014/15; UNIVERSITY OF STUTTGART. ICD/ITKE RESEARCH TEAM

G

enerative architecture also has the capacity to develop designs techniques based from biological processes. The annual ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion for 20152015 explores the transfer of biological principles into architectural application. The design team based the project on process-based biomimetics, which studies the construction of subaquatic nest of diving bell water spiders. By gaining an exhaustive comprehension of the biological behaviour of the water spider, they were able to recreate its nest with the help of programmable robots.1

The team first had to create and innovate a fabrication technique which follows the fibre-laying behaviour of the spider. In that process, they discovered that the changing shape of the pneumatic body during construction complicated the construction process, whereby the fibre was arranged in a hierarchical manner. The complicated and complex construction process of the spider’s nest required a computational tool to embed a simulated behaviour in order to process the vast amounts of data which would otherwise be too elaborate. It is only then, which the research team could traverse and adapt to a simulated inflated membrane performative fibre arrangement similar to that of the spider’s nest. Furthermore, structural implications such as transformations of its support structure before and after the fabrication process would require greater integration of computational analysis in recreating the biological and environmental conditions. Material culture and structural requirements were also factored into the computational analysis to calibrate the fabrication process. 2

Through the articulation of these datas, the intricate and delicate fabrication process could be further refined. Not only that, the overall simulation that drives the design generation of the nest is largely managed by the computational system, which handles numerous external and internal parameters to ensure that the fabrication process runs smoothly. Thereafter, the programme gains full control over the manipulation of the fibre weaving, using its responsive feedback system to generate an unanticipated but informed design structure. The generative design process such as that adopted by the research team displays the capability of intelligent computations systems to perform behavioural robotic fabrication processes. Generative design simulation can instruct several components to perform precise tasks simultaneously whilst performing a host of performative analyses, adjusting to changing conditions such as weather and loads. For example, the fibre layers were generated sequentially in tandem with the construction process, allowing the generative model to incorporate targeted production feedback. Each of the fibres represent a calculated path that is modified throughout the fabrication based on the feedback from sensor data, in order to adapt to the structural requirements of the pneumatic base surface. 3

1.

Architectural Biomimetics, retrieved from <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=9717> 2.

30

Moritz Doerstelmann, Jan Knippers, Valentin Koslowski and others, ‘ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014–15: Fibre Placement on a Pneumatic Body Based on a Water Spider Web’, Architecture Design Journal: Special Issue: Material Synthesis: Fusing the Physical and the Computational, Volume 85, Issue 5, (2015). Pp.60 - 65

3.

Moritz Doerstelmann, Jan Knippers, Valentin Koslowski and others, ‘ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014–15: Fibre Placement on a Pneumatic Body Based on a Water Spider Web’, Architecture Design Journal: Special Issue: Material Synthesis: Fusing the Physical and the Computational, Volume 85, Issue 5, (2015). Pp.60 - 65

4.

The incorporation of complex interrelated variables provided an origin for digitally programming the fabrication process.

Institute for Computational Design Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning,

Terri Peters, Nature as Measure: The Biomimicry Guild in Architectural Design,Special Issue: Experimental Green Strategies: Redefining Ecological Design Research, Volume 81, Issue 6,(2011). Pp. 44–47. (P.47)

5.

Figure 8 : Robotic and parametric integration into advanced design methods. Retrieved from, <http://www.str-ucture.com/was/forschungsprojekte/reference/ textilhybrid-icditke/>


> Figure 7 : Robotic and parametric integration into advanced design methods. 31


A4. Conclusion

P

art A develops a foundation towards understanding the polemic prominence of computational design. Through architectural precedence and theoretical concepts, we develop our analytical skills that allow us to critically observe the influence of contemporary design brought about by recent technological advancements. As observed, architectural designs that successfully bring about real-world impacts demonstrates the power of effective design in a decaying design environment1, therefore bringing our attention towards the urgent need for clever,strategic and informed designs. Our area of interest lies within the computerization of architectural practice and its computational capabilities. The diverse propagation of computational architecture in the past decades has certainly generated much debate surrounding its relevance and capacity. In other words, many involved in architecture remain hesitant with regards to understanding algorithmic concepts.2 And it is for this reason that we are exploring the capabilities of computation in the architectural discipline and its position in architectural design. Without doubt, computerization has profoundly influenced the discipline in many aspects. Apart from improved efficiencies and productivity within the working environment, advanced research in the digital age has since welcomed generative design methods, a radically new design approach made possible through the computational revolution. In reality however, the state of ‘defuturing’ necessitate a robust platform that is substantiated with credibility and grounded evidences. Attitudes towards algorithmic design are slowly shifting, gaining approval through many architectural explorations that leverage computational abilities to empower significant improvements to the living environment. Therefore, the paradigm shift that we are encountering presents an opportunity for the exploration of algorithmic thinking. In relation to the brief, Merri Creek presents a wealth of opportunities for setting up an interface that accesses the potency of generative designs. Understanding the social complexities of Merry Creek and its interrelated relationships will inform the necessary parameters for proposing an intervention that is both compelling and effective. This can be achieved via an algorithmic approach once we develop a sense of understanding of the local demographic, and conceptually challenging the issues presented.

1.

Tony Fry, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg,2008), pp. 1–16.

2.

Brady Peters, ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, in Special Issue: Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought ,Architectural Design, Volume 83, Issue 2, (2013). pp. 08-15 (p.11)

32

For my design, I intend to deliberately expose algorithmic design in an urban environment through distributed patterning forms. Patterning designs has the ability to manipulate the user in numerous methods, creating an interface for propagating ideas,messages or evoking emotions. This responds to the critical socio-political controversies surrounding the CERES community whereby the communities are struggling to assert values in which they espouse. Through such an engagement, i propose to actively engage the community by creating expressive architecture to draw the attention of a wider range of audiences to bring about awareness. In doing so, abstractive interpretation embedded within the design aims to restore the community’s confidence in promoting sustainable education. While such interventions are highly sensitive, if articulated appropriately can bring about positive changes to the community through use of algorithmic scripting and parameters to creatively tackle the issues.


> Mesh Geometries Week 2 Algorithmic Exercise 33


> Mesh Geometries Week 2 Algorithmic Exercise 34


A5. Learning Outcomes

T

he theories presented in the readings has had the most impact on my learning process thus far. The key readings provided a substantial understanding of digital architecture, but supplementaryt readings sourced from the architecture design journal provided a greater insight to how the architecture discipline is reacting to the shift in contemporary design. It has led me to understand the controversies surrounding the relatively recent development of parametric architecture and reconsider my ambivalence towards generative design at the beginning of the semester. Furthermore, critically examining the list of architectural precedence further reinforced my understanding of the recent crucial and influential developments in computational design. The design intentions and objectives are made clear through these well proposed projects and supplies a convincing argument towards affirming the role of computational design in the architectural discipline. On the other hand, re-evaluating the significance of the rise of digital design seems to be recurring from time to time in my architectural studies. I have constantly strived to remain open minded towards new forms of design thinking, which has allowed me to react positively towards the introduction of grasshopper in this subject. In completing Part A, I now understand the need for parametric design tools for creating alternative design solutions, and the significant role of grasshopper in computational design. Fundamentally, algorithmic design is the abstraction of relationships in which theoretical studies alone is insufficient in understanding scripting and algorithmic processes. I have tasked myself to fully apply the set of tools to compile sketches in preparation of the design phase. Surprisingly, it has increased my workflow productivity, bringing me closer towards understanding generative architecture as a procedural sequence that offers dexterity,flexibility on top of expressing my creativity. However, algorithmic design can be quite different from traditional compositional design approaches and demands a huge transition towards adopting computational logical thinking. In completely migrating the design journalling and sketches into the virtual environment, I have noticed that 3D modelling and CAD softwares are able to support most of the design processes. This different dimension in which we can now fully design within facilitates our prior acclimatization to the digital interface. Concurrently, the shift in design paradigms has also convinced me that parametric design is not merely a tool but rather a means of exploration in design problem solving. As the conceptualization phase comes to an end, I firmly believe that generative design will expand my design possibilities, which further allows us as designers to not only think in terms of relationships but also compose aesthetic, elegance and beauty within our design proposals.

35


Algorithmic Sketchbook 1 36


Week 1 Algorithmic Task Lofting Grid Patterning Triangulation

Week 2 Algorithmic Task Intersections Box Morph, Box Twist Domains Meshes

37


38


LOFTING SURFACES

39


MESH SMOOTHING

0.0 Introduction 40


41


42


PATTERNATION

43


BOX MORPH

44


45


Part B: Criteria Design 46


B.1 Research Field Patternation

B.2 Case Study 1.0 Case Study: ARM Portrait Building

B.3 Case Study 2.0 Case Study Attempt 1: MoMA PS1: Reef Case Study Attempt 2: Prorifera Case Study Attempt 3: Marh-Keez

B.4 Techniques: Development B.5 Techniques: Prototypes B.6 Techniques: Proposal B.7 Learning Objectives and Outcomes B.8 Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches

47


B.1 Research Field

Patterning

WHAT IS PATTERNATION?

P

atterning leads a significant role in our perception of architecture. Very often without noticing, patterns triggers our senses in response to our visual perception of spatial quality. Its ability to create experiential qualities for its users to serve as a communicative medium and aesthetic role has therefore been passed down and still remains integral in present day design in architecture. Its role however has been challenged throughout history, and its uses and application has garnered very distinct ideological dispositions. Its origins leads back to the use of patterns as a form of ornament adorned on varying built forms, serving as a symbolic decorative element for many buildings of religious and cultural significance.

PATTERNATION IN HISTORY These decorative motifs were attempts to portray elements of religions otherwise invisible and ambiguous. The glorification of such architectural forms then manifested and incarnated ornamentation in search of a formal language that visualizes the unknown. Thus, the important interrelation between built forms and its ornamentation and in particular patterning motifs, began to hold aesthetic and cognitive roles in architecture.1 The works of patterning emerged in Islamic art and architecture including kilohm carpets, Persian girih and Moroccan zellige tilework, muqarnas decorative vaulting and jali pierced stone screens. One such example is manifested in the symbolic Palace of Alhambra in Granada, Spain in 1238. Its interior decorative elements feature geometric and calligraphic patterns of recursive and arabic scripts refined by Islamic artists. Using basic geometric symbols, they were able to create the impression of unending repetition in a recursive pattern which is believed to represent the infinite nature of God. Similarly, Christian churches such as Haggia Sophia in Istanbul also uses ornamentation, albeit in a different formal language to create a spiritually and religiously empowered space. One notable difference however is its articulation of nature as patterns adorning spandrels and mosaics that feature angelic figures and relative Christian symbolisms. As such, we begin to see how patterning is influenced and consequently replicated through architectural forms which came about as a statement of luxury or symbol of status. Its proliferation and widespread acceptance gracefully developed over a period of time and peaked through the romantic and renaissance periods through the revival of neoclassicism. Therefore highlighting an integral aspect of patternation, that is its close relation with local culture and tradition.

> Figure 8: Muqarnas Fractal Design [7] 48


The pattern language contains rules for how human beings interact with built forms â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a pattern language codifies practical solutions developed over millennia, which are appropriate to local customs, society, and climate. -Nikos A. Salingaros

49


Architecture as a decorative art is being revived as these rather clever, and beautiful, combinations of fashion and function show. Whilst itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s far too early to say that the century-old rules of modern architecture are under serious threat, they are at least, (and at last) being relaxed. -Matt Gibberd and Albert Hill

50


CONTEMPORARY CULTURE Shortly after, the birth of modernism and industrialization together suppressed the idea of ornamentation in architecture. Adolf Loos’ through his critique of in his writing ‘Ornamentation and Crime’ famously rejected ornamentation in the age of mass production and mechanization, stating “Since ornament is no longer a natural product of our culture so that it is a phenomenon either of backwardness or degeneration..”. 2 The sudden adverse reaction towards ornamentation lies within the perceived flaws of mass production through the eyes of many modernists of that period. While it has been confronted with questions of morality and cultural analogies, it has not been dismissed entirely but rather embraced in a different manner. To name a few, Robert Venturi, Mies Van der Rohe and Frank Lloyd Wright produced modern works of architecture which instils ornamentation through the display of materials in its raw and honest appearance. In Newcastle House by Robert Venturi himself sees the removal of unnecessary ornamentation. Rather, Venturi redefines ornamentation and frames it in such a way that, “Ornament is meant to communicate a sense of community. Surface patterns are “independent of the architecture in content and form” and have “nothing to do with the spatial or structural elements” to which they are applied. 3/4 As for contemporary architecture, mass production capabilities of the past century has now shifted towards an era of mass customization which allows for production of greater quality and value with engineering improvements of machines. We are now entering a phase in which innovation and shared interests across different disciplines have the potential to eliminate shortcomings of mechanized production which in turn produces highly efficient and accurate design outputs with minimal anomalies. Using this as a method of reviving craftsmanship in ornamentation, its superior quality is gradually gaining attention from contemporary society, allowing for ornamentation to once again gain its rightful place in architectural design. In order to do so, there is a need for a mechanism which allow design outcomes to be considered alongside cultural considerations. 5 Constructing expressive architecture requires delicate articulation, in which Patrik Schumacher suggests by distinguishing the role of the architect as a master of organization, articulation and significance. A clever understanding of these elements thus re-enables the architect to interact with the user through ornamentation, a design mechanism briefly forgotten. 6

< Figure 9: Guggenheim Museum Bilbao by Frank Gehry [8] 51


â&#x20AC;&#x153;Ornament it the language through which architecture communicates with a broader public - each remove puts another degree of separation between the profession and the public.â&#x20AC;?

52


PART B: STUDIO AIR In part B, we will explore patternation as a communicative tool in the realm of parametric architecture. Using tools such as image sampling and highly abstracted geometries, we will be pushing the knowledge and skills within grasshopper to test the capacity of parametric design to create highly technical yet compelling architectural installations. Furthermore, it is an exploration of the creativity of a designer within the array of tools and the ability to think algorithmically to empower architecture once again to deliver evocative and compelling designs.

1.

Mark Garcia, Patterns of Architecture. n.p.:London: John Wiley, 2009.

2.

Brad Elias, Lecture 4, Slide 15 , Adolf Loos, Ornamentation and Crime, Retrieved from < https://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au/bbcswebdav/pid-5272998-dt-content-rid-19597572_2/courses/ ABPL30048_2016_SM1/L05_S1_2016.pdf>

3.

Robert Venturi, “Diversity, Relevance and Representation in Historicism, or Plus ça change . . . Plus a Plea for Pattern All Over Architecture . . . ,” the 1982 Walter Gropius Lecture, in Architectural Record ( June 1982), 114–119, p. 116

4.

Masheck, Joseph. Adolf Looos. [electronic resource]: The Art of Architecture. n.p.:London: I.B.Tauris, 2013., 2013.

