steiner academy five valleys
Jennifer LEE Design Studio 4.2
This report is my final submission for Studio 4.2; the culminating project of The University of Bathâ€™s B. Sc programme in General Architectural Studies. It demonstrates the results of five months work.
Design Studio Tutors Julia Kashdan-Brown Martin Gledhill
The featured proposal is for a 2100 sqm Steiner Free School near the Stroud Town Centre, aiming to provide approximately 200 children from ages 4-16 free education through the philosophies of Rudolf Steiner.
Although in principle the work of an individual, the scheme has been developed in collaboration with the following practising professionals, to all of whom I here extend my thanks:
Environmental Design Chris Fenton
Tectonic Design John Griffiths
Pauline Tilbury | Bristol Steiner School Natasha Scott | Steiner Academy Five Valleys Project
TABLE OF CONTENTS
preface project brief site preliminary design proposed design - the street - the community - the house - the garden regulatory compliance critique and conclusion project sketchbook
7 13 25 35 44 59 73 79 97 109 117 119
PREFACE | extracts from history and theory essay
I am deeply interested in the education of young children and their relationship to the learning environment. Although I was fortunate enough to receive my education at an international school in Hong Kong where informal learning spaces within the school building were encouraged and provided for, many local government schools were the complete opposite with narrow corridors and prison-like environments. One even had cages confining students within the corridors of the school. Upon research into whether school buildings in the UK were like the ones I saw back home, I came across “Baseline Design for Schools” - a document developed by the Education Funding Agency as part of an initiative to standardise school design and cut costs. All designs place emphasis on efficiency by utilising repeating units, a rigid grid and favouring low cost materials. While I feel this is a commendable effort, I can’t help but feel that the designs would result in uninspiring spaces for education, reminding me of the ‘factory schools’ stemming from the Victorian period, where children were educated not to be a confident person in society, but a healthy and obedient worker to produce goods in the factory.
Whether we want it or not, buildings not only encourage physical change but have the powerful ability to influence human behaviour. In most cases, learning is forced upon children instead of encouraged in a playful, adventurous way. Intricate features such as low lying door knobs, different coloured doors in each classroom and small corners where children can dwell in are integral in making a child feel comfortable and at home at a school environment. We must realise that between the ages of 5-16, we spend more time in the classroom than in the home, and therefore the school building becomes the principal sphere of influence over our early childhood. Architects have an incredible opportunity to enhance a children’s growth in learning about life skills by creating small scale, personalised spatial conditions that will encourage children to extend the curriculum by imagining and engaging in project-based learning We do not possess enough knowledge of child development to overhaul the education system - this should be left up to the scholars and education bureau. However, in the spirit of integration, lessons can be learned by studying alternative schools: their emphasis on the child’s wellbeing is admirable and I believe traditional schools should explore ‘the other half’ of education; the education of the whole being. Instead of focusing on knowledge that may not be used in real life, schools should strive to teach children to be independent, engaging and possess a lifelong love for learning.
THE VICTORIAN SCHOOL After the UK Elementary Education Act was introduced in 1870, the importance of constructing large schools in dense urban settings became increasingly prevalent. Not only did school boards need new school buildings that held a large number of students, emphasis was placed on shaping young children into obedient, healthy workers. This resulted in symmetrical, rigid plans where both sexes had separate circulation cores. Classrooms were orthogonal with tight desks and teachers carried out classes under the â€œchalk and talkâ€? premise.
A STUDY IN SCHOOL BUILDING |
IMPINGTON VILLAGE SCHOOL | WALTER GROPIUS
MARL SCHOOL | HANS SCHAROUN
Arranged across a gardened landscape, the low- density complex denotes an urban sprawl, creating a community aspect, something never dreamed of in a strict Victorian school.
Hans Scharoun challenged the conventional school layout where there is an abundance of standardised classrooms without differentiation beteween each age group by adapting a more tailored, humane approach.
