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thathyggelibrary!

Project brief by Jenabi Ling 091123 KDA 753 Professional Project 2012


hygge

(hu-gah)

(n.) a complete absence of anything annoying or emotionally overwhelming; taking pleasure from the presence of gentle, soothing things.

A love of or need for hygge is an important part of the Danish psyche, and while there’s no direct English translation, it’s been explained as a state of cosiness, warmth and relaxation in the company someone you care about or a companionship by a complete stranger, often involving eating and drinking. It is the art of creating intimacy: a sense of comradeship, conviviality, and contentment rolled into one. ‘Hygge’ is linked to the climate and northerly aspect. On dark winter evenings, many Danes – at home, in coffee shops, restaurants and bars – create hygge with candlelight. These flickering illuminations create an intimate atmosphere that most Danes love and seek for - the hint of summer internally and melt the outside cold. Hygge is something you realize while or after it is happening and you can’t plan it but you recognize it by saying, “det var hyggeligt,” meaning, essentially,

“That was hygge ! ”

that hygge library Jenabi Ling


LIST OF FIGURES

Captions

Source

Figure

Captions

1.1

Map of Copenhagen

Author

Source

9.1

Summarise Precedents used and what issues it address.

3.1

Existing Bike Path and distances in Sankt Kjelds Kvarter

Author

Author

9.2

Section, Library, Delft Technical University, Netherlands by Mecanoo Architects

3.2

Edwards 2002: 153

Bus Route in Sankt Kjelds Kvarter

Author

9.3

Plan, Musashino Art University, Japan by Sou Fujimoto

www.archdaily.com/145789

4.1

Map of Sankt Kjelds Kvarter with surrounding programs

Author

9.4

Plan, Vancouver Public Library, Canada by Moshe Safdie and Associates

Edwards 2002: 153

4.2

General Functions in Sankt Kjelds Kvarter

Author

9.5

Section Through Peckham Public Library, London by Alsop and Stormer.

Edwards 2002: 215

4.3

In-between spaces in Sankt Kjelds Kvarter

Author

10.1

Proposed library’s site located on the centre of the neighbourhood

Author

4.4

Climatic statistic summary in Copenhagen

dmi.dk

10.2

In between spaces in the neighbourhood with programs and functions

Author

5.1

Site map with site boundary and infrastructure (1:5000)

Author

10.3

Exploration on form and traffic on site

Author

5.2

Development plan

Author

12.1

Functional Relationship Diagrams

Author

5.3

Aerial View of Sankt Kjelds Plads.

Author

14.1

The work with development of New meeting-places, Co-operation and activities.

Author

5.4

Adminstration Building beside site (View 2)

Author

14.2

Summary of Disposition of Funds. Highlighted in Yellow shows the budget of the project.

City of Copenhagen

5.5

Supermarket (View 1)

Author

5.6

Jaguar Car retail (View 3)

Author

5.7

Pocket of space in front of Jaguar (View 4)

Author

5.8

Worn down building on site. (View 5)

Author

5.9

Timber Trading (View 6)

Author

Timber trading + Office space ( View 7)

Author

6.1

Illustration on senses

Author

6.2

Section. Cafe Paludan

Author

6.3

View into Paludan bookcafe

Author

6.4

First floor of Paludan Bookcafe

Author

6.5

Summary table of the senses in a coffee shop translated into Architectural qualities and strategies.

Author

6.5

Age Groups in Sankt Kjelds Kvarter

dmi.dk

7.1

Public reading hall in Københavns Universitetsbibliotek Nord.

Author

7.2

Informal reading are in Copenhagen University Library North.

Author

7.3

Atrium of the Black Diamond by Schmidt Hammer Lassen architects.

http://shl.dk

8.1

Exploration on Verandah - The transitional spacethat connects a series of functions. (DS)

Author

8.2

Different patterns of reading area and book stack areas in the twentieth century libraries.

(Edwards 2002:37)

8.3

Different Strategy and Exploration for Ambience [Luminosity] + [Material]

Author

8.4

Exploration on facade composition that aid the penetration of light + Reflective material .

Author

8.5

Strategy in Flexibility and Expansion [Serve and servant space]

Author

5.10

that hygge library Jenabi Ling


CONTENTS

1 Overview

1

2 Clients and Visions

2

3 Position on Sustainability

3

4 Contextual Analysis

4

5 Site Description

6

6 Design Research Question

8

7 Building Type: Library & Local Case Studies

10

8 Key Architecture issues

11

9 International Case Studies

13

10 Site Opportunities and Constrains

14

11 Design Studio Exploration

15

12 Functional Relations and Regulatory

18

13 Accommodation Schedule and User Groups

19

14 Project’s Economy

20

15 Bibliography

21

16 Appendix

22

that hygge library Jenabi Ling


1

OVERVIEW

N

15 minute bike

10 minute bike

5 minute bike

Figure 1.1 Map of Copenhagen. Marking the site and the city center as well as the biking distance between two of the site.

that hygge library Jenabi Ling

This brief will instigate a forum of ideas and a variety of approaches to augment the urban spaces around the square and proposed an interesting library space. THAT HYGGE LIBRARY !

Sankt Kjelds Kvarter

City Center

INTRODUCTION

The community library, like a coffee shop is a place, which exists between work, school, and home; where people feel a sense of belonging. An inviting new library and community living room that allows the mix of users of all ages and culture, feeling equally welcome. It is not to be a ‘traditional’ library with the primary and only focus on book etc. The new library is to be a community center incorporating the traditional library functions as well as an array of other functions expressed in the Accommodation Schedule. The visions for the library is in line with contemporary trends and theory relating to public library buildings, which focus on the departure of library design from traditional book storage to community facility and living room as well as centre for life long learning. The emphasis is on meeting spaces, collaborations and interaction, as well as improving the transparency and welcoming nature of the library . Offering a range of opportunities to participate in cultural and community events without the pressure of commercial imperative. I have sought to deliver a conforming scheme which questions and analyses these key factors while responding to the Danish cultural phenomenon of hygge, to deliver a high quality contemporary yet local library.