5.

Moussavi, Farshid and Micahel Kubo,eds (2006). The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar), pp 5-14

6.

Paters, Brady. (2013) ‘Realising the Architectural Intent: Computation at Herzog and De Meuron’. Architectural Design, 83,2, pp. 56 - 61.

7.

Muqarnas Fractal Design, Retrieved from, <http://static.thousandwonders.net/Hagia.Sop`hia.original.928.jpg

8.

Guggenheim Museum Bilbao by Frank Gehry, Retrieved from,< https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/15/35/df/1535dfdbd4c33364292d2cfc42551892.jpg

9.

Emporia Shopping Mall at Sweden by Wingardhs, Retrieved from, <http://harshanthomson.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/331.jpg>

< Figure 10: Emporia Shopping Mall, Sweden by Wingårdhs [9] 53


B.2 Case Study 1 Potrait Building by ARM CONTROVERSY OF ARM’S PORTRAIT BUILDING

and their own reading of the scheme.

HIDDEN POLITICAL AGENDA ARM’s Portrait Building of William Barak serves as a testament to the capacity of architectural patterns to communicate via patternation. Although controversial, the concept behind the 85 metre facial imprint on the facade was to acknowledge the presence of the shine on one end and the deep historical representation (traditional indigenous ownership) at the other. By doing so, Ashley Raggat-Mcdougall’s design established a dominant public and civic presence with an intention to deliver messages in a very literal manner. The superimposed image effectively juxtaposes the Shrine of remembrance along the dominant civic axis of Melbourne’s CBD. 1 Furthermore, it complements the work completed by ARM at the Shrine of Remembrance to create a compelling yet effective mode of communication, and is best viewed from atop the Shrine of Remembrance.

> Figure 11: Image Sampling Technique [1] > Figure 12: ARM’s Portrait Building with the facial imprint of William Barak on its Soouthern Facade [3]

54

The building was designed by ARM Architecture using a form of simple block print making, with the face sculpted using the building’s white concrete balconies. ARM Architecture director Howard Raggatt said the building would provide a visual and cultural contribution to the city, “as well as providing thoughtfully for those who live in it”. 2 The face which is imprinted across the southern facade belongs to William Barak (Beruk), who is the traditional ngurungaeta (elder) of the Wurundjeri-willam Clan. The cultural resonance of William Barak gazing down the civic axis of Melbourne towards the post federation Shrine of Remembrance, stands to unite the city’s modern heritage with its deep history. ARM believes that the abstract methodology provides an ideal new structural palette for residential buildings and hope that the public will have their own interpretation

Furthermore, the designers intended to challenge the government’s stance on aboriginal policies, and have therefore secretly embedded Braille symbols that writes ‘sorry’. It is interpretively controversial as those who can understand braille would not be able to interpret it, and those who can see it do not know braille on a regular basis. Thus, it was unsuspectingly approved by the government. This goes to show how patternation has an impact and influence on interpretative power

PARAMETRIC INFLUENCE The design’s scale and complexity demands the aid of parametric software in order to customise and design each panel in accordance to manufacturing limitations. Furthermore, it is highly likely that the design used image sampling technique to generate a legible portrait image with curvy lines across the facade.

1.

Ashton Raggatt- Mcdougall, ‘ Swanston Square Project’, Retrieved from, <http:// www.a-r-m.com.au/projects_SwanstonSquare.html>

2.

Architecture AU, ‘Swanston Square: William Barak’, Retrieved from, <http:// architectureau.com/articles/william-barak-apartments/>

3.

Figure 11. Image Sampling Technique, Retrieved from, <https://urbanartprojects. wordpress.com/2010/09/16/portrait-building-arm-architects/>

4.

ARM’s Porrtrait Building with the facial imprint of WIlliam Barak on its Southern Facade. <http://assemblepapers.com.au/2015/05/28/remember-me-architectureplacemaking-and-aboriginal-identity-2/#>


ARM, Swanston Square / William Barrak Portrait Building 55


1:

2:

3:

REFERENCED BREP (SURFACE)

IMAGE SAMPLING

EVALUATE SURFACE

Surface divisions are composed of UV points

Within the image sampling component, there

The evaluate surface component retrieves the

in local space with the referenced surface from

is variety of image sampling methods which

vector directions of each UV coordinate. Further

Rhino. By interchanging the density of the surface

map different tones and hues of the referenced

downstream, the direction of these surface vectors

divisions, the results of the image sampling can

image. Using this, the patterns generated vary

can alter the effectiveness of the pattern when

vary significantly and yield different results.

accordingly and can interfere with results.

a complicated surface is referenced upon.

SURFACE DIVISIONS

1A

3A

VARIABLE CONTROL :UV VALUES/ SURFACE

VARIABLE CONTROL : IMAGE SAMPLING

The base input of the surface can be manipulated

The inpur for the image sampling can be changed,

in real time through rhino. As such the effects and

as well as its internal image sampling method.

changes are visually assessed quickly. Furthermore,

Changing the color and hues of the images

the density and clarity of the image sampling

as well as brightness and contrast can give a

can be enhanced by alterating the UV inputs.

different effect and undertone to the pattern

56


CASE STUDY 1 ALGORITHM 4:

5:

6:

OFFSET POINTS

GEOMETRIC OUTPUT

GEOMETRIC OUTPUT

The amplitude component directs the points

The points received upstream are now ready to

A second degree of variability can be acheived

towards a specific direction in which the pattern

produce the desired pattern. However the method

by further forming a composite output that

is generated. By modifying this section, i am

of using these points can be customised to

performs similar to its previous form.

able to produce a wider variety of displacement

produce more than just interpolated curves.

of points to create varying effects.

5A OUTPUT CONTROL : FORM,SHAPE AND EFFECT

With the points that have been manipulated according to the image sampler, there are numerous paths in which the points can be utilized. In this instance, the fins are interpolated and lofted. However, these points can be used for inputs for various other methods such as extrusions and point charges

57


SPECIES

SPECIES 1

SPECIES 2

Manipulating Basic Parameters

Cylinder Base Pattern

Variable

ITERATIONS

The definition is deconstructed into several parts to identify its ability to produce variations built upon itself. Each of these sections were rearranged/ removed

No Changes

and constructed which influenced each outcome of the species, leading to a variety of species and its respective specimens/iterations. Using this as a base for exploration and understanding of algorithmic work flow, I then tasked upon myself to produce as many variations to my knowledge of parametric components

U- Value Division = 2

U- Value Division = 1.5

Image Sampler Color Hue Correction

Image Sampler Saturation Correction

58


SPECIES 3

SPECIES 4

SPECIES 5

Extrusion Pattern

Point Charges

pComp - Y Axis

Point Charge Extrude

Changed pComp

Height = 1.0

Y - Axis

Populate Geometry = 15 Divide Curve

Remove Flip Matrix pComp - Y Axis

Divide Count = 3

Added 2nd Circle

Extrusion

Added Attractor Points

Point Charge

Extrude

Extrude Z- Axis

Dispatch

Height = 2.0

Height = 2.0

Positive and Negative Decay

Magnitude = 2

Decay Added 2nd Circle

i = 200

Reversed Attractor Points

Extrude Z- Axis

Amplification

Height = 1.0

Multiplication = 2

List Item I=5

Point Charge Populate Geometry = 20

Remap Surface UV

Divide Curve

Normals

Divide Count = 5

UV Count U = 47 ,V = 60 Expression

Extrudae Z- Axis

Expression = x*y*z

Height = Image Sampling

Extrusion

List Item

z = 0.75

I=7

Loft Circle

Modify Domain

Modify Expression

Domain

Expression = (x^2*y*2)*z

0<x<5

Extrusion

Extrusion

Multiplication

x=1

Factor = 4

Extrusion

Addition

z = Image Sampling

Factor = 5

z = 0.75

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SPECIES Variable

SPECIES 6

SPECIES 7

Thread/ Pipe with Line Component

Facial Mapping

ITERATIONS Join Line Component Move Geometry Magnitude = 2

UV Value U = 119, V = 60

Graph Mapper Bezier Graph Type

Graph Mapper Parabola Graph Type

Graph Mapper Sine Graph Type

60


SPECIES 7.1

SPECIES 8

SPECIES 8.1

Lofted Intersecting Surfaces

Box Morph

Box Morph

Move Points Magnitude = 5 Multiplication = 6.183

BREP/BREP Intersection

Box Morph

Box Morph

Flip Matrix

Box Morph

Box Morph

Box Morph

Box Morph

Box Morph

Box Morph

Box Morph

Box Morph

Addition = 0.2

Flip Matrix

Multiplication

Multiplication

F=5

F=5

Multiplication

Multiplication

F = 10

F = 10

Addition

Addition

F = 0.2

F = 0.2

Multiplication Multiplication F = 20 Addition

F = 20 Addition F = 40

F = 40

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Case Study 1.0 Successful Species BENEFITS OF ITERATIVE The variety of designs (species) produced in this exercise shows the power and variability of EXPLORATIONS parametric tools in design. These designs although generated from the algorithm computed by the device, still requires the designer to made critical decisions and choices as to which changes are made. This demands a degree of understanding of the algorithmic structure, but ultimately requires an associative and inter-relational thinking in order to generate the variety of pattern as seen on the left.

EXPLORATION ? By gaining and applying this understanding of the parametric, simple modifications allow for vast and sometimes unexpected forms and geometries. This was made clear through the modification of the species types derived from the original script provided for ARMâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Portrait Building. Applying my knowledges and skills of grasshopper, I was able to adapt the patterning technique used for the facade and manipulate the variables to expand on the design possibilities of the patterns. The result therefore creates a vastly different formal typology as compared to its original form.

IMPORTANCE OF CRITERIA SELECTION Throughout the experimentation of the case study, the overarching driver and decision formulation was based on the ability of the resulting design to deliver a clear and effective patterning result in order to be implemented in the site of Merri Creek. There are certain parameters and specifications in which i was consciously aware of and some of which i was trying to explore. Thus, i was able to break away from the original form and evolved the script to push the the script to produce varying patterning results. This aided in my design criteria choices when working computationally.

WHAT ASPECTS TO CARRY FORWARD? The aim was to explore patterning techniques that will provide the community at CERES with a facade that is both visually striking and conceptually thought provoking. Therefore, the design criteria were chosen based on the ability of the patterns to communicate and satisfy the design intent. Patterns which exhibit architectural qualities that are aesthetically engaging were selected as the successful species.

DEVELOPING A SELECTION In order to carry the iterations forward in my design process, i have developed a criteria selection CRITERIA RUBRIC rubric that helps me to determine aspects of algorithmic thinking that i wish to continue developing. Ranging from aesthetic qualities to algorithmic processes, the criterias from the rubric creates a framework in order to further narrow down my choices. I am aiming to create a patterning form that serves as a filtration device, and therefore the

SELECTION CRITERIA IN patterns generated must have the ability to be flexible and simple, but adds complexity by RELATION TO DESIGN INTENT layering and screening. Therefore the criterion are: 1. adaptability for attachment , 2. aesthetic for evocative properties 3. innovation for room for developing the grasshopper definition.

62


SPECIES 5 The effect of unudulating strips generates a striking form that is organic and appears to reach outwards. One interesting aspect that can be developed and improved would be to implement a dynamic or responsive reaction from the design in response to a specific element. I think as a shading and screening device it would perhaps be even more effective when controlled using parametric methods. For example a rotating fin that selectively exposes certain views, or even AESTHETIC ADAPTATIVITY INNOVATION

SPECIES 3 The warping ribbons created by the parametric script in this instance appears to be even more dynamic and fluid. Perhaps it would be interesting to be developed as a attached parasite element onto a existing structure/installation; and therefore embedding patterns whilst functioning as a secondary shelving unit or handle for various uses. AESTHETIC ADAPTATIVITY INNOVATION

SPECIES 4 A rather different effect is acheived through this iteration, whereby the transition between the facade is blurred by the fine threads. When point attractors are used, it has the ability to controll the density of the pattern. In effect, the lower portions of the species with greater positive charges is hidden and more concealed. Using this as a design tool, i think this species is successful in terms of how the shading of screening device can be determined using the force AESTHETIC ADAPTATIVITY INNOVATION

SPECIES 7 This species was chosen for its abstractive properties. This species was a unexpected discovery when curves moved according to image sampling were lofted to create a discernible pattern. More effective as an aethetic tool, it shows how patterns can be abstracted using basic parameters such as curves. Further iterations show a greater depth and complexity in form, but this iteration effectively displays a shrouded face that is aethetically evocative and expressive simultaneously. AESTHETIC ADAPTATIVITY INNOVATION

63


IwamotoScott Architecture, MoMa PS1: REEF Competition Entry 64


B.3 Case Study 2 Reverse Engineering Attempt 1 DESIGN CONCEPT

DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPT

Produced as a finalist entry in the MoMA/ PS1 Young Architects Program invited design competition, REEF seeks to create an environment for the MoMA/PS1 Urban Beach that is experientially aquatic. The proposal conceptually uses the underwater landscape of the reef to create an atmosphere of light, shadow, shade, and movement. The primary elements of the reefsea floor, reef rocks, and coral / anemones - are translated into three corollary architectural elements - gravel sea bed, reef mounds, and anemone clouds.

I attempted to reverse engineer this project in hopes of finding interesting patternation derived from kangaroo physics simulation as applied in this project. There is a great varying complexity in terms of patternation as well with the catenary curves of the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;anemonesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;.

Like water, the flow of the site and program generates the pattern of structure and surface for the anemone clouds and reef mounds. The patterns align, and are registered through their respective constructional systems. The anemone clouds are made of 1200 uniquely shaped fabric mesh modules hung from light wooden spacers attached to the bottom chord of the cable trusses. Together, they form a porous tensile diaphragm where the individual fabric modules are designed to move with the wind. The modules hang to varying depths to create different degrees of shade, and are parametrically controlled based on the underside surface curvature of the cloud and plan organization.

1. Set Up Site & Attractor Points

2. Set Up Horizontal Grid

I succesfully reverse engineered the design, but failed to develop the design further in terms of aesthetic and function. This creates a difficulty in assesing the criteria selection, whereby most of the iterations generated only fulfill the aesthetic quality, but do not allow for innovative space for greater functions for in relation to the breif, which is a functional wall/screen.

MOVING FORWARD However the following areas are thought to be beneficial for my project: 1. Attractor Points to create signifiers 2. Wind Simulation System 3. Catenary Curve and Bend Curve Functions.