Classrooms were airy and inviting, there was land for school gardens and most importantly, a large amount of community areas were present
He explored the intrinsic social nature of the school community in terms of planning and its organisation, pioneering the analogy of classrooms as separate houses, the corridor a communal street, and public spaces such as the assembly hall as a town halll
To Walter Gropius, the village college was an opportunity to change the face of rural education. Not only did the school benefit children, it became a community centre for the whole neighbourhood and provide facilities for the development of the â€œwhole manâ€?.
Classroom wings are detached from the main building to make children feel more separate and autonomous, with outdoor walkways acting as streets and integrated gardens with landscaping.
THE HOUSE | classroom
The L-shaped classroom creates 3 distinctive, separate zones
A 2- step floor level variation further contributes to the learning zones children are not forced to work alongside the whole class at the same time
children work in different environments depending on noise and concentration levels required at the time
This allows for different activities to happen simultaneously without distraction
Working alone --> Small Group --> Large Table
Teachers are encouraged to inhabit their classroom alongside the students
HUMANISING THE SCHOOL | montessori school, delft | herman hertzberger
THE FRONT LAWN | threshold
space immediately outside the classroom - outside security of classroom but still able to feel a sense of belonging
THE STREET | public space
most important part of school life - a huge classroom
teacher still able to observe from inside the classroom
central point of the street is a brick block podium which can be extended through a ‘kit of parts’ ...effectively an extremely flexible space
a “cave” where children can work on projects independently
a place to be heard, to perform, to read, to socialise, to debate, to feel taller
Located in Gloucestershire, Stroud is a market town in the Cotswolds area at the meeting point of the five valleys. As well as being well known for its steep streets and its links to the textiles industry, it is extremely well known for its alternative culture; most notably its involvement with Rudolf Steiner’s educational philosophy. As a result, the initiative “Steiner Academy Five Valleys” surfaced; a campaign to launch a school under the government’s “free schools” program. The school aspires to provide Steiner education to approximately 200 children from ages 4-16. The project site is ideally located at the edge of the town centre and is located adjacent to various educational buildings, providing an opportunity for the Steiner child to forge links between other schools. It is also conveniently located next to the Stroud Library and pottery barn.
Access to the site is plenty - a 3 minute walk to a large park and directly adjacent to the underused Bank Gardens. The bus terminus is less than 500m away and is extremely convenient should the children go on field trips and school outings
THE STROUD TOWN |
project within the context of stroud
Residential PROJECT SITE
Steiner school catering to approximately 200 children from ages 4-16 years old under the free schools initiative | state-funded in response to community needs funded by tax payers but not controlled by local authorities single form entry from kindergarten to class 10 | develop children to fullest potential composed of a core steering group of 6 members and 30 members of the wider community - representing professionals, educational experts, parents and grandparents of the Stroud area steiner academy five valleys aspires to... educate the child as a whole being, giving equal attention to thinking, feeling, physical and spiritual aspects of learning be a place where children learn socially through interaction with others allow a child to learn through natural curiosity, creativity and imagination
THE CLIENT | steiner academy five valleys, free school initiative
CLASSROOMS | THE HOUSE
WHOLE SCHOOL | THE STREET
kindergarten x 3 lower school classroom x 8 upper school classroom x 2
55m2 60m2 60m2
school hall servery to above storage to above social spaces study areas
180m2 25m2 30m2
SPECIALIST CLASSROOMS design technology workshop kitchen/food technology drama/eurythmy art room music room science laboratory
ADMINISTRATION | PRIVATE 80m2 80m2 140m2 60m2 60m2 80m2
lower school office upper school office reception principalâ€™s office meeting space
60m2 50m2 20m2 15m2 15m2
+25% circulation (extra provisions for social/study areas)
THE BRIEF | area schedule
The First Seven Years - IMITATION From birth to age seven, the child learns to stand, to speak, to think. This all happens without the presence of formal education, but through a combination of latent ability, instinct and meaningful imitation Teachers aim to teach children whilst rejecting the erosion of childhood and places an emphasis on play and dexterity. Children learn through dance and ring games.
