Classical Conditioning. AKA Pavlov's Conditioning & Respondent Conditioning. 1890's.
Using dogs (subject), and powdered dog meat (unconditional stimulus), Ivan Pavlov trained his dogs to associate the ringing of a bell (neutral stimulus) with being fed the dog meat. The dogs, trained to associate the ringing of the bell with being fed, began to salivate every time they heard the bell ring (conditional response) not only when the meat was presented to them (unconditional response). His research also showed that the dogs were capable of stimulus discrimination and of stimulus generalisation; SG being that should a bell be rang with a similar pitched to that of the conditioned stimulus, the dogs would salivate (conditioned response) and SD being the dogs NOT salivating when a bell of [slightly] different pitch is rung. "Conditioning" is merely "learning" or being "trained"
Key Terms and Definitions. • Neutral Stimulus:
The stimulus which otherwise would cause no response. (Bell)
• Unconditional Stimulus:
The stimulus which innately produces a response or reflex. (Food)
• Conditional Stimulus:
When the NS has been paired often enough with the unconditional stimulus, the NS becomes the conditional stimulus. (The dog salivating to the ringing of the bell.)
• Unconditional Response:
An unlearned response or reflex. (Salivating.)
• Conditional Response:
A response/reflex induced by the association of the US and the NS/CS. This is a learned response the conditioning.
If the CS is continued to be presented without the US (Food) then eventually, the conditioned response will cease to occur.
• Spontaneous Reconditioning:
This is when the conditioned behaviour restarts, after extinction and a rest period.