Project Title : That hygge Library ! Location

: Sankt Kjelds Plads, Østerbro, Copenhagen, Denmark

Client

: City of Copenhagen København Kommune Ministry of Social Affairs

Program

: Library

Key Users (Current)

: Families Students Elderly / Retired Working Groups

Design Research Question

: How can the experience embodied in a coffee shop, permeate the interior complexity of a library, infused with the Danish’s cultural phenomenon of hygge?

1


2

CLIENTS AND VISIONS

COPENHAGEN 2015 VISIONS

MUNICIPALITY OF COPENHAGEN

MISSIONS FOR SANKT KJELDS KVARTER

In 2015 Copenhagen will be rightly known as the capital city in the world with the best urban environment. Copenhagen will have become the eco-Metropolis of the world, thus demonstrating that environmental concern adds an extra dynamic to urban development. Copenhageners and visiting guest will be able to see and appreciate the improvements, while at the same time the city will be sharing active responsibility for global environmental development. (City of Copenhagen, 2007)

Growth and quality of life are the overall objectives for Copenhagen. To increase the quality of life for those who live and work in Skt. Kjeld’s, and create a basis for private investments.

The overall purpose is to bring more life into the area by suggesting more outward oriented functions; commercial as well as cultural which are aimed at the local community, but which might also attract people from other parts of the city. (Københavns Kommune, 2011)

Eco – Metropolis four themes: - World’s best city for cycles - Climate Capital - A Green and Blue Capital city - A Clean and Healthy big city

that hygge library Jenabi Ling

Both are necessary to future proofing the neighbourhood’s dwellings and businesses. This future-proofing is wanted and supported by a number of sustainable, energy improving and green developments, which are to secure the city’s adaption to the future climate and contribute to the goal of CO2 neutral capital in 2025 Which contribute to Copenhagen missions as a municipality aims to be :

Aims: - New Social Life - New Sustainable Environment - New Urban Mobility - Re-identify and Renewal of the district

- The world’s most liveable city. - Known as one of the world’s “knowledge” cities. - A creative city.

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3

POSITION ON SUSTAINABILITY : ECO-SOCIAL , ECO-CULTURE, ECOLOGY

In responding to the requirement of the client, I have chosen to work with ‘health and motion’ as the overall theme for the project. My understanding of sustainability is not just about caring for the environments. It should also consider the health and well-being of the building occupants. Health not only includes physical health but also emphasises social and mental health. 3.1 NEW SOCIAL LIFE Sankt Kjelds Kvarter is a complex district inhabited by people with different lifestyles, also is among the poorest in Copenhagen and suffer high unemployment and social problems. The fact that the district is so mixed means a holistic, local approach needs to be taken in respect of everyday life and movement in the urban space. Meeting places (inside/out) : - contribute positively to the neighbourhood’s social capital and quality of life. - strengthens social relationships - increase network opportunities - Local sense of belonging - Security in the neighbourhood. The interaction between social relations and health pronounces the importance of good meeting-places and different activities for children, young peoples, adults and the elderly. People from opposite sides of life can meet and enjoy each other company.

that hygge library Jenabi Ling

3.2 NEW URBAN MOBILITY The city of Copenhagen aims to be CO2 neutral by 2025 and as a result it focuses on environmentally friendly methods of transport in the form of public transport and soft road users. Copenhagen has a clear goal of being the best city for cyclists in the world and of making walking more attractive. To assists with this goal : - Improve access and accessibility. - Attractive streets, view. - Improve infrastructure for soft road users. - Soft road users prioritise.

800m 400m 800m

400m

Existing bike path Figure 3.1 Existing Bike Path and distances in Sankt Kjelds Kvarter

3.3 NEW SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENT As part of its environmental work, the city of Copenhagen has decided that 100,000 more trees are to be planted in Copenhagen, and therefore will be natural to work with making Sankt Kjelds greener. Also, a library that is green and energy efficient and set the attainment of ‘Carbon neutrality’ as an aspirational goal. Sustainable Environment features : - Hygge environment in and/or out. - Green outdoor spaces. - Healthy building. - Energy Efficiency.

Figure 3.2 Bus Route in Sankt Kjelds Kvarter

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CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS

4.1 LOCATION Sankt Kjeld’s Kvarter is situated in the edge of Copenhagen. The neighbourhood is within biking distance from the city and easily accessible. Sankt Kjelds Plads is situated north of Nørre Campus, an area which the University of Copenhagen invested 6-8 billion DKK to expand the teaching and science facilities, which have a positive effect on Sankt Kjelds Kvarter. . The project is situated between two S-train stations and two future Metro stations.

Svanemøllen Beach

Culturals and Sports Facilities

Ryparken Sports Facility

Sankt Kjelds Kvarter Sankt Kjelds Plads (Site) S-Train Station

Kildevæld Park

Upcoming Metro Station University of Copenhagen

Svanemøllen Sports Facility

Kildevæld School Playground

Kildevæld Church Senior House

4.2 CULTURAL AND LEISURE Sankt Kjelds is surrounded by cultural and sports attractions, which attract users from all over Copenhagen. Each of these cultural and sport facilities are great resources to the wider community, yet too few Culturals and Sports of the Sankt. Kjeld’s neighbourhood inhabitants utilize the resources because of the poor connections to these Sankt Kjelds Kvarter facilities. Sankt Kjelds is a strong socially focused community. The Kjelds Plads (Site) neighbourhood’s Sankt churches provide a social gathering and arrange many social and cultural activities especially for the families with children and the elderly. S-trainthe station Also Kildevældsskolen, local school, has an objective to be open seven days a week. Besides the school’s own Metro users, the facilitiesUpcoming at the school arestation used.

University of Copenhagen invested 6-8 billion DKK to expand the teaching and science facilities

that hygge library Jenabi Ling

Kindergarten The Karate Club

Crossfit

Musikbunkeren

School Kanonhall

Takeigelses Church Gymnasium

Østerbro Stadium Park Bio Fælledparken

University of Copenhagen

Figure 4.1 Map of Sankt Kjelds Kvarter with surrounding programs.