THE STEINER CHILD |
from the nurtured child to a free being
The Second Seven Years - IMAGINATION
The Third Seven Years TRUTH, DISCRIMINATION & JUDGEMENT
The second seven years is marked by the most prominent physical change in a child - loss of their milk teeth. At this point, the child is wholly themselves
In the third stage, the adolescent child starts to search for the truth and experiences the power of their own thinking.
This is clear when the child develops; they have developed a vivid life of imagination, and are ready for more formal learning, such as reading, writing and maths.
In the upper school, classes are still abundant with creative activities, but the emphasis shifts from developing will and feeling to developing thinking.
THE ASCENDING SPIRAL OF KNOWLEDGE
Children revisit a specific subject each year, increasing the depth and complexity of knowledge each time. The teachers lay the groundwork for a gradual vertical integration that deepens and widens the experience of each subject.
[CONTRIBUTES TO DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHILD AS A WHOLE BEING]
[ THE STEINER CHILD |
Horizontal Integration enables students to engage the full range of their faculties at every stage of development. It brings forward the idea that all the knowledge they are acquiring through school contributes to a wider understanding of the world around them
head, heart and hands
The 9th grader who learned to forge iron learns a new skill and also gains self-discipline and knowledge of an artistic form
The 6th grader learns Roman history and acts in a play - solidifies learning, learning Shakespeare and practicing teamwork
HEAD, HEART AND HANDS
The Steiner Child is not just a Brain, But a being with heart and limbs; a Being of WILL, of FEELING and of INTELLECT
THE MAIN LESSON
The first lesson of the day is taught in 3-4 week blocks by the class teacher, ideally the same person throughout the classâ€™s experience from class 1 to class 8. Topics depend on year groups and can range from physics, mathematics and astronomy to history of art and botany.
At many Steiner schools, there are playgrounds for each section of the school in order to accommodate the needs of the childâ€™s play habits. Natural materials for younger children and more static social spaces for gathering of older ones.
JOURNEY TO SCHOOL Steiner schools encourage children to walk or cycle to school. Not only does this reduce impact on the environment, it enables children to practice motor and decision making skills, as well as many other real-life skills.
THE STEINER SCHOOL | a typical school day
ACADEMIC LESSON [45 MINS, OFTEN DOUBLE LESSON]
Academic lessons are often based on more academic curriculum. Students often learn two languages from class 1 such as French and German. They are often taught verbally to begin with; letters and words are gradually added.
Children often bring their own lunch to school. Although they do not share their food, lunchtime is a social aspect where members of the class are able to interact and socialise in a relaxed setting
ACTIVE LESSON [45 MINS, OFTEN DOUBLE LESSONS] The academic lessons after lunchtime are more focused on the active child. These include eurythmy and arts & crafts, gradually introducing more complex classes such as wood work, pottery and metal work.
HOME TIME / ACTIVITIES
Children walk/cycle home or can choose to participate in other extra-curricular activities, either within the school grounds or in the grounds of surrounding schools
The irregularly-shaped building site comprises of three slopes connecting the 10m level difference between Stroud Library and St. Laurence Parish Church. The building site spills out onto an existing carpark, serving as the site office during construction, and will be used as an outdoor landscape area when the school is in use.
01 | VEHICULAR PASSAGEWAY Currently a single-lane vehicular passageway serving the Gospel Hall, which is seldom used. There is an opportunity to make this route public to reactivate the north-south connection within Stroud.
02 | DISUSED GARAGE
Separated from the vehicular passageway through a brick wall, the disused garage backs up onto a large area full of shrubs and unsightly plants. It is directly next to the vicarage garden, with a dense area of trees providing shade and noise protection.
