Stasis + Flux Light and Materiality in Architecture Color Form Texture Light Jennifer Kozlovsky Master of Architecture School of Architecture and Community Design University of South Florida May 2013 Shannon Bassett Terminal Masterâ€™s Project
Stasis + Flux Light and Materiality in Architecture Color Form Texture Light Jennifer Kozlovsky Master of Architecture School of Architecture and Community Design University of South Florida May 2013 Shannon Bassett Terminal Masterâ€™s Project 3
This Masterâ€™s Project is dedicated to my parents, both of whom gave me sound advice and encouragement to make this possible. And to my best friend and fiancĂŠ Francarlos, for his love and support during the most crucial moments.
Thank you to everyone who helped me mature into the person I am today. To my classmates, for helping me develop my skillset through observation and collaboration. To my Masterâ€™s Project chair, Shannon Bassett, for the guidance and advice during this year and previous studios. To my committee members Mark Weston, Giancarlo Guisti, and Vinay Gupta for taking the time out of their schedules to offer direction and encouragement. To my family, for their unconditional love and understanding of my commitment to my architectural education. And to Francarlos, for always being there for me.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Figures
Introduction to Design Proposal
How to 110 Bibliography 6
01 : List of Figures Figure 01 Figure 02 Figure 03 Figure 04 Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure
05 06 07 08 09 10 11
Initial concept graphic Solar cells for windows havest light. Experiential tiles test the range and variety of characteristics achieved through the substitution of elements frozen in resin.. Piles of Wishes (2004). Cornelia Konrads. Nature Art Biennale. Gongju, Korea. Dew Covered Dragonfly (2012). David Chambon LED lights embedded in architectural material. SensiTile Light refractions, SensiTile Fiberoptic light guides redirect light from the bright points to the shadows. Scintilla, SensiTile PIXMA Concrete LED Wall System, SensiTile. Colored windows in a government building generate power using technology from Australian dye-based solar developer Dyesol. (Seoul, South Korea) Printable Photovoltaics will soon be available thanks to Harvardâ€™s Clean Energy Project. This could one day allow photovoltaic paint or wall paper to be cheaper than regular paint.
Figure Figure Figure Figure
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Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure
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Figure 34 Figure 35
Magazine Strips, 3form Color Beads, 3form Birchwood, 3form Encapsulated Resin in Polymer Sheets Resin in Polymer Sheets freeze a pattern. Variations of polymer sheets textures. SWON Outdoor Glass Art. Light, water, and transparency as architectural material. Cast resin color. Cast resin texture. Flexible resin form. Dune Tiles. Parametric Patterning. Parans Luminaire directs daylight into fixtures through fiber optics. Parans Luminaire brings natural daylight into a building through fiber optics. Parans Luminaire fixture. OLED I. Rain System, Thierry Gaugain (2012) Luminoso Illuminated Wood Panels. Luccon Concrete Luccon Concrete Photochromic pigments react to the heat generated by the inhabitant. Interactive Light Floor. BLab Italia. Joseph Cornell. Cabinet of Wonder. Untitled (Cockatoo with Watch Faces), 1949. Christian Boltanski. Monument Les Enfants, 1986. Joseph Cornell. Cabinet of Wonder. Observatory: Corona Borealis Casement, 1950. 9
Figure 36 Figure 37 Figure 38
BLab Italia Table. BLab Italia Detail. Thermochromic tiles colorfully respond to the temperature swings caused by the water.
Figure Figure Figure Figure
Printable Photovoltaics Nanotechnology MIT Researchers print on everyday materials, such as paper and fabric. Bus Stop, San Francisco. Lundberg Design partnered with 3form, Konarka and Clear Channel Outdoor
39 40 41 42
Photovoltaic detail, Lundberg Design partnered with 3form, Konarka and Clear Channel Outdoor Figure 43 Figure 44 Figure 45
Solar Ivy Parking Garage. Solar Ivy Parking Garage, Photovoltaic detail. Acrylic rhythm cast in resin. The spacing between acrylic segments creates a meniscus that changes the shadow perception. Tampa Riverwalk
Reflective elements of the water courtyard emphasizes dynamic transitions of the exterior environment.
Cladding with a natural material pallate emphasizes the coneepa living environment.
Framed views to outside blends the exterior courtyard with the interior space.
Framed views to outside blends the exterior courtyard with the interior space.
Figure 50 Figure 51 Figure 52
Living vegetation becomes a filter for the interior space. Vegetation warms the space at night as a seperate material. Proportional relationship of light penetration.
Figure Figure Figure Figure
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Figure 57 Figure Figure Figure Figure
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Filtered light creates a transparency that reflects off the material skin. Painted surfaces reflect shades of color. Relationships between scales Layered planes control light to change the ambiance throughout the day. Fused glass windows crafted by Doug Hanson enhances the sacred atmosphere. Color Ratio Colored window panes filter soft tones into the altar space. Shifts of material palate transforms the architectural environment. Linear light penetration flows down the wall, emphasinzing the surface texture. Colored blue lights symbolically represent the cold water temperature. Melted Glass Ashtray Warped Reflections. Material: Melted Water Bottle Shadows diffuse walkway with different intensities. Shadow walkway. Site Map Resin pattern created with wax paper. Urban Riverwalk Revival with new canopy construction. Reflections similar to water are intrinsicly intertwined with compositional properties. Parti Arial View Resin pattern weave in between fiber optic light guides. Shadow Variations caused by changes of density and angle. Light Installation Mockup 01. Concrete, Resin, Plexi. Light Installation 01 - Elevation Light Installation 01 - Elevation 11
Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure
77 78 79 80 81 82 83
Light Installation Mockup 02. Concrete, Resin, Plexi. Light Installation 02 - Elevation Light Installation 02 - Perspective Light Installation Mockup 03. Concrete, Resin, Plexi. Light Installation 02 - Elevation Light Installation 03 - Elevation Light Installation
Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure
84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91
Light Installation on Public Docks in front of the Tampa Museum of Art Table Detail Table Detail Table Arial Table Elevation Plugs can be created using wood wrapped with wax paper. Beginning of Final Presention End of Presention
02 : Abstract
Figure 01 : Initial concept graphic emphasizing the sensuality of light, nature and architectural materiality.