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4.3 ROUNDABOUT AND STREETS

4.5 SOCIAL CONDITION

The site is relatively flat. Sankt Kjeld’s Plads represents a natural physical center in Sankt Kjelds Kvarter. All the important streets meet at the roundabout in Sankt Kjelds Plads, a natural center to the neighbourhood. Significant streets radiate out from this central point, but in its current shape the intersection does not function as a significant city-space, that would invite people to stop and use the square.

Sankt Kjelds is a multifarious neighbourhood with a tendency towards a social division. This can be attributed to a deficit of meeting places where residents (mainly students, youngsters, adult, families and elderly) can become familiar with each other’s daily activities.

Residential

4.6 CLIMATIC

Currently, There are no busy business streets, large public squares or impressive structures. The homes are modest, the streets are calm and quiet and supermarkets and institutions are accessible. The flat terrain, wide street in Copenhagen encourage community bike as the mean of transport .

Commercial

Figure 4.2 General Functions in Sankt Kjelds Kvarter

The roundabout in Sankt Kjeld’s Plads is perceived as a dull roundabout, disconnected from the surrounding buildings and without a reason for stopping over. Besides that, many streets, sidewalks, squares and green areas appear worn down. 4.4 SQUARES A series of open triangular wedges form at the intersection of the periphery roads. This series of triangular-shape ‘features’ squares and urban spaces both large and small, posses great potential to create cohesive, identity creating attractive landscaping for the local residents and people who take the short-cut through the district to the public transport system.

Copenhagen’s weather is quite mild and the climate is temperate, made mild by mostly west winds and by the seas surrounding Denmark almost entirely. The winters are not particularly cold and the summers are mild but because of Denmark’s northern location in Europe, the length of the day with sunlight varies greatly. Sun rises 4.30am and sets 10pm in the summer. Where as in winter, the sun rises 8.00am and sets 3.30pm Denmark doesn’t have a lot of fluctuation between day and night temperatures, but constant wind gusts and changes in wind direction can quickly change the weather and temperatures. Rain in Denmark comes on a regular basis year-round. The annual rainfall in Denmark averages 61 cm of precipitation. Copenhagen has an average of 170 rainy days.

Sankt Kjelds Plads

Figure 4.3 In-between spaces in Sankt Kjelds Kvarter Table 4.4 Climatic statistic summary in Copenhagen (Source : Author)

that hygge library Jenabi Ling

5


SITE ANALYSIS

N

5.1 HISTORICAL

Kildevæld Church

Sankt Kjelds is named after a Danish catholic saint who lived in the 11th century. Kildevæld Church is a catholic church in honour of him.

Æ

BE

101.2m 86.3m 115.0m

5.2 INFRASTRUCTURE The existing infrastructure in the neighbourhood provide a good basis for the community to be self-sufficient. The important ones, which are bakery, bicycle shops, banks, supermarket and fitness, are the marked in the map (Fig.5.1) Especially, with bakery that serves up Danish pastry and Smørrebro, which is staple food to the Danes; bike shops that repairs bikes on the spot serving the community; and the supermarket that provide the community with their everyday need; Gym for the Danes to workout.

GA

DE

SITE

GE

The building block adjacent to the site is The National board of Individual Injury (see fig. 5.4). This building has a strong present in the site. The building is vertically emphasized, brick and monolithic. Hence, the new proposed building should acknowledge the building and take in consideration.

RVA N

GE N

Around the site there is a music bunker, which is a remnant from world war two. It is used as rehearsal rooms for music bands of practice there. The Jaguar Store adjacent to the site has been established for over 100 years.

BR YG

5

The National board of Individual Injury 11.6m

22.8m

TASINGEG

ADE

Keys Kindergarten Restaurants Banks Supermarket Fitness Bicycle Shop Bakery Services (Barbers, Clinics, Dentist...) Commercial

that hygge library Jenabi Ling

Figure. 5.1 Site map with site boundary and infrastructure (1:5000)

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5.3 CURRENT DEVELOPMENT Site A and B are subjected to redevelopment over time proposed by City of Copenhagen. Site C was recently redeveloped with new building blocks closing both corners - two new residential complex. [Construction field A] . Site A is mixed by businesses; including the Jaguar dealer, the timber trading facility, offices for rent, a convenience store and an indoor go-cart facility. It has the appearance of a very composite character – both charming and unresolved at the same time.

C

4

5 3

A

6 7 2

1

B

Figure. 5.2 Development plan

Figure. 5.5 Supermarket. (View 1)

Figure. 5.8 Worn down building on site. (View 5)

Site A compromise of old buildings originated from 1900s. They are not up-to-date and unhealthy. Hence, compare to site B, site A has the best potential for redevelopment and further densification. [Construction field B] Currently has a convenience store (Super Best) and parking lots. On top of the building there are various sport clubs including the karate club and a kindergarten with a rooftop garden.

Figure. 5.3 Aerial View of Sankt Kjelds Plads.

Figure. 5.6 Jaguar Car retail. (View 3)

Figure. 5.9 Timber Trading. (View 6)

The functions on Site B will gives a positive effect to the newly proposed building in Site A. The currecnt function in Site B should not be neglected and be included as a design driver.

