Research Quotes and Plan for my Essay
Quotes i may possibly include in my essay.
Jason Hawkes : “Unusually shaped buildings with nicknames like the Cheesegrater and the Walkie-Talkie are sprouting up, and Europe’s largest construction project is going on under the streets of the capital” Charles Jencks : “As for positive visual metaphors, the Shard provides a ‘navigation point’ for lost Londoners, popping helpfully into view at many points” Charles Jencks: “Europe’s biggest building demands to be judged at the highest level” Christopher Werth: “ London is a city in transition.” Francesco Bandarin, UNESCO’s new assistant director-general for culture : “ The landscape of London is completely transformed — has somehow burst into a kind of small Shanghai” Edward Lister, London’s deputy mayor for planning : “You cannot allow development to be stalled in a city like this. London’s grown by 600,000 people in just the last five years. And we will be over 9 million people before New York. That’s the pressure that the city’s under.” Paul Finch , Critic at architecture journel “The idea that we’re going to start protecting views from these historic monuments and places is a form of madness” Vanessa Lawson , tourist from Hastings. “I think it shows how beautiful time was back in the 11th century, and just how beautiful the new creations are now in the 21st century,”
The Structure i will follow when creating my Essay
Introduction : I will state what my essay will contain . I will show my focus points . I will also include questions to help extend my essay further. Middle :
1st page - I will focus on the positives and negatives on the Shard , 20 Fenchurch Street and the Tower of London . I will discuss the comparision and diversity between these particular designs , and how they represent the variety in Londons skyline. Explain why i choose to focus on these monuments. Discuss the comparison 2nd Page : History of London Skyline , development of materials. The comparision between purpose and height of monuments from different eras. 3rd Page - I will follow on to discuss the public opinion on the diversity in the Skyline. I will explain varied opinions with quotes included.I will show either side of the argument . Conclusion : I will answer the questions i asked in the introduction , i will conlude on my personal opinion. Questions I will Answer : Will the evolution of architecture overwhelm the skyline and draw attention away from Londonâ€™s historical Monuments? Has the concentration on appearance distracted architectures away from stability and safety? Is the Progression appreciated ? What different Materials are being used to build with ?
Research on Public Opinion and Monuments i am focusing on
Monuments : The Shard - The Shard,also referred to as the Shard of Glass,Shard London Bridgeand formerly London Bridge Tower,is an 87-storey skyscraper in London that forms part of the London Bridge Quarter development. The Shard’s construction began in March 2009; it was topped out on 30 March 2012 and inaugurated on 5 July 2012.Practical completion was achieved in November 2012. Its privately operated observation deck, the View from the Shard, opened to the public on 1 February 2013. Standing approximately 306 metres (1,004 ft) high,the Shard is currently the tallest building in the European Union. It is the second-tallest free-standing structure in the United Kingdom, after the concrete tower at the Emley Moor transmitting station.The glass-clad pyramidal tower has 72 habitable floors, with a viewing gallery and open-air observation deck – the UK’s highest – on the 72nd floor, at a height of 244.3 metres (802 ft).It was designed by the Italian architect Renzo Piano, and replaced Southwark Towers, a 24-storey office block built on the site in Southwark in 1975. The Shard was developed by Sellar Property on behalf of LBQ Ltd, and is jointly owned by Sellar Property and the State of Qatar Cost ~£435 million (contract cost only) Construction started March 2009 Completed July 2012 (opened February 2013 Architect Renzo Piano Location 32 London Bridge Street, Southwark London, England 20 Fenchurch Street - 20 Fenchurch Street is a commercial skyscraper under construction on Fenchurch Street in central London. It has been nicknamed The Walkie-Talkie and The Pint because of its distinctive shape. Upon completion in 2014 the building will be 160 m (525 ft) tall with 37 storeys. Costing over £200 million, it is designed by architect Rafael Viñoly and will feature a highly distinctive, top-heavy form which appears to burst upward and outward. A large viewing deck and ‘sky gardens’ will be included on the top three floors; these will be open to the public. The tower was originally proposed at nearly 200 metres tall but its design was scaled down after concerns about its visual impact on the nearby St Paul’s Cathedral and Tower of London. It was subsequently approved in November 2006. Even after the height reduction there were continued concerns from heritage groups about its impact on the surrounding area. The project was subsequently the subject of a public inquiry. In July 2007, this ruled in the developers’ favour, and the building was granted full planning permission. In their preliminary results for 2007, joint-developers Land Securities and Canary Wharf Group said 20 Fenchurch Street would be completed in 2011, however in 2009 this date was pushed back to 2014. It is one of a number of new tall buildings for the City of London financial area; others include The Pinnacle, the Leadenhall Building, and an as yet unnamed project at 52-54 Lime Street. Several insurance companies have agreed to become tenants of 20 Fenchurch Street upon its completion.
