S T N E TABLE OF CONTENTS T N O C F O E L B TA 4
The Rape of the Sow .............
Introduction to the Choir ........
First Successful Pig Hunt ....... article by Stephanie Abelli and Pranav Menon
article by Ashley Lamar and Nick Fahey illustrated by Kelsey Mattes
article by Bia Estevao and Samantha Hovasse illustrated by Jenny Oâ€™Leary and Lauren Kelley
illustrated by Brian Godfrey and Laney Sartoris
Cover Illustration by
Layout and Artwork by
Wilmington High Students
The Parachutist ...................
Ralph as Moses ...................
Island as Garden of Eden .......
Dirtiness on the Island ...........
The Scar ............................
Simonâ€™s Nature Area .............
Death of Piggy .....................
article by Irina Grigoryeva and Christina Galyuk illustrated by Drew Cummings article by Charles Williams and Ryan Johnson illustrated by Patrick Treacy article by Wayne Barnaby and Rachel Merullo illustrated by Sean Hanley article by Patrick Jackman and Lina Wu illustrated by Jono Frost article by Toni Noe and Stephanie Baril illustrated by Kerri Spry
article by Ashley Gelin and Hani Dekaidek illustrated by Jono Frost
article by Destiny De La Rosa and David Horwitz illustrated by Kerri Spry and Brian Godfrey
The RaThe peRape ofoftthe heSowSow by Ashley Lamar and Nick Fahey
n Lord of the Flies, William Golding the author shows how people can become savages, without rules or civilization. Golding uses a group of well educated British children to show the reader the outcome of a world with no adults or rules. A tribe and their leader Jack go from being civil human begins and becoming savages in the moment of hunting. While hunting, Jack and his tribe lose their innocence by killing a mother sow, because no mercy or grace was shown, Jack and his tribe have become savages. In the entitled “Gift for the Darkness”, Jack and his tribe of innocent school boys turn into savages by slaying and figuratively raping a sow. The boys track the sow through the forest for a long time without much success, before they finally manage to hit it with a spear. The determined sow still runs on, before collapsing in the heat. This is when Jack’s tribe jumps on the pig. Roger, with his sadistic tendencies, takes full advantage of this chance to hurt a dying creature. Once the sow has collapsed, Roger “ran round the heap, prodding with his spear whenever pig flesh appeared.”(135). He also contributes new levels to the metaphor when he “found a lodgment for his point and began to push till he was leaning with his whole weight.” (135). This vivid picture of the raping of the sow is brought to an end when the pig’s throat is slit by Jack. They all collapse heavily on the ground. The weight of what they’ve done is becoming apparent. This is the tipping point to savagery for Jack and his hunters. “When I was a child, I spoke as a child I understood as a child, I thought as a child; But when I became a man, I put childish things away.”(1-Corinthians 13:11) In this case, the breaking point that leads Jack and his tribe to put their childish thoughts and actions away is the metaphorical rape of the sow. Jack’s tribe instantly detaches themselves from average school boys when Jack “Found the throat and the hot blood spouted over his hands. The sow collapsed under them and they were heavy and fulfilled upon her.” (135). Golding uses these overtones to express how Jack and his tribe have stepped into manhood by becoming aggressive and being introduced to violence. The action of mob mentality has driven the innocence out of them and replaced them with a savage image.
In this rape scene, Jack shows a comfort for blood that he had not shown in earlier hunts. With his hands covered in the sows blood Jack “…giggled and flicked them while the boys laughed at his reeking palms. Then Jack grabbed Maurice and rubbed the stuff over his cheeks.” (135). This display of calmness does not resemble the shame and uncertainty of Jack’s past experience with bloody hands. The first time Jack got his hands dirty
LORD OF THE FLIES: a collection of essays
with pig’s blood, he “…grimaced distastefully, looked for something on which to clean them, then wiped them on his shorts…” (69). This scene shows Jack’s disgust at the blood on his hands, which is different from the later sow scene where Jack seems to revel in the gore. The tribe literally and figuratively has “blood on their hands” and they will never get their innocent, non-murderous lives back. The metaphorical rape/death of the sow symbolizes how far the boys have distanced themselves from humanity, and have stepped into a new image of living uncivil lives which lead to savagery. The first sign is their lust for the sow, metaphorically raping it, which symbolizes manhood, and mob-like behavior. The second sign is the comfort of blood, when Jack is proud of the blood on his hands. The major part of the scene is death, killing the mother sow, ruins Jack and his tribe’s form of mercy towards lesser creatures in the future, making the boys completely savage.