Born into an environment where the frail nature of the human body creates the need to protect it from its surroundings, Humanity has developed an instinctive connection to the natural environment. Edward Wilson, an award winning American biologist, researcher and theorist explains the theory of biophilia as being the â€œinstinctive bond between human beings and other living systemsâ€? and the â€œurge to interact with other forms 14
of life.” 1 For many years architects have sought to foster this connection while promoting the security of the user by creating spaces that allow the user to experience the exterior while occupying the interior; effectively merging the natural environment with the built environment. Until modern times designers and communities embraced the use of regionally harvested materials for architectural purposes. However, current trends towards international trade and globalization of manufacturing have resulted in stagnant products which sever this bond and don’t really fit in anywhere. At the same time materials technologies are constantly evolving and as a result architectural material palettes are becoming increasingly sophisticated. Researchers at the European Commission’s Industrial Technologies department estimate that “70% of new product innovation is based on materials with new or improved properties.” 2 New fabrication methods make it easier to create rich visual experiences using relatively few elements. Some product designers investigate characteristics such as color, form, texture and light to manipulate the atmosphere. 3 With these processes in mind, this project serves as an investigation into architectural materiality and how it can be advanced in such a way that, once stagnant 15
material elements can be infused with natural objects to create phenomenological qualities otherwise found in nature. Driven by the potential for ordinary materials to enhance an environment with updated intrinsic capabilities, this thesis proposes the synthesis of natural and synthetic systems into a constructed element offering exciting spatial, optical or sensorial effects, while combining globalization of production with locally sourced raw materials. This material process could allow for customization beyond what was previously thought possible. This Master’s project will catalogue the different techniques used as well as the desired effects versus the effects achieved. Through the design and networking of a series of urban installations along the Tampa River’s edge, these design explorations seek to understand a process of fabricating phenomenology and incorporating it into the built environment. Notes 1. Wilson, Edward O. Biophilia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1984. 25-27. Print. 2. “Industrial Technologies.” http://ec.europa.eu/research/industrial_tech nologies/promotional-material_en.html, Report from 10 Sept. 2012 Web.12 Dec 2012. 3. “Recycled Resin Panels.” 3form Varia Ecoresin. N.p., 2013. Web. 3 Jan. 2013. 4. Kieran, S., & Timberlake, J. (2004). Refabricating Architecture: How Manufacturing Methodologies are Poised to Transform Building Construction. New York: McGraw Hill, 121. 16
â€œWe have only begun to speculate upon the uses of these new materials in architecture. Characteristic properties have begun to emerge however, in recently developed materials that are the opposite of many conventional materials now in widespread use... Dramatic changes in the properties of recently developed materials will ultimately transform architecture...Beyond infatuation [with new materials]... lies a world of purposeful form yet to be explored, a world in which materials will be selected based upon properties relevant to use. - Kieran & Timberlake, Sfgbcsjdbujoh!Bsdijufduvsf;!Ipx!Nbovgbduvsjoh! Nfuipepmphjft!bsf!Qpjtfe!up!Usbotgpsn!Cvjmejoh!Dpotusvdujpo/!
Figure 02 : Solar cells for windows havest light.
03 : Introduction to Design Proposal Figure 03 : Experiential tiles test the range and variety of characteristics achieved through the substitution of elements frozen in resin.
The unique interpretation of Environmental ambiance varies and is derived from the personal memories and experiences of the individual user as well as their current emotions or state of mind. This wide range of seemingly unpredictable stimuli varies from person to person, making it challenging for architects to evaluate the specific character of a perceived experience. However, that does not suggest the design of these influential moments should be left to chance. The approach to this material process embeds a selection of organic and repurposed objects into modules with dynamic characteristics in order to create a choreographed sensorial environment in the form of an urban installation along the Tampa River Walk. The concepts of stasis and flux enrich the environment with respect to the notion of interactive and experiential space. The methods examined in 19
“The flatness of today’s standard construction is strengthened by a weakened sense of materiality” and that natural materials, such as wood, brick, and stone, “enable us to become convinced of the veracity of matter.” - Juhani Pallasmaa, Uif!Fzft!pg!uif!Tljo
Figure 04 : Piles of Wishes (2004). Cornelia Konrads. Nature Art Biennale. Gongju, Korea.
Figure 05 : Dew Covered Dragonfly (2012). David Chambon
this project concentrate on how texture, color and light affect a user’s sensorial perception. Photographs record the range of qualities the panels exhibit, such as internal reflections, colors, shadows, light projection, and layering effects. Biophilia Although cultural distinctions impact the partiality of the individual, evolving alongside natural surroundings has embedded certain preferences in mankind regardless of geographical habitation. The evolutionary hypothesis states that “human beings respond better to the perennial natural environment under which they evolved than to an ephemeral, man-made one.” 4 The theory of biophilia implies that there is a natural desire to inhabit the natural environment. Additionally, architectural theorist Juhani Pallasmaa argues that “the flatness of today’s standard construction is strengthened by a weakened sense of materiality” and that natural materials, such as stone, brick and wood “enable us to become convinced of the veracity of matter.” 5 These theories suggest that, in order to enrich the architectural environment, it is important to identify fabrication strategies that merge products of construction with products of nature to 21
â€œOveremphasis on the intellectual and conceptual dimensions of architecture contributes to the disappearance of its physical, sensual and embodied essence.â€? - Juhani Pallasmaa, Uif!Fzft!pg!uif!Tljo
Figure 06 : LED lights embedded in architectural material. SensiTile
Figure 07 : Light refractions, SensiTile 22
reproduce the perpetual intervals found in an outdoor atmosphere. Some theorists claim that â€œoveremphasis on the intellectual and conceptual dimensions of architecture contributes to the disappearance of its physical, sensual and embodied essence.â€? 6 By forging a synthesis between natural and manmade materials, without an overwhelming focus on the intellectual and conceptual dimensions, it is possible to recapture some of that lost essence. Experiments conducted cast a variety of flora and fauna, as well as other natural and recycled materials, into molds which are then filled with translucent epoxy resin to study the benefits and shortcomings of each re-purposed element. It should be understood that the raw materials need not be organically harvested to establish a sense of locality or benefit the environment. The discovery of the intrinsic capabilities of junk, such as colorful strips of magazine pages, can have similarly profound effects to naturally harvested materials while removing refuse from the wastestream cycle; while the primary aim remains achieving high impact design aesthetic with lowimpact materials. Essentially, through the use of 23
Figure 08 : Fiberoptic light guides redirect light from the bright points to the shadows. SensiTile.
