Fluid Dynamics

Fluid Dynamics n. (used with a sing. verb) The branch of applied science that is concerned with the movement of gases and liquids.

FLUID DYNAMICS - JENNA EMMANOUILIDES

Definitions Laminar flow

Vortex:

â&#x20AC;&#x201C;noun Hydraulics, Mechanics. the flow of a viscous fluid in which particles of the fluid move in parallel layers, each of which has a constant velocity but is in motion relative to its neighboring layers.

A vortex (pl. vortices) is a spinning, often turbulent, flow of fluid. Any spiral motion with closed streamlines is vortex flow. The motion of the fluid swirling rapidly around a center is called a vortex. The speed and rate of rotation of the fluid are greatest at the center, and decrease progressively with distance from the center.

Turbulent flow â&#x20AC;&#x201C;noun Hydraulics. the flow of a fluid past an object such that the velocity at any fixed point in the fluid varies irregularly. Cavitation n. 1. The sudden formation and collapse of lowpressure bubbles in liquids by means of mechanical forces, such as those resulting from rotation of a marine propeller. 2. The pitting of a solid surface. 3. Medicine. The formation of cavities in a body tissue or an organ, especially those formed in the lung as a result of tuberculosis.

FLUID DYNAMICS - DEFINITION

Hummingbird

a) Forward b) Hovering c) Backward a)

Hovering Motion (Rear View)

b)

c)

Hovering Motion (Top View)

A hummingbird can fly forwards, backwards, up, down, sideways or hover in space. For a humming bird to hover, their wings move forward and backwards in a repetitive figure eight. Hummingbirds produce 75% of their weight support during the down stroke and 25% during the upstroke. Some of this asymmetry could be due to inversion of their cambered wings during upstroke. What makes a humming bird aerodynamic are the vortices produced by the motion of its wings.

FLUID DYNAMICS - HUMMINGBIRD

Hummingbird - DeHavilland DH 53 Hummingbird

The wake of the hummingbirds wings demonstrates that small vortices are created during the hummingbirds down stroke, indicating that the ratio of internal forces is extremely low, allowing an upwards stroke to follow, thus operating at Reynolds number sufficiently low enough to exploit a key mechanism, typical to that of an insect hovering. Therefore it may be possible that the hummingbird is exploiting a key mechanism typical to that of an insect hovering.

FLUID DYNAMICS - HUMMINGBIRD

Gipps TAFE Warragul Learning Centre Paul Morgan Architects

â&#x20AC;&#x153;...The building envelope is like an industrial design object: wind and sun studies have produced an aerodynamic building shell for the 5 Star sustainable building...â&#x20AC;?

PRECIDENTS

Gipps TAFE Warragul Learning Centre Paul Morgan Architects

PRECIDENTS

AHO-The Old School of Architecture and Design Marcus Runesson

â&#x20AC;&#x153;... Force & operator relationships in dynamic sports as inspiration and generator of urban architecture: Flow is a public space, an urban intervention, an urban installation, a cultural statement and a cultural arena...â&#x20AC;?

PRECIDENTS

AHO-The Old School of Architecture and Design Marcus Runesson

PRECIDENTS

Dynamic Architecture David Fisher

...According to renowned Italian architect Dr. David Fisher, â&#x20AC;&#x153;the Dynamic Tower is the first building designed to be selfpowered, with the ability to generate electricity for itself, as well as for nearby buildings. It achieves this feat with 79 wind turbines, making it a true green power plant.â&#x20AC;?...

PRECIDENTS

Dynamic Architecture David Fisher The building’s stable core resembles a thick trunk that runs from the ground up, with the floors acting like branches and leaves that shadow the rhythms of nature. Dr. Fisher states, “Today’s life is dynamic, so the space we are living in should be dynamic as well, adjustable to our needs that change to our concept of design and to our mood. The buildings will follow the rhythms of nature, they will change direction and shape from spring to summer, from sunrise to sunset, and adjust themselves to the weather, these buildings will be alive.”

PRECIDENTS

Beijing Airport Foster + Partners

â&#x20AC;&#x153;...A symbol of place, its soaring aerodynamic roof and dragon ike form celebrates the thrill of flight and evokes traditional Chinese colours and symbols...â&#x20AC;?

PRECIDENTS

Beijing Airport Foster + Partners

PRECIDENTS

Beijing Airport Foster + Partners

PRECIDENTS

Lava Michael Schumacher Tower Inspired by the geometrical order of a snowflake and the aerodynamics of a Formula 1 racing car, the tower encapsulates speed, fluid dynamics, future technology and natural patterns of organization. Rather than purely mimicking shapes in nature for their elegance and unpredictability, the architects learned from natureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s own geometrical orders creating highly efficient structures and intriguing spaces.