Status Under construction Construction started 2009 Estimated completion march 2014 Architect Rafael Viñoly Tower Of London - Her Majesty’s Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London, is a historic castle on the north bank of the River Thames in central London, England. It lies within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, separated from the eastern edge of the square mile of the City of London by the open space known as Tower Hill. It was founded towards the end of 1066 as part of the Norman Conquest of England. The White Tower, which gives the entire castle its name, was built by William the Conqueror in 1078, and was a resented symbol of oppression, inflicted upon London by the new ruling elite. The castle was used as a prison from 1100 (Ranulf Flambard), until 1952 (Kray twins) although that was not its primary purpose. A grand palace early in its history, it served as a royal residence. As a whole, the Tower is a complex of several buildings set within two concentric rings of defensive walls and a moat. There were several phases of expansion, mainly under Kings Richard the Lionheart, Henry III, and Edward I in the 12th and 13th centuries. The general layout established by the late 13th century remains despite later activity on the site. The Tower of London has played a prominent role in English history. It was besieged several times and controlling it has been important to controlling the country. The Tower has served variously as an armoury, a treasury, a menagerie, the home of the Royal Mint, a public records office, and the home of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom. From the early 14th century until the reign of Charles II, a procession would be led from the Tower to Westminster Abbey on the coronation of a monarch. In the absence of the monarch, the Constable of the Tower is in charge of the castle. This was a powerful and trusted position in the medieval period. In the late 15th century the castle was the prison of the Princes in the Tower. Under the Tudors, the Tower became used less as a royal residence, and despite attempts to refortify and repair the castle its defences lagged behind developments to deal with artillery. The peak period of the castle’s use as a prison was the 16th and 17th centuries, when many figures who had fallen into disgrace, such as Elizabeth I before she became queen, were held within its walls. This use has led to the phrase “sent to the Tower”. Despite its enduring reputation as a place of torture and death, popularised by 16th-century religious propagandists and 19th-century writers, only seven people were executed within the Tower before the World Wars of the 20th century. Executions were more commonly held on the notorious Tower Hill to the north of the castle, with 112 occurring there over a 400-year period. In the latter half of the 19th century, institutions such as the Royal Mint moved out of the castle to other locations, leaving many buildings empty. Anthony Salvin and John Taylor took the opportunity to restore the Tower to what was felt to be its medieval appearance, clearing out many of the vacant post-medieval structures. In the First and Second World Wars, the Tower was again used as a prison, and witnessed the executions of 12 men for espionage. After the Second World War, damage caused during the Blitz was repaired and the castle reopened to the public. Today the Tower of London is one of the country’s most popular tourist attractions. It is cared for by the charity Historic Royal Palaces and is protected as a World Heritage Site. Location
London Borough of Tower Hamlets, London, United Kingdom
Height Peak of White Tower: 27 m Built White Tower: 1078 Inner Ward: 1190s Rebuild: 1285 Wharf Expansion: 1377–1399
Public Opinion http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2012/dec/02/london-high-rise-craze-ruins-skyline http://www.bdonline.co.uk/news/put-people-before-masterplans-gehl-architects-tells-london-assembly/5048730.article