Figure 09 : Scintilla, SensiTile.
re-purposed materials, this project identifies strategies for re-purposing recycled materials in such a way that can circumvent the traditional recycling process and incorporate recycled materials directly into the fabrication of a new product. Material Experimentation Technology has undoubtedly altered the process of making, but, as with the introduction power tools in the early 1900â€™s, if technology can be used in such a way that brings out or emphasizes that inherent beauty of a material, natural or manufactured, than that technology can be justified as an artistâ€™s tool. The experimental nature of contemporary architecture has helped advance the possibilities of material technology, but can often create a machined aesthetic, resulting in a final product with little potential to become anything more than what it is; that is to say, there is little potential for change, adaptation, or reaction. Many materials contain the potential to react to external stimuli in one way or another. These reactions can be passive in nature; such as such static patterns creating dynamic reflections with changing light, or they can be active; such as thermochromic coating over an otherwise inert material causing changes in 25
04 : Design Research
Figure 10 : PIXMA Concrete LED Wall System, SensiTile.
â€œTraditionally, architects would question what a brick would want to be, but with new technologies architects tell materials what they shall be.â€? - Peter Yeadon, Obopufdiopmphz;!Tnbmm!cvu!Njhiuz
color with changing temperatures. Some materials also contain the potential to become interactive, responding directly to the stimulus of the viewer or occupant. Budget constraints necessitate efficient manufacturing processes to produce a consistent product at an affordable price however, an overwhelmingly uniform product typically results in an atmosphere that character and limits the potential for sensory influence. So the questions becomes, is it possible create materials capable of harnessing phenomenological qualities otherwise found in nature in order to enrich the sensory environment? Fabricating Phenomenology As previously mentioned, passive strategies can be implement to infuse the material components with 27
“In our time, light has lost its significance as a mediator between two worlds, between enclosed and open, interiority and exteriority, private and public, shadow and light. Having lost its ontological meaning, the window has turned into a mere absence of the wall.” - Juhani Pallasmaa, Uif!Fzft!pg!uif!Tljo Figure 11 : Colored windows in a government building generate power using technology from Australian dye-based solar developer Dyesol. (Seoul, South Korea)
Figure 12 : Printable Photovoltaics will soon be available thanks to Harvard’s Clean Energy Project. This could one day allow photovoltaic paint or wall paper to be cheaper than regular paint. 28
intrinsic capabilities. Generally, this involves the layering of patterns or materials in such a way that creates a series of transparent, translucent, and opaque surfaces, simulating similar dematerializing qualities found in nature. Consider for example the image of a treeline against the horizon or an eroding rivers edge. In both instances there is an ambiguous point of transition or uncertainty where one edge recedes into the other. This ambiguity is essential to successfully capturing the effects of naturally occurring phenomena in a man-made material objects. This thought process inspired the development of translucent assemblies, constructed in the form of six inch square tiles, infused with a variety of translucent embedments in an attempt to manipulate the sensorial impact of light. 7 In addition to these embedded translucencies, other material designers incorporate opaque mirrored backing, fiber optic light guides, micro concrete substrates and light refractive polymers to harness specific light qualities in an attempt to enhance the reactivity of the tiles, thus enhancing the experience of a particular space. 8 Other, active, strategies integrate technology into the material components in order to control an atmosphere. One such product produced of this 29
Figure 13 : Magazine Strips, 3form
Figure 14 : Color Beads, 3form
Figure 15 : Birchwood, 3form
“Overemphasis on the intellectual and conceptual dimensions of architecture contributes to the disappearance of its physical, sensual and embodied essence.” - Juhani Pallasmaa, Uif!Fzft!pg!uif!Tljo
research is a thermochromic panel system which reacts to changes in temperature with variations in color. Another example is the PIXA Concrete video system uses recycled glass and BASF admixtures to produce a panel that can be set on top of an LED system to combine an active technology with the passive network of fiber optics in this panel. User Perception Designers reflect upon the effects of specific characteristics when choreographing user perception since “material is a medium for manifesting a set of behaviors or effects.” 1 An overwhelmingly homogenous palate results in monotonous environments that dull the sense of perception. Unlimited factors affect the impression of sensorial 31
Figure 16 : Encapsulated Resin in
Figure 18 : Resin in Polymer
Figure 19 : Variations of polymer
Sheets freeze a pattern.
Figure 17 : SWON Outdoor Glass Art. Light, water, and transparency as architectural material. 32
qualities; especially vision, the keenest human sense. The project focuses on the most essential influences of visual perception: color, form, texture and light. 2 These areas of focus help to evaluate the materials developed and organize them into a catalogue. Traditionally, architects would question what a brick would want to be, but with new technologies architects tell materials what they shall be. 3 This opens up design to a level of customization unachievable for any previous architectural era. The appropriate role of each material selection is determined by how the sensorial nature is affected. Perception of Color Though the perception of color is universal, the interpretation of color is a cultural manifestation. Signage and way finding devices serve as a prime example. Consider a traffic light; in most countries, it is understood that red means stop and green means go but that is not caused by hard wired instinct, it is a learned reaction. For the same reason you will find that the United States and many European countries identify emergency exits with green and red signage, while many Asian countries do not. Responses to color are rarely universal and, as would be the case 33
Figure 22 : Cast resin color.
Figure 23 : Cast resin texture.
Figure 20 : Flexible resin form.
Figure 21 : Dune Tiles. Parametric Patterning.
with most any experiment involving multiple variables versus a single constant, it is virtually impossible for researchers to understand the myriad of responses to chromatic stimuli. So, although color psychology remains unproven, it is important not to overlooking the balance of shades and hues result in a design scheme. Successful urban spaces often achieve a balance of colors to invigorate an environment. Soft colors allow elements to blend together, rather than allowing a dominant hue to overwhelm a space. Instinctive Reaction The link between health and color has been observed but currently remains unresolved. Dr. Russell Foster, Professor of Circadian Neuroscience at the University of Oxford, writes that blue light is “the most effective wavelength (colour) for shifting circadian rhythms and alerting the arousal systems.” 1 A separate study conducted by Dr. Mariana Figueiro, PhD at Rensselaer’s Lighting Research Center suggests that the color blue helps regulate the sleep cycles of Alzheimer’s patients Although measured results are not available, “…photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs) contain a light-sensitive pigment called 35
Figure 26 : Parans Luminaire directs daylight into fixtures through fiber optics.
Figure 24 : Parans Luminaire brings natural daylight into a building through fiber optics.
Figure 25 : Parans Luminaire fixture. 36
Opn4, which is most sensitive in the blue part of the spectrum with a peak sensitivity at 480nm- very similar to the â€˜blueâ€™ of a clear blue sky.â€?3 This data shows that viable associations between biologic desires and environmental color preferences are beginning to emerge. Perception of Form The play between scales and relational models convey different meanings depending on how the material assemblies are defined by organic or modulated fields. Where form is large and singular; material is small and aggregate. 4 Materiality helps define the nature of the architectural form it intertwines with. Texture, scale, relational models, and parametric are design tools used to sculpt the perception of form. 37
Figure 28 : OLED I. Rain System, Thierry Gaugain (2012)
Figure 27 : Luminoso Illuminated Wood Panels.