03 | STROUD LIBRARY GARDENS The childrenâ€™s section of the Stroud Library opens up to a wild, unkept garden area and connects to Bank Gardens through a gate. There is an opportunity to develop this area further into outdoor learning spaces where children could spill into bank gardens for school events and festivals
THE SITE | components of the site
2 Gospel Hall
01 | BANK GARDENS
- Historically significant but severely underused apart from the Fringe Festival in September. - There is an opportunity to revitalise Bank Gardens as an outdoor learning and festival space
02 | STROUD LIBRARY
- The Project site directly links to the childrenâ€™s section of the Stroud Library, enabling children to access it without needing to engage with the public street
03 | ARTS AND SCIENCE BUILDING | STROUD POTTERY | WALDORF COLLEGE
- The building houses the Waldorf College, a post-16 academy. Establishing links between Five Valleys and Waldorf college from a young age enables a strong connection and Steiner community within Stroud. - The Stroud Pottery is also located here; they welcome schoolchildren to visit for classes and work shops, This enables young children to leave the boundaries of the school while still feeling secure, since it is so close.
04 | GOSPEL HALL - Gospel Hall and passageway seldom used but access must be kept 05 | RYELEAZE SCHOOL - An alternative provision school for young teenagers - there is an opportunity for Steiner Academy Five Valleys to make friends from other schools and interact with the wider community
06 | EXISTING CARPARK - Existing carpark serves the town centre - another large carpark less than 200m away
- An opportunity to create a green space to serve both the school and wider Stroud community
07 | COMMUNITY ALLOTMENTS
- Less than 1 minute walk away with various vegetables planted. Thereâ€™s a chance for children to access it during lesson time and contribute to the wider Stroud community this way.
THE SITE | immediate context
Existing Car Park
Rich palette of natural materials and greenery around the site
THE SITE | panoramic views onto the five valleys
Site panorama looking onto the expansive Five Valleys
St. Laurence Parish Church
Elderly Care Home
reactivating the town
DESIGN ASPIRATIONS | school manifesto
reclaming green space
informal learning spaces
a tactile experience
â€‚ environmental consciousness
a sense of home
Awareness of time of day Throughout the day, children are encouraged to observe their neighbouring surroundings and be aware of the passing of time. By installing chimneys in classrooms, the child will be able to see movement of the sun during the day.
DESIGNING FOR THE STEINER CHILD |
varying degrees of awareness
Awareness for the time of year
Awareness for their own development
Within the walls of the main school, I aim to provide as much outdoor space as possible by providing outdoor walkways without cover; should there be rain, the child puts on a raincoat.
A childâ€™s journey through the school acts as a symbol of their own personal development from a nurtured child into an independent being.
Children are also encouraged to take initiative in controlling their classroom environment - opening the windows when it is stuffy, closing the windows when itâ€™s cold. Emphasis will be placed on the environmental strategy of the building to make sure it is clear and easily operatable by the children themselves.
By moving through the weaving landscape of classrooms, they are able to feel a sense of belonging in their current development stage, look forward into the future and look back into the past to see how far they have come.
a missing north-south connection
EARLY SKETCHES | site connectivity
opportunities to connect to adjacent buildings
Occasional glimpses of activity
EARLY SKETCHES | re-imagining the route
Undulating school street opening out to classrooms
Specialist classrooms spilling out to shaded green area
Direct access to childrenâ€™s library via its back garden
Occasional access to school hall with glimpses of eurythmy room
Opportunity for classes to spill out to Bank Gardens
EARLY SKETCHES | spatial organisation
KINDERGARTEN - the sheltered garden
Children venture outside their immediate classrooms into specialist classes, the pottery barn and the eurythmy room, having more exposure to the outside world
Upper school children start to venture out into Stroud town centre, possibly joining Waldorf College next door Children in the lower school will use this main staircase and have a sense of belonging whenever they move around the school building
Landscaped garden used before and after school as opposed to structured classes only. Shared with children of neighbouring Ryeleaze School
Occasional visits to landscaped park during structured lessons to work on classroom allotments and have outdoor learning experiences
LOWER SCHOOL - a time of exploration