3. Surface Box Remap Surface UV

4. Box Morph

5. Mesh Relaxation Kangaroo Test with Wind Component

65


B.3 Case Study 2 Reverse Engineering Attempt 2 DESIGN CONCEPT Jorge Ayala’s Studio fabricated a piece of furniture which at a glance seems to be highly unconventional. Drawing precedence from ‘proriferas’, a type of sea coral, it has an organic form made up of subdivision of hexagon cells. And also with the help of computation, the design was fabricated to the exact specifications as intended. The intuitive furniture applies parametric strategies to create a highly complex form with varying levels of depth for structural purposes such as tapered portions that holds it above ground. Furthermore, through simulated analysis of the curvature, they were able to succesfully fabricate the project as well as maintain the functionality of the bench.

REVERSE ENGINEERING KEY POINTS I noticed that the highly articulated form requires grasshopper’s microtasking skills in order to produce the individual hexagonal cells. In my reverse engineering attempt, i mainly focused on controlling and manipulating the hexagon cells when applied on a surface in order to recreate the complex pattern as seen in the project. Furthermore, i attempted to replicate the solid form using

1. Set Up Expression to create Hexagonal Grid

2. Extrude Hexagonal Cells

3. Extrude Hexagonal Cells with response to attractor points

FAILURES AND HURDLES There were some elements such as extrusion direction in which i have attempted to replicate but resulted in conflicting surfaces that do not create meshes properly. Therefore i have decided to move forward with another reverse engineering project when i realized there would be complications in innovating the script for the next stage (B4).

MOVING FORWARD: However the following areas are thought to be beneficial for my project: 1. Mathematical Expression Manipulation 2. Weaverbird’s Mesh Components 3. Structural Elements can be part of the overall design, such as the extruded cones to withstand the loads

4. Project Hexagon Cells onto surface consisting of points moved in Z- Direction in relation to attractor points

Change Method - Due to extrusion overlap 66

Weaverbird’s mesh tools to obtain a refined organic shape. The most challenging aspect was to allow the pattrnation to follow a varying degree of extrusion directions so as to produce the organic form.

5. Loft Hexagon Cells

6. Weaverbird Mesh Join Mesh, Mesh Unify Normals, Mesh Weld Vertices, Cat Mull-clark Subdivision Surface, Mesh Smoothing.


Ayarchitecture, Porifera 67


B.3 Case Study 2 Reverse Engineering Attempt 3 DESIGN CONCEPT Mar-quee [mahr-kee]: an ornamental canopy, often identified by a surrounding a cache of light bulbs, signaling entrance to a theatrical event. Mar-quise [mahr-keez]: a gem cut, yielding a low pointed oval with many facets. Mahr-kee(z) creates a center in an asymmetrical space by utilizing the existing rectangular columns. A new faceted surface encases the columns and propagates into flowering canopies. In addition to the dynamic folding and pleating of the column-canopies, ornamentation is achieved by an aperture pattern that follows the geometric logic of the faceted surface. The aperture pattern is strategically placed to alleviate visual weight and generate lighting effects as it twists from the base to the capital. This project is part of â&#x20AC;&#x153;continuing research addressing contemporary ornamentation and isomorphic transformation of architectonic elementsâ&#x20AC;?.

DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPT Drawing inspiration of using columns as a precedence for amplifying spatial effect, i intend to develop it to create a locus for interaction and interpretation for CERES. Also the use of lighting effects can be emulated to produce a similar approach of alleviating the profile of the design. These design approaches can be applied in the selected field, Patternation to communicate and interact with the community.

REVERSE CONSIDERATIONS

ENGINEERING

Based on my previous 2 attempts at reverse engineering, i am more selective of projects for my reverse engineering process which can fulfill two criterias: 1. Flexibility and innovative possibilities in the next stage, B4( developing technique). 2. Personal knowledge of components and its limitations.

parametric

In doing so, i can confidently develop my algorithm into the next stage. This is not to say that i will forgo the scripts that i have developed before. As mentioned, there are areas where our skills are impeded, but it is because of this that we can discover the limitations. Perhaps i can also explore my options of referring to the open source forums. Nonetheless, the different algorithms developed previously can be embedded and integrated within the current reverse engineering process. The element of risk and uncertainty is certainly frightening, but it encourages greater exploration and raises more questions that ultimately rewards improvements. Here below are my two important key areas that i would like to carry forward from the design concept of Mar- keez. 1. Spatial Significance : it has to hold a symbolic meaning and influence over the community and also site. 2. Lighting Effects: A dynamic area allows for development of the concept to complement

http://www.suckerpunchdaily.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/mahr-kees_01.jpg http://www.suckerpunchdaily.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/mahr-kees_04.jpg

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Mahr-kee(z), LabNormal 69


1:

2:

3:

REFERENCE CURVE + DIVIDE CURVE

LINE COMPONENT + DIVIDE CURVE

INSERT ITEM + REPLACE ITEM + NURBS CURVE

The centroid of the reference curve is first established.

With two sets of points with matching data structure,

In order to create the cantilever effect, an additional

Using the area component, we then create a basic

the points are joined by the line component.

point is created and subsequently inserted into

square geometry to obtain the centroid. In order to

Because the line will be required to curve as

the existing data structure. It is also moved in an

determine the height, the centroid and the centre box is

an arc, the line will need to be divided again to

outward direction using Vector 2pt to determine

moved in the Z-direction based on the desired height.

correspond with the NURBSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s degree input.

the movement vector. Also to create a degree of

The centre box is then de-constructed in order for the

variability, a random component is connected

divide curve component to function. It is then divided

to move each points with different magnitudes.

according to the desired subdivisions. This allows us

It is then finally interpolated using the NURBS

to control the density and proximity of each curve.

CURVE component to generate a smooth curve.

1A:

3A:

5A:

VARIABLE CONTROL : CURVE BOUNDARY

VARIABLE CONTROL : NURBS CURVE FORM

VARIAB

Manipulating this input changes the base

Changing these input changes the degree of the

Changin

curve and overall shape of the column

nurbs curve as well as division of the curves, hence

the dela

transforming the overall geometry of the column

this inp

70


REVERSE ENGINEERING ALGORITHM

4:

5:

6:

DIVIDE LENGTH + DELAUNAY MESH + MESH TOOLS

DISPATCH + EVALUATE SURFACE + CULL PATTERN

IMAGE SAMPLING + CIRCLE CNR + SURFACE SPLIT

Using the NURBS curve i have just created, i add

With a series of surfaces, i dispatched the surfaces so

The image sampling values are then connected to the

another level of variability by using the divide length

as to create 2 sets of surfaces with and without patterns. Circle CNR component to create a series of circle with

component with random intervals. This is required in

Subsequently, i evaluated these surfaces to obtain the

varying sizes. These curves are then used to trim the

order to utilize the delaunay mesh component as it

UV normals in order to map the patterns across each

surfaces to create tiny apertures as seen in the Marh-

requires points as an input to create the delaunay.

of the different surfaces with a unique orientation.

Keez Project. Finally, the two sets of surfaces are merged

Subsequently, the mesh output is refined by using

However, i also had to cull some of the additional

to create the columns as fabricated in the project.

mesh edit tools from Weaverbird. A boundary

points that are mapped on the edge of the surfaces.

surface was created in order to be able to work with surfaces instead of mesh faces.

BLE CONTROL : DIVIDE LENGTH

6A: VARIABLE CONTROL : IMAGE SAMPLER

ng this input varies this point position for

Changing this input varies the pattern applied

aunay mesh, therefore changing the seed for

across the surface of the design.

put changes the form of the delaunay mesh.

71


72


Reverse Engineering Outcome REVERSE -ENGINEERING INTENTIONS The end result of the reverse engineering exercise was highly beneficial towards my understanding of algorithmic thinking. When considering how a parametric solution is approached, i had to break down the design in stages before i could systematically recreate the design in grasshopper. It is through a basic understanding of the explicit functions of each component and how they are layered that i was able to recreate the design successfully.

REVERSE -ENGINEERING LEARNING CURVE It is not without failures and unsucceful attempts throughout the reverse-engineering process. A lack of understanding of grasshopperâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s data-tree management system implicated a huge setback when trying to applying the patterns on the surface. Furthermore, i found it difficult to replicate the design due to the fact that a design can be accomplished through numerous methods in grasshopper. With the infinite possibilites of combinations of components and algorithmic logic sequences, it is possible that the designers approached the design using a different method, thus resulting in a different end-result. The greatest difference i discovered was the linear growth of the aperture sizes, which i have tried and failed to replicate. Instead, i have adopted the image sampling technique that creates the varies aperture sizes based on a sampled image, but preserved the aperture openings for lighting to filter through. In this case, i have applied my own knowledge of grasshopper and reconfigured it to suit the design intent of the project. Adding on to that, i discovered that the grasshopper community on the open-source forums benefited me when i received technical help through the forum. Specialists that can provide technical assistance through the internet is convenient and helps to develop parametric understanding.

73


Reverse Engineering Outcome (continued..) REVERSE -ENGINEERING FAILURES According to the design concept, the columns creates a spatial signifier and use of apertures by the lighting effect which drove the designâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s core aesthetic and form. In my process I focused on developing the triangulation form using the Lunch-Box plugin, but failed to create a develop-able surface of planar triangulated faces. I then modified the approach and resolved the issue by using delaunay edges and delaunay meshes to create the undulating topology that the design intent is based upon. I also adapted the strategy for creating apertures across selected faces with the used of image sampling. Furthermore, delaunay edges unintentionally creates tiny openings that can be refined and likely to be resolved through a different approach.

BUT.. THERE ARE SUCCESSFUL ASPECTS Nonetheless, by adapting my own technique, i was still able to create the specific design outcome of the designers. The apertures show a varying degree of control and complexity as well indicates a controlled method of inserting specific information. Also, i was able to successfully create triangulated facets that i believe aided in simplifying the fabrication process. These triangulated panels further serves as a aesthetic tool in which the facet edges accentuate the profile of the column. The aggregated complexity of the triangular panels is similarly achieved through the delaunay mesh tool, and therefore successfully replicating aesthetic quality desired. This in my opinion satisfies the requirements for the reverse-engineering process.

CONCLUSION Therefore, there is much to explore in the capacity of grasshopper, but the understanding of the embedded data management remains the most crucial aspect that i have to keep in mind. At a larger scale of complexity, efficiency in data management and simplifying components will become the main priority. At this stage however, the possibilities of the script that i have created is unexplored, and therefore i intend to use my knowledge derived from the previous case study to develop and explore the parametric possibilities of the grasshopper definition in the next stage.

74


1. CANTILEVER / ARCH The desired effect of a growing and expanding profile towards the top was achieved through (insert item) and (replace item) components.

2. TRIANGULATED PANELS Triangle facets represented and designed using (delaunay meshes) and subsequently converted into surfaces.

3. APERTURE Lighting that filters through the panels was a integral part of the design, and therefore carved out from the surface panels using (surface split) and (image sampling)

75


B.4 Technique Development UNDERSTANDING AND BREAKING THE ALGORITHM The technique developed based on ‘Marh-keez’ has the potential to create an array of interesting geometries across an undulating surface such as the delaunay mesh. This is because of the flexible nature of an algorithmic script, allowing instant manipulation of data and control of logic. With the script that i have developed, i intend to use the image sampling technique as well as the manipulate the surface itself. With these, there are innumerable directions to take through creating patterns and surface manipulation. By applying some geometric variation to the patterning technique, the entire patterning effect can be completely transformed. Other data manipulation techniques include changing the surface parameters to create other varying surfaces to work upon. Inputs such as domain and boundary values can be switched, as well as randomized inputs used in my original script can be encoded with site specific data. This can create distance based transformations based on attractor points. The flexibility of a algorithmic script allows for continuous manipulation of forms and geometries that can be appropriated for the design brief for Merri Creek. For me, i would like to continue exploring political themes that challenge the users and community of CERES market through use of patterning. I am interested in exploring design possibilities behind reactive and regressive architecture that resembles patterns derived from nature which engages the user to reconsider their sustainable actions. This is tied in to CERES’s ethos of educating sustainability for the public, and therefore i see an opportunity for developing parametric design to deliver a lasting social impact.

76


SPECIES SELECTION CRITERIA These selection rubric helps me narrow down the choices of my design iterations in anticipation for the following design process. Through these selection criterias, i analyse each of the of the iterations to determine if these species contain any qualities that contributes towards my design concept.

Complex Patternation

Can the pattern created engage and stimulate the user ? Does it have the ability to evoke a specific property?

Embedding Information

Is the pattern be derived from a set of specific data and information?

Ease of Fabrication

Is the design easy to fabricate or develop?

Social Engagement

Can the design deliver a message through patternation and capture the attention of the user?

77


SPECIES Variable

SPECIES 1 Iterations 1 - 10 Manipulating Reference Curve Boundary

ITERATIONS

Random

Modified Curve Input

Amplitude = 2

Modified Curve Input

Modified Curve Input

78

Modified Curve Input

Modified Curve Input

Modified Curve Input

Modified Curve Input

Modified Curve Input

Modified Curve Input


SPECIES 2 Iterations 11 - 20 Manipulating Basic Parameters

Random

Divide Curve

Seed = 2

N=1

Random

Divide Curve

Amplitude = 5

N=8

Random Vector Strength = 10

Divide Curve N = 10

Random

Insert Item

Amplitude = 10

Additional Points from Curve Bounrday

Divide Curve

Multiplication - Move Points

N=5

N = 10

79


SPECIES Variable

SPECIES 3 Iterations 21 - 30 Extruding Boundary Edges

ITERATIONS

Extrude - Z Axis

Extrude

n=1

Random

Extrude - Z Axis

Extrude

Multiplication

Multiplication = 8

n = 10

Extrude - X Axis

Extrude - Z Axis

Multiplication

Multiplication

n = 11

n = 12 Move Point Multiplication n = 10

Extrude - Y Axis

Pipe

Multiplication

Radius = 0.2

n = 12

80

Extrude

Loft

Accor. Vector Direction

Line SDL


SPECIES 4 Iterations 31 - 40 Moving Tesselated Faces to abstract forms

Random - Move (Z Dir.)

Random - Move (Z Dir.)

Magnitude = 0

Dispatch a = Magnitude = - 5 b = Magnitude = 3

Random - Move (Z Dir.)

Vector 2 Point

Magnitude = 3

Division n=5

Random - Move (Z Dir.) Magnitude = -3

Vector 2 Point Division n=2

Random - Move (Z Dir.)

Vector 2 Point ( negative )

Magnitude = -5

Division n=6

Random - Move (Z Dir.)