PRECIDENTS

Lava Michael Schumacher Tower

PRECIDENTS

William McDonough Treescraper Tower of Tomorrow

Curved forms increase structural stability and maximize enclosed space; this reduces the amount of materials needed for construction. The shape is also aerodynamic, diffusing the impact of wind.

PRECIDENTS

Richard Rogers Millennium Dome, Greenwich

The cables carry both wind uplift and downloads in the same way, resulting in a very efficient structure. This inherent efficiency, combined with the aerodynamic shape of the envelope, means that loads should be small enough to be carried on conventional pad foundations. Differential settlement of the masts then will be catered for by jacking up the base connections as necessary.

Wind effects are often the driving factor in the design of large roof structures. In particular, turbulent wind flows have the potential to exert significant loading on large lightweight roof structures including augmentations due to dynamic effects.

PRECIDENTS

Rima Taher Hurrican Proof Building

Studies were conducted on cases such as Hurricane Andrew, which hit Florida in the 1990s, and based on wind-tunnel testing of reduced-scale models, led to the identification of a square building with a four-ridge roof and a vertical element with aerodynamic characteristics as the main structural axis - the shape offering the most resistance to extremely violent natural phenomena.

PRECIDENTS

Elie Gamburg Belaruskia Train Station in Moscow, skyscraper

Skyscraper to be situated over the existing Belaruska Train Station in Moscow, Russia. The project delaminates the performative layers necessary for high-rise design structure, weatherized enclosure, solar control, circulation, and mechanical systems

in order to comfort two divergent problems. Ecollogically the de-laminated layers allow for the â&#x20AC;&#x153;interiorizationâ&#x20AC;? of multiple climate zones. Each paired layer of glass traps a zone of passively conditioned air. Each progressive layer of air insulates the layers

within. During times of extreme cold and heat, the inhabitants of the sky scraper can withdraw into the inner layers, and move outwards during optimal weather, or as required without wasting much energy.

PRECIDENTS

Ben van Berkel, Freek Loos, UN Studio Erasmus Bridge, Rotterdam Vibrations are being induced from a combination of light rain and moderate wind, which causes oscillations on the order of 3 to 4 ft in 650-ft-long cables. The rain spins around the cable, changing the cross section aerodynamics, causing the fluctuations.

PRECIDENTS

Nicholas Grimshaw Southerncross Station

The roof shape was designed to do several things including help exhaust diesel fumes from the train station below, protect occupants from the weather, connect old and new areas of the city, and provide a central civic destination for the city. The results are visually compelling and accomplish those goals.

PRECIDENTS

Nicholas Grimshaw Southerncross Station

â&#x20AC;&#x153;The roof itself makes much of building physics. It is possible to describe the project in terms of structural forces, prevailing winds, and the ventilation of diesel fumes.â&#x20AC;?

Foreign Office Architects London 2012 Olympic Park, London UK

PRECIDENTS

FaulknerBrowns with Heatherwick Studio London 2012 Olympic Velodrome, London UK

PRECIDENTS

Zaha Hadid Poroposal for Olympic Aquatic Centre

PRECIDENTS

Fluid Flow: Cavitation

Here you can see vapour bubbles of a flowing liquid in a region where the pressure of the liquid falls below its vapour pressure. The vapour bubbles surround the jet stream which penetrates the surface of still water due to the change in pressure.

EXPERIMENT 1

Turbulence and Vortices 2500 Twin Turbo Hairdryer

Turbulence from the hairdryer is holding up the christmas decoration. As the airflows you get turbulence above here, and the turbulence creates a lower pressure. Therefore, the vortices which are the turbulence, are keeping the christmas decoration up.The reason why it is so stable is because the velocity at the ball is the highest as it is diverging the air as it is comming out.

When the ball is pushed to the side it has a lower stabilty to one side and is pushed back into the centre. The stronger the airflow the further the ball sits and the more angulated the air can be directed.

3500 Twin Turbo Hairdryer

EXPERIMENT 2

Various Scales of Density

The density of a material is defined as its mass per unit volume. Density can be changed by changing either the pressure or the temperature. Increasing the pressure will always increase the density of a material. Variouc sized balloons with different deinsities.

EXPERIMENT 3

Various Scales of Density

Above you can see that the pressure applied to the balloons is minimal. Allowing them to maintain to a certain extent their original form.

Bellow the pressure upon the balloons has increased, therefore, the density of the balloons has increased.