Figure. 5.4 Adminstration Building beside site. (View 2)

that hygge library Jenabi Ling

Figure. 5.7 Pocket of space in front of Jaguar. (View 4)

Figure. 5.4 Timber trading + Office space. ( View 7)

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6

DESIGN RESEARCH QUESTION

The Design Research Question (DRQ) stems from my Advanced Design Research (ADR), after reading an excerpt from one of my respondent. In the summer time “… the beaches, harbour basins and parks are very popular for recreation and runs. Additionally, restaurants and coffee shops with outdoor seating are widely sought.” In the winter time”… warm coffee shops and restaurants are widely sought. They usually create a very cozy, relaxed atmosphere describe best by the Danish word Hyggeligt”. If this “hyggelige” atmosphere is present in coffee shop, people can easily stay for hours, drinking coffee, talking to friends and reading books”

6.2 SENSES IN COFFEE SHOP Every significant experience in the coffee shop like architecture is multi-sensory; qualities of matter, space and scale are measured by the eye, ear, nose, skin, tongue, skeleton and muscle. Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1964:18) emphasizes this simultaneity of experience and sensory interaction as follows: My perception is [therefore] not a sum of visual, tactile, and audible givens: I perceive in a total way with my whole being, which speaks to all my senses at once

One excellent example would be from my own personal experience in Paludan Bookcafe - a contemporary art gallery, restaurant, cafe, and book stores. Books + table (quiet) Books + food + table Bookstores + table Figure 6.2 Section. Cafe Paludan

The inside is a split-level. The walls are lined with old books and free to be used. With subdued classical music in the background, you can browse through the latest books while having sandwich, a delicious sweet or hot coffee. It has free wifi, hyggelit atmosphere and always pack with mixed crowds especially students on different time.

6.1 HYGGE IN A COFFEE SHOP Denmark is one of the top three in consuming coffee after Norway and Finland. (refer appendix #1 for chart). Coffee is not just as a beverage to the Danish people or a drink on the run in order to get energized. It is deeply held ritual where friends come together –in the home or café- to slow down and enjoy each other’s company. It could also be by themselves having the companion of a complete strangers sharing the same space. It is so much more than coffee… it has to do with a certain atmosphere providing a sensuous experience. This is a daily occurrence that allows people to take a moment out of their busy lives and reconnect with those around them. Despite the hectic and anonymous environment in Copenhagen, this culture is a necessity.

that hygge library Jenabi Ling

Figure 6.3 View into Paludan bookcafe Figure 6.1 Illustration on senses

The distinct senses and ambience that contribute to one’s experience of a coffee shop are visual, textural, tangible, auditory, olfactory and gustatory. By fostering these distinctive ambiences, coffee shops aim to become “third places for meeting away from home and work... a place to relax, discuss, socialize and study” (Joliffe 2010:8) much love by the Danes.

Figure 6.4 First floor of Paludan Bookcafe

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6.3 LIBRARY INSPIRED OFF COFFEE SHOP Library are seen as ‘dowdy and somewhat intimidations institutions often not welcoming (Slavid 1999). Hence there is a pressure to learn from the coffee shop in order to break down the generic typology of a library. Breaking down the barriers between libraries, educations and shopping. This would result in creating a more hygge atmosphere yet still function, which will appeal to the Danes. Besides the popularity of coffee place as a leisure pursuit in Copenhagen, the motive also came from the success of large book stores (Arnoldbusck) with their relaxed environments. Another international example would be Book Kinokuniya (Kinokuniya Shoten) , a Japanese bookstore, which has more than 80 stores in Japan and overseas. The stores are known for the immense size of its bookshop that allow the customer to enjoy coffee and cakes whilst they shop. The library is given a task to provide a setting for the way people were thought to associate in coffee shop through the exploration of scale, materiality, fluidity, luminosity of space and aroma (refer to table 6.5). Challenging the generic library typology that act as a catalysts to help perpetuate the Danish culture and be more people oriented. To address social issue in a broad sense, bringing library, education and leisure together in a single building, which promote its sense of belonging, familiarity, to the community. Hence, events or gathering would be held in a most hyggelig and relaxed atmosphere possible.

that hygge library Jenabi Ling

SENSES IN COFFEE SHOP

ARCHITECTURE QUALITIES

STRATEGY

VISUAL TEXTURAL

- View, Materiality - Actual sense of touch + Imaginary sense of Touch = Tactilness - Lighting + Shadow

- Spatial Planning • Formal • Informal • Transition

TANGIBLE

- Sensation of Touch (Haptic) - Positive tactile stimuli - Caress material, hardness, moisture,temperature

OLFACTORY

- Sense of Smell

GUSTATORY

- Sense of Taste

AUDITORY

- Sense of Hearing

WARMTH

- Micro-climate

SCALE

- Sense of wrapped space - Fluidity and Openness of space

- Ambience • Luminosity • Warmth • Views in/out • Familiarity • Local • Materiality Scale, Fluidity, Flexibility, Openness, Circulation ties all the space together.

6.4 WHY LIBRARY? In response to the Client’s vision, site and contextual analysis, I’ve chosen to work with a library as the meeting place that glues the community together. Also considering that, University of Copenhagen is expanding it’s faculty, more libraries is needed to accommodate more students in the future. Besides that, the site is surrounded by residential complex, hence there is no need for another one. A museum or art galleries attract visitors of a particular interest, which doesn’t promote second or third visit back.

15%

Table 6.5 Summary table of the senses in a coffee shop translated into Architectural qualities and strategies.

40-49

25%

50-90+

19%

In conclusion, the research question for this design project is :

How can the experience and senses embodied in a coffee shop, permeate the interior complexity of a library, infused with the Danish’s cultural phenomenon of hygge?

30-39

12% 0-9

20%

20-29

9%

10-19

Population : 24000 approx. Chart 6.6 Age Groups in Sankt Kjelds Kvarter

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BUILDING TYPE : LIBRARY & LOCAL CASE STUDIES 7.1 BREAKDOWN OF HIERARCHY Historically, the library was a private building dedicated to an individual, monastery or collage. Libraries are essentially collections of study material based upon the written and increasingly electronic, word.

7.2 LIBRARIES IN COPENHAGEN

1. COPENHAGEN UNIVERSITY LIBRARY NORTH (KUB)

In the 19th century, the formal organization of architectural space and the space in the mind liberated by the power of the written word became symbolically united. It is this symbiosis, which led to the domed reading room -Itself a metaphor for the human brain. (Edward 2002:9) Over the past two centuries, the balance of power has shifted from the book to the reader and more recently from the book to digital data systems. Buildings are required to adapt to the rapid changing technology and trends in library planning as well as fulfilling their role as community hubs and meeting space. Libraries have departed from the traditional model typified by book storage and impenetrable service desks. Knowledge is gained by collaborative searching rather than a didactic teacher / student relationship. There are many reasons to visit a library beyond borrowing a book. People come to spend their recreational time, meet friends, spend time with their children, and check their social networking sites, to feel socially connected, to search for jobs, and treat it as a coffee shops - a democratic place where all are welcome. The library became a safe, well-lit warehouse where the reader’s needs became as important as that of the collection. The relationships between the books and architecture space, defines and classifies the library into various categories. The shifting politics of power in the library has been to the advantage of architectural spaces

that hygge library Jenabi Ling

Discussion based on personal experience and also observation.