Texture As texture is generally experienced through memories of touch, it is not initially considered a visual influence. However, haptic surfaces transform the design palate. The textures of materials can have a cultural significance in one area. 3form, a material manufacturer and global distributor, uses local textiles in manufacturing plants around the world, especially developing regions of South America, Africa, and Asia. Scale Users perceive a space differently based on the scale of materials. Visually undersized columns can make occupants uneasy about the structural integrity of a building. Materials have the potential to reach any desired thickness or to become infinitesimally small Relational Models Cohesive design often incorporates a system of proportional elements to unify the aesthetics of a space. Mathematics can play a vital role in architecture, serving as a rational organizing principle for developing constructible modules. The structure of materials should have some sort of cohesiveness in order to connect material to form; geometry can be 39
Figure 29 : Luccon Concrete
Figure 30 : Luccon Concrete
dependent on the structural capabilities of the material element and vise versa. Consider, for example, a Masonry Concrete Unit and a geodesic dome. Although they are both proven structural systems they are not exactly interchangeable, therefore it is imperative to create a connection between material, form, and structure. Parametric patterning Parametric modeling programs can unify complex construction elements in a way that relates the base component with the surrounding architectural environment. Parametric designs can influence the sense of temporality, experiential depth and personal belonging while creating a rational dimensioning systems based on construction modules. Perception of Light Unarguably the most powerful aspect of materiality, the presence or absence of light has a profound influence on user perception. The use of daylight in architecture is a subtractive process since only a fraction of available light reaches the interior of a building, while illumination with artificial light is an additive process â€œin which lumen by lumen the interior of the space 41
Figure 31 : Photochromic pigments react to the heat generated by the inhabitant.
Figure 32 : Interactive Light Floor. BLab Italia.
must be created” 12 It is well documented that lighting can influence not only visual perception but state of mind. Appropriate lighting can leads to excitement, alertness, and dominance while inadequate lighting can result in dullness, boredom, and submissiveness.” 13 Continuous, constant lighting can have a negative impact on the health of employees, reducing performance and motivation. This can be crucial in many areas of design since “mood influences or mediates the problem-solving process.” 14 Passive Systems Passive systems maximize the visual complexity of materials using little more than the material itself. Such strategies intensity include using opaque mirrored backing, fiber optic light guides, micro concrete substrate, or light refractive polymer to improve the sensorial capabilities of the material Designers commonly create apertures though which light can be brought into a space and manipulated. Advances in material technology now allow the construction materials themselves to serve that aperture and many designers are embedding fiber optics into materials or using light pipes, acrylic tubes, and mirror ducts to bend light into a space. “Fiber optics exploit the 43
Figure 33 : Joseph Cornell. Cabinet of Wonder. Untitled (Cockatoo with Watch Faces), 1949.
Figure 34 : Christian Boltanski. Monument Les Enfants, 1986. Figure 35 : Joseph Cornell. Cabinet of Wonder. Observatory: Corona Borealis Casement, 1950.
properties of total internal reflection to transmit light from end to end through a glass core.â€? 15 Some product designers use â€œinteractive materials as dynamic lightâ€? 16 which distorts light phenomena or signals in such a way that produces a kind of visual displacement. Blingcrete, for example, is a retro-reflecitve concrete that is intended for marking edges and hazardous areas such as steps and platforms. Using this product, a designer can create a contrasting edge for those with visual impairments while creating a cane detectable textured surface for the blind. Another such example is Luminoso, a light-transmitting wood composite material manufactured in Austria that allows transparency between spaces, creating transparent boundaries. Fiberglass mats layered between thin wooden panels and bonded using cold PU glue. The transparent wood effect is achieved with fiber optics which, run through solid wood lamellas, allowing direct sunlight or artificial sunlight to be transmitted.
Active Systems Solar Textiles The process of creating photovoltaic panels has 45
Figure 36 : BLab Italia Table.
Figure 38 : BLab Italia Detail.
Figure 37 : Thermochromic tiles colorfully respond to the temperature swings caused by the water. 46
literally become as simple as printing a document, however printable photovoltaic sheets printed on plastic tend to deteriorate within five to ten years in an outdoor environment.16 Similar technologies are being incorporated into textile photovoltaics. Although solar fabrics are still in the research and development stage, researchers and developers at Konarka Technologies, see the potential to â€œenable power generation capabilities to be woven in rather than applied.â€? 17 Thermochromic Admixtures Thermochromic powders added to resin mixture serve as an active method of changing the color of the panel. This powder allows the installation to respond to forces of nature. The heat of the day or the coolness of the night causes the color to shift between blue and white. Variables such as temperature threshold can sculpt environments where choreographed layers can appear and disappear as the occupant or nature influences the pieces. Layers of passively changing colors enrich transitions with vivid shadows along an otherwise homogenously illuminated pathway. The formal orientation affects the perception of these colors.
Figure 39 : Printable Photovoltaics
Figure 40 : Nanotechnology
Figure 41 : MIT Researchers print on everyday materials, such as paper and fabric. 48
Nanotechnology Nanotechnology is currently the most undervalued aspect of material fabrication. â€œoptimizing and enhancing the performance of any existing technologies (e.g. smart materials, nanoscale modifications of cement, seismic dampening systems, and stronger, lighter structural composites with carbon nanotubes), and by offering a new class of material products that were not possible before nanoengineering (e.g. polymers that conduct electricity and harvest solar energy, biomimetic adhesives, selfanalyzing and self-healing structures, anti- reflection coatings, super-insulants, and the ability to make any object a light source).â€? 18
Fusing with the Design Process Improvements in the material sector drive modern technological and economic progress. Passive and active systems construct sensorial environments with enriched material components. Layering and combinations of static and fluctuating elements can create varied sensorial effects. Design explorations in this masterâ€™s project apply research of these systems into mockup samples with modified 49
Figure 42 : Bus Stop, San Francisco. Lundberg Design partnered with 3form, Konarka and Clear Channel Outdoor
Figure 43 : Photovoltaic detail, Lundberg Design partnered with 3form, Konarka and Clear Channel Outdoor 50
components; using the base material as a constant with multiple embedded materials and patterns as the variables. Initial design examined the intrinsic ability of found elements to enhance planar architectural features. Elements frozen in a state of stasis rely on their intrinsic composition to reflect, distort or filter views. These studies transition to a three-dimensional format exploring the potential for these constructs to impact a space from multiple position points. The first exercise introduces the brass casing tile into table for an interior or exterior environment. The familiarity of the embedded element provides the basis for whether or not the user will have a positive or negative reaction. In this case the embedded element is a powerful symbol that can generate mixed reactions. The simplicity of the design allows substitutions of the embedded material to change the overall mood of the piece. The reasoning behind this selection is to keep these items out of the wastestream cycle and away from re-processing which expends additional resources. Recycled and water based resins can be used in order to create a truly sustainable produce.19 In the visual arts the term Bricolage is used to describe the creation of a work 51
Figure 44 : Solar Ivy Parking Garage.