EXPERIMENT 3.2

Fluid Flow: Cavitation The result of the flow of ice water into hot liquid wax

EXPERIMENT 4

Fluid Flow: Cavitation The result of the flow of ice water into hot liquid wax

EXPERIMENT 4

Interest in Fluid Dynamics I am interested in looking at how an instance of ‘Fluid Flow’ can influence an aerodynamic form. An instance of “Fluid Flow’ in an experiment may be frozen and replicated in a solid form. This form created may then influence the final design in a more aerodynamic nature. Looking into smoke as an example, as smoke moves through air, its pigmentation allows you to see its gaseous nature move though air in a path of least resistance. An instance of this flow would be captured and amended to suit the required characteristics of the appropriate form required for my design. QUESTION: If one was to simulate a fluid flow, then the form of an instance during the flow was converted into a physical form, would it have aerodynamic properties? Exmple: If a moment during the cavitational experiment conducted was captured and produced as a 3d form, if it would act as an aerodynamic structure?

INTERESTS IN FLUID DYNAMICS

Fluid Flow Facade: Bubbles formed during Cavitation experiments

Taking the Cavitation experiment from above, i have considered using ‘bubbles’ which are produced during the experiment to influence the facade. The proposal is to have ‘bubbles’ on areas of the facade which would internally need ventilation, allowing the facade to have 2 states: an open one; allowing for natural ventilation, as well as a closed state; for the more extreme conditions. The appatures of the ‘bubbles’ would be dependant on the weaher conditions.

The ‘bubbles’ may also have a variety of functions, such as; allowing natural daylight into the building and possibly assist in power generation.

Fluid Flow Facade: Bubbles formed during Cavitation experiments Using the ‘bubbles’ as a frame for the external skin. This skin would act as an outer shell, protecting the building from extreme conditions and at the same time exposing the building to the conditions which the habitants may require for a more comfortable environemnt internally. The interntions for this very early scheme is that it not only acts as an external skin, but also acts as part of the buildings facade/structural system where necessary. The more curvature envolved in the skin/facade, the more intense the ‘bubbles’ become and the smaller.

‘Bubbles’ Frame

Frame

Examples of Nature: Hyacinth Flower When looking into natural movement in nature, I chose to look at the Hyacinth flower and Pine cone and how they respond naturally to the elements which surround them. Their movements respond to the elements to better protect themselves. Hyacinth Flower: During the dark and the cold, the Hyacinth flower will close. However, during the sunlight it will open.

Closed

Open

Examples of Nature: Pine Cone

Pine Cone: The Pine Cone responds to the natural elements which surrounds it by it too closing during the night, and opening when the sun shines.

Traditional Islamic Zeliji around a water fountain

Interior of the Selimiye Mosque (Minar Sinan), Edirne

Jean Nouvel Office Tower, Doha, Qatar

The exterior of the tower is made from glass covered in a metal skin that is designed, based on a traditional islamic pattern.

Interior Roof of Feyziyyeh School in Ghom,Iran

Dome of the Mausoleum of Sultan Qaytbay, Cairo

Jean Nouvel Institut du Monde Arabe, Paris

Penrose Tiling Sculpture: Decagonal and quasi-crystalline tilings in medieval Islamic architecture

Islamic Periodic Tiling

Islamic Periodic Tiling

Islamic Periodic Tiling

Islamic Periodic Tiling

Islamic Aperiodic Tiling

Islamic Aperiodic Tiling

Islamic Aperiodic Tiling

TRADITIONAL ISLAMIC APERIODIC RIODIC C TILING S

Solar Skin Studio Formwork

Hypergreen Jacques Ferrier

Architect Jacques Ferrier latest concept for a “green” mixed-use skyscraper, called Hypergreen. The design incorporates a curving lattice façade made of ultra-highperformance concrete that will act as the building’s primary structural system.

PRECEDENTS

Mexicoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Bicentenary Towers Gregorio Vasquez and Manuel Wedeles

PRECEDENTS

Mexicoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Bicentenary Towers Gregorio Vasquez and Manuel Wedeles

Rak Convention and Ehibition Centre, UAE Ras Al Khaimah

PRECEDENTS

Tower RUR Architecture P.C. This towerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s facade is strcutural, but its also allows for natural lighting and ventilation within the highrise.

PRECEDENTS

Unknown

Studio Anticipation

City Hall, LOndon Norman Foster

PRECEDENTS

COR, Miami Chad Oppenheim architecture + design,

Dubai Towers

PRECEDENTS

Anara Tower, Dubai Atkins Design

ADNEC: Abu Dhabi National Exhibition Center RMJM Architects

PRECEDENTS

Cybertecture Egg for India James Law

ALDAR Headquarters, Abu Dhabi Architects MZ & Partners

PRECEDENTS

Simplifying Periodic Pattern

SIMPLIFICATION OF PERIODIC PATTERN

Simplifying Periodic Pattern

SIMPLIFICATION OF PERIODIC PATTERN

Simplifying Periodic Pattern

SIMPLIFICATION OF PERIODIC PATTERN

This image ilustrates how this pattern could be produced through MDF and finishingwire. The centre starts would be braced through the tenssion of the fishing wire connections.