Figure 7.2 Informal reading are in Copenhagen University Library North.

Figure 7.1 Public reading hall in Københavns Universitetsbibliotek Nord.

Copenhagen University Library North is a very small and localised library with vibrant wall paintings and furniture. Even though, there are no specific spot for quiet contemplation, the library is still widely used by the Danes. It is described as a hyggelit environment that they prefer to work in. The informal space that’s familiar and desire by the Danes - Localisation. Localisation speaks to old-world values like community and heritage and it makes sense that the Danes instinct to retreat to what is familiar to them. It is suffice to approach the design in a holistic approach that response to the Danes culture.

2. NORDVEST CULTURAL CENTER BY COBE The building includes a traditional library (Children, Youth, Adults), spacious meeting rooms, café and lounge areas, a computer workshop and a concert hall that serves the community in Bispebjerg which is very similar to my proposal. Each space is designed according to user groups.

The architects integrated the two cultural institutions with a network of catwalks and other connections. The location of the conference room at the top of the building produce a large flow of people up and down the foyerstaircase system

3. THE BLACK DIAMOND LIBRARY BY SCHMIDT HAMMER LASSEN ARCHITECTS

Figure 7.3 Atrium of the Black Diamond by Schmidt Hammer Lassen architects.

The Black Diamond is the cultural landmark on the port that attracts not only for its functions but also architecture. There are venues for cultural events internally and externally. The atrium is the key features of the library - an organic room in motion, opening up towards to the harbour. Readings room are arranged around atrium taking advantage of natural lighting and view. 10


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KEY ISSUES AGAINST DESIGN RESEARCH QUESTION 8.1 SPATIAL ISSUES The proposal provides a new interactive library and new public open space fringed by a protected community verandah and gathering space. [Transitional Space] The idea community verandah was inspired by the atrium in the Black Diamond Library mentioned earlier ( see Fig 7.3 ) .The verandah act as the community gateway, which will offer shade, rain protections and provide amenity year round. This will provide additional reading area in fine weather. It is a different kind of space where there is less worry about people talking or moving about. [Mixed Use] It’s a public living room where café activities, after school gatherings, outdoors readings and laptop uses, performance and civil ceremony should occur. It will provide a range of lounge areas aligned with the service areas and cafe. It is intended to have the lower level promotes cultural and community development through venues for meeting, lecturing, exhibitions and creative spaces. [Noise] The cafe will share it’s space with the library where food and noise is allowed, as long as quieter, formal areas are still available. [Comfort] Library users are spending longer in libraries. Hence, it should be comfortable, allowing people to feel at home. Users appreciate being able to choose and customize their environment. They may seek active and social areas such 
as collaborative study. [Formal Spaces] This does not negate, however, the need for people to use the library for solitary study and quiet contemplation. Reading areas should be well thought out allowing users to enjoy access to view that hygge library Jenabi Ling

and/or sunlight for temporary relief. It is important to consider spaces where indoor be perceived as an outdoor space. Not physically but psychologically and visually. [Openness, Fluidity] The plan of the verandah will comprises a series of rooms connected by a long corridor. This is fundamentally contrary to centralized library design. There are opportunities to create, interact with and contribute to the library environment. It is hoped that the functions of the library will spread outside of its perimeter into the Foyer, Sankt Kjelds Plads and courtyard, enhancing the potential for out of hour’s activities. [Flexibility] Traditionally libraries operated within strict working hours. Today, library hours may cater for modern lifestyles. Even when the library is closed, many services can still be offered. Meeting and training spaces can be accessed out of hours, via the ‘community verandah’. Wireless users will congregate around the library to use wifi at all hours of the day, activating open space, cafes and exhibition areas outside the secure zone can operate, and more. Good visibility from the street provides mutually beneficial characteristics for security and activation of public areas. [Accessibility] Typical of tradition loggias, the verandah will provide an extension of internal activities, an openair sitting room for the community in Sankt Kjelds Plads. The design of the library needs to promote, not hinder, linkage with space, which is the medium of connectivity expressed through both interior and exterior volumes. The circulation and pathway should be immediately apparent. Visual variety matters when moving through, it provides an essential part of human experience.

Figure 8.1 Exploration on Community Verandah - The transitional space that connects a series of functions. (Design Studio)

Figure 8.2 Different patterns of reading area and book stack areas in the twentieth century libraries.

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The library should be worth visiting as a building in it’s own right and gives the visitor a memorable architecture experience yet functional. Ground floor frontage to the street should be maximized creating a significant public building elevation to Sankt Kjelds Plads. The permeability and transparency of the façade allows the passer by to understand the function with in providing a welcoming and open frontage.

8.2 AMBIENCE [Luminosity] Dramatic lighting can change the ambience of a volume. Natural light should be carefully controlled and exploited to it’s limit as against employing artificial light. Strategies like generous void or atria, light shelf, stained glass, reflections, deep planning on certain volumes and so on. Different space required different intensity of light. Book and computer have quite different environmental needs. Reflected light on the screen impairs the ability to work effectively during long period: sunlight and books also creates eyestrain (and can fade the printed page). [Materiality] Material chosen with the consideration of environmental implications and achieving the highest of indoor-environment quality in promoting hyggeligt environment with simple, functional system. Direct sunlight + Reflection + Spatial

Figure 8.4 Exploration on facade composition that aids the penetration of light + Reflective material .