Vector 2 Point ( negative )

Magnitude = -5

Division

Seed = 3

n = 10

81


SPECIES Variable

SPECIES 5 Iterations 41- 50 Input different geometric patternation

ITERATIONS

Loft Nurbs Curve

82

Reverse List Item

Lunchbox Plug-In

Lunchbox Plug-In

Hexagon Cells

Hexagon Cells

U = 10 , V = 10

U = 10 , V = 10

Lunchbox Plug-In

Lunchbox Plug-In

Diamond Cells

Diamond Cells

U = 10 , V = 10

U = 10 , V = 10

Lunchbox Plug-In

Lunchbox Plug-In

Polygon Cells

Polygon Cells

Number of Sides = 9

Number of Sides = 9

U = 10 , V = 10

U = 10 , V = 10

Lunchbox Plug-In

Lunchbox Plug-In

Polygon Cells

Polygon Cells

Number of Sides = 10

Number of Sides = 10

U=5,V=8

U=5,V=8


SPECIES 6 Iterations 51- 60 Input different geometric patternation via box morph

Box Morph

Reverse List Item

Evaluate Surface

Box Morph

u = 30, v = 30

Evaluate Surface u = 30, v = 30

Evaluate Surface

Evaluate Surface

u = 30, v = 30

u = 30, v = 30

Move - Vector 2pt

Move - Vector 2pt

Random

Random - Magnitude 3

Magnitude 3

Evaluate Surface

Evaluate Surface

u = 15, v = 15

u = 50, v = 50

Move - Vector 2pt

Move - Vector 2pt

Random

Random

Magnitude = 3

Magnitude = 3

Evaluate Surface u = 15, v = 15 Random - Move (Z Dir.)

Move - Vector 2pt

Magnitude = -5

Random Magnitude = 3 Seed = 3

Scale Non - Uniform

Evaluate Surface

Z Vector

u = 15, v = 15

Magnitude = 5

Move - Vector 2pt Random Magnitude = 10 Seed = 5

83


SPECIES Variable

SPECIES 7 Iterations 61- 70 Manipulating Base Geometry ( Points )

ITERATIONS

Move Points

Divide Curve

Populate Geometry

n=2

n = 10 seed = 1

Move Points

Move Points

Random

Random

Magnitude = 5

Magnitude = 15

Move Points

Reference Flat Curve

Random

Boundary

Magnitude = 10

Move Points

Reverse Vector

Random

Move Points

Magnitude = 5

Random

Reverse Vector

Magnitude = 20

Move Points

Move Points

Random

Random

Magnitude = 10

Magnitude = 10

Reverse Vector

84


SPECIES 8 Iterations 71- 80 Hexagonal Patternation

Lunch Box

Attractor Point

1 Surface

n= 3

Extrude x = 10

Lunch Box

Attractor Point

2 Surfaces

n= 1

Loft

Scale NU

Image Sampling

Unit Z

Move

n = 10

Amplitude = 5

Scale NU

Move Reference Surface

Unit Z n=2

Scale NU

Loft 2 Surface with Attractor

Unit X

Point

n=5

85


Case Study 2.0 Technique Development of Successful Species From my selection criteria, 2 of the species proved to be most successful in terms of developing into my design proposal. Some of the key considerations for my design focus on embedding patternation into a wall-like structure which allows for aesthetic interpretation. Furthermore, this design intends to be regressive and decay in time. In order to do so, the species in which i have selected exhibit properties of interweaving threads and complex web-like nodes that build up the patternation within. This geometric articulation must then be able to abstract a natural patternation that resembles a precedent or desired form.

STRUCTURE In addition, if the interwoven elements are to be structurally stable in the form of a wall or screen, it has to pertain certain structural capabilities that is able to withstand vertical and lateral loads. This in turn requires a skeleton or rigid frame that is able to hold up the weight of the structure.

ENGAGEMENT The species are also considered for its ability to engage with the user through a passive decaying method. Therefore room and space for attaching elements such as sponges for filtration or perhaps filaments to trap particles are considered.

FORM Lastly, a form that is able to attract attention through means of form is preferred in order to give the wall a sense of presence on the site. Brearing this in mind, forms that are also structurally feasible is desired.

Of all the iterations produced, Species 3 and 8 are thus far most succesful in achieving the desired result.

86


SPECIES 5 The cross section of the iterations 51 - 60 shows layers of complex web forms interwoven against each other. Both aesthetically and structurally it shows potential in fabrication. Its nodal connectivity will ensure that a skeleton can hold these filaments up. The triangulation of the panels further allow fabrication by unrolling its surfaces. Architecturally speaking, this could be used as a screening device that sits along a busy intersection in the park, whilst doubling as a filtration decide that is housed in the middle of the structure.

SPECIES 8 This species from iterations 81 - 90 explores another aspect of the design breif, whereby a pattern is embedded onto the surface. However, i tasked myself to explore the possibilities and constraints in order to gain an understanding of the limitations during fabrication. The hexagonal cells allow a suitable individual housing units for sponge like elements to be inserted.

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B.5 Technique Proposal: Prototyping and Material Testing The prototyping process proved to be a crucial learning curve in terms of understanding material properties and how real-world physics play a role in our decision making process in grasshopper. Although there are constraints that invariably prohibit some design prosesses, it serves as a reminder of how we have to take into account of fabrication limitations when designing. The lack of capacity for grasshopper to determine the methods that are problematic therefore requires human intervention. Herewithin, we play a role as decision makers and problem solvers. Our ability to innovate and solve complex issues complements the designing phase through grasshopper. It is for this reason that in order to understand the material system better, we are required to create prototypes that identify potential problems and improve upon the fabrication method to achieve the qualities desired. In considering these new technologies available, i am able to turn my concepts into fabricated models with the material logic and real-time information i receive from my prototypes. In return, i am able to integrate my knowledge and understanding of material processes back into the grasshopper script.

PROTOTYPE CONCEPT First and foremost, i intended to test the material systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s structural integrity of the connecting joints. In doing so, i attempted to develop a simple and intuitive connective system that connects contoured sheets with a skeletal structure. Some of the early ideas that i adopted shows a trial and error process in which each of these systems were tested for its structural integrity, ease of fabrication and aesthetic qualities. Furthermore, an array of materials were chosen to demonstrate the effects that these material evoke, as patternation involves choice of material to amplify its effects. I approached the structural system by extracting the delaunay edges through lunchbox plugins and intersected each contour with a pipe. Using the pipe as a pseudo-element, I utilized several materials to connect the plates.

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STAGE 1 FIRST PROTOTYPE ATTEMPT (WEEK 5) PROTOTYPE 1. NODAL JOINTS Derived from one of my early sketches, nodal joints are fixed,rigid and can handle large load with ease. The grasshopper script was downloaded from the grasshopper 3D forum once i realized i had trouble creating nodes with greater than 3 lines connecting it. Several changes and alterations later, i am able to create 2 prototypes of the nodal system, one with transparent ABS spool and the other with opaque white ABS. The reason for changing it is due to the initial idea of creating transparent nodes, however it did not have a nice finish as a result of the 3D printerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s limitations. The white ABS proved to be more successful in terms of aesthetic and finish.

PROTOTYPE 2. PANELLING The undulation of the pattern has the ability to satisfy the architectural function as a facade to shade weather conditions or screen certain view. At the same time, the patterns which are visually striking at certain angles, similar to the original design intent of Mar-keez. Its fabrication method was straightforward and simple, but i encountered a problem of folding the panels in two directions. Furthermore, polypropylene is preferred as it is more malleable and flexible to work with instead of cardboard, with more connection joint possibilities as opposed to cardboard.

PROTOTYPE 3. DIA-GRID SKELETAL FRAMEWORK Using Lunchboxâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s components, i am able to derive a diagrid pattern on the periphery of the form. It holds up the structure quite well, with the exception of the material used. A more flexible tension system could be developed in place of a rigid wireframe due to its highly complex form.

CONCLUSION Amongst the 3 methods, Prototype 3 seems to show most potential in holding up the plates to give the wall a structural framing element. Whilst two others reads slightly better from the digital model, the complexities of fabrication invariably led me to discard those ideas and develop prototype 3 further.

90


91


....continued from stage 1...

1. Contour Plates

2. Tensile Wire

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT 4 LASER-CUT CONTOUR PLATES Drawing ideas from the diagrid in prototype 3, I proceeded to develop a connective system that uses tension from a diagrid web to hold the plates together. Structurally it handles curvatures and angles better than metal wires, and provides a cleaner aesthetic. Furthermore, the contouring element simplifies the fabrication sequence, but preserves the abstract form. The next step would be to determined a suitable method of applying a pattern across the outer edges of the frame/plates.

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3. Clips


STAGE 2: PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT WEEK 6

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT 5 THREADED DIAGRID MESH Building upon the idea of a pattern generated through interwoven meshes in prototype 4, I carved out tiny sockets that allow threads to latch onto, a hence a diagrid structure provides a degree of structural support as well as aesthetic pattern on the periphery. It succeeded in adding complexity towards the patternation, but failed to create the diagrid system coherently as the threads were too flexible and indents were too shallow. 1. Contour Plates

2. Diagrid Cables 3. Foam Structure

PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT 6 LASER CUT TESSELLATION PANELS I did not abandon the previous idea of a tessellated panel in prototype 2 , but however improved upon the connection system that holds the pieces together. I obtained a script through the exlab website that made it easier for me to make tabs for each edge of the panels. Although in terms of joinery detail it is cleaner and much more efficient, the rigid skin does not necessarily provide the structural support required for the wall. It requires a underlying structural system to is able withstand greater forces. However, i can foresee this prototype being improved upon by using polypropylene and using bolts or rivets to hold the pieces together easily. Furthermore, patterns can be easily laser cut through the individual panels to create a highly complex agglomeration of geometries. 1. Triangulated Panel 2. Tabs

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PROTOTYPE PROCESS AFTERTHOUGHTS The tesselated panels remains the most successful in terms of fabrication of the triangulated panels. Using this i will continue to develop a more creative approach to patternation and applying the idea of erosion and decay. Whilst the prototype remains basic and crude, it shows the potential of material systems such as mountboard and perspex which are readily available from the fab-lab. Adding on to that, what we see in virtual Rhinoceros does not necessarily reflect real world possibilities. Therefore taking tiny steps in refining material techniques can be invaluable in the design process especially in Part C, whereby design concept, design atmospheric qualities as well as fabricatiosequence are assessed.

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B.6 Technique : Proposal The brief for CERES market requires an architectural intervention that explores the manipulation of oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s interpretation of perceived images or patterns on an architectural form. Employing the compututation methods in which we have learnt over the past weeks as well as putting it in relevance in contemporary culture, we are asked to critically innovate and introduce parametric architecture at the given site.

1. CERES COMMUNITY CERES Market is a community that provides a platform for sustainable education. Reports indicates that they receive an estimated 400,000 visitors each year, which further establishes CERES park as a engaging environment for promoting sustainability. Using several areas as sustainable alternatives, it proudly maintains nurseries, organic food markets and educational programmes for the benefit of visitors through the communityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s support.

2. DESIGN AGENDA Undeniably, CERES has been able to achieve a strong impact on the community through robust and conventional methods of education and participation. However, the aging site requires a new foundation for establishing current and future relationships between human culture, technology and sustainability. This oppurtunity allows us to affect its users by encouraging new methods of communication as well as appreciation for digital architecture. Therefore through using parametric techniques, embedded materials and patterns is utilized as an educational tool in support of CERESâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s agenda, as well as exhibit the potential of patternation to have an cultural impact on its users via a political and controversial abstractions.

3. SITE ANALYSIS Upon visiting the market, i noticed a converging point through the middle of CERES park that connects two very important vistas. The aim is to not obstruct the flow of these pedestrian flow nor connecting any views of the site, but instead complement the intersection by creating channels that direct and divert the pedestrians along a screen. This effectively places the design as a locus for contemplation and interpretation as one travels through the site. Furthermore, the area stands to benefit from the attention and engagement from the users as it has not been fully utilized as of current observations.

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4. PROPOSAL : ABSTRACTION OF THE EFFECTS OF POLLUTION AT CERES Based upon the concept of decaying architecture and the power of aesthetic appearance, my design concept challenges the perception of sustainability of CERES and its wider community. Drawing precedence from several pollution fighting innovations such as Mexico City’s Manuel Gea González Hospital, the facade absorbs and neutralizes the pollutants within the atmosphere. This concept inspired me to develop a form of contraversial interpretation of pollution and its effects similar to ARM’s design intentions at Swanston Square. In line with that approach, my concept explores the notion of an purification/filtration installation made possible through parametric design patternation. The aim is to abstract and amplify the effects of pollution, and therefore it can be witnessed when the intervention is activated on site. As it decays and erodes over time, it shows the dillusion of the society’s ignorance towards an invisible force of impact towards our environment, air pollution. Through personal contemplation and interpretation, it explores the notion of a degrading element to bring about awareness and highlights a very important matter that has been neglected by the CERES community.

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1.Filtration Element

2.Patternation

3. Wall / Screening

5. DETAIL STRUCTURE STUDY The diagram indicates the necessary elements that makes up the wall. Thus far, it satisfies the requirement by completing the three main elements, filtration element, patternation, wall/screening. However, it lacks any input of information in regards to the site as well as any variation to further develop an interesting pattern, which brings us to the next diagram below.

1.Existing Circulation Path

2.Primary Circulation Path

3. Secondary Circulation

6. FORM STUDY The lack of contextual relationship has led me to insert site specific information within the script. Several primary information was embedded such as the existing circulation path that i intend to preserve. Furthermore, the screen must be permeable and porous in order to allow greater circulation, therfore the a secondary circulation path is proposed.

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7. PROTOTYPE ATTEMPT When drawing up some sketches for the concept, i did not hesitate to try to produce a vague representation of the concept. The successful aspect of this prototype shows a feasible structure made of diagrid wires, and within the core allows further apertures and holes to add further filtration elements

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8. PROTOTYPE LEARNING CURVE In order to further strengthen the concept proposal, i intend to embed a more convincing patternation within the the structure. As of now, the design allows me to only explore prototypes. Although basic and crude, the prototypes allow me to interrogate the effectiveness of materials in response to my design intentions. It also narrows down the conceptual possibilities.

9. INTERIM DESIGN PROPOSAL My interim design proposal is built upon the idea of a filtration system that is integrated within the environment.

Here-within, i propose several prototypes that is derived from my form exploration in B4. I believe that through risk-taking in my explorative process, i am able to learn more and receive feedback as well as suggestions in order to further improve on the design technique. The highlight of the design involves observing the patternation through the cross section of the wall. In my design i have attempted to create fissures within the wall to allow circulation and flow in between the design. Depending on the level of layering, height and density of the cells, the patternation effect is amplified as seen in the rendering in the following page. Furthermore, the interpretative quality is bounded by the idea of users from various background and age groups who perceive, analyse and visuallize the abstracted patternation individually. Thus, it satisfied the design breif in asking for communication and semantic interpretation of the patternation.

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WEEK 6 DESIGN CONCEPT The parametrically designed installation aims to politically critisize the unsustainable actions of human behaviour. By using a method of patternation, it bring about awareness of pollution by means of erosion and decay, and in this regressive manner, it communicates and educates the public through a parametrically designed screen, one that involves interpretation and aesthetic qualities to bring about lasting impact on its viewers.

