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Information about the verbs. Verb: be The verb be indicates existence, temporary condition or permanent status. Examples: It is really hot today. Grady's not here right now. Greg and Tim are engineers. Trudy was sick yesterday. Hawaii is in the Pacific Ocean. The verb be takes on different forms in the present and past. Present. AM, IS AND ARE. Past. Was, were. The verb be is also used in progressive tenses, passives and prepositional collocations : Progressive tenses: He is writing a letter to his brother. Jeff was cleaning the house this morning. The Holleys have been living there since April. Passive voice: The people were surprised by the news. Craig was stopped by the policeman. Prepositional collocations: Tracy is fond of chocolates. Cassie is not afraid of snakes. I'm interested in making money.


CAN. "Can" is one of the most commonly used modal verbs in English. It can be used to express ability or opportunity, to request or offer permission, and to show possibility or impossibility. Examples: I can ride a horse. Ability We can stay with my brother when we are in Paris. Opportunity She cannot stay out after 10 PM. permission Can you hand me the stapler? Request Any child can grow up to be president. Possibility Positive Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future. 1. I can speak Chinese. 2. SHIFT TO "COULD" I could speak Chinese when I was a kid. 3. SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO" I will be able to speak Chinese by the time I finish my course. Negative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future 1. I can't speak Swahili. 2. SHIFT TO "COULD" I couldn't speak Swahili. 3. SHIFT TO "BE ABLE TO" I won't be able to speak Swahili.


DO. The verb "do":The verb do can be both an auxiliary and a full verb. As an auxiliary we use do in negative sentences and questions for most verbs (except not for be, will, have got and modal verbs) in Simple Present and Simple Past. (Use the infinitive of the full verb.) The auxiliary "do" in negative sentences Simple Present: He does not play football. Simple Past: He did not play football. The auxiliary "do" in questions Simple Present: Does he play football? Simple Past: Did he play football? The verb do is irregular: Simple Present: I/we/you/they do, he/she/it does Simple Past: I/he/she/it/we/you/they did The full verb "do" As a full verb we use do in certain expressions. If we want to form negative sentences or questions using do as a full verb, we need another do as an auxiliary. positive sentence:She does her homework every day. negative sentence:She doesn't do her homework every day. question: Does she do her homework every day?


Doing. Is the present continuous of do and is used to say that an action is being doing in the moment that you are talking. Here are some points to remember when using 'have' and 'has'. They can both be used to show possession and are important in making the 'perfect tenses'. 'Had' is the past tense of both ‘has’ and ‘has'. have Have is used with some pronouns and plural nouns: 'I have a great English teacher.' 'You have toothpaste on your chin.' has Has is used with the third person singular. For example: 'She has a great personality.' 'The washing machine has a leak in it'. Had. is the past of have. And is used to form the Past Perfect. FORM [had + past participle] Examples: You had studied English before you moved to New York. Had you studied English before you moved to New York? You had not studied English before you moved to New York. Having: "Having" + past participle means that the person(s) being referred to have done the action of the verb. So you use it when you what to express this meaning. 'Having lived in London, I know its climate very well.' means that I have lived in London, so I know its climate very well.


May "May" is most commonly used to express possibility. It can also be used to give or request permission, although this usage is becoming less common. Examples: Cheryl may be at home, or perhaps at work. possibility Johnny, you may leave the table when you have finished your dinner. give permission May possibility 1. Jack may be upset. I can't really tell if he is annoyed or tired. 2. Jack may have been upset. I couldn't really tell if he was annoyed or tired. May give permission . You may leave the table now that you're finished with your dinner. 3. You may leave the table when you finish your dinner May request May I borrow your eraser? May I make a phone call?


Might "Might" is most commonly used to express possibility. It is also often used in conditional sentences. English speakers can also use "might" to make suggestions or requests, although this is less common in American English. Examples: Your purse might be in the living room. Possibility If I didn't have to work, I might go with you. Conditional You might visit the botanical gardens during your visit Suggestion Might I borrow your penRequest


Must "Must" is most commonly used to express certainty. It can also be used to express necessity or strong recommendation, although native speakers prefer the more flexible form "have to." "Must not" can be used to prohibit actions, but this sounds very severe; speakers prefer to use softer modal verbs such as "should not" or "ought not" to dissuade rather than prohibit. Examples: This must be the right address! Certainty Students must pass an entrance examination to study at this school. Necessity You must take some medicine for that cough. Strong recommendation Jenny, you must not play in the street! Prohibition


Shall "Shall" is used to indicate future action. It is most commonly used in sentences with "I" or "we," and is often found in suggestions, such as "Shall we go?" "Shall" is also frequently used in promises or voluntary actions. In formal English, the use of "shall" to describe future events often expresses inevitability or predestination. "Shall" is much more commonly heard in British English than in American English; Americans prefer to use other forms, although they do sometimes use "shall" in suggestions or formalized language. Examples:

Shall I help you? Suggestion I shall never forget where I came from. Promise He shall become our next king. Predestination I'm afraid Mr. Smith shall become our new director. Inevitability


Should "Should" is most commonly used to make recommendations or give advice. It can also be used to express obligation as well as expectation. Examples: When you go to Berlin, you should visit the palaces in Potsdam. recommendation You should focus more on your family and less on work. advice I really should be in the office by 7:00 AM. obligation By now, they should already be in Dubai. Expectation


Will "Will" is used with promises or voluntary actions that take place in the future. "Will" can also be used to make predictions about the future. For more information on using "will" and associated exercises, visit the Simple Future section of our Verb Tense Tutorial. Examples: I promise that I will write you every single day. promise I will make dinner tonight. voluntary action He thinks it will rain tomorrow. prediction


Would "Would" is most commonly used to create conditional verb forms. It also serves as the past form of the modal verb "will." Additionally, "would" can indicate repetition in the past. Examples: If he were an actor, he would be in adventure movies. Conditional I knew that she would be very successful in her career. Past of "will" When they first met, they would always have picnics on the beach. Repetition


modal verbs