Figure 45 : Solar Ivy Parking Garage, Photovoltaic detail.
from that which is available on hand. In that respect, the re-appropriation of construction materials or creation of a work from a diverse range of things that happen to be available, serve as a basis for creating construction materials from found or re-purposed objects. In this exercise, gun powder burns and residue hint to the history of the material while leaving many questions unanswered, at the same time the visual reaction created by the powder burns against the brass casing enriches the tonal range of the brass color. The round shape of the casing also serves to emphasizes the reflective and refractive qualities of the shell, enabling the material to reflect light from multiple sources; the curvature of the acrylic form work also influenced the appearance of the cast elements in a similar manner. While naturally occurring air pockets formed in the hollow shell casings created unexpected optical effects, the variety of the casing sizes created a simple pattern using a modular organization system. The light installation combines concepts distilled from earlier architectural and material studies into a threedimensional construct. The design configures color, form, texture and light to sculpt an atmosphere unique to each zone along the Tampa River walk. The fluid 53
Figure 46 : Acrylic rhythm cast in resin. The spacing between acrylic segments creates a meniscus that changes the shadow perception.
Figure 47 : Tampa Riverwalk
medium of resin attains a vast range of thicknesses. Integrated elements can achieve great variations in thickness as long as the resin medium can structurally accommodate the embedded elements. This can serve to translate the language of the installation while maintaining a uniform materiality and serving as a threshold between changes in scale. The complexity of the resin pattern then results in a connection that has the ability to maintain its identity while reacting to the stimulus of the user or simply to the desired program of a given space. Integration of found elements in the resin composition texturizes the environment with familiar objects. The thick viscosity of resin allows it to be utilized as a texture, becoming an optical texture that distorts images on the other side. 55
Figure 48 : Reflective elements of the water courtyard emphasizes dynamic transitions of the exterior environment.
Figure 49 : Cladding with a natural material pallate emphasizes the coneepa living environment.
Figure 50 : Framed views to outside blends the exterior courtyard with the interior space. 56
Chevron Headquarters Perkins + Will Nanjing, China 2007
Perkins and Will designed this office center as a passive architectural solution for a productive environment. The slender footprint maximizes the penetration of daylight, naturally illuminating each administrative wing. Meaningful placement of solid masses serving as structure and shade reduces uncomfortable glare caused by direct light. The semi-permeable canopy shades the building mass with a composition of voids that frame the sky and cast dynamic shadows throughout the day. The design recognizes the importance to pacify the state of mind of the occupant so a peaceful atmosphere is established throughout the building. The final circulation became excessively circuitous, so an arcade short-cut unifies each wing while simultaneously allowing the occupant to experience peaceful energy while walking alongside a reflecting pool. The dynamic reflections calm the occupant and show the change with the day and the seasons. 57
Figure 51 : Framed views to outside blends the exterior courtyard with the interior space.
Figure 52 : Living vegetation becomes a filter for the interior space.
Figure 53 : Vegetation warms the space at night as a seperate material. 58
New Arctic Practices Jens Thomas Potential Greenland 2012 Venice Biennale
In a climate that receives little sunlight and crucial UV-B rays, the New Arctic Building Practices proposes a solution that conserves light. Conceptualized by Danish Jens Thomas for the 2012 Venice Biennale, this competition entry strengthens the sense of community using light as a beacon for congregation. A network of elevated pathways unite the mountainside residences, and illuminates homes along the way. The materials used allow light to illuminate the public pathway while maintaining privacy within each individual residence. A translucent membrane delineates the boundary-edge between the private and public domain. Only silhouettes are visible in the common spaces, while the private bedrooms are entirely enclosed to the public edge. A single window frames the view of the mountainside. inside while still allowing light to radiate on the path. 59
Figure 56 : Proportional relationship of light penetration.
Figure 55 : Filtered light creates a transparency that reflects off the material skin.
Figure 54 : Painted surfaces reflect shades of color.
Sarphatistraat Offices Steven Holl Amsterdam, Netherlands 1996- 2000
The Sarphatistraat, an office addition to the newly renovated Singel Gracht building in Amsterdam, celebrates the concept of “Patterns in a Chromatic Field.” The simplicity of the sponge-like membrane allows light to enter pores in a variety of ways. Overlapping building skin filters light, allowing multiple intensities of light tp enter through the same aperture, the largest of which are located above head height. Reflective surfaces magnify the presence of diffused light which reduces the need for uncomfortable, direct light. Color enlivens the environment and encourages social exchange amongst the employees. The structural walls create “phenomenal screens of color” have color applied selectively near window openings. The light rays penetrate the skin and reflect the color on the inside of the building. Water is also used in this manner. A small pool on the Eastern side paints morning reflections that on the white interior walls. Red rose arrangement under-lit with color. 61
Figure 57 : Relationships between scales
Figure 58 : Layered planes control light to change the ambiance throughout the day. 62
Myyrmaki Church Juha Leiviska Vantaa, Finland 1984
The Myyrm채ki Church floods with light to heal the souls in a region that experiences fifteen thousand hours deprived of the sun. This design uses sunlight to emphasize concepts of small and large, low and high, shade and light. Most of the light enters the church indirectly and reflects off the walls. Staggered planes guide the focal point towards the altar and provide enough task lighting for the priest. This effect builds on the drama of progression and emphasizes the importance of the altar space. Direct light enters through a skylight and washes down a wall without becoming a nuisance to the occupants. Although the wall surface lacks a haptic texture, it generates interest with a shadow composition cast by architectural elements; contrasting shadows cast by structural beams and tension cables rake surfaces with an angle that varies with the season, translucent hanging fabrics filter light through the colors, and the warm toned floor reduces the sterile atmosphere caused by the abundance of white finishes. 63
Figure 59 : Fused glass windows crafted by Doug Hanson enhances the sacred atmosphere.
Figure 60 : Color Ratio
Figure 61 : Colored window panes filter soft tones into the altar space.