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Interim Presentation Feedback PROTOTYPING FAILURES AND SUCCESS From the series of prototypes that i have developed, the critique that i received was to further develop the form of tessellated triangulation of panels. It might seem to be more effective to innovate on the simple tab joint as opposed to the complex diagrid structure that I have experimented with. It has thus confirmed my doubts in regards to the feasibility of each prototype when I thought most of my prototypes to have failed and did not work as I hoped. However, I was given assurance that failure in the prototyping process was normal, and that by producing multiple prototypes, the critiques are able to assess and critique upon the effectiveness of each prototype’s joinery system and give constructive feedback on the most successful ones.

DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPT AFTER WEEK 7

Parasitic Architecture Upon my own reflection and consideration , I will follow the former design agenda and concept of decaying architecture, but modify the approach as to follow the area of strength of my prototype. As suggested by the critiques Rosie and Caitlyn, the tessellated structure can be adhered to a tree or existing element to function as a playground. Using that idea, i explored the possibilities of ‘parasitic architecture’. By sharing the structural properties of the existing element, I can focus on the patternation design, and derive formal inputs based on the site context in which it is applied.

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B.7 Learning Outcomes Part B Design Criteria Process

Concept

As I specialize further in the areas of parametric possibilities (patternation), I begin to develop an even greater understanding for limitations and potentials in algorithmic thinking. In Part B we have attempted to use grasshopper as a method for form finding, in which experts refer to as “digital morphogenesis”.1 This generative approach requires us to follow a sequence of construction, operation and selection which has been intensively explored and developed to complement the design brief.

CONSTRUCTION , OPERATION , SELECTION EXPANDING DESIGN IDEAS IN RERELATION TO CULTURAL CONTEXT OF PATTERNATION

Parametric Control

In completing the learning tasks that have been assigned, it is evident that theory of parametric systems becomes of importance when designing and processing in ’three-dimensional media’. Visual programming and parametric modelling helped me to construct different architectural applications, and different modes of optimisation helps in decision making. For me as a designer, developing the skills to modify and manipulate scripts as well as reverse engineer actual projects has provided me with a good foundation for deepening my parametric vocabulary. This has helped me reverse engineer multiple projects, and subsequently to develop a script that has become unique and develop-able in my own capacity.

ITERATIONS

DESIGN CREATIVITY AND DISCOVERY I also discovered that my creative expression is embedded in the scripting process, in tune with my understanding of data structuring methods in grasshopper. It frames the possibilities of my design but the design possibilities can sometimes go beyond our imagination. Moreover, the fabrication process highlights issues of parametric design and the requirement of human craftsmanship. Instead I have come to understand that performance are considered not in isolation or in linear progression, but simultaneously, and are engaged early on in the conceptual stages of the project. 2

Prototyping

DESIGN PROPOSAL AND CRITICAL THINKING NARROWING OF IDEAS AND PROTOTYPING SELECTIVE PROCESS IN PROTOTYPING PHASE

Analysis and Rationalization

INTERIM FEEDBACK AND CRITIQUE

My design proposal intends to abstract sustainability issues in the our declining environmental climate and provide a platform for communicating socio-cultural issues via parametric design. In doing so, i have been focusing in particular on the visual and aesthetic engagement created by the parametric script and how geometrical patterns can have a lasting impact. In saying so, the spatial qualities of my designs are emphasized and explored in virtual form and subsequently prototypes. In relation to parametric design, the complex geometries would not have been possible without computation techniques. It has been a challenging process as much as it has been rewarding to extend my design skills.

CONCLUSION Design Proposal

106

More time needs to be spent on refining my design concept as it has been relatively disorganized due to the detached development of ideas in relation to discoveries in Part B. I will attempt to consolidate my ideas from this stage and present it more clearly in the following stage, Part C.


“The context of design becomes an active abstract space that directs from within a current of forces that can be stored as information in the shape of the form.”3 - Greg Lynn

1.

Branko Kolaveric (2014). ‘Computing the Performative’, ed. bu Rivka Oxman and Rover Oxman, pp.103-111. (p105)

2.

Mark Burry (2011). Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming (Chichester: Wiley) pp. 8 -71 (p10)

3.

Kolaveric, Branko and Kevin R. Klinger, eds (2008). Manufacturing Material Effects: Rethinking Design and Making in Architecture (New York; London: Routledge), pp.6-24 107


Algorithmic Sketchbook 2 108


Week 3 Algorithmic Task Fractal Geometries Hoop Snake Weaverbird

Week 4 Algorithmic Task Field Lines

NTP Algorithmic Task

Week 5 Algorithmic Task Relative Item Path Mapper

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FRACTAL GEOMETRIES 110


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FRACTAL GEOMETRIES 112


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WEAVERBIRD Weaverbirdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Mesh editing capabilities can transform mesh faces into smooth and organic shapes. Catmull-Clarkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s smoothing technique creates varying degrees of smoothing. In this exercise, I edited the meshes so that it creates an organic like manifestation of forms to obtain segments of tiny storage spaces.

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HOOPSNAKE The Hoopsnake Plug-In supports recursive loop of data that repeats an underlying algorithmic logic. Similar to fractal designs, it multiplies a singular geometries to achieve a greater complexity in form. In the rendering to the left, it shows the combination of hoopsnake and weaverbird components to produce a form that is stumbled upon by chance.

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PATH MAPPER The path mapper function also proved to be a valuable tool in grasshopper, whereby the shifting of data lists is crucial in certain cases where non-linear data matching is required. In my algorithmic sketch, i attempted to create a grid frame that resembles a pavillion of shorts in which the grid frame is supported by diagonal trusses. It therefore provides the canopy with adequate support and bracing.

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RELATIVE ITEM Relative Item is a another similar approach to managing data list matching. It matches data across different list numbers, thus creating a similar effect as path mapper. My algorithmic sketch further explores the idea of exoskeletons holding up a facade/ screen. This frame and infill approach highlights the complexities of support trusses and is balanced with the smooth purity of white washed screens. Both elements seem to complement each other in aesthetic and structure.

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Part C: Detailed Design 122


C.1 Design Concept Design Precedent Refining and Redefining the Concept Ceres Community Park Fold Finding, A Form Finding Process? Form Finding Process Form Finding Matrix

C.2 Tectonic Fabrication Prototype 1 Ron Resch Origami Fold Prototype 2 Polypropylene Skeletal Frame Prototype 3 Polypropylene Flexible Nodal Joint Prototype 4 Ron Resch Origami with Patternation Prototype 5 Aluminium Sheet Prototype 6 Mild Sheet Prototype 7 Vac Form with ABS Plastics Final Form Final Design Proposal

C.3 Final Detail Model Mild Steel Fabrication Mild Steel Assembly Vac Form Fabrication Fabrication of Site Model

C.4 Reflection Future and Further Development Learning Outcomes 123


C.1 Design Concept

FOLD-FINDING

The exploration of the humble origami. Based on individual feedbacks previously, the next phase of our design brings us towards refining the design concept in parallel with fabrication of a design tectonic that encapsulates our design intention. Our design centres around the origami as a traditional tectonic, utilizing its innate abilities to transform and manipulate its form to help drive our politcally influence design agenda for CERES community park. As proven and analyzed by Derek previously in Part B, the tectonic has shown great potential to be developed and tested. The intention is to also merge our concepts whilst putting the origami tectonic as our the centre of our design exploration and parametric manipulation. Part C documents the discovery of the origamiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s physical properties alongside the attempts to put our understanding of the origami within our design breif, ultimately leading us towards our final design concept titled â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Fold-Findingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;.

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DESIGN PRECEDENT

1. RESONANT CHAMBER by RVTR

126

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Adjustable & Flexible use of origami Computational testing/Modelling Dynamic Surface Geometries; Performative Material Systems; and Variable Actuation and Response. Modify aesthetic form while simultaneously manipulating spatial environmental quality. Customized transformations based on input criteria of optimization investigation of robotic architectures and responsive envelopes.


1.

self-supporting folded architectural work that utilizes traditional origami techniques (both aesthetic and structural)

2. 3. 4.

avoid the need of any sub-structure. use of algorithms necessary to take advantage of the material’s innate surface rigidity. uses surface tension as its structural foundation, replacing traditional construction methods utilizing individual panels, as its composition is of a single material.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Optimizes fabrication time and building tolerances. the ‘fold finding’ pavilion’s rigid folds are further locked by angled bends in crucial areas. interconnected surfaces. illustrating the possibilities of folded structures in full-scale architectural design.

the method may have further applications in fields such as: deployable structures, shading systems, public or private architecture, and more.

10. nothing can be added nor subtracted from the thin shell without compromising surface rigidity

2. FOLD-FINDING BY TAL FRIEDMAN

& structure

11. the project resembles origami not only structurally & aesthetically, but in its fabrication as well

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REFINING AND REDEFINING THE CONCEPT

DESIGN CONCEPT BY DEREK : THE ORIGAMI Seeing the origami as a variable base for further tectonics, we will use the folding properties of the origami to first develop a form. Its strongest trait is its ability to be a form finding tool for materials formed in a singular piece. Our intention is to then use the geometric variation to intensify patternation, the fundamental communicative tool architecture precedes in direct consequence to its evocative quality. Therefore, its adaptive properties together with its singular ,non-modular constructability puts forward a new tectonic that simplifies fabrication techniques, but remain compelling in its innate complexities established from within the origami system.

DESIGN CONCEPT BY JEREMY :THE PARASITE We further narrow our proposal towards a architectural intervention in the form of a wall that is interpreted as a parasite that feeds and contrasts its host (Van Raay Center). The decomposition of the facade begins to signify a superficial and artificial interaction of the origami, the novelty, and the timber cladded facade, the standard. This symbiotics is a direct reference back to our initiale deisgn proposal that seeks to expose our destructive and cancerous compumtive behaviour. Nevertheless, it is not the sole characteristic, as the unfolding of the origami then shows an attempt of humans to create and improve the living conditions of present. Therefore its simultaneous projection of the negative and the positive is ultimately a conversational tool, that formalises and expresses a underlying societal condition.

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129


FOLD-F

JEREMY CHEANG &

Our Wall is a Living Organism that tries to feed

To expose the parasitic nature of the human cons and unfolding of the origami challenges the perc

Unfolding and folding, revealing and concealme of an origami tectonic decomposes the structur once again closer to nature through synthesiz

We propose the use of the origami as a reorganiz origami to reorganize itself to develop a new form an origami, one being the folded nature of the

When folded it serves as a wall displacing th unfolding, overshadowing the existing fu

Hence, patternation and ornamentation on feature, and the investigation with origam contemporary societyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hunger for provoki

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FINDING

& DEREK LIANG HU

d , reveal and/or conceal its host (ie. CERES).

sumption in the contemporary society, the folding ception of visitors at the Site in a form of imagery.

ent, the transformation of the natural properties re through parametric means, bringing humans zing technology with the natural environment.

zing system. Its parametric condition allows the m that effectively shows two contrasting effects of origami and the other smoothened unfolding.

he existing facade, the other the smoothened unctional elements, becoming a canopy.

nce again stands to unite as a architectural mi intends to push the boundaries of the ing and thoughtful architectural solutions.

131


CERES COMM

fo

STUDIO AIR | TITLE

132


MUNITY PARK

or

ED “PICTURE THIS”

133


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LOOKING AT CERES COMMUNITY PARK The Van Raay center is experiencing a deteriorating state as observed in our site analysis. Its use of timber wooden facade in effect harmonizes its greater surrounding of CERES and its constituent facilities, which altogether puts forward a strong and austere message of CERES’s sustainable agenda Not wanting to take its strong stance on CERES’s sustainable ethos in Van Raay Building’s eastern facade our intervention must match if not put forward a stronger message for its users and community. Also, putting the origami and its parasitic nature into the context of a wall, we also begin to explore the functional characteristics that the origami offers beyond its primary communicative ability. Several Issues that need to be addressed for the Van Raay center include: 1.

The Gutter Tray that diverts water into a grey-water storage facility for treatment and future reuse.

2.

Meeting Room behind the facade, the possibility of incorporating and bringing external elements inwards, bridging a already highly

3.

Site Path that channels a important arterial circulation path between the visitor centre and the Merri Cafe.

4.

Bike Stands that is unshaded and unprotected with minimal attention given to the location and site.

2

MEETING SPACE

BIKE STAND

4 1

GUTTER

3

SITE CIRCULATION

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4. MERRI TABLE CAFE 1. DECAYING TIMBER FACADE

CIRCULATION SITE USES 2. BIKE PARK AREA

3.VISITOR CENTRE

SITE CIRCULATION & ITS FOCAL POINT AT CERES The shaded cantilever provides a crucial circulation that connects the visitor center and the merri cafe. Therefore,this aspect of the walkway must be preserved and improved. Further more its central location is immediately chanced upon upon arrival. Its focal point can be an opputunity to apply elements of decoration and patternation across the facade. This ensures maximum exposure and frontality throughout the area.

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â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;FOLD-FINDINGâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, A FORM FINDING PROCESS ? FORM FINDING Form-finding refers to the specific intention to use iterative processes to determine a suitable design solution given by an algorithm. More specifically, it generates a form based on certain parameters within our control, thereby deliberately limiting the outcomes while at the same time directing the algorithm to produce a certain design possibility with the best result. Its limitation and freedom comes as a advantage as well as disadvatange in many respects. We are currently in the process of determining a suitable form based on design criterias that we will attempt to resolve through grasshopper and computation. Herewithin, the progressive process (species) illustrates the tools and thought process behind the control and manipulation of the algorithm. Our processes are also documented (shown further) to justify the selection process of suitable and perhaps even unanticipated outcomes as a result of parametric design.

OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES In this process, we are also seeking to solve isues with the algorithm alon`g the way, as the algorithm was continuously updated and adapted to the problems. Even more surprising, our process of form finding led us towards an entirely new algorithmic logic that opened up even greater oppurtunities that we had not anticipated. As a result it had a profound impact on the design choices that we made further down the design process. Nonetheless, we are hoping to develop our algorithmic skills while at the same time develop a fabrication tectonic that corresponds to the form and algorithm.

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It begins.

1

2

3

4

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SPECIES 1 - SURFACE VARIATION 1. THE WALL We are exploring origami on a larger scale and how the natural properties of origami can be developed into a basic architectural element : A Wall. 2. NATURAL ORIGAMI FOLDING The origami is defined by certain parameters that can be computationally simulated. 3.NATURAL ORIGAMI FOLDING The origami is defined by certain parameters that can be computationally simulated. 4. ATTRACTOR POINTS Site specific input of data can be parametrically simulated to produce a form

UNFOLDING AND FOLDING PARASITE

The single sheet of origami is attached as a parasite , disrupting the natural flow of pedestrians.