Fishing wire

VIRTUAL IMAGE OF PHYSICAL MODEL

Structural Elements of Pattern

Representation of designs of steel skeleton structures in tall buildings includes six types of diagonals (K, X, \ and /, simple X, and V), two types of beams (rigid and hinged), and two types of ground connections (rigid and hinged).

STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

Oranamental aspect of pattern

Structural aspect of pattern

Site Analysis Bauplatz 17 and 18

Scale 1:1000

SITE ANALYSIS: VIENNA

Site Analysis Bauplatz 17 and 18

Scale 1:2000

SITE ANALYSIS: VIENNA

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Site Analysis Bauplatz 17 and 18

Wind Date

Scale 1:1000

SITE ANALYSIS: VIENNA

Site Analysis Bauplatz 17 and 18

SITE ANALYSIS: VIENNA

Site Analysis Bauplatz 17 and 18

SITE ANALYSIS: VIENNA

Site Analysis Bauplatz 17 and 18

SITE ANALYSIS: VIENNA

Site Analysis Bauplatz 17 and 18

SITE ANALYSIS: VIENNA

Site Analysis Bauplatz 17 and 18

SITE ANALYSIS: VIENNA

Site Analysis Bauplatz 17 and 18 and Context

SITE ANALYSIS: VIENNA

History

Current

Although the Danube river has been inextricably connected with Vienna, for centuries, it had played only a subordinate role in the city of Vienna.

Approximately 7,500 people currently live and work in this new “city within a city”. With the overall expansion, which is expected to be completed in 2012, the population could increase to 15,000.

Due to numerous floods the Danube River caused regularly, it was omitted from the urban area. Buildings grew up in Vienna on both sides of the Danube - but not up to the Danube. Only through the Danube-regulation and the creation of the relief arm New Danube, with Danube Island, in the 1970s, was the surrounding cityscape of the Danube of interest to builders.

Danube City has: stores, restaurants, cafes, offices, a school and a church. The area bordering the Danube Island has recreation areas, Donaupark and Old Danube. The Danube City has two direct connections to the motorway network; and the Vienna International Airport is about 20 minutes away.

The EXPO 1991 from the resulting AG Vienna Development for the Danube Region AG (WED) to the largest Austrian banks and insurance companies involved, own and is responsible for the overall development. The area, still undeveloped, arose as an internationally acclaimed urban center with pioneering residential and office buildings, research facilities, recreational facilities and event locations: the Danube City also known as VIENNA DC.

Due to the rapid development, the AG WED by French architect Dominique Perrault a new master plan for the remaining plots conceive. The focus of the plan is the design of the core area, still undeveloped, and the transition zone to the New Danube. In the core area, the plan is to create two distinct high-rise towers - DC Tower 1, with up to 220 meters, and the DC Tower 2, at 160 meters above sea level - a new density. Of particular importance is the establishment of the highest tower of Austria - the 1st DC Tower. The DC Tower 2, with about 160 meters in height and 46 floors, is designed to be slightly lower.

The total area is 17.4 hectares. Of this total, approximately 1.7 million cubic meters are used for construction, which represents a gross floor area of approximately 500,000 square meters. Nearly two-thirds of those buildings are already completed and utilized.

Future

A third tower at 100 meters will complement the skyline. Construction is expected after the DC Towers in 5 years. In addition, also planned are: a block of flats (about 50 meters high), a house of the cultures of about 70m, and a Sea Life Center on Überplattung.

SITE ANALYSIS: VIENNA

Site Analysis Winning Comitition - Vienna DC Towers: Dominique Perrault Vienna DC Towers With the two towers, designed by Dominique Perrault in cooperation with Hoffmann-Janz Architekten Wien, Vienna is now receiving two further landmarks which are both important and impressive. The architect Dominique Perrault, who became well-known for his design of the National Library in Paris, conceived a master plan for the remaining construction sites of the VIENNA DC Donau-City. This plan not only envisages two breathtaking buildings, but above all areas for meeting and communicating which correspond to the Danube nearby. The demands: State of the art as far as construction goes and an emotional statement for a modern interpretation of the business location Vienna. These buildings are not primarily about setting new records on height, but rather about creating sophisticated buildings which are convincing due to their design and their quality. The heights of the DC Towers, with their breathtaking view, are a result of the ambition to retain the aesthetically attractive form of a slim tower combined with the planned cubic volume. This vertical expansion should also set a strong impulse for the further horizontal development of the Donau-City.