UPPER SCHOOL - gradual independence
1. Arts and Science Building - providing pottery classes for children 2. landscaped garden serving public and school children 3. eurythmy room with sprung floor and vaulted ceiling 4. disabled provision toilets 5. lift serving public and school hall
PROPOSED SCHEME | plan | street level
3 2 4 5
1. school hall 2. servery to above 3. kindergarten classroom 4. lower school reception and staff room 5. headmasterâ€™s room 6. food technology 7. music room 8. science laboratory 9. art room 10. informal performance space 11. woodworks/metalworks workshop 12. upper school staff room 13. landscaped garden
PROPOSED SCHEME | plan | lower level
3 3 3 4 5 7
1. school hall 2. kindergarten 3. lower school circulation 4. upper school circulation
PROPOSED SCHEME | plan | upper level
PHOTOSHOP NEED SEE MA
PROPOSED SCHEME | building E L E V A T I elevation O N @ 1 : 2 0@0 1:200
DS TOUCHING UP ARKUP
PROPOSED SCHEME |
building section @ 1:200
01 THE STREET59
Class 1 to Class 7 have their own gardens which they take care of. It is up to the class and their teacher to decide how the garden is populated
Outdoor public route stitching together the town centre and residential area of Stroud previously underused and underdeveloped
A VARIETY OF EXPERIENCES |
Large, generous corridor opens up to an informal teaching area, where children can work independently or in smaller groups
Several level changes occur in the school to negotiate the level changes within the site. The larger steps result in an ampitheatre setting where small performances and shows can be held in a class setting
All practical classrooms such as the science lab open up to a small, shaded garden area where certain activities can take place. The wall separates Steiner Academy Five Valleys from the neighbouring vicarage.
rationale for material choice The structural solution for Five Valleys is simple; the lower floor is constructed as a in-situ concrete plinth and the classrooms above are constructed with CLT, craned in as volumes after the concrete plinth is laid. Concrete is inherently fire-resistant and the sandwiched insulation provides excellent sound insulation. CLT panels were chosen for its ease of prefabrication; each classroom will be laser cut to specification, assembled as volumes and craned onto site.
OVERALL STRUCTURAL STRATEGY |
a simple stacked structural strategy
Classroom Wall Construction
120mm CL3-grade CLT panels vapour barrier 80mm thermal insulation sandwiched between 2x 15mm OSB panels breather membrane 20mm treated battens fixed to panel using 3mm screws at 600mm centres 20mm treated counter-battens, as above vertical cladding ; various dimensions
15mm timber boarding 75x50mm timber battens breather membrane screed to create fall vapour barrier 200mm exposed in-situ concrete
15mm birch plywood flooring 50mm screed with underfloor heating 100mm thermal insulation damp proof membrane 250mm in-situ concrete 200mm hardcore
FAÇADE - NAT VENT ATTENUATOR |
DETAILED SECTION @ 1:20
CLASSROOM LOBBY - STORAGE WALL
DETAILED SECTION @ 1:20
A TACTILE EXPERIENCE |
break out spaces
occasional panels of irregular formwork to create depth and texture
earth tubes via ampitheatre seating
NATURALLY HEATING AND COOLING THE SCHOOL |
Ground source heat pump (underneath playground) Ground source heat pumps installed beneath the playground extract heat from the ground and in turn, provides hot water and underfloor heating for the school.
MECHANICALLY HEATING AND COOLING THE SCHOOL |
Reactivating the Town
Steiner Academy Five Valleys aspires to connect to the public through its school hall at night and during holidays by providing them with much needed gathering space
A chance for children to showcase their knowledge to the wider community. The theatre can be configured in different ways; in the round, with seating on both sides for a fashion showcase, or a flat stage for eurythmy performances
A MULTI-FUNCTIONAL SCHOOL HALL |
Group Conference /Workshop
A place for children and adults alike. Children take place in group activities during the day, and adults can take part in workshops at night as part of further education
A place for formal gathering. The main hall level houses approximately 90 residents with space for 100 in the balcony level. Refreshments are served from the servery.
The public are encouraged to use the garden space during the day, and can be used as a reception area during functions and school performances at night.
Children wait outside the eurythmy room for their lesson
03 THE HOUSE79
sheltered lobby space with storage wall
cosy alcove for independent learning
treetop mezzanine for group work
Coloured Door Frames
Each classroom has a different coloured door frame so that the child feels a sense of ownership. When their parents visit, they tell them “it’s the one with a red door!”