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5

6

140


SPECIES 2 - PATTERN VARIATION with ATTRACTOR POINTS & GRAPH MAPPER 5. ATTRACTOR POINTS

Attractor Points create a transition of geometry, an attempt

to encourage exploration of patternation on the wall 6. UNARY FORCE : UNDULATION The wall is pushed inwards to create an undulation of the wall. The points are defined by pressure points and walk paths to create an undulation.

UNARY FORCE & ATTRACTOR POINTS

The origami wall becomes fluid, undulating and encourages exploration from the front as well as from behind.

141


7

8

142


SPECIES 3 - DEFORMATION with UNARY FORCE & ANCHOR POINTS 7. UNARY FORCE ( X - DIRECTION ) X- Direction Unary Force Pushes the origamiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s deformation to enhance the fluid motion, also creating a canopy that grows from the wall 8. UNARY FORCE ( X / Y- Direction ) Origami generates new forms and further accentuate the folding and unfolding properties of the origami tectonic. 9. ATTRACTOR POINT The attractor point is pulled further apart to enable a gradient of metaball bumps and perforations. The attractor points then inform the intensity of patternation and gradient.

WALL BECOMES A NEW SPACE

Amplification of values pushes the origami to form a new space around and beneath the form.

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9

10

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SPECIES 4 - ADRESSING DESIGN CRITERIAS 9. ATTRACTOR POINT The attractor point is pulled further apart to enable a gradient of metaball bumps and perforations. The attractor points then inform the intensity of patternation and gradient. 10. GRASSHOPPER BY MISTAKE The origami was accidentally left alone and created an interesting form of a canopy because of the mistake in referencing tree branches. Thus a blanket was draped over the verandah and seemed appropriate to add a companion for the existing origami to provide additional shading for the bike stands.

PARASITE

BECOMES A NEW SPACE The wall structure intends to share the structural system of the existing facade as well WALL as soffit to support the weight of the installation, Amplification of values pushes the origami to form a new space around and beneath the form. with certain elements feeding internally. 145


11

12

146


SPECIES 5 - PARAMETRIC RESPONSE TO SITE 11. SHADE/WATER COLLECTION/ FACADE The undulation of the wall hasmultiple functions in addition to the folding and unfolding. 12. WALL BECOMES A SPATIAL AFFECTOR The undulation of the wall creates new spatial experiences within the rigid rectilinear space

ORIGAMI CAN BE A WALL AND ALSO A CANOPY OR EVEN MORE

A canopy was formed as a result of excessive upward deformation, but this accidental discovery was added as a companion to the larger origami as a shelter for bicycle racks147


THE FORM FINDING MATRIX ITERATIVE DESIGN As our design also emphasizes heavily on the iterative quality of the origami, we have developed a matrix with 5 species according to the before mentioned requirements. Algorithmic designâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s fundamental advantage of iterative processes is therefore applied in our form-finding phase. A selection criterion is developed to guide our decision making process for the facade, however more importantly, the design is a incremental development of the script and fabrication techniques. Thereby, this matrix represents not a linear progression, but rather development of feedback and input from our learning objectives from fabrication of prototypes and visual analysis of the folding patternation.

LEARNING OUTCOMES & SELF CRITIQUE FROM ITERATIONS Below shows the complexities of the origami, whereby to control and achieving a stable manipulation of the origami to allow for form finding methods requires physical studies through prototypes. Simply allowing Kangaroo to simulate how the origami would interact alone is insufficient to formulate a tectonic. Thereby the iterative approach not only shows the possibilities of the origami, but also informs us and addresses issues with the design, prompting us to immediately rectify or modify our appraoch. This aspect is design is hugely successful in improving our understanding of the origami, both as a simultaneous approach.

OBJECTIVES In undergoing the iterative process, we are hoping to gradually control aspects of handling the algorithm so as to satisfy several design criterias simultaneously in a progressive and rigorous manner. This approach of building upon data can then better inform us of our choices as opposed to conventional isolation of decision making processes.

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SPECIES Variable

SPECIES 1 Iterations 1 - 6 Surface Variation

ITERATIONS

149


SPECIES 2

SPECIES

Iterations 7- 12

Variable

Pattern Deformation (Before Origami Simulation)

ITERATIONS

150

Species 2.1 - Attractor Point

Species 2.2 - Graph Mapper


SPECIES 3 Iterations 13 - 18 Deformed Folding Anchor Points + Unary Force

151


SPECIES ` Variable

SPECIES 4.1 Iterations 19 - 24 Design Criteria: Spatial Deformation

ITERATIONS

152


SPECIES 4.2 Iterations 25 - 30 Criteria Design: Main Access

153


SPECIES Variable

SPECIES 4.3 Iterations 31 - 36 Design Criteria: Wall and Canopy

ITERATIONS

154


SPECIES 4.4 Iterations 37 - 42 Criteria Design: Site Response: Facade and Window Intersection

155


SPECIES Variable

SPECIES 5 Iterations 43 - 48 Additional Canopy

ITERATIONS

156


SUCCESSFUL SPECIES Iterations 42 & 43

This species address the design criteria with a great balance of undulation and folding whilst solving the issue of intersecting origami faces. Furthermore, aesthetically it is striking, incising itself into the facade itself to feed into the interior space of the Van Raay Centre.

AESTHETIC CONSTRUCTABILITY SITE RESPONSE

This iteration is the mediation of both succesful species, but it emphasizes on maximising the potential of the origami to have multiple functions, let it be a canopy or a facade. Furthermore, it is easier for fabrication when the origami is split apart, therefore suggesting another possible way of using the fold-finding technique for architectural applications AESTHETIC CONSTRUCTABILITY SITE RESPONSE

This species is the most aesthetetically interesting amongst the others, with the origami folding and unfolding to form a partial wall as well a canopy. This form allows for a single sheet of material to have a dual function, altogether being structural sound as well. AESTHETIC CONSTRUCTABILITY SITE RESPONSE

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THE ALGORITHMIC SCRIPTING PROCESS ALGORITHM PROGRESS 1. FOLDING VARIATION To achieve our desired effect of an undulating form, we had to break apart the initial origami component from Kangaroo. After the modifications were made, attractor points allowed us to have full control of magnitude of folding and unfolding of each Ron Resch Pattern.

ALGORITHM PROGRESS 2. DEFORMATION AND PATTERNATION Having able to achieve an uneven folding and folding of the origami, we were then interested in breaking the initial pattern prior to Kangaroo physicâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s simulation. By altering the logic behind the acquirement of the mountain and valley folds, we were very close to achieving the desired effect of a deformed base pattern. Furthermore, we applied our previous knowledge of attractor points and graph mappers to have a controlled deformations. This allows us to utilize the origami according to site specific information, together allowing this algorithim to perform and simulate foldings as instructed. Further downstream, we were also able to manipulate the deformation with Kangaroo components such as Unary Force and Anchor Points to simulate actual physics conditions. Altogether this algorithm is able to maximise the potential of the origami as a foldfinding tool but still addresses the inconsistencies of the origami folding. Several issues such as overlapping faces as a result of deformed patterns were also addressed by using Kangaroo physics components such as Sphere collide. The result was a satisfcatory completion of a resolved script that could allow us to further fabricate the design.

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1:

2:

3:

LUNCH BOX DIAMOND GRID

CONSTRUCTING ISOCELES TRIANGLES

RON RESCH PATTERN:

A base grid must be created to obtain points,

With an indexing logic constructed, isoceles

whereby further indexing would allow abstraction

triangles can be connected and constructed. This

The isoceles traingles from the grid is

of points to create a desired pattern.

is the primary geometry that must be constructed

rotated by 45 degrees, thereby arranging the

and is preferably parametric therefore allowing

isoceles triangles in a staggered manner,

easy manipulation of the grid span and width.

similar to that of the Ron Resch Pattern.

ROTATING ISOCELES TRAINGLES

1A: VARIABLE CONTROL : RON RESCH GRID SPAN & WIDTH

To control the amount of Ron Resch Pattern horizontally.

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VARIATION ALGORITHM 1

4:

5:

6:

CONSTRUCTING MOUNTAIN/VALLEY CURVES

KANGAROO: ORIGAMI COMPONENT

KANGAROO SIMULATION

Kangaroo readily supports the origami simulation,

Kangaroo has the ability to render and simulate the

The next stage involves drawing lines in between

with the exception of important input values. The input

origami foldings, thereby allowing visual observation of

indexed points to obtain mount curves and valley

components must consist of a mesh and its respective

the origami foldings. At this stage, there remains issues

curves. This is a fundamental property of origamis,

origami folding curves. There is also an aspect of

such as intersecting faces and unreadable geometry

whereby the foldings are determined by the foldind

variation by manipulating its folding magnitude.

which requires further improvement and modifications.

WEAVERBIRD: SIMPLE MESH

curves (mountain and valley) and thereby crucial to the algorithm. It is again preferably parametric to allow easy manipulation of the density.

6A: VARIABLE CONTROL : ATTRACTOR POINT

With the attractor point, non-uniform folding is achieved , which creates a topological variation. This manifold adds complexity and has the potential to generate poetic forms as a result.

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1:

2:

3:

LUNCHBOX : HEXAGON GRID

VECTOR 2PT

ATTRACTOR POINT/ GRAPH MAPPER VARIATION

To provide a supporting base grid for further

In order for deformation to occur, the patternation

The attractor point and graph mapper receives the

development of the Ron Resch patternation.

needs to be changed before Kangaroo simulates the

information based on distance. In our case, this can

origami folding. Attractor points requires reference

be used to reference crucial points on the site, and

points, therefore vector 2pt creates a distance

consequently affect the degree of folding of the origami.

based relationship for the deformation to occur.

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3A:

3B:

6A:

VARIABLE CONTROL : ATTRACTOR POINT

VARIABLE CONTROL :GRAPH MAPPER

VARIABLE CONTROL : UNARY FORCE

To locate points for regions with high gradient,

To control and manipulate the degree of deformation,

To simulate hand deformations to the origa

creating the patternation effect as desired.

as in some instances relationship with the attractor

as well as control the undulation as it is th

point as demonstrated in the demonstarction video.

inherent and major property of the origami


ami,

he

i.

DEFORMATION ALGORITHM 2

4:

5:

6:

CONSTRUCTING VALLEY/MOUNTAIN FOLD CURVES

WEAVERBIRD: MESH MANIPULATION

KANGAROO PHYSICS: ORIGAMI

KANGAROO PHYSICS: SPHERE COLLIDE This stage extracts valley and mountain

The final stage is the simulation of the origami,

fold curves that is fed into the origami

We have to first triangulate any quad meshes that

whereby anchor points and also unary forces

component from Kangaroo Physics.

will create bad geometries that interferes with the

simulate real physical situations. This allows us to

proper and smooth folding of the origami. Furthermore,

manipulate the origami based on our interaction

sphere collide prevents inward folding of the faces that

with our prototype, as well as reflect it on the

intersect and hence prohibit fabrication. This stage is

digital model to provide an accurate simulation.

the troubleshooting stage that is crucial for a readible geometry as well as usable mesh output for fabrication.

6B: VARIABLE CONTROL : ANCHOR POINTS

To address the issue of areas for attachment of the origami, wherebyt he anchor point represents area of high stress and low deformation, therefore allowing us to model and simulate an actual feasible and fabricatable model.

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C.2 Tectonic Fabrication

Translating the digital into the physical The next phase is fairly lengthy, but it demonstrates the crucial aspect of the discontinuities between virtual modelling and physical fabrication. More often than not, physical aspects of materiality, fabrication and assembly holds limitations to the scope of design that we attempt to develop. Even with latest fabrication technologies, there remains a unresolved disjunction between conceptual designs and physical realities. This is experienced in our attempt to mimic,modify and break apart the origami. Even with a great understanding of its physical properties, we have encountered problems that have forced us to make design decisions that deviate greatly from the original concept. The different avenues that we have attempted also shows the adaptability of the parametric computational design to utilize different materiality in a multitude of options. The tectonic strategies are diversified in the beginning and slowly narrowed down in order to further limit the algorithmic procedure, with the ultimatum being a fixed rigid system. This cements the algorithm development and therefore allows progress back in the process of form-finding. The restrictions of the physical and the digital crosses paths more often than we like, perhaps algorithmic design may offer a solution as documented in the following...

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CONCEPT 1 : KINETIC FACADE PROTOTYPES

RON RESCH PATTERN ORIGAMI

Acquire a basic understanding of the origami

To achieve a greater sense of variability, our first phase was to push beyond the uniform folding of the origami. The aesthetic of the origami which inspired us to develop a functional wall that is responsive to site conditions has the potential to improve CERESâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sustainable education agenda in a patternation approach. `

SKELETAL FRAMEWORK

166

Attempt to modify folding principle of the origami through experimentation


KEY OBJECTIVES Allow variation in grasshopper’s parametric plug-in Kangaroo Physics. Attractor Points that provide input data for actuation Rack and Pinion mechanism for origami deformation Joint System which allows fluid transformation between folded and unfolded state. Investigation of material that fulfill’s origami tectonic’s Investigate the physical properties of the origami folding, due to inconsistency with grasshopper simulation.

TAB SYSTEM

To increase flexibility and freedom of movement

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PROTOTYPE 1 - Ron Resch Origami Trial Prototype

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1/2

The first prototype was an attempt to better understand the physical properties of the origami in order to improve the algorithm produced previously. What we learnt from this prototype was that several physical influences were not accounted for. The flexture of the origami as illustrated in the sequence diagram shows its variable geometry when applied force, creating a gradient of folded and unfolded faces.

3/4

Extracting this as an idea to apply to a patterned facade proposed two initial ideas: 1. 2.

Kinetic facade actuated and responsive Static facade with variated geometry.

MOUNTAIN FOLD

5/6

VALLEY FOLD

7/8

FOLDING EDGES

9/10

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170


1. 2.

3.

During the folding process, large amounts of force is applied onto the edge of these vertices. To reduce the stress, these curve edges were cut in a dashed pattern, thus weakening the edges, while still forming a connection between the faces. These intentional line of weaknesses guides the folding of the origami.

What we learnt was that this connection was simple and effective, and allows the form to be created from a single sheet of element. This is the biggest advantage of the origami, but it greatly limited by the size and dimensions of the sheet of material.

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PROTOTYPE 2 - Polypropylene Kinetic Facade Skeletal Frame Motivated and interested in a kinetic facade with the possibility of being responsive, we attempted to solve the first problem of scale and modularity, the tectonic and repetitive element. To increase the area of the facade, the fundamental property of the origami of a single sheet would be impossible. Another major issue was the possibility of fabrication, whereby it would exceed the fabrication limitations of the laser cutting dimensions. Our solution was to create a flexible skeletal framework with attached panels. An extensive array of the skeletal network would then be connected.

