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FALL 2012 IDT 863

Jenifer L. Price Theory Project

Brief Overview John M. Carroll Current Employment -Faculty Penn State’s College of Information Sciences and Technology (IST) -Co-Director College of IST’s Lab for Computer Supported– Collaboration & Learning -Director Penn State’s Center for HumanComputer Interaction, with courtesy appointments Prior Employment -Virginia Tech -IBM Achievements -Accredited with development of Minimalism Approach to instruction -Numerous “lifetime” awards

CITATIONS Carroll, J. M. (Ed.). (1998). Minimalism beyond the nurnberg funnel. Retrieved from GOOGLE Books Horn, R. E. (1992, January). Commentary on the nurnberg funnel [Review of the book The nuremberg funnel, by J. M. Carroll]. Journal of Computer Documentation, 16(1), 3-11. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1145/134390.1111650

Minimalist Approach

Reigeluth, C., & Carr-Chellman, A. (2009). Instructional -design theories and models: Building a common knowledge base (Volume III ed.). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis. Van der Meij, H., & Carroll, J. M. (1995, Second Quarter). Principles and heuristics for designing minimalist instruction. Technical Communication, 42 (2), 243-261. Retrieved from http:// www.ingentaconnect.com http://cscl.ist.psu.edu/public/users/jcarroll/Self/ BooksReviews www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/minimalism.html

Motto: “Less is More”


Minimalist Approach Highlights

THEORY OVERVIEW

KEY ATTRIBUTES 1. Learner-Centered Build upon learner’s experience Learners fill in the gaps themselves

Constructivist Roots

2. Action-oriented Learners start immediately on meaningful task 3. Task-oriented

Originated in the early 1980s Credited to Dr. John M. Carroll Result of studies of individuals learning how to use computer applications (e.g. databases, word processing, etc.) Streamlined computer documentation (e.g. 25 cards replacing 94 page manual) New users expected to learn in accordance with preexisting goals and expectations Minimal scaffolding offered

Learning tasks should be meaningful and given realistic projects as soon as possible Learning activities self-contained, independent of sequence 4. Support Error Recognition & Recovery Training materials contain minimal amounts of Reigeluth reading Comparison Points

answer; Task-Centered (First Principles) Experiential Approach: Experience is an important value (and First Principle activation); constructivism (but not social); appeal is important; self-direction emphasis (power); content related to experience; all levels Discussion Approach: Values appeal and effectiveness; also learning-centered; First Principlereal life problems and prior learning (activation); can be used with adults

Differences Direct Approach: Low generality (broader bases of subjects taught with Direct); method is more precise; higher degree of consistency; prioritizes efficiency versus appeal and efficiency; primarily K-12 in instead of adults Problem Based Approach: Effectiveness over efficiency; no teacher/facilitator THEORY APPLICATIONS

-Administrative staff: Animated Agents (e.g. MS

Similarities

Word “Paper Clip” & Intelligent Tutoring)

Problem Based Approach: Problem-solving within a content domain; transfer to real world; prior knowledge (activation); no single

-Workforce Center (e.g. resume templates) -Human Resource software (e.g. PeopleSoft)


Minimalist Approach