SITE ANALYSIS: VIENNA

PHYSICAL MODEL

PHYSICAL MODEL

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Simplification of Periodic Pattern Pattern

Exploration of structural and geometric properties

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Venturi Effect The Venturi effect is the reduction in fluid pressure that results when a fluid flows through a constricted section of pipe. The fluid velocity must increase through the constriction to satisfy the equation of continuity, while its pressure must decrease due to conservation of energy: the gain in kinetic energy is balanced by a drop in pressure or a pressure gradient force. An equation for the drop in pressure due to venturi effect may be derived from a combination of Bernoulliâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s principle and the equation of continuity.

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Simplification of Periodic Pattern Facade Exploration and Power Generation Dynamic Aeroelasticity studies the interactions among aerodynamic, elastic, and inertial forces. Examples of dynamic aeroelastic phenomena are: Flutter Flutter is a self-feeding and potentially destructive vibration where aerodynamic forces on an object couple with a structure’s natural mode of vibration to produce rapid periodic motion. Flutter can occur in any object within a strong fluid flow, under the conditions that a positive feedback occurs between the structure’s natural vibration and the aerodynamic forces. That is, that the vibrational movement of the object increases an aerodynamic load which in turn drives the object to move further. If the energy during the period of aerodynamic excitation is larger than the natural damping of the system, the level of vibration will increase. The vibration levels can thus build up and are only limited when the aerodynamic or mechanical damping of the object match the energy input, this often results in large amplitudes and can lead to rapid failure. It is however not always a destructive force; recent progress has been made in wind generators, for the third world designed specifically to take advantage of this effect. A type of wind generator using this effect is known as the Windbelt.

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Simplification of Periodic Pattern Types of Patterns Found Within Pattern

Simplification of Periodic Pattern Pattern Types and Qualities

TYPE 1: Types 1 through to 3, generate power through vibrations caused by the wind. The shadded area of this pattern (excluding the structual triangle) are intended to flutter in the wind (shingles), mimmicing that of wind charms. The shingles would be hinged to the outer triangle.

Simplification of Periodic Pattern Pattern Types and Qualities TYPE 2: The dotted lines in within this triangle represent that of tension wires or windbelts, which too would flutter in the wind and allow the structure to generate power.

Simplification of Periodic Pattern Pattern Types and Qualities

TYPE 3: As above, the dotted lines in within this triangle represent that of tension wires or windbelts, which too would flutter in the wind and allow the structure to generate power.

Simplification of Periodic Pattern Pattern Types and Qualities

TYPE 4: This type of pattern is purely aesthetic and if directed in a particular way can allow for the wind to pass through in a more aerodynamic manner, with less resistance during the relevant seasons (Type 4 throught to 5). When multiplied it can maintain a smiller appearance in the image on the right.

Belzburg Architects Conga Room (LA Live)

Simplification of Periodic Pattern Pattern Types and Qualities

TYPE 5: Type 5 has the potential to frame a view and if directed in a particular way can allow for the wind to pass through in a more aerodynamic manner, with less resistance during the relevant seasons (Type 4 throught to 5).

Simplification of Periodic Pattern Pattern Types and Qualities

TYPE 6: This type of pattern is purely aesthetic and if directed in a particular way can allow for the wind to pass through in a more aerodynamic manner, with less resistance during the relevant seasons (Type 4 throught to 5).

Programming Options

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Site Analysis Site Oportunities

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SITE ANALYSIS: VIENNA

Site Analysis Sun Shadow Summer 12pm

SITE ANALYSIS: VIENNA

Site Analysis Sun Shadow Winter 12pm

SITE ANALYSIS: VIENNA

Mass Programing

OFFICE HOTEL WELNESS CENTRE RESTARUANT (HOTEL) RESIDENTIAL RETAIL & MIXED USE

BUILDING 1 BAUPLATZ 17

BUILDING 1 BAUPLATZ 17

BUILDING 2 BAUPLATZ 18

PROGRAM

Influencing Factors of Secondary Skin / Facade Positioning Influencing Factors of Secondary Skin - Program - Wind Driection - Sunlight - Building Form - View - Neighbouring Buildings

Reasons for Applying this Pattern to the Facade Influencing Factors of Secondary Skin - Structural quality - Presented oportunities for power generation - Light quality Secondary Skin Function - Moves dynamically and shades the building from: - Sun - Strong / Cold Winter Winds - Harnesses these forces to generate power through the Pizo Electric Effect of Energy Generation

Secondary Skin

The Secondary Skin will have the potential to move along the structural Grid, alowing the skin to tense during calmer witnd conditons and relax, to allow the wind to morph the skin and generate power. Furthermore, the triangular components themselves have the potential to generate power also via the Pizo Electric Effect.