Positioned at the edge of classroom gardens; penetrating into ground floor, providing light and glimpses to the activites in the floor below.
TAKING OWNERSHIP OF THE HOUSE | different experiences each year
LouvrĂŠ System on classroom roof
Children are able to take control of their environment, choosing to open or close ventilation louvres whenever they feel the need to.
Animating the classroom wall
The internal walls are lined with plasterboard which create a blank canvas for the teacher to paint the classroom when they move in each year. Steiner schools adopt the lazure technique, where paint is layered on to create a soft, soothing effect
Alcoves for independent learning
Snug, cosy alcoves positioned in different areas of each classroom provide a private space for reading, self contemplation of independent learning.
Rainwater collection Rainwater is collected from the roof in a hidden gutter and transferred via two downpipes (1) a storage tank positioned directly behind the toilet for flushing. As opposed to an underground storage tank, energy is saved here by eliminating the need to transport water back up to the toilets; the water naturally falls into place (2) a more simplistic storage tank that can easily be made by the school children; storing water to maintain their garden plants
ENVIRONMENTAL INTEGRATION | enriching the childâ€™s sense of awareness
Ventilation Due to the steeply pitched roof and shallow plan of each classroom, natural ventilation can be used effectively. Cross ventilation is achieved through the opening of windows; all of which can be operated by the children themselves. In order to keep noise levels low, a MACH Nat Vent attenuator will be integrated within the classroom faรงade to allow fresh air to enter the building without acoustic pollution. The chimney of each classroom also features a louvre system to allow stack ventilation to take effect. A mechanism following the edges of the roof allows children to open and close them at their own will, further solidifying their relationship to their outside surroundings
Heating and Cooling Underfloor heating using the energy of a ground source heat pump will be used to heat up the building during winter months. Due to the nature of occupancy in each classroom, underfloor heating is most suitable.
ENVIRONMENTAL INTEGRATION | enriching the childâ€™s sense of awareness
Lighting Direct daylight entering through rooflights slightly tilted to the north to receive steady north light without glare. The light entered travels along athe same path each day, creating a “sun dance”, reinforcing the child’s awareness of the time of day Task lighting is hung from the ceiling structure, within gaps of the finishing.
Variations in timber cladding
CLASSROOM FAĂ‡ADE | a playful experience
Dramatic shadows throughout the day
Running your fingers along the classroom wall
Sheltered lobby with storage wall for placing personal belongings As the building ages, sunlight bleaches the exterior walkway
CLASSROOM LOBBY | the cloakroom
Chamfered timber boards positioned on an exposed rail to create an interactive screen
the lower school
a place for peace and quiet a place to explore independently a place to look into the gardens
SPECIAL SPACES | Alcoves
the upper school
a place for private study a place to glimpse into the outside world
ASPIRATIONAL FINISHES |
Internal Roof Finish - Red Cedar Boarding
Thinner boards with larger gap for dramatic shadows Task lighting to hang between the boarding gaps
Internal Floor Finish - Timber Flooring
Due to the irregular floor plan, the timber flooring will be seamless to create a much more unified floor surface as opposed to a bold, directional one.
External Roof Finish - Oak Shingles
External roof finish to be different from cladding to emphasize the cluster of roofscapes. Oak shingles visually continue up to the chimney and louvres.