r i o h C e h t o t roducttoiothenChoir IntIntroduction
by Bia Estevao and Samantha Hovasse
n The Lord of the Flies, by William Golding, Golding makes the introduction of the choir a significant part in the novel that foreshadows how certain characters will develop throughout the story. The choir itself prefigures how most of the boys will turn out. Jack’s attitude foretells how he wants power and leadership and how his dark aura shows that he’s evil. Simon’s fit forecasts how his relationship with Jack will be and reveals how he is ‘weak’ in the eyes of Jack. Golding uses a cunning strategy; he foreshadows what is to come in the novel. The primitive sight of the choir boys hints to what is coming next; “Within the diamond haze of the beach something dark was fumbling along... Then the creature stepped from mirage on to clear sand, and they saw that the darkness was not all shadow ... The creature was a party of boys...” (19). Once identified, the choir boys emerge with a strange aura. They are illustrated as ‘something dark’, giving us the impression that the choir boys are villainous. When the choir boys reach the other boys, they notice that ‘darkness was not all shadow’ suggesting that the boys were not all evil. Simon, a choir boy, proves to be a Christ figure by accomplishing Christlike deeds. Golding describes the unknown distant figure as ‘creature’. This diction is interesting because later on the boys would refer to the beastie as ‘ creature’. Golding also describes the boys as something unknown that forms
Introduction to the Choir (cont.)
into individuals. The boys do this backwards; they go from being individuals into one. In the beginning, Sam and Eric are two different boys, but as the story progressed they became ‘Samneric’, becoming one person. Jack is introduced as an atrocious boy. He commands and has power over the choir boys; “The boy who controlled them was dressed in the same way though his cap badge was golden...he shouted an order and they halted, gasping, sweating, swaying in the fierce light. The boy himself came forward...and peered into what him was almost complete darkness.”(20). Jack was identified as ‘the boy who controlled them’ since the beginning. Jack is later on attested to having superiority towards the other boys. From the start, he is the boy who ‘controlled’ them, predicting throughout the novel, although not chief, Jack has some leadership. Jack is dressed the same way as the other boys, but with a golden cap. It is a symbol of leadership and authority that differs Jack from the other boy. Golding uses the words ‘halted, gasping, sweating’ to describe how the boys act when taking an order from Jack. Jack is the leader so they ‘halt’ to him, the ‘gasping’ and ‘sweating’ are how the boys are during the killing of the pig. The quote finishes off with an image of how Jack’s leadership will be later on, using the word ‘darkness’. Golding introduces the choir boys when Ralph blows the conch. When they reach Ralph, “…One of the boys flopped on his face in the sand and the line broke up…Merridew…made the best of a bad job. ‘Alright then. Sit down. Let him alone…He’s always throwing a faint.’”(20) Simon’s fainting caused the parallel line of boys to break. Context clues show that Simon has epilepsy, which is why he faints. Epilepsy is a brain disorder involving spontaneous seizures that are caused by abnormal electrical signals in the brain. The poor treatment given to Simon by Jack foreshadows their relationship. In Jack’s eyes, Simon is weak because he faints. Jack presumes himself
LORD OF THE FLIES: a collection of essays
superior to Simon and the rest of the boys on the island. Since he is head boy, he can order his fellow choir members into doing what he says and they find it natural to follow his orders. When Simon faints at the beach, the rest of the choir broke their lines. This foretells when Simon falls, the boys lose their order, or civilization. In chapter nine, the murder of Simon shows a replay of this. In the beginning, the boys surrounded Simon when he fainted and they broke their lines. In chapter nine, they surround Simon, break there dance formation, and murder him. Golding did a clever description of Simon to be able to interpret how his actions turn out. The introduction of the choir boys is an important part of the novel because it introduces us to Simon, Jack, and the rest of the boys. Based upon the introduction we can tell that the group is not all evil, how Jack is an evil leader, and foretell how Simon’s fainting makes the group lose their order. Golding is sly in the foreshadowing from the introduction of the choir boys so that we can foretell certain acts and characteristics of the choir.