1. SCREW BOLTS

2. PERSPEX

3. CLEAR 0.6 POLYPROPYLENE

The idea was to then initiate the flexture through an actuator from nodes. The problems that we identified are mainly concerned with the integrity of the tesselation. As a direct consequence of this, the flexture and its components could not allow a smooth and uninterrupted folding of the origami. This prompted up to develop another system of integrated panels through individual joint connections between each tesselation (Prototype 3). We were trying to achieve a better structural solution that could recreate the origamiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s foldable nature so as to enable the actuation to have lower tolerance and transformation issues.

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PROTOTYPE 2 STIFFNESS & RIGIDITY ISSUES

PROTOTYPE 2 ASSEMBLY DIAGRAM


PROTOTYPE 3 - Polypropylene Flexible Nodal Joint

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PROTOTYPE 3 CONCEPT DIAGRAM

Issues with Prototype 3 arises with the wrong choice of material as well as oversight of the nodal capacity to withstand frequent flexture which eventually detiororates the folding capacity and leading to damage and tearing. Otherwise, we also realised that the joints when folded together will be impossible to achieve a complete folding. Furthermore, the number of nodes are infusfficient. We speculate that with a 2nd supporting node along each edge, the overall structural integrity of the nodes would improve significantly, allowings smoother and less careless folding of the origami. 174


Primarily, the flexible nodal points in the middle was an oversight of folding edge seams that created a twisting deformation of the Ron Resch pattern. Althought the foldability of the form was significantly improved and would be solved with an extra joint fixture, we discovered that the individual pieces would encounter problems of alignment on the edge vertices. Their mismatchment and collisions proved to be a complex issue that would require additional bracing in order to prevent its deformation.

1

2

Our greater concern lies within the problem of exponential increase in the overall form of the origami if applied across an entire facade. This attempt at creating a kinetic facade was also accompanied by a simple motorized actuator system with Arduino and stepper motors (Prototype 3). A rack and pinion system could provide the necessary force to deform the origami across several nodes. Unfortunately, this kinetic facade system was not feasible within our time frame and technical knowledge, therefore this prompted us to return to our 2nd option. 1. VALLEY FOLDING

2. MOUNTAIN FOLDING

PROTOTYPE 3 COMPONENT ISSUES

175


PROTOTYPE 3 ASSEMBLY DIAGRAM

PROTOTYPE 3 CONCEPT DIAGRAM

176


177


CONCEPT 2 : RIGID DEFORMED GEOMETRY PROTOTYPES

PROTOTYPE 5

PEFORATION & METABALL PATTERNATION Acquire a basic understanding of the origami

Following the problematic issues with flexible joinery from prototypes 2 and 3 we stumbled upon the discovery of a new logic for formulating the Ron Resch Pattern. It allows us to modify and subsequently deform the tessealation of the origami to create a highly articulated geometry with unique triangles, but it retains the logic of the origami â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s folding properties. Hence, we altered our conceptual tectonic towards a rigid and non-movable tectonic, but instead enforces and accentuates patternation through articulation of geometries that follows origamiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s properties. Additionally, at this stage, we also had to divert our key objectives towards tasks that enable the tectonic to function and fabricate

178


BOLT & TAB SYSTEM

Universal application of joinery with high level of tolerance

MILD STEEL

Attempt to modify folding principle of the origami through experimentation

179


PROTOTYPE 4 : PATTERNATION

180


The rationale behind returning to our 2nd proposal was to highlight the efficiency of the origamiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s structural properties. It acheives variation and patternation within the folded sheet, relying on deformation and forces that is unified. This advantage can be an oppurtunity to develop a facade of structural efficiency whilst achieving ornamentation. As mentioned and studied before, the origami does not deform in a uniform manner unless each and every single vertice is applied with a uniform force. Rather, locating pressure points and anchoring nodal points produces a flexture that propogates in an undulating manner across the surface. z As seen in prototype 4, we utilized a thinner sheet of polypropylene (0.3mm) to achieve an easier flexture which requires less force, and produces less resistance in its elasticity and plastic deformity. More importantly, we are merging perforations and bumps together with the folding and unfolding of the origami to create a composite structure. It shares a gradient that spreads across the surface according to folding and unfolding data (remap values).

1. ANCHOR POINTS

2. UNARY FORCE

PROTOTYPE 4 CONCEPT DIAGRAM 181


1. ATTRACTOR POINT

2. ANCHOR POINTS

182


183


PROTOTYPE 4 CONCEPT DIAGRAM

This prototype in many ways bridges our understanding of the properties of origami. Its advantages and its limitations from previous prototype studies is an example of the complex nature of plastic deformations in polypropylene material. Polypropylene is very effective in exhibiting the undulating and transformational properties of the origami. In fact, its morphosis and alterations has the ability to generate an inexhaustible pool of iterations, demonstrating the potentials of the origami to generate a form. that could be applied to our context. Our scope of exploration also requires us to consider the structural properties of the installation. The structural performance proplypropylene is very poor in comparison with rigid materials available for laser cutting such as aluminium, mountboard and MDF. As so, this leads us to our next explorative phase of understanding material properties in response to our origami tectonic understanding. 184


PROTOTYPE 4 TECTONIC JOINERY 185


PROTOTYPE 5 : ALUMINIUM SHEET

PROTOTYPE 5 TECTONIC JOINERY 186


Our first choice of material that mediates the need of structural capability and formal legibility of the origami was aluminium. The fabrication process of the aluminium sheet with CNC routing does not differ with that of the previous laser cutting works previously, therefore we have opted for the lighter alternative of aluminium sheet. In correlation, the formal legibility of the origami is preserved effectively through the tesselation, as it was our primary selection criteria for material choice. Our other options included fabric or paper, but it lacks the structural advantage of metal. Another significant development of this prototype was a much more resolved joint system. The use of tabs across the edges had the main advantage of the concealment of the construction joints, altogether ensuring the formal legibility of the origami patternation is visible. This draws from the precedent of the fold-finding pavilion which effectively accentuates the folding valleys and mountain foldings.

ALGORITHM CONCEPT

PROTOTYPE 5 TECTONIC JOINERY

PROTOTYPE 5 TECTONIC JOINERY 187


The prototype demonstrates a better resolved structural solution to the origami parametric deformation. The foldings is coherent across the folding elements and the material demonstrated a high level of flexibility in its malleability and tolerance levels. Also, the fabrication method of off-the-shelve bolts was effective. The tectonic of the folded tab system has proven to achieve a satisfactory finish on the inner face of the origami, but suffers from material inefficiency. In our prototype, the use of tabs on all edges of the facets significantly increases the amount of material usage, altogether increasing fabrication time, consumption as well as assembly time. A possible further iteration of conjoining these facets to increase efficiency across several issues motivated us to return to the fundamental advantage of the origami, the possibility of joining several facets in a series.

188


PROTOTYPE 5 TECTONIC JOINERY 189


The tectonic system is refined meticulously in interrogating the physical properties of the origami. As already observed, our attempts to control the folding effect of the origami is deceptively complex, and in many ways presents opportunities for further exploration. To name a few, the deformation, the folding scale, and its flexture. However, our design intentions to translate the conceptual to the physical can demonstrate our control of the design parametrically. Throughout the prototyping process, input of our knowledge cannot be emphasized enough. Not only does it challenge us to make important and sometimes critical decisions, it significantly changes the directions of the design. Our scripting process comes in stages that accompanies the prototyping process. Our final script is developed in parallel to our prototype stages, therefore its gradual increase in complexity and performance.

PROTOTYPE 6 FABRICATION LAYOUT 190


PROTOTYPE 6 : MILD STEEL The final model was produced with a fibre laser cutter in contrast with the CO2 laser cutter due to changes in materiality. The aluminium sheet is replaced with mild steel available through the engineering facility, and its properties are slightly varied. The stronger and less malleable alternative of mild steel was selected due to several restricting factors of the laser cutter, which does not work effectively under a highly reflective surface. Nonetheless, the structural integrity remains integral to our design intent and therefore appropriated for the design. As a progression to our previous prototype and a proof of concept of our design concept, perforations were included across each facet. This significant design intent would best demonstrate its effectiveness once fabricated, and also give us an initial idea of the fabrication complications that would arise, as well as laser cutting times.

ITERATIONS FOR IMPROVING ASSEMBLY FINISH By removing the tip of the edges during laser cutting, it simplifies the fabrication process to prevent uneven bending.

PROTOTYPE 6 TECTONIC DETAILING 191


PROTOTYPE 7 : VAC FORMING METABALL Our design also utilizes metaballs apart from perforations as a patterning element. Its contrasting visual language is rare and stimulates users through the use of abstract blobs. Our aim was to determine a reasonable size for the metaballâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s inflation, thereby giving us an approximate estimation of the size of the apertures to be cut off, or culling of incredibly small apertures that would not inflate. We have created a very simple matrix in which the metaball increase gradually in size and complexity of shape. The result was surprising as almost all of the metaballs apart from the smallest successfully inflated. The next course of action would be to use remap values to scale the metaballs to the most effective sizes.

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193


194


FINAL FORM Our fold-finding facade draws parallel precedence to BIG’s Serpentine Pavilion for 2016, with a apparent different emphasis of manipulating the basic origami system. As quoted by BIG, “This simple manipulation of the archetypal space-defining wall creates a presence in the site”. The idea is to allow the site users to be able to witness,experience and be familiarized with the design possibilities of parametric architecture, and in our case, plastic deformities of a origami. The abstraction and deformation of our form reflects intentional control of the topology that alters the way users respond within the site. Therefore the rectilinear geometry of the current pathway is transformed by the surface undulation of the origami. This also gesture is extended into visual and sensory realm, as it incorporates ornamentive elements or perforations and bumps that abstracts the notion of parasites. It is a narrative of the battle and struggle for sustainability whereby the collision of opposite forms creates a gradient that manifests our narrative, we quote

“ Fold-finding a living organism that shows the parasitic nature of human behavior, where we expose a natural pattern of the destructive reality of human behavior ”. Our reference to the declining living conditions in many ways returns to architecture’s role of communication. With the added advantage of articulated forms through parametric, it allows us to target specific formal language and inherently embed ornamentation simultaneously.

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196


FINAL DESIGN PROPOSAL In conclusion, we have arrived at a form that was physically feasible as well as within relatively easy parametric control, therefore merging the virtual with the conceptual, at the same time bearing in mind with the physical constraints. That being said, we have developed form-finding with a concious effort towards developing the design as a formfinding method aimed at producing desirable communicative effect. More of a methodology than an actual design possibility, the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;living organismâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; produces the origami according to attractor points and undulations according to stress points for anchoring. Fold-finding presents a design approach towards parametric generated semiotics based architecture. The visual communicative potential of the origami is explored alongside tectonic studies to produce a prototypical proposal for the design brief. We believe the advantages of fold-finding addresses several contemporary issues of design in architecture, with the strongest aspect of concurrent material and structural efficiency being explored in Studio Air. Our explorations suggest that origami foldings can be developed into a systemic tectonic that while being an expressive architecture meets the sustainable agenda which is highly discussed of recent. Parametric architecture has thus pushed forward the possibility of visual design whilst incorporating site sensitive data. The result is an accumulative and aggregated knowledge of the origami system with material understanding that can be parametrically driven.

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C.3 Final Detail Model

Assembling and Modelling the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Origamiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Upon resolving many of the algorithmic issues and fabrication issues, our final task was to assemble and complete a final presentation model that conceptually speaks for itself, whilst demonstrating a tectonic that is relevant to the design strategy. Our main concern was the inadequate parts for assembling the model due to several technical issues, nonetheless we were able to piece together a presentation model with a site model. The presentation model represents a fragment of the entire actual model, and is exaggerated to show the extreme potentials of our tectonic system.

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199


1. MILD STEEL FABRICATION What we discovered was that laser cutting metal with the fibre laser cutter differs from more conventional thinner materials. It had a significant impact on our design outcome in the final prototype. For instance, the strong laser beam direction on the steel takes a greater amount of time to penetrate the steel, measuring at 1mm thickness. As a result, each perforation on the surface increases the overall time consumption. From an efficiency and time frame perspective, it requires a refinement of the design, whereby the design needed to be reinforced with other methods, either by scale or by reducing facets, in which the latter made greater sense.

1. DASHED LINES - enable folding for malleable steel

2. CURVED CORNERS - improving detailing finish during assembly

3. TAPERED EDGES - prevent collision of tabs during assembly

4. CIRCULAR CORNERS & REDUCED PERFORATIONS - improving detailing finish during assembly - fabrication time effectiveness

FINAL PRESENTATION MODEL FABRICATION ITERATIONS

200

5. DASH WIDTH - fabrication time effectiveness


PRESENTATION MODEL FIBRE LASER CUT

201


2.MILD STEEL ASSEMBLY

A. PERFORATIONS

B. TABS 1. MILD STEEL SHEET

2. NUTS & BOLTS

C. TAB HOLES

D. METABALL VOID

3. ADHESIVE TAPE

VACCUM FORMED SHEET

FINAL PRESENTATION MODEL EXPLODED ASSEMBLY DIAGRAM

STEP 1: SEND JOB FOR LASER CUTTING WITH FIBRE LASER CUTTER (SUITABLE FOR STEELWORK) STEP 2: IDENTIFY AND GROUP PIECES ACCORDING TO SEQUENCE STEP 3: SET UP FORMWORK TO ENSURE OPTIMAL FINISH ON ALL METAL CORNERS STEP 4: CLAMP METAL SHEET ALONG TABS STEP 5: IDENTIFY DEGREE OF BENDING STEP 6: APPLY EVEN AND EQUAL FORCE ACROSS THE FACE TO ACHEIVE OPTIMAL FINISH

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3.

1.

3.

4.

2.

5.

6. 203


204


FINAL PRESENTATION MODEL INSTALLATION SEQUENCE

1200MM

1200MM

FINAL PRESENTATION MODEL INSTALLATION LAYOUT

205


3. VACUUM FORMING FABRICATION

3.

1.

3.

4.

2. 206

5.


STEP 1: PREHEAT ABS PLASTIC SHEET TO APPROPRIATE TEMPERATURE STEP 2: FIT FORMWORK ONTO THE VACFORM MACHINE STEP 3: SECURE FORMWORK TIGHTLY ABOVE PRE-HEATED ABS SHEET. ENSURE TIGHT SLEEP TO PREVENT LEAKAGE. STEP 4: INFLATE METABALLS PERIODICALLY IN SHORT BURSTS. STEP 5: INFLATE METABALLS TO DESIRED HEIGHT AND SHAPE. STEP 6: ALLOW ABS PLASTIC TO COOL AND HARDER BEFORE REMOVING FORMWORK TO PREVENT PLASTIC FROM DEFORMING.