Building From The â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;cylindircalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; form of the building allows for the wind to flow around it, reducing the force applied onto the tower as it does not act as an obsticale in the winds path. The building channels the wind up the North Westerly Facade to direct wind flow away from the occupied areas. The form of the building attempts to redirect the wind away from the circulation between buildings 1 and 2, as well as the open spaces within the 2 buildings. The forms shown here extends over both buildings. The tower and the smaller building on the second site, sheltering both from the winds. However this may occur by the use of the skin, during winter it can capture/deflect wind from the area and in summer it can move to other areas of the tower, where needed to generate power. The skin that will be applied to the structural system, not only generates power but acts as a cushion for the tower. It reduces the imact the wind would have on the building if it was not deflected.

FORM

Donaucity Tower Brief Based on the research of dynamic forces and the subsequent model studies, both virtual and physical you are asked to design a highrise in central Vienna that is able to generate energy through both geometry and envelope. The focus is placed on the overall geometry according to the energy concept and on the development of the building skin. The function of the building is a classic (big) inner city program of retail in the base of the tower, office spaces and a hotel with amenities located centrally and residential areas in the upper section of the tower. Underground car parking for 1.000 cars with access to the public streets needs to be provided.

DONAUCITY TOWER

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Site Analysis Bauplatz 17 and 18

Wind Date

Scale 1:1000

SITE ANALYSIS: VIENNA

Site Analysis Winning Competition - Vienna DC Towers: Dominique Perrault Vienna DC Towers With the two towers, designed by Dominique Perrault in cooperation with Hoffmann-Janz Architekten Wien, Vienna is now receiving two further landmarks which are both important and impressive. The architect Dominique Perrault, who became well-known for his design of the National Library in Paris, conceived a master plan for the remaining construction sites of the VIENNA DC Donau-City. This plan not only envisages two breathtaking buildings, but above all areas for meeting and communicating which correspond to the Danube nearby. The demands: State of the art as far as construction goes and an emotional statement for a modern interpretation of the business location Vienna. These buildings are not primarily about setting new records on height, but rather about creating sophisticated buildings which are convincing due to their design and their quality. The heights of the DC Towers, with their breathtaking view, are a result of the ambition to retain the aesthetically attractive form of a slim tower combined with the planned cubic volume. This vertical expansion should also set a strong impulse for the further horizontal development of the Donau-City.

SITE ANALYSIS: VIENNA

Simplifying Periodic Pattern

The simplification of the patterns allow primary shapes to become evident and present t hemselves in a clear manner. This allows you to distinguish a relationship with particular qualities within the pattern. i.e the function a specific shape can take and its qualities (i.e structural resemblance).

SIMPLIFICATION OF PERIODIC PATTERN

Structural Elements of Pattern

Representation of designs of steel skeleton structures in tall buildings includes six types of diagonals (K, X, \ and /, simple X, and V), two types of beams (rigid and hinged), and two types of ground connections (rigid and hinged).

STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

This image ilustrates how this pattern could be produced through MDF and finishingwire. The centre starts would be braced through the tenssion of the fishing wire connections.

Fishing wire

VIRTUAL IMAGE OF PHYSICAL MODEL

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Simplification of Periodic Pattern Facade Exploration and Power Generation Dynamic Aeroelasticity studies the interactions among aerodynamic, elastic, and inertial forces. Examples of dynamic aeroelastic phenomena are: Flutter Flutter is a self-feeding and potentially destructive vibration where aerodynamic forces on an object couple with a structure’s natural mode of vibration to produce rapid periodic motion. Flutter can occur in any object within a strong fluid flow, under the conditions that a positive feedback occurs between the structure’s natural vibration and the aerodynamic forces. That is, that the vibrational movement of the object increases an aerodynamic load which in turn drives the object to move further. If the energy during the period of aerodynamic excitation is larger than the natural damping of the system, the level of vibration will increase. The vibration levels can thus build up and are only limited when the aerodynamic or mechanical damping of the object match the energy input, this often results in large amplitudes and can lead to rapid failure. It is however not always a destructive force; recent progress has been made in wind generators, for the third world designed specifically to take advantage of this effect. A type of wind generator using this effect is known as the Windbelt.

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Simplification of Periodic Pattern Pattern Types and Qualities

TYPE 1: Types 1 through to 3, generate power through vibrations caused by the wind. The shadded area of this pattern (excluding the structual triangle) are intended to flutter in the wind (shingles), mimmicing that of wind charms. The shingles would be hinged to the outer triangle.

TYPE 2:

TYPE 3:

The dotted lines in within this triangle represent that of tension wires or windbelts, which too would flutter in the wind and allow the structure to generate power.