Internal wall finish - plasterboard
Plasterboard for fire resistance serves as a canvas for teachers to paint on each year. Steiner schools employ a lazure painting approach where paint is slowly layered in thin coats to achieve a soft texture. The colour of the classroom is at the discretion of the teacher
04 THE GARDENS97
1. Paving linking Steiner Academy to adjacent landscape 2. Central amphitheatre - a gathering space for Steiner Academy Five Valleys, Ryeleaze School and the public 3. Vegetated Swale providing sustainable drainage system 4. Childrenâ€™s playground 5. Type 3 multi-use games area 6. Wildlife walk 7. Storytelling circle 8. Classroom allotments 9. Formal Outdoor Classroom 10. Public Seating 11. Cooking Circle
A PLACE TO EXPERIENCE THE OUTDOORS |
A WELCOMING ENTRANCE INTO THE SCHOOL |
formal outdoor learning space with demonstration table
A PLACE FOR KNOWLEDGE |
allotments shared by two classes to encourage inter-school relationships recycled brick wall to create a sense of enclosure
formal outdoor learning space
meandering walkway breaking out into smaller activity spaces
GREEN SPACE In addition to the students of Five Valleys and Ryeleaze School, the green space aims to serve the public of Stroud by providing a new public park for them to enjoy. Young children can play in the playgrounds, and the public can observe the allotments and be inspired to grow organic fruits and vegetables in their own back gardens
GIVING BACK TO STROUD | green space
VEGETATED SWALE Vegetated swales act as a soft physical barrier between the street and the landscape area without the presence of a physical wall. Not only does this create a â€œgreen beltâ€?, potentially creating a new green space for residents in Stroud, the vegetated swale manages surface water run off from the road surface and thus reduces risk of flooding.
1. Current site
set up site office in current carpark space
2. Levelling and Foundation
using cut and fill method also demolish brick wall to be stored for landscape use
3. Cast In-situ concrete
from bottom to top of site one side of concrete is first cast against formwork and insulation the finished product will be used as formwork for the second leaf of concrete
4. Crane CLT Classrooms
as completed volumes that were assembled off-site (including kindergarten classrooms)
5. Apply finishes
and take down site office
in kindergarten and existing carpark
CDM Management Overview
- CDM consultant to be brought into the design team from an early stage to ensure all regulatory requirements found within CDM (2007) are met to a satisfactory level during design and construction. - To make sure CDM is thoroughly integrated, the CDM consultant must meet with the other members of the design team at regular intervals to communicate fully.
Site Management and Workers Welfare - Site office to be erected in existing carpark at top of site to ensure security and a visible point to information and control - Appropriate record books and guidelines to be displayed in site office - On-site welfare facilities to include WC, food prep, changing areas during construction process - Appropriate signs will be erected during the construction process in order to prevent road accidents and ensure no entry by the public
- There is a risk of the collapse of concrete formwork - skilled workman must be employed to lead and supervise work. Inspection of works from a qualified person is required. - Proper scaffolding to be erected when craning CLT classrooms in order to prevent worker from falling - Provision of harness points for workers at height
Building Use - All roofs accessible by ladder from garden for access to gutters and roof lights
- All materials encouraged to show signs of age; reducing the need of frequent maintenance - External paving surfaces treated with non-slop coating to reduce the frequence of maintenance - 1100mm barriers in all spaces such as balconies and classroom gardens - Service access to building via Landscape Area to the north
CONSTRUCTION and DESIGN MANAGEMENT (CDM) | CONSTRUCTION ESTIMATE
Construction Estimate Construction Estimate £3 000 x 2140m2 £ 6,420,000 5 % for complexity of ground works £ 321,000 7.5% Landscape Costs £ 481,000
SUBTOTAL £ 7,222,500 Contractor Preliminaries + Profit @ 12.5% £ 8,089,200 Design + Construction Contingencies @ 10% £ 8,811,450 Consultants Fees @ 14% £ 9, 822, 600 Statutory Fees @ 0.025% £ 9, 840, 600
£ 9, 840, 600
PART B | FIRE STRATEGY Means of warning and escape - Each classroom is equipped with its own electronically operated fire alarm system - Small vision panels installed adjacent to all doors to classrooms in order to access whether a fire has taken place - A well-organised system to be put in place and reinforced by staff should a fire occur: 1. Students place down their personal belongings and walk in a civilised, quiet manner 2. Students travel to an area of relative safety (outdoor corridor) within 18m of any point in their classroom 3. Depending on spread and location of fire, students should walk to either the School Hall or the Upper School Staircase and exit 4. Fire meeting point is the playground on the lower ground floor or landscaped area on the Church level. - Due to the nature of a linear site, escape from the building will occur at the two ends of the site - All exits and routes no less than 1100mm wide, exterior corridor pinch points no less than 1800mm wide.