st Successful Pig H First Successful Pig Hunt
by Stephanie Abelli and Pranav Menon
ack from William Golding’s Lord of the Flies begins to think that fruit is not enough when it becomes clear to the boys that pigs are plentiful on their Pacific island. Without hesitation, Jack recruits ‘hunters’ and sets off to kill the beasts. His first successful attempt at hunting a pig is the direct result of some of his new and experimental techniques, and the hunt also brings in more than the day’s rations. Dazzle paint was used as a diversion tactic for large ships in World War I. In Lord Of The Flies, dazzle paint first appears when the choir boys go hunting. The idea was born to Jack as a new tactic for pig hunting. The dazzle paint did exactly what the boys wanted; they captured and killed their first pig. It may have been a coincidence that they caught a pig when they began to wear dazzle paint, or it might have changed the boys thoughts completely. Jack was able to use the dazzle paint to obscure his emotions on murder and completely transform into a hunter. His transformation, along with the appeal of the mask compelled the other boys to follow him. The boys admired the rich colors in the mask, and the excitement of hunting and they quickly got distracted from the task they were assigned. Fire for rescue seems to have a low significance for some of the boys. They are instantly drawn to the glamour of hunting and quickly forget about their enormously important task. During the first successful pig hunt, the boys also experience their first possible chance of rescue, but it was an extreme failure because the boys had let the rescue fire die out while hunting. Ralph’s reaction is nothing less than what is expected, he is infuriated, and frustrated. He as chief made it extremely clear to the boys, rescue is the number one priority, but they outright disobeyed him which resulted in their
First Successful Pig Hunt (cont.)
prolonged stay on the island. When jack returns from the hunt in high spirits he is quickly brought down by Ralph’s anger about the fire. In this scene the reader experiences for the first time the clear division between Ralph’s followers and Jacks followers; and a small glimpse of what is to come. Jacks followers, the hunters, seem to be strangers to the idea of rescue and are quite surprised by the reaction of their chief. Ralph’s followers seem to have anticipated his reaction and they too were angered with the hunters that let out the fire. The abandonment of rescue shows the reader just how far the boys have come, it shows the priorities of the hunters vs. Ralph’s tribe and it represents the boys choosing a more primal way of life over civilization. All though it may have seemed like a small slip-up, letting the fire die out caused the change of priorities on the island from civilization and rescue, to hunting and ultimately a more primal way of life. It may have looked like a success, but Ralph sees the hunt from a different perspective. While Jack is hunting, Ralph sees something on the horizon: “The mirages had died away and...he ran his eye along the horizon. The next moment he was....shouting...‘Smoke! Smoke!’ (65). Ralph believes he has seen a ship. Whether this is a real ship or Ralph’s imagination running wild, the reader may never know. However, even if the ‘ship’ was not a real ship, the ensuing events start the fire that will bring Ralph’s civilization on the island down in flames. The pig hunt makes it clear that Ralph’s opinion on the purpose of the fire directly contrasts with Jack’s; Ralph gives the smoke, not the fire itself, the highest priority, due to it being instrumental in any sort of rescue. Jack, however, is aware of the fact that to cook meat, a fire is needed. When Ralph arrives on the summit after seeing the ‘ship’ on the horizon, his response is priceless: “They let the bloody fire go out” (68). All that remains of the proud fire that once burned at the top of the mountain are a few scattered embers and charred pieces of wood. The boys on fire watch were recruited by Jack for his hunt. Once the procession of hunters returns to the summit, chanting their grotesque hunting song, Ralph’s composure dissipates, and an argument follows suit. Plot wise, this is the parting of the ways between Jack and Ralph.
Symbolically speaking, the mask may have done it for Jack, but the other ‘biguns’ only finished metamorphosing once meat had been reintroduced into their diet. Having badly cooked meat seems to have a profound effect even on Ralph, who, when presented with the food “[takes] the gift, dribbling” (149). The mask and the meat are Jack’s counsel in his choice between hunting and civilization. The success of the pig hunt not only provided the boys food, but it tore them apart. It started the first major argument between the boys and ultimately
LORD OF THE FLIES: a collection of essays
divided the group. It set up the basis for each side, civilization vs. savagery. So although the hunt was labeled successful it was ultimately a major failure for the social structure of the island.