Chapel of St. Ignatius Steven Holl Seattle, Washington 1997
The Chapel of St. Ignatius offers different light qualities, but achieves effects similar to those found in Myyrmäki Church; creating a sense of wonder that pedagogically engages the occupant. The concept of “seven bottles of light in a stone box” relates to the story of the world being created in seven days. Each light volume represent a part of the mass and corresponds to a program element. Reflected color is paired with a colored lens of a complimentary color. When an occupant looks at white surface, they see the inverse imprinted in their vision. Planes folding out of the wall create surfaces that can be used to reflect colored light. The haptic realm can be perceived by the inclusion of light. The white roof baffles reflect light and the raked texture emphasizes the pattern of shadows. The sand-blasted glass sconces with suspended blown-glass lights compliment the light emerging from the baffles. Four fused glass windows crafted by Doug Hanson depict one of the four weeks of the Jesuit spiritual exercises. The composition filters the light through the fragments of glass. 65
Figure 62 : Shifts of material palate transforms the architectural environment.
Figure 63 : Linear light penetration flows down the wall, emphasinzing the surface texture.
Figure 64 : Colored blue lights symbolically represent the cold water temperature. 66
Therme Vals Peter Zumthor Vals, Switzerland 1993- 1996
The Therme Vals integrates thermal baths and therapeutic facility built into the slope of a hill in Switzerland. The theme of â€œhollowing out and cutting up a great monolithic massâ€? appears throughout the intervention. Buried underground, the dark circuitous path receives light through the use of illumination joints along the ceiling and water joints along the floor. The darkness induces a serene and meditative atmosphere. The black concrete wall above contributes to the meditative ambiance while below the water line is white in order to illuminate the water. The materials used create a sense of recollection of the surroundings and speak to the unique history of the site. The mica slate slabs have mineral structures, layers and iridescent tones of grey that are unique to the location and reveal the acquisition process of the slabs retrieved from the quarry. Variation of material creates a dynamic range of shadows and polished stones create a reflective surface that guides transition and reflects the flickering of the water. 67
05 : Design Explorations Warped Reflections Bottles have an intrinsic ability to shape light in a variety of fascinating ways. By heating the plastic bottle using a torch, the bottle warps and folds translucent layers in new ways. The bottlesâ€™ intrinsic characteristics maintain the caustic light and shadow reflections. These water bottle studies analyze the shadows that can be achieved through layers and filters of light. The layers of translucency cast a variety of shadows which creates a range of spaces in different levels of shade. The phenonmenon of the circulart mouth the the water bottles directs light that creates an entirely sunny zones winthin areas of shade. Line light healps direct occupants in architectural space. Here, the threads of the bottle neck reflects light in a way that directs the eye. 68
Figure 65 : Melted Glass Ashtray 69
Figure 66 : Warped Reflections. Material: Melted Water Bottle
06 : Tiles Red Leaves Leaves and other natural materials are used in hopes of simulating dynamic shadow conditions found in nature.
Aquarium Pebbles Aquarium pebbles embedded in resin use the opacity of the pebbles to emphasize the transparency of the resin.
Water Bottle Caps Repurposed bottle caps are used to create uniform patterns and create dynamic shadows through variations in translucency.
Broken Glass Broken glass layered into plexiglass formwork and embedded in resin create varying levels of translucency and color.
Jingle Bells In an attempt to merge architectural materials and sound, hollow bells were embedded within resin. However, the bells in resin proved to dampen vibrations to the extend that no sound was produced. Umbrella Color Vibrancy Dense Center Filtered Light
Folded Foil Reflectivity Malleability Formal Rigidity
Shredded Magazines Linear Elements Vibrancy Density
Oat Weed This panel uses weed to naturally filter light into an environment. This connects people to nature and develops an appreciation for the lack of vegetation during the winter months. This panel isnâ€™t dense, so it would be optimal in Dollar Weed This panel simulates an underwater atmosphere using a waste product of lawn maintence. Dollar weeds resemble lily pads and this panel aims to create a perception of an underwater environment. The stems resemble the labyrinth Leucaena leucocephala, lead tree: Seed Pods This panel uses seed pods in order to transmit light through a translucent source. The seeds within the pods create a darker shadow while the flesh of the pod creates a lighter shadow. The slender, smaller pods create variety in this Shrub Leaf This leaf appears to grow out of the wall panel. -Haptic shadows cast on wall.
Bald Cypress Leaf This panel mimics the filtration of a bald cypress tree by using its leaves.
Bald Cypress Twigs The flexibility of the twigs allows the light to be manipulated in a natural way. This panel uses twigs from the Bald Cypress Tree in order to
Capelin Roe (Masago) The vibrancy of the capelin roe inspired a series of panels using alternative methods to cast the roe. The first panel freezes the roe in a layer and allows direct rays of light to
Shell Casings The shell casings were collected from a local firing range. The multiple sizes of the shell casings can be arranged to create a variety of light patterns. The intrinsic qualities of shell casings reflect light. Pushpins Clear pushpins seem to dissolve into the panel. The exposed plastic reflects the light contours. The metal tack reflects light within the panel. Transluctent red tacks are
Grocery bag Strips of plastic grocery bags diffuse the light. The bags twist, and overlap to create density.
Density The rocks block most of the light, while allowing small amounts of penetration through the cracks. Fish oil beads allow some relief of darkness, while also adding a bright accent to the crevices. Fish Oil The panels turn the world upside down. This panel is particularly interesting due to how it can be used with other panels. Magnification and distortion generates a variety of visual textures. Glue Sticks - Translucent Tones A subtle variation in light quality is apparent through the transmission of light through hot glue sticks. The rods have the potential to have more than sensory significance. Communicate a message. Mancala This panel uses mancala marbles transmit shades of blue light. Blue light has been found to improve the sleep cycles of Alzheimerâ€™s patients. Designers tend to favor the use of LED blue lights because people react to it more than any other color. Twist Ties The twist ties peal apart from each other, creating a variation of light shades. The individual ties are not distinguishable, but the shadows blend together creating soft transitions between the shaded areas and the darker ones. 76
Resin Manipulation For a minimal amount of material, this panel had an incredible filtering effect. These manipulations could be used to intensify an otherwise monotonous shadow.
Optic Refractions The acrylic pegs are shortened to various lengths. Light becomes focused as it passes through these points, and become brightest at the point of intense focus. The pegs Berries This panel was to study how berries transform light sources. Before the second layer of resin was poured the berries began decaying, leaving behind a matrix of connected crystals. Butterfly The butterfly panel casts shadows that make it appear as if butterflies are moving through the space. One of the insects is in the process of emerging from the panel. When
Oyster Shells Shadows filtered in unexpected ways, shadows in between and highlights. Algea provides natural color variations and the round shape reflects light from multuple sources.