[Local & Familiarity] Considering the demographic changes results library as a valuable social magnet and creates a more culturally varies community. Sankt Kjeld’s population has been traditionally diverse. Hence, the municipality is striving to maintain the qualities and attributes provided by a culturally diverse community. The community library is the best place for this to occur where cultures can be promoted
 via collections, courses, oral tradition, display, lectures, art, food, meetings and clubs.

Diffusion + Material + Fenestration

8.3 ADDITIONAL KEY ISSUES

Figure 8.3 Different Strategy and Exploration for Ambience [Luminosity] + [Mateiral]

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COMMUNITY IDENTITY, LANDMARK Some people visit art galleries just for the experience of the building, not many will go out their way to visit a library in a similar fashion. Functional space should not dominate aspirations towards cultural meaning and social value in the broadest sense.

Figure 8.5 Strategy in Flexibility and Expansion [Serve and servant space]

8.4 FLEXIBILITY (STRUCTURE) A simple repetitive structural grid is optimal for largescale public libraries. Internal partitions should be limited, allowing spaces to change over time. Rooms can be created by furniture, screens and shelving without a significant requirement for fixed elements, Fixture can be designed on casters, can be modular. The library should be flexible allowing functions to move in. The furniture may change daily and wheeled to the side and the space given over.

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9

INTERNATIONAL CASE STUIDES 9.1 DELFT TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, NETHERLANDS BY MECANOO ARCHITECTS

9.3 VANCOUVER PUBLIC LIBRARY, CANADA BY MOSHE SAFDIE AND ASSOCIATES DOMESTIC C.S

LOCATION

ADDRESS

Cafe Paludan

CPH, Denmark

Luminosity, Materiality, Local, Fluidity

CPH University Library

Figure 9.2 Section, Library, Delft Technical University, Netherlands by Mecanoo Architects Features

Figure 9.4 Plan, Vancouver Public Library, Canada by Moshe Safdie and Associates Features

- Monumental, exploit natural lighting from dramatic cones shaped reading rooms to private cubicles. - Angled walls, tilting facades and complex internal spaces. - Integrated library, retail, auditorium and government offices. - Building conceived as extension of landscape. - Sloping roof breaks the modernist tradition of rational rectangular volumes.

9.2 MUSASHINO ART UNIVERSITY, JAPAN BY SOU FUJIMOTO

- The library, shopping crescents and adjoining piazzas are evidences of the maturing of libraries as public meeting places beyond that of buildings merely to read or borrow book. - Wide promenade colonized by cafes tables. - Serves as a library and also caters for broader social needs.

9.4 PECKHAM PUBLIC LIBRARY, LONDON BY ALSOP AND STORMER

Local, Informal Space

Cultural Center, Copenhagen

Local, Transitional, Mixed Use, Fluidity, Accessibility, Cultural Identity

The Black Diamond

Luminosity, Local, Informal Space, Transitional, Mixed Use, Fluidity, Accessibility, Cultural Identity, IN/ OUT, Openess

INTERNATIONAL C.S

LOCATION

ADDRESS

Delft Technical University

Holland

Luminosity, Mixed Use, Fluidity, Accessibility, Cultural Identity, IN/ OUT

Musashino Art University

Japan

Luminosity, Materiality, Informal Space, Transitional, Fluidity, Accessibility, IN/OUT, Structural, Openess

Vancouver Public Library

Canada

Informal Space, Transitional, Mixed Use, Accessibility, Cultural Identity, IN/OUT

Peckham Public Library

London

Luminosity, Informal Space, Fluidity, Accessibility, Cultural Identity,

Table 9.1 Summarise Precedents used and what issues it address.

Figure 9.3 Plan, Musashino Art University, Japan by Sou Fujimoto Features - Integrated bookshelves as structural, light atmosphere. - ‘Searchability’ and ‘Strollability’ as circulation concept. - Visible from street and its surrounding. - Spilling steps which act as siting as well. - Bring outdoor space into indoor space .

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Figure 9.5 Section Through Peckham Public Library, London by Alsop and Stormer. Features - Places special activities in sculptural pods. - Bold and radical structural form. - Social regeneration in a deprived area, providing a cultural space to meet. - Raises library above ground to exploit light, view and silence. - New image for public libraries, which appeal across age, ethnic, and culture

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10

SITE OPPORTUNITIES AND CONSTRAINTS

Origin Site

Origin

Site

Parks Cafe

Library

Cafe Site

Site

Cafe

Figure 10.1 Proposed library’s site located on the centre of the neighbourhood (Source : Author)

Figure 10.2 In between spaces in the neighbourhood with programs and functions

Figure 10.3 Exploration on form and traffic on site

[Location] The site is open and offers a range of settings for recreation and public/ceremonial activities. The site is the nodal point of the neighbourhood which plays in advantage and the community library will expresses it’s nature as important community facility and highly visible.

[In-Between spaces] This site provides a range of open spaces to suit a variety of active and passive activities, which had a strong correlation with Aldo’s thinking of the ‘in between space’. Making use of the holes of the urban fabric and give waste space a function to reactivate the space:

[Better Connections] Often, during the journey to the library, people often combine their visit with other activities provided in the neighbourhood.

[Flexibility] The site offer space for the library to grow externally and adapt internally over time. The library is not a static building type and subjected to considerable pressure for change – from innovations in technology, the growth of knowledge with an ever-increasing volume of books and journals.

- Strengthen community spirit and interactions. - interesting to pass through and engage. - Quality gathering space and improve connections. - High quality community precints . - Reinforces the complementary functions the library.

Currently, the poor quality residential and business premises surrounding the site are rather mundane, hence the community library can lift the area aesthetically and also enhances it’s statues culturally.

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Strategies: - Define new possibilities for motion (street furniture, art and culture) providing more active participation and observation. - Expelling car, subservient to pedestrian and cyclist. - Physical changes to a more livelier, active streetscape.

[Streets and Squares] The widths of the streets are wide and public squares are not enclosed well and dominated by heav y traffic of cars which impacted on how the urban space is experience. The squares are dominated by heavy traffic of cars Hence, in order to enhance the library as the public living room, the surrounding of the site has to be plan. According to Camilio Sitte (1903:63) , public squares should be: - enclosed and in correct scale, sided by building. - entry of the plaza should be left unprogrammed. - traffic should be discouraged in public spaces.