Internal Fire Spread
- Classroom walls lined with plasterboard, ceiling with treated timber Class 1 - All circulation spaces treated to Class 0 standards - Nature of in-situ concrete is inherently fire resistant. However, an additional fire retardant layer will be applied - Concrete structure will have a minimum rating of 60 minutes - In the scenario of severe fire and partial structural collapse, two fire compartments (shown adjacent) with a maximum area of 800 sqm will take effect, therefore reducing the likelihood of a progressive collapse
Access and Facilities for the Fire Service
- Access for fire engines is located on both ends of the site, depending on where the fire is located - A minimum of 50% of the faรงade must be accessible and the school abides by it
BUILDING COMPLIANCE : part b
LOWER FLOOR - FIRE ESCAPE ROUTES
UPPER FLOOR - FIRE ESCAPE ROUTES
PART M | ACCESS STRATEGY Due to the immense level change in my project site, the main challenge with regards to access was for the disabled. However, platform lifts can be seamlessly integrated into steps by adopting a system such as SESAME platform lifts (mechanism shown in drawing) Approach - Main entrance signed and well-lit - Ease of access in main entrance with 1200mm wide automatic doors - Designated disabled parking spots within 80m of main entrance - Public transport links within 500m of project site - Landscape features will be equipped with anti-slip lining Horizontal and Vertical Circulation
- All corridors at least 1800mm in width to maintain clear routes for two passing self-propelled wheelchair users - Platform lifts integrated within staircases - Three vertical lifts spaced out along the site connecting all levels - Lifts are located adjacent to stairs, effectively creating circulation cores enabling clear access to floors above - No doors swing out to major access route or escape route
Sanitary Provision - All toilets in classrooms are disabled-provision, positioned less than 40m apart - Both left-handed and right-handed toilets will be present - Toilets will contain slip-resistant floors to prevent accidental slips
BUILDING COMPLIANCE : part m
Level change - Platform Lift Lifts Vertical Circulation Public Access Main Entrances
In general, the past five months of work have been thoroughtly enjoyable. The development of my project brief and scheme stemmed from my passion for childrenâ€™s educational buildings and my interest in humane architecture. I hope that, over the course of this project, these ideas have be translated clearly in this body of work. The tight and intricate site was a challenge from the very beginning; however I feel that I have embraced this challenge and designed a school that not only is a joy to be in, but gives back to the town of Stroud by revitalising the north-south axis and providing muchneeded green areas and spaces to congregate. The classrooms are well resolved with many special spaces to enhance a childâ€™s learning experience. Although the scheme proposal was well-resolved, I feel that I could have explained the tectonic resolution of my scheme in a more cohesive manner. Although I did attempt to demonstrate small moments of detail within my scheme, I feel that closer analysis, perhaps at 1:10 detail. would have been more sufficient. Another struggle for me personally was the production of the project report. Since I naturally fare quite well in reviews, I find that I tend to forget about certain aspects of the design when I prepare a report and present an incomplete picture, selling my project short. However, I made sure to periodically have conversations with studio tutors and studio mates to make sure a third party would fully understand the resolution of my scheme. Had I had more time, I would have resolved the kindergarten more fully; I seem to have spent most of my time designing the main school building and merely masterplanned the kindergarten adjacent. With more time and thought, the kindergarten landscape could have been enriched much further, resulting in a more cohesive scheme. What I enjoyed most of all during this project was my exploration in hand drawing. Although I have always been more comfortable with thinking and drawing by hand as opposed to computer aided design, my studio tutors and my brief allowed me to fully launch into hand drawing, which I feel enriched my scheme and explained its essence of it much more clearly that had I drawn with a computer. Although admittedly my computer generated images need improving, I am glad to have found a niche of mine to carry onto further studies.
CRITIQUE AND CONCLUSION
Published on Jul 14, 2014
This report is my final submission for Studio 4.2; the culminating project of The University of Bath’s BSc programme in General Architectura...