Nail Shadows Reflectivity Halo Refractions Luminescent Glow
Viney Wood Organic Form Growth Motion Kinetic Energy
Leaf Shadow Organic Texture Silhouette
Green Glass Haptic Color Overlap Tones
Jingle Bell Shadow Highlights Refraction Form of Light
Twig Shadow Flexible Manipulation Organic Essence Shadow Variations
Rocks and Bell Shadow Haptic Texture Highlight Reflectivity Density
Drink Umbrella Shadow Color Vibrancy Dense Center Filtered Light
Magazine Strip Shadow Linear Elements Lightness Density Grocery Bag Shadow Diffuse Twist Aperatures Privacy Density
Oyster #1 Shadow Reflectivity Halo Reflections Refractions
Pine Needles Shadow Diffused Organic Form Feather Shadow Diffused Density Lightness
Pineneedle Hatch Shadow Organic Organization Density Red Bead Color Soft Vibrancy
Oyster #2 Shadow Optics Refractions Concavity
Oyster #3 Shadow Overlap Transition Fan Shades Organic
Acrylic Segments Shadow Highlights Pinpoint Light Shatter
Bullet Casing Shadow Kinetic Motion Wave Repurposed
Resin Manipulation Shadow Water Texture Fabrication Variations
Figure 67 : Shadows diffuse walkway with different intensities.
Figure 68 : Shadows diffuse walkway with different intensities.
07 : Site Selection Program Distribution Services Picnic Area Bicycle Lane Kayak Launch Pavilion Green Space Landscape Ridges Water Parterre Outdoor Living Room Recreation Yoga Lawn Riverside Gyms Fishing Platforms Bird Watching Manatee Fountains 88
Figure 69 : Site Map
A juncture site linking neighborhoods presents an opportunity to draw users of different economic levels and social backgrounds. Urban links attract streams of traffic, which constantly activate community programs surrounding urban installations. Unconnected segments prevent the Tampa River Walk from living up to its potential. Relaxed neighborhood streets are appropriate for a pedestrian setting, but proximity to the busy highway makes the site uncomfortable for the user. Privacy is difficult to achieve with the vehicular traffic noise, but the location next to the river allows the sound to disappear over the water. The openness of the park opens views across the river and of downtown. While the downtown sidewalks are wide enough for two pairs of pedestrians to pass each other, the scale of the sidewalks in this area makes it difficult for two pedestrians to pass each other. The scale of the sidewalks are too small and push the pedestrian close to traffic. in its current state, the alcove presents itself as a barrier rather than a continuance of the Tampa 89
Figure 70 : Resin pattern created with wax paper.
Figure 71 : Urban Riverwalk Revival with new canopy construction.
Figure 72 : Reflections similar to water are intrinsicly intertwined with compositional properties.
Figure 73 : Parti Arial View
Figure 74 : Resin pattern weave in between fiber optic light guides.
Figure 75 : Shadow Variations caused by changes of density and angle.
Figure 76 : Light Installation Mockup 01. Concrete, Resin, Plexi. 94
Figure 77 : Light Installation 01 Elevation
Figure 78 : Light Installation 01 Elevation 95
Figure 79 : Light Installation Mockup 02. Concrete, Resin, Plexi. 96
Figure 80 : Light Installation 02 Elevation
Figure 81 : Light Installation 02 Perspective 97
Figure 82 : Light Installation Mockup 03. Concrete, Resin, Plexi. 98
Figure 83 : Light Installation 02 Elevation
Figure 84 : Light Installation 03 Elevation 99
Figure 85 : Light Installation
Figure 86 : Light Installation on Public Docks in front of the Tampa Museum of Art
Figure 88 : Table Detail
Figure 89 : Table Detail Figure 87 : Table Arial
Figure 90 : Table Elevation
HOW TO: POUR RESIN
Figure 91 : Plugs can be created using wood wrapped with wax paper.
INSTRUCTIONS 1. Set up work space to protect table with plastic garbage bag and ensure all materials will be available without touching unprotected surfaces. 2. Measure equal amounts of Part A: Resin and Part B: Hardener. The viscosity of Part A is thicker than Part B. Resin will not cure properly if too much hardener is in the mix. Too much resin isn’t as much an issue. 3. Gently mix resin and hardener in first mixing cup for one minute. Pour mixture into second cup and continue to mix gently, avoiding the creating of bubbles. 4. Pour resin mix in 1/16th - 1/4” lifts. Thicker lifts are difficult to pop the bubbles. 5. Tilt mold to evenly distribute mix. 6. Apply heat from a heat source. Torches can’t be held upside down and can cause irreversible damage to resin.
MATERIALS Clear Coat Countertop Epoxy with UV Inhibitor (Part A: Base Resin and Part B: Hardener) Measuring Cup Mixing Cups  Painterâ€™s Stir Stick Plastic Garbage Bag Long Gloves Hair Dryer Wax or Parchment Paper
RESOURCES Youtube, Resin Jewelry Making: How to Mix Epoxy Resin http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G5tzNIEdEtE Etsy, Techniques and Materials Forum http://www.etsy.com/forums_thread.php?thread_id=5798480
HOW TO: TRANSLUCENT CONCRETE
INSTRUCTIONS 1. Set up work outdoor workspace to contain the spread of dust. For smooth finish, build mold out of plexi. Attach pieces with hot glue to have a firm but temporary connection. 2. Attach plexi pieces to mold using weld-on. Do not use tacky glue, or it will affect the smoothness of the cast. Melamine forms a weak, yet sufficient bond which allows it to seperate. 3. Figure out the volume of concrete needed. Fill mold with water and pour into 5 gallon bucket. Mark level. Pour out water. 3. Pour 2-3 inches of water into the bucket. 4. Pour concrete into bucket. 5. Mix concrete thouroughly with drill. Slowly add more by sprinkling while mixing. 6. Repeat until the consistency of a thick Steak-n-Shake milkshake with chunky toppings. A little too much water is better than not enough water. Concrete will crumble if not enough water.