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EXPLORATION AND TEST SETS (DESIGN STUDIO) EXPLORATION #1 SECTION A

FLOOR PLAN

Site

dar

n Bou

y Reading rooms and I/T

Detail A

Staff areas Near road for delivery

First Floor Recreation spot

Semi Enclosed Public space

Open Plan (Flexible) define by Furniture

Existing Building

a

Book Cafe

Commercial Children

Commercial

[People] The Community verandah is not strong in this scheme, taken over by the commercial lots. Reading room is defined by furniture and users. Allow personalization for sense of belonging. View ensure on ever side of the building. Children are placed near the book cafe, highly visible to parents and able to use the semi enclosed space away from street safety.

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Community Verandah

Detail A Truss roof

[Ecology] Instead of completely demolishing the buildings on the site. The existing Jaguar car dealer is retain. The planning of the building revolves around existing block of building. Creating a public space with the niche of the existing building.

[Economy] The commercial are high visible from the street. Second ground floor is introduced on top of the commercial units for a different recreation space. viewing deck. The shops create a cresent inspired by [Vancouver Public Library] - key precedents.

[Ambience] Day lighting strategy is inspired by Step buildings. Roof structures allow sun gain. Courtyard is not in shadow. Reading room - generous void

[Program] Jagged edges of the building are more interesting and encourage activities around theedges. Building are on a flexible grid system for flexibility.

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EXPLORATION #2 [Ambience] Skylight + Light shelf + and semireflective material selection to bounce off light. Adapting and using Diffusion in illuminating a space. However, the function of the space has to be suitable within the Luminous flux. Diffused light are softer. [DELFT TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY ]

SECTION B Skylight

Reflective Light Shelf

Diffusion

Commercial

[Place] The whole building will be sitting on a platform, to act as a threshold between the street and the square. Also providing a sequence and hierarchy entering the building (Community identity with public square in front )

PLAN B

Reading

[Program] Building is set back and traffic is still allowed. The public space (roundabout) is below the street level. Sense of enclosure and away from the traffic. [People] Volume 1 is informal like public living room, where the community verandah intersect through, and eventually reach the laneway - act as the transitional space between the two volume - and alternative space emphasizing on it’s scale, sense of wrapped space.

Open Plan (Flexible) define by Furniture

I/T

Commercial Community Verandah

Cafe Children Semi Enclosed public space

The commercial area placed behind the building. Not the most strategic location for commercial, as there not much pedestrian flow but this approach prioritise the public instead of the commercial area.

Highway

rooms and

Reading rooms and Open Plan (Flexible) define by Furniture

I/T

Platform Lower ground level.

Commercial

Volume 1 (Noisy) --> Transition (Buffer) ---> Volume 2 (Quiet) SECTION B

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[Ecology] Instead of demolishing all the building on the site, it is refurbished and assigned functions to it Commerical. Double height volume enable interactions as well as ventilation. Generous void.

EXPLORATION #3

Commercial

Commercial

existing building

[Program] Separation of rooms but space still bleed into one another. Jagged form promote activities on edge. Separation of commercial space and the library complex hence the focus would be the cafe when inside the library. Variety of spaces to use in the library as well as the exterior. Ground floor as the public living room . [People] Strong central order which will be the community verandah. View ensure on ever side of the building. Small scale indoor spaces (wrapped spaces)

Staff

Youth

IT

DETAIL SECTION C

Children Cafe

SECTION C Community Verandah Promenade

Double height Volume

FLOOR PLAN C

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12

FUNCTIONAL RELATIONS AND REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS The general configuration of the library shows a series of inter-related zones from public foyer through to childrens library and staff areas. It is envisaged that entry to the library and transitions between zones will be porous in nature blurring the boundaries from the street, through to the library’s interior and between library zones themselves.

Youth Collections

Staff

A portion of the library is incorporated with some traditional library services (first floor not shown in diagram), and technology-rich zones and a public zone with shared community space. This section would incorporate information board for community, providing access and services out of library opening hours.

Conference Rooms Commercials

Children Collections

Services

INDOOR

SECURE AREA PUBLIC AREA (Out of Hour )

REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS Existing Regulations are to be taken into consideration

Book Cafes

for the safety users and compliance to the code of

Exhibitions

practice of Denmark:

IT Rooms Community Verandah

Figure 12.1 Functional Relationship Diagrams

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OUTDOOR

• Energy Performance Building Directive (EPBD) • The Danish Building Regulations (BR) • Nordic Built • Green Building Initiatives

• Energy Efficient Buildings • Energy Strategy 2025

• European Economic Area • The Danish National Library Authority (Danish: Biblioteksstyrelse)

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ACCOMODATION REQUIREMENTS AND USER GROUPS

GROUND FLOOR PRE-FIX

SPACE

AREA (m2)

FIRST FLOOR PRE-FIX

SPACE

COMMUNITY VERANDAH

Foyer

90

200

50

MAIN COLLECTIONS

Non Fictions

Lounge

Fictions

150

Exhibition Space

60

Community Language

80

Virtual Community Board

6

DVD/CD

30

Virtual Information Board

6

Large Prints

50

Bookcafe

100

Digital Catalogue(s)

20

Customer Service(s)

15

Bookcafe

SERVICES

100

Reception

6

Meeting Room(s)

60

GENERAL

AREA (m2)

Auditorium

60

Self Checkout(s)

12

Study Area(s)

100

Display Area

20

Outdoor Reading(s)

200

Newspaper/Magazines

45

Toilet(s)

50

Main Study Area(s)

350

Disabled Toilet(s)

5

Quiet Reading Hall

30

Baby Change(s)

5

Intimate Study Area(s)

40

COMMERCIAL

Restaurant(s)

900

Multi- Purpose Room

80

CHILDREN

Collection(s)

50

Pantry

30

Reading Area

50

Printer Area

20

Story Telling

50

Toilet(s)