As above, the dotted lines in within this triangle represent that of tension wires or windbelts, which too would flutter in the wind and allow the structure to generate power.

Simplification of Periodic Pattern Pattern Types and Qualities

Belzburg Architects Conga Room (LA Live)

TYPE 4:

TYPE 5:

TYPE 6:

This type of pattern is purely aesthetic and if directed in a particular way can allow for the wind to pass through in a more aerodynamic manner, with less resistance during the relevant seasons (Type 4 throught to 5). When multiplied it can maintain a smiller appearance in the image on the right.

Type 5 has the potential to frame a view and if directed in a particular way can allow for the wind to pass through in a more aerodynamic manner, with less resistance during the relevant seasons (Type 4 throught to 5).

This type of pattern is purely aesthetic and if directed in a particular way can allow for the wind to pass through in a more aerodynamic manner, with less resistance during the relevant seasons (Type 4 throught to 5).

Influencing Factors of Secondary Skin / Facade Positioning

Reasons for Applying this Pattern to the Facade Influencing Factors of Secondary Skin - Structural quality - Presented oportunities for power generation - Light quality Secondary Skin Function - Moves dynamically and shades the building from: - Sun - Strong / Cold Winter Winds - Harnesses these forces to generate power through the Pizo Electric Effect of Energy Generation

Influencing Factors of Secondary Skin - Program - Wind Driection - Sunlight - Building Form - View - Neighbouring Buildings

Building From The â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;cylindircalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; form of the building allows for the wind to flow around it, reducing the force applied onto the tower as it does not act as an obsticale in the winds path.

Secondary Skin

The building channels the wind up the North Westerly Facade to direct wind flow away from the occupied areas. The form of the building attempts to redirect the wind away from the circulation between buildings 1 and 2, as well as the open spaces within the 2 buildings. The forms shown here extends over both buildings. The tower and the smaller building on the second site, sheltering both from the winds. However this may occur by the use of the skin, during winter it can capture/deflect wind from the area and in summer it can move to other areas of the tower, where needed to generate power.

The Secondary Skin will have the potential to move along the structural Grid, alowing the skin to tense during calmer witnd conditons and relax, to allow the wind to morph the skin and generate power.

The skin that will be applied to the structural system, not only generates power but acts as a cushion for the tower. It reduces the imact the wind would have on the building if it was not deflected.

Furthermore, the triangular components themselves have the potential to generate power also via the Pizo Electric Effect.

Mass Programing

OFFICE HOTEL WELLNESS CENTRE RESTARUANT (HOTEL) RESIDENTIAL RETAIL & MIXED USE eNT\~

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PROGRAM

Generation of Power via Venturi Effect

The fixed section acts as in inlet, where the external skin acts as an inward part of a sail, compressed by the wind force to decrease the size of the appature, i.e the space between the external skin and the building itself, in order to create a high speed tunnel, driving the horizontal wind turbines thus generating substantial power via the Venturi effect.

Deformation of external skin due to wind forces (Left side of form)

POWER GENERATION

Summer Sun Angle: 64.8 Degrees (11:00am Max) Winter Sun Angle: 20.9 Degrees (11:00am Max)

Based on the program per floor the control points for the skin may vary. I.e. there may be 2 control points per floor, per appartment, and only one control point per office floor.

SOLAR POWER GENERATION

Connection Connection for External Skin

Sunlight Sunâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Effect on Building Form

It can be seen that a convex form has dark spots during the morning and evening, where as, the concave from is presented with sunlight throughout the day. The sketched on the right, illustrate that the form would be best suited to take a concave form in the direction of the sun, in order to obtain as much light as possible during the day. Also to take the same from in the NorthWest part of the building, in order to maintain maximum use of the prevailing winds.

Space Frame Node: - Variable module size and geometry. - Flexibility of form through ball connectore and sealed hinged glazing frame.

CONNECTIONS - SUNLIGHT STUDY

Donaucity Tower Brief Based on the research of dynamic forces and the subsequent model studies, both virtual and physical you are asked to design a highrise in central Vienna that is able to generate energy through both geometry and envelope. The focus is placed on the overall geometry according to the energy concept and on the development of the building skin. The function of the building is a classic (big) inner city program of retail in the base of the tower, office spaces and a hotel with amenities located centrally and residential areas in the upper section of the tower. Underground car parking for 1.000 cars with access to the public streets needs to be provided.

DONAUCITY TOWER

Skin Axpantion Card Model

Previous weeks model

Current expansion of model: It is still able to have the same amount of flexibility found in the smaller version.