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4. FABRICATION OF SITE MODEL

1 3 2

FINAL PRESENTATION MODEL ARRANGEMENT LOGIC

1. AVOID MERGING A FULL RON RESCH PATTERN Avoid allowing a full ronresch pattern to be printed on a strip due to the strong flexture of the origami that prevents smooth foldings

2. AVOID MERGING ADJACENT FACES WITH ACUTE ANGLES To avoid intersection of tabs when fabrication, it is best to avoid merging adjacent faces with acute angles.

3. ATTEMPT TO CREATE LONG CONTINUOUS STRIPS To demonstrate the innate structural capacity of the origami as well as reduce material waste,.

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209


210


SITE MODEL ASSEMBLY DIAGRAM 211


212


SITE MODEL FABRICATION LAYOUT 213


ALGORITHM FABRICATION SCRIPT 214


SITE MODEL FABRICATION LAYOUT 215


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217


218


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C.4 Reflection

GRASSHOPPER, IS IT ONLY GENERATIVE? Upon resolving many of the algorithmic issues and fabrication issues, our final task was to assemble and complete a final presentation model that conceptually speaks for itself, whilst demonstrating a tectonic that is relevant to the design strategy. Our main concern was the inadequate parts for assembling the model due to several technical issues, nonetheless we were able to piece together a presentation model with a site model. The presentation model represents a fragment of the entire actual model, and is exaggerated to show the extreme potentials of our tectonic system. However, at the end of the studio, i am curiously asking myself and questioning its role and relationship within a built environment. Could it be more that just the generative capacity as we have done in this project, FOLDFINDING?

222


FUTURE & FURTHER DEVELOPMENT Our parametric model and proof of concept is a testimony to the vast potential of algorithmic design. Our design as of current (Week 12) only addresses several primary issues and objectives that has the potential to be further developed by further interogation of the site and parametric tools. For one, the structural capacitay of the origami is currently underdoing parametric testing through Karamba or possibly through (Swap and Cut) from Rhino. The structural analysis can provide further insights as to possibilities of attachment on the facade as a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;parasiticâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; form. However, the most apparent gray area that we have thus far encountered lies within the question of how the parasitic attachment latches on the wall. Further speculation have thus far produced several options and one being materiality and the other further elaboration of the origami. As a personal preference i would opt to first experiment with several materials such as reflective foil, aluminium, copper and fibreglass. and then attempt to revise how the structure is parametrically controlled. I personally feel that we have failed to further understand other material systems. The universal application of metals needs to be somewhat challenged. That is why i feel that my future development will go down a path of the creation of a (malleable, flexible) tectonic which begins to fit within our design intervention is a much more practical and most importantly, resolved manner.

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(ABOVE LEFT) DROKIK KUK-JE GALLERY BY SO-IL Using th mesh as a draping material, perhaps the origami can begin to adopt the application of malleable but tensile meshes. This in turn improves the permeability and porosity, widening the scope of applications of FOLD-FINDING form finding based tectonics.

(ABOVE RIGHT) CITYSCOPE BY MARCO HEMMERLING As seen in CityScope project, transparency also becomes a play of materiality. Perhaps transparent materials such as fibreglass can be applied so as to reduce weight, enhance the aesthetic as well as imrpove the structural performance of the origami overall. 226


ITERATION 43 Iteration 43 has shown a potential to combine the canopy and the wall as characterised by the property of origami. With a different structural element it can flex and morph into more variafied shapes, thus improving its constructability.

227


Objective 1. “interrogat[ing] a brief” by considering the process of brief formation in the age of optioneering

Objective 2. developing “an ability to generate a variety of design possibilities for a given situation” by introducing visual programming, algorithmic design and parametric modelling with their intrinsic capacities for extensive design-space exploration;

Objective 3. developing “skills in various three dimensional media” and specifically in computational geometry, parametric modelling, analytic diagramming and digital fabrication;

Objective 4. developing “an understanding of relationships between architecture and air” through interrogation of design proposal as physical models in atmosphere;

Objective 5. developing “the ability to make a case for proposals” by developing critical thinking and encouraging construction of rigorous and persuasive arguments informed by the contemporary architectural discourse.

Objective 6. develop capabilities for conceptual, technical and design analyses of contemporary architectural projects;

Objective 7. develop foundational understandings of computational geometry, data structures and types of programming;

Objective 8. begin developing a personalised repertoire of computational techniques substantiated by the understanding of their advantages, disadvantages and areas of application.

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REFLECTION: LEARNING OUTCOMES PARAMETRIC DESIGN The core focus of the design studio, parametric design is a powerful tool that has been proven yet again of its profound impact on contemporary architecture. After having first-hand experience of carrying a project from inception of concept through to fabrication, i now believe that parametric design does have its benefits and rightful place in contemporary architecture. This i believe is foremeost supported by the age of technology and digitization of the third industrial revolution whereby mass customization becomes the norm of current. It is for this reason that the opportunity to be part of the algorithmic and scripting culture is a stepping stone to further develop my interest in parametric design. More importantly, it has exposed several of its apparent flaws and exposed its inherent lack of development. Parametric design is still in its infant stages whereby digitization and fabrication is yet to fully mature. The efficiency and reliability is being questioned through our fabrication process. There is still a large depency for our human intervention to troubleshoot minute problems especially when dealing with highly articulated and complex geometries. This is further exemplified in the lack of coordination between fabrication and design softwares such as Rhino and UP 3D. This as a result has greatly affected my learning outcome as well as design outcomes. It can be sometimes frustrating, but through this i have had the opportunity to experiment and interrogate the disjointed aspect of design and fabrication, learning a greater deal through mistakes and deadends and countless ‘red’ components’. Sadly, but without any regrets.

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CONCEPTUAL DESIGN On the other hand, parametric design sways towards iterative design and the power to generate multiplicities within a short period of time. Is that humanly possible? I think not. What computation and generation ultimately lacks is not the ability to process quickly or more efficiently, but the ability to think, analyses and imagine. The power of imagination, creativity and passion is lost and perhaps even completely nonexistent in parametric architecture. I have realized that it is within our power to control and direct the design concept if the necessary skills are ready. Conceptually driven design still appeals to me and that is why our design â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;foldfindingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; revolved around the core concept of exposing detrimental effects of human behaviors. Of the 100 or so iteration that i have managed to produce throughout studio AIR, only a handful have good qualities. Using my ability to drive the direction of the algorithm for me is the greatest reward in this semester. However, I must also emphasize on the need to be adept and fluent with algorithmic language as it determines the level of complexity of the design; and therefore these skills that we have adopted in AIR becomes the starting point for generating compelling designs not only with mindblowing geometries but also strong relations to the greater surroundings (ie. humans, nature & atmosphere)

Reflection

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Objective 1. “interrogat[ing] a brief” by considering the process of brief formation in the age of optioneering

Objective 2. developing “an ability to generate a variety of design possibilities for a given situation” by introducing visual programming, algorithmic design and parametric modelling with their intrinsic capacities for extensive design-space exploration;

Objective 3. developing “skills in various three dimensional media” and specifically in computational geometry, parametric modelling, analytic diagramming and digital fabrication;

Objective 4. developing “an understanding of relationships between architecture and air” through interrogation of design proposal as physical models in atmosphere;

Objective 5. developing “the ability to make a case for proposals” by developing critical thinking and encouraging construction of rigorous and persuasive arguments informed by the contemporary architectural discourse.

Objective 6. develop capabilities for conceptual, technical and design analyses of contemporary architectural projects;

Objective 7. develop foundational understandings of computational geometry, data structures and types of programming;

Objective 8. begin developing a personalised repertoire of computational techniques substantiated by the understanding of their advantages, disadvantages and areas of application.

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AIR / STUDIO AIR My last and final point for reflecting on my learning outcome is through the word AIR. One of the aspects in which i have overlooked and wish to continue developing is the poetics of nature. My fixation on the digital computational component and a host of other technical issues has led me to neglect the opportunity to explore concepts of rhythm, harmony and synchrony. This notion of poetics of space have had a huge impact on me as i had this moment of epiphany as i was exploring precedents of parametric architecture and begun to realize the power of parametric design to create the essense of nature. Certainly, there is a technical aspect to algorithms within parametric design, but what if these two contrasting notions can be harmoniously merged to emulate the beauty of fluidity,flexibility and adaptability of parametric architectural designs. The converging points between algorithmic design and precedents from nature itself is manisfesting itself through parametric design. In hindsight, the skills that developed in AIR overshadows other aspects that i have discussed about. These skills will be invaluable in turning to grasshopper for micro-management of tasks. But perhaps it is more about what comes after, as this will not be the end of algorithm in the near future. What will come next?

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Objective 1. “interrogat[ing] a brief” by considering the process of brief formation in the age of optioneering

Objective 2. developing “an ability to generate a variety of design possibilities for a given situation” by introducing visual programming, algorithmic design and parametric modelling with their intrinsic capacities for extensive design-space exploration;

Objective 3. developing “skills in various three dimensional media” and specifically in computational geometry, parametric modelling, analytic diagramming and digital fabrication;

Objective 4. developing “an understanding of relationships between architecture and air” through interrogation of design proposal as physical models in atmosphere;

Objective 5. developing “the ability to make a case for proposals” by developing critical thinking and encouraging construction of rigorous and persuasive arguments informed by the contemporary architectural discourse.

Objective 6. develop capabilities for conceptual, technical and design analyses of contemporary architectural projects;

Objective 7. develop foundational understandings of computational geometry, data structures and types of programming;

Objective 8. begin developing a personalised repertoire of computational techniques substantiated by the understanding of their advantages, disadvantages and areas of application.

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THANK YOU. VERY MUCH

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ORIGAMI AS A FORM -FIN

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NDING ‘LIVING ORGANISM’

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4.0 Appendix 238


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2.

Achim Menges and Steffen Reicher, ‘Material Capacity: Embedded Responsiveness’, in Architectural Design Special Issue: Material Computation: Higher Integration in Morphogenetic Design, Volume 82,Issue 2, (2012), pp 52–59. in

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ArchDaily, ;Galaxy Soho / Zaha Hadid Architects’ (2012), Accessed 17 Mar 2016. <http://www.archdaily.com/287571/galaxy-soho-zaha-hadid-architects/>

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Asmund Izaki and Lucy Helme, ‘Encoding User Experiences’, in Architectural Design Special Issue: Empathic Space: The Computation of Human-Centric Architecture, Volume 84, Issue 5, (2014). pp. 114-121.

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Brad Elias, Adolf Loos, Ornamentation and Crime, Studio Air: Lecture 4, Slide 15 ,(2016) , Retrieved from < https://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au/bbcswebdav/pid-5272998-dt-contentrid-19597572_2/courses/ABPL30048_2016_SM1/L05_S1_2016.pdf>

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Brad Elias, ‘Generation/Composition’, Studio Air: Lecture 3 (2016). Retrieved from, <https://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au/bbcswebdav/pid-5260735-dt-content-rid-19507223_2/courses/ ABPL30048_2016_SM1/L03_S1_2016%281%29.pdf>

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Brady Peters, ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, in Special Issue: Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought ,Architectural Design, Volume 83, Issue 2, (2013). pp. 08-15 (p.11)

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Branko Kolaveric (2014). ‘Computing the Performative’, ed. bu Rivka Oxman and Rover Oxman, pp.103-111. (p105)

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Jeremy Rifkin, ‘The Third Industrial Revolution’ in Engineering & Technology , (2008): pp.26-27. (pp.26)

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John Frazer, ‘Parametric Computation: History and Future’,Architectural Design. Special Issue: Parametricism 2.0: Rethinking Architecture’s Agenda for the 21st Century, Volume 86, Issue 2(2016).pp.18–23.

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Juhani Pallasma, ‘Inhabiting Time’ in Architecture Design , Architecture Timed: Designing With Time in Mind, Volume 86: Issue 1(2016), pp. 50–53.

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Kevin Nute, ‘The Presence of the Weather’ in Architecture Design , Architecture Timed: Designing With Time in Mind, Journal, Volume 86: Issue 1(2016), pp. 66–73.

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Kolarevic, Branko,’The Digital Continuum’, in Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003) pp. 3-62. (pp59)

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Kolaveric, Branko and Kevin R. Klinger, eds (2008). Manufacturing Material Effects: Rethinking Design and Making in Architecture (New York; London: Routledge), pp.6-24

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Mark Burry, ‘Essential Precursors to the Parametricism Manifesto’, in Architectural Design,Special Issue: Parametricism 2.0: Rethinking Architecture’s Agenda for the 21st Century, Volume 86, Issue 2(2016).pp.31–35.

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30.

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31.

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33.

Paters, Brady. (2013) ‘Realising the Architectural Intent: Computation at Herzog and De Meuron’. Architectural Design, 83,2, pp. 56 - 61.

34.

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35.

Patrik Schumacher, ‘Advancing Social Functionality Via Agent-Based Parametric Semiology’in Architectural Design: Special Issue: Parametricism 2.0: Rethinking Architecture’s Agenda for the 21st Century, Volume 86,Issue 2(2016). Pp.108-113.(p.109).

36.

Patrik Schumacher, ‘Parametricism 2.0: Gearing Up to Impact the Global Built Environment’, Architectural Design. Special Issue: Parametricism 2.0: Rethinking Architecture’s Agenda for the 21st Century, Volume 86, Issue 2(2016).pp.8–17.

37.

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Figures List 1.

Figure 1:Design proposal by Berlin based firm, Barkow Leibinger for a competition themed, Contemplating the Void. Retrieved from, <http://web.guggenheim.org/exhibitions/void/#/proposals>

2.

Figure.2 Church on Mount Rokko by Tadao Ando and Architects, Retrieved from,. < http://architecturalmoleskine.blogspot.com.au/2011/09/tadao-ando-chapel-in-mt-rokko.html>

3.

Figure 3: Tensile structure of the M1 Textile Hybrid prototype. Retrieved from, < http://www.str-ucture.com/was/forschungsprojekte/reference/textilhybrid-icditke/`>

4.

Figure 4 : Swarm Algorithmic Diagram by Pablo Miranda Carranza. Retrieved from, <https://swarmarchitecture.files.wordpress.com/2010/11/swarmdiagw_03.jpg>

5.

Figure 5 : Servo Exploded Axonometric Diagram. Retrieved from, < http://www.servo-la.com/files/gimgs/6_spoorg6.jpg>

6.

Figure 6 : Open Courtyard which facilitates circulatory paths in Beijing’s Galaxy Soho. Retrieved from, < http://www.archdaily.com/287571/galaxy-soho-zaha-hadid-architects/508ee0ab28ba0d7 fe4000005-galaxy-soho-zaha-hadid-architects-photo>

7.

Figure 7 : Robotic and parametric integration into advanced design methods. Retrieved from, <http://www.str-ucture.com/was/forschungsprojekte/reference/textilhybrid-icditke/>

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STUDIO AIR 2016

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Studio Air Journal  

Jeremy Cheang 654092

Studio Air Journal  

Jeremy Cheang 654092

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