40

Computer(s)

15

Disabled Toilet(s)

5

Collection

26

Baby Change(s)

5

Lounge

40

Computer(s)

30

Computer Area(s)

30

Personal Laptop Area(s)

60

Work Area Meeting Area Return Area

20

Toilet(s)

40

NETT TOTAL

4155

Storage

30

CIRCULATION (20%

831

Server

60

SERVICES (15%)

623

Processing

60

5609

Garbage

10

GROSS TOTAL

Loading

70

Rest Area

6

YOUNG ADULTS IT ROOMS STAFF

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SERVICES

IT ROOMS

Personal Laptop(s)

60

Work Area(s)

100

240

Toilet(s)

20

18

Storage

30

STAFF

KEY USERS IN COMMUNITY

BREAKDOWN

USAGE

FAMILIES

Children Teenagers Parents Granparents

Cafe, Restaurants, Parks, Library, Education Facilities Playground Meeting Rooms

STUDENTS

Kindergarten

Parks, Library, Education Facilities Playground

High School

Cafe, Restaurants, Parks, Library, Education Facilities, Playground

University

Domestic National International

Cafe, Restaurants, Parks, Library, Education Facilities, Meeting Rooms,

TEACHERS

Kindergarten High School University

Cafe, Restaurants, Parks, Library, Education Facilities, Meeting Rooms, Playground

YOUNGER GENERATION

Couples Family (with and without children)

Cafe, Restaurants, Parks, Library, Education Facilities, Meeting Rooms, Playground

WORKING GROUP

Employee Employers (blue and white collar)

Cafe, Restaurants, Parks, Library, Education Facilities, Meeting Rooms,

Wider Community: Students, Teenagers, Adults, Elderly, Working Groups, Tourists.

Other Program requirements: Bicycle park, Bike Tracks, and Pedestrian network Promenade, Basement Carparks

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PROJECTS ECONOMY

The city of Copenhagen and the Ministry of Social Affairs have allocated : - 60 mil. DKK for Urban Renewal in Sankt Kjelds - 60 mil. DKK for building refurbishment and establishment of green space. The goal is that 300 million DKK will be invested in Sankt Kjelds during the next five year. (2011-2016) The money will be used strategically in a way, that, which activates existing resources in Sankt Kjelds and attract further investment for cultural, social and physical projects in the neighborhood.

PRIVATE AND PUBLIC INVESTMENT At present time, a lot of money is being invested in city development and the new Metro-city ring and physical projects in the neighbourhood. Without private investments in modernisation of the existing dwellings and establishment of new dwellings and new businesses, it is not possible to secure a high

quality of life for the neighbourhood’ inhabitants in the long run. It is therefore necessary that the project is conducted in a fashion which makes it attractive for private investors. In order to secure a coordination of public and promote private investments in Sankt Kjelds, the city of Copenhagen has made an investment assessment, which accounts for the big public investments in Sankt Kjelds and the potential for private investments in future proofing dwellings and business in the neighbourhood. Figure 14.1 shows how the work with development of new meeting-places (library), cooperation and activities supports each other, activates existing resources, attracts new investments to Sankt Kjeld’s and results in an increased quality of life. Sankt Kjeld’s thereby becomes more interesting for private investors in regards to investments in a futureproofing of dwellings and workspaces in Skt. Kjeld’s, which increased the quality of life in the long run. The secondary functions of the library (restaurants and cafe) will contribute to the project’s economy.

Disposition of Funds Secretariat

Furnishing of localities Plan for motion and activities

2010-2016 (MIL.) 15.0 0.8 14.2

Sankt Kjeld’s Plads

7.0

Better connections

2.0

The Cultural Laboratory

3.0

Places for young people

2.5

Project and Media Workshop

3.0

Culture festival

0.5

Kildevældsparken

3.0

Meeting place

3.0

Cooperation

3.0

Activities

3.0

TOTAL

60.0

Table 14.2 Summary of Disposition of Funds. Highlighted in Yellow shows the budget of the project. Please refer to appendix #2 for the table provided by the Client

Figure 14.1 The work with development of New meeting-places, Co-operation and activities.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Website http://www.kk.dk http://www.visitdenmark.com http://www.livingcopenhagen.org/ http://people.plan.aau.dk Books COLLINS, G. R., COLLINS, C. C. & SITTE, C. 2006. Camillo Sitte: The Birth of Modern City Planning: With a Translation of the 1889 Austrian Edition of His City Planning According to Artistic Principles. Dover. EDWARDS, B. 2009. Libraries and Learning Resource Centres. Oxford : Architectural Press. GEHL, J. & GEMZØE, L. 2004. Public Spaces, Public Life, Copenhagen. Danish Architectural Press & the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture Publishers. GEHL, J. 2010. Cities for People. Copenhagen : Island Press. GEHL, J. 2001. Life between buildings: Using public space. Copenhagen : The Danish Architectural Press. LEE, J. 2010. ‘Common Grounds of Coffee and Tourism’ in Coffee Culture, Desitinations and Tourism, (pp. 3-21). Leeds: Short Run Press. LEFAIVRE, L., DE ROODE, I., FUCHS, R. H. & MUSEUM, A. S. 2002. Aldo van Eyck: the playgrounds and the city. Amsterdam : Stedelijk Museum. WEAVER, A. 2010. “Cafe Culture and Conversation: Tourism and Urban(e) Experiences in Wellington, New Zealand. In Lee Jolliffe (ed.) Coffee Culture, Destinations and Tourism (pp. 41-52). Leeds: Short Run Press. THORN, J. 2006. The Coffee Companion: A Connoisseur’s Guide. London: Quintet Publishing. WALKER, J. 2004. Introduction to Hospitality Management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. MERLEAU-PONTY, M. 1964 . Sense and Non-Sense. Evanston :Northwestern University Press

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appendix


Appendix #1 : Coffee consumption by Country (Source: http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/ foo_cof_con-food-coffee-consumption)

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Appendix #2 :



Sankt Kjelds Plads