FORM

Form Explorarion Clay Model

Clay form, exploring the form the building could take with regards to site influences, i.e sun and wind. The form does not seem suitable, difficult to position a central core and appears to have very little volume to occupy.

FORM

From Exploration Working to Final Form

FORM

From Exploration Working to Final Form

FORM

From Exploration Working to Final Form

FORM

From Exploration Working to Final Form

The concave from on the southern facade, has been developed to maximise the use of the sun. The curved back of the building allows the Venturi Effect to be incorportated on that facade, the most windiest. The form also allows for the wind to flow around the curved surface taking the path of least resistance.

FORM

Form Exploration Form and Site Influences

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~~~~,~ ~~fl<k:J FRONT: South facade, generates power using solar energy. Concave form allows for maximum absorption of sunlight.

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REAR: North West facade, makes use of the wind forces and generates power with it (passive). The rear needs to be further developed in terms of generating the Venturi Effect via tunnel.

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External skin cladding needs to be applied to demonstrate ‘creaper’ effect. Scale of skin needs to be resolved.

North West Facade: Venturi Effect power generation. Passive.

South Facade: Solar Power generation. Mechanical

From Exploration Form on Site

Scale: 1:1000

FORM

From Exploration Form on Site

From Exploration Form on Site

FORM

From Exploration Form on Site

deCoi Architects Aegis Hyposurface The Aegis project was devised in response to a competition for an interactive art piece for the cantilevered ‘prow’ of The Birmingham Hippodrome Theatre. It was proposed as a dynamically reconfigurable surface capable of real-time responsiveness to events in the theatre, such that movement or sound can create actual deformation of the architectural surface. Effectively Aegis is a dynamically reconfigurable screen where the calculating speed of the computer is deployed to a matrix of actuators ( 896 pneumatic pistons ) that drive a ‘deep’ elastic surface. The implicit suggestion is one of a physically responsive architecture where the building develops an electronic central nervous system, the surfaces responding instinctively to any digital input (sound, movement, Internet, etc).

http://www.mediaruimte.be/digital_territories/ projects/cybernetic/Aegis-Hyposurface_deCOi. html?KeepThis=true&TB_iframe=true&height= 600&width=800

PRECEDENT

Solar Analysis Winter - Janurary: South Facade Note: January Winter Sunrise: 7am Sunset: 3pm

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FORM: SOLAR ANALYSIS

Solar Analysis Winter - Janurary: East Facade Note: January Winter Sunrise: 7am Sunset: 3pm

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FORM: SOLAR ANALYSIS

Solar Analysis Winter - Janurary: West Facade Note: January Winter Sunrise: 7am Sunset: 3pm

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FORM: SOLAR ANALYSIS

Solar Analysis Summer - July: South Facade Note: July Summer Sunrise: 4am Sunset: 6pm

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12pm

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FORM: SOLAR ANALYSIS

Solar Analysis Summer - July: East Facade Note: July Summer Sunrise: 4am Sunset: 6pm

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FORM: SOLAR ANALYSIS

Solar Analysis Summer - July: West Facade Note: July Summer Sunrise: 4am Sunset: 6pm

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FORM: SOLAR ANALYSIS

Solar Analysis Ectotect:

December - Feb

8am-3pm

Still rendering....

FORM: SOLAR ANALYSIS

Comparison of South Facade and Cylindrical form, showing the intensity of sun hours through the Winter period.

FORM

Form & Skin Exploration

FORM

Form & Skin Exploration

FORM

Form & Skin Exploration

FORM

Form & Skin Exploration

FORM

Form & Skin Exploration

FORM

Form & Skin Exploration

FORM

Form & Skin Exploration

FORM

Form & Skin Exploration

FORM

Form & Skin Exploration

FORM

Form & Skin Exploration

FORM

Form & Skin Exploration

FORM

Form & Skin Exploration

FORM

Form Development Rear generates power using the venturi effect and wind force to minimize the area in which the air travels through. The front, may be open and have the 2 towers within a tower, (refer to diagram at the end of the slides) - not resolved at this stage. Or the front may be closed off and act as one tower. The pathway/road (one way) between the two towers may act as a drop off zone or vallet and allow acces to lower road.

Front perspective

Rear perspective

FORM

Form Development

FORM

Form Development If the front remains open it allows for sunlight to reach centre of building.

Internal balconies to the external structure will be used if the front remains open and a contral void between the 2 towers is maintained. Retail is containged to the ground floors, introducing the tower to the site.

FORM

Form Development Approximate Positioning - form to be refined

FORM

Form Development

FORM

Form Development

FORM

Form Development

FORM

Form Development

FORM

Form Development

FORM

Form Development

FORM

Form Development

FORM

Form Development

09.06.17presentation
09.06.17presentation

presentation