MATERIALS Quikcrete Counter Top Mix Cut Pieces of Plexi Plexi or Melamine Formwork Weld-on Hot Glue 5 gallon Bucket Potable Water Drill with Power Cord Mixing Drill Bit [Egg Beater Attachment] Disposable Mask TIPS - Anchor cement is ideal for small casts 1/4”- 2”. Pre-mixed concrete is ideal for casts 2”+. - Anchor cement has small and few pieces of aggregate and costs roughly $30. An 80lb of countertop concrete cost $5 but has large pieces of aggregate that makes it impossible to do small casts. Chicken wire is cheap and can be used to filter out large aggregate for thin pours. 107
HOW TO: BEND PLEXI
INSTRUCTIONS 1. Set up work workspace so that it is free of clutter and flammable debris. Ensure there is access to power outlet. 2. Insulate plexi and heat strip with a piece of wood. 3. For 1/8thâ€? plexi. let sit for 3- 5 minutes. For 1/4â€? plexi, let sit for 30 minutes. If left on too long, texture of heat strip will melt onto plexi. 4. Bend plexi immediatedly, either freehand or against a heat resistant mold. Plexi is pliable for 25-45 seconds.
MATERIALS Plexi Stips Plexi Bending Heat Strip or Blow Torch Insulating Wood Strip Insulated Tongs
TIPS - Bending plexi with resin in it will cause it to snap - Holding the torch too close to the plexi will cause bubbles to form
HOW TO: DEHYDRATE ELEMENTS
INSTRUCTIONS 1. Fill base layer of silica in the tubberware. 2. Place moist matter in silica. Press elements before drying. Certain elements become too fragile to flatten. 3. Sprinkle silica over petals. 4. Close tubberware and let sit for two days.
MATERIALS Moist Element (Oriental Lily) Silica Tubberware Gloves
TIPS - Handle gently. Flowers petals become extremely brittle. - The combination of resin and water prevents proper curing. The process was sought out after a failed attempt to cast fruit slices.
08 : Bibliography
Figure 92 : Beginning of Final Presention
Amon, Amelia. “The Ephemeralization of Energy Production: Photovoltaics Using Fabric.” Fabric Architecture. May 2009. http://fabricarchitecturemag.com/ articles/0509_f1_photovoltaics.html. (Accessed January 19, 2013.) Boubekri, Mohamed. “Daylighting, Architecture and Health: Building Design Strategies.” Burlington: Elsevier Ltd., 2008, page 93 Brownell, Blaine. “Solar Cells for Windows Harvest Infrared Light” Architect Magazine. August 7, 2012. http://www.architectmagazine.com/photovoltaics/solar-cells-forwindows-harvest-infrared-light.html (Accessed August 18, 2012). Brownell, Blain. “A Glimpse Into the Future of Light.” “Architect Magazine. April 20, 2012. http://www.architectmagazine.com/blogs/postdetails.aspx?BlogId=mindmatterblo g&postId=107825 (Accessed August 18, 2012). Brownell, Blain. “Experiments in Light and Material.” “Architect Magazine. March 2012. http://www.architectmagazine.com/blogs/postdetails.aspx?BlogId=mindmatterblo g&postId=99045 (Accessed August 18, 2012). 113
Carroll, Micheal. “Materiality of the Infrathin.” Matter: Material Processes in Architectural Production, edited by Borden and Micheal Meredith, New York : Routledge, 2011. “What to change in the future?“ European Research and Innovation in Materials Science and Engineering. Report from the Materials Summit in Brussels 10th September 2012. (Accessed November 12, 2012). Fairley, Peter. “Cheap Dye- Sensitized Solar Cell Moves toward Commercialization.” Energy News. May 30, 2012. http://www.technologyreview.com/news/428025/ cheap-dye-sensitized-solar-cell-moves-toward-commercialization/ (Accessed November 12, 2012). Friedman, Richard. “Brought on by Darkness, Disorder Needs Light.” December 18, 2007. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/18/health/18mind.html?_r=0 (Accessed September 18, 2012). Heimbuch, Jaymi. “Solar Cells Can Now Be Printed on Anything, Even Paper and Fabric.” TreeHugger Online Magazine. July 12, 2011. http://www.treehugger.com/ clean-technology/solar-cells-can-now-be-printed-on-anything-even-paper-andfabric.html (Accessed January 10, 2013). “Industrial Technologies.” http://ec.europa.eu/research/industrial_technologies/ promotional-material_en.html, September 10, 2012. (Accessed December 12, 2012).
Inventables. “Temperature Sensitive Concrete: Changes color from the heat of your hand or the chill of a cold drink.” https://www.inventables.com/technologies/ temperature-sensitive-ceramic. (Accessed February 5, 2013). Kieran, S., & Timberlake, J. (2004). Refabricating Architecture: How Manufacturing Methodologies are Poised to Transform Building Construction. New York: McGraw Hill. Kleinschmidt, Janice. “Photovoltaic fabrics add energy in design.” Specialty Fabrics Review. February 2012. http://specialtyfabricsreview.com/articles/0212_f2_fabrics. html, (Accessed January 23, 2013). McCarthy, Kevin. “MIT Researchers Create Printable Solar Cells.” BostInno.com. MIT, 11 July 2011. Web. 13 Jan. 2013. http://bostinno.com/2011/07/11/mit-createsprintable-solar-cells/ (Accessed January 23, 2013) “Organic Photovoltaics for Steel Construction Elements.” Organic Photovoltaics for Steel Construction Elements. Property Magazine International, 13 Sept. 2011. Web. http://www.property-magazine.eu/pages/news/article.php?news_ ID=17879&filename=organic-photovoltaics-for-steel-construction-elements (Accessed January 12, 2013). Pallasma, Juhani. “The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses.” John Wiley and Sons. Third Edition. 2012.
Petriello, Laurel. “Bus Stops by Lundberg Design and 3Form Generate Power for San Francisco.” Interior Design. Sandow Media LLC, 19 Aug 2009. http://www. interiordesign.net/article/474238-Bus_Stops_by_Lundberg_Design_and_3Form_ Generate_Power_for_San_Francisco.php (Accessed February 12, 2013) “Recycled Resin Panels.” 3form Varia Ecoresin. N.p., 2013. Web. 3 Jan. 2013. Höweler, E. and Yoon, J. M., “Reciprocal Media”: Matter: Material Processes in Architectural Production, edited by Borden and Micheal Meredith, New York : Routledge, 2011. Struck, David. “Plastics Put Solar on the Verge, Again.” The Daily Climate. The Daily Climate, 21 Mar. 2012. http://wwwp.dailyclimate.org/tdcnewsroom/2012/03/plastic-solar (Accessed January 13, 2013). Wilson, Edward O. Biophilia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1984. 25-27. Print. Yeadon, Peter “Nanotechnology: Small but Mighty,” Canadian Architect, November 2007.
Figure 93 : End of Presention 117