t s i t u h c a ar Parachutist he PThe
by Irina Grigoryeva and Christina Galyuk
n the novel Lord of the Flies, written by William Golding, the parachutist is a confirmation of the beast on the island. He eventually becomes a powerful idea when planted into the minds of little boys. The parachutist leads to destruction of the island society and brings out the worst in everyone. The dead parachutist was first seen by Sam and Eric, who assumed that he was the beast after he was moved by the wind. Ralph tries convincing the other boys that the beast does not exist, but Jack wants to prove to everyone that he can protect them from the beast when it comes. Jack believes that the entire situation about being stranded on an island is a game, and he just wants to make the game more fun and dangerous, as twelve year-old boys would want to do. “I’m not going to play any longer. Not with you.”(127) he says to Ralph. Since Ralph was elected as chief, jealous Jack had always tried to find a way to overpower him. By using the parachutist, Jack was able to let the idea of the beast flourish in the boys’ minds and use it to his own advantage, being the best hunter on the island and most capable of killing the beast. The parachutist may also represent an adult figure in Lord of the Flies. For a while, Ralph is the adult on the island, because a chief is supposed to be a mature leader and someone the littluns look up to. His light hair defines him as a good character, that being shown when he is the chief, and the rest of the boys are well-behaved. The innocence of the boys changes as the leadership changes from Ralph to Jack. When Ralph, Simon, and Jack go up the mountain to see the beast, Ralph and Simon, the holy characters, overpower Jack, the destructive bad one. Here, good overpowers evil and everything is fine on the island. Later in the book, Ralph and Jack go up the mountain again, but this time with Roger, a ruthless sadist and insane sociopath, which has evil winning at that point. The parachutist, being high up on the mountain, is literally someone that the boys look up to. He becomes the new adult figure and the boys are influenced by their new, evil leader.
The parachutist came from the adults, but it left with Simon. Simon is the Christ figure in Lord of the Flies. He is incredibly kind, but he lacks the charisma to lead, so he is not fully fit as a Jesus figure. “Maybe it’s just us,”(89) Simon says to the other boys. He never was afraid of the beast. He knew that the beast was the symbolic sum of the evil in all people. After seeing the Lord of the Flies during a hallucination, Simon trekked the island mountain where the supposed beast was. He found the parachutist and realized that he was right all along. Simon decided to set the parachutist
The Parachutist (cont.)
free, also setting himself free from control and the pure hell the boys had brought to the island. When Simon went to tell the rest about the real beast, the hunters had already transformed into a beast of their own, murdering Simon in their need to kill. The parachutist started as a message from the adults and turned into a monstrous, controlling beast. The boys feared the beast, looked up to it, and used it to their advantage. The boys had created something that led to their destruction. Simon had tried to stop it, but he set his own destiny. The Lord of the Flies and the parachutist were crucial factors in the downfall of the stranded islanders.
Ralph as Moses Ralph as Moses
by Charles Williams and Ryan Johnson
n the book Lord of the Flies by William Golding, a boy named Ralph is symbolically meant to represent Moses. Ralph is a fair-haired boy who makes a great leader just like Moses. Throughout the book there are many events that support the idea that the two are alike. Ralph is seen as Moses because he sees a burning bush, he brings down the 10 Commandments, he walks through walls of fire to lead his people to safety, and he warns his people not to believe in false idols.
Ralph is supposed to be Moses because he saw a burning bush. This is similar to when God appeared out of a flame in a burning bush and told Moses to save his people from the Egyptians. A scripture out of the bible reads “And the angel of the LORD appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush: and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush [was] not consumed.” (Exodus 3:2). This is like when Ralph sees “...a tall bush directly in [Ralph’s] path burst into a great fan-shaped flame.” (Golding 199). If William Golding made a burning bush appear in front of Ralph, then he must have meant for Ralph to represent Moses. Another reason why Ralph is supposed to be seen as Moses is because he brings down the “10 Commandments” when he finds the conch and uses it to unite all the boys. The conch is seen throughout the book as a symbol
LORD OF THE FLIES: a collection of essays
for rules and order, just like the 10 Commandments. Ralph finds the conch when it says “Ralph had stopped smiling and was pointing into the lagoon. Something creamy lay among the ferny weeds.” (Golding, 15). If Ralph and Moses both found a symbol of peace then Ralph must represent Moses. In the bible there is a scripture that reads “ But lift thou up thy rod, and stretch out thine hand over the sea, and divide it: and the children of Israel shall go on dry [ground] through the midst of the sea.” (Exodus 14:16) This is describing how Moses split the Red Sea and lead his people out of Israel by parting it on both sides. Ralph ends up doing something similar in Lord of the Flies. It states “He swung to the right, running desperately fast with the heat beating on his left side and the fire racing forward like a tide. The uluatuion rose behind him and spread along the a series of short sharp cries, the sighting call.” (Golding 199) This image shows Ralph running through the island and Jacks tribe following him. There is also a wall of fire on both sides of them. Similar to how Moses lead his people through the Red Sea. This infers that Ralph is leading the tribe to safety. Ralph is still leading them through a wave of fire just how Moses lead his people. Therefore Ralph is like Moses because he lead Jacks tribe to safety like Moses lead his people. Also Moses taught his people not to believe in false idols. A bible scripture reads, “ And all the people brake off the golden earrings which [were] in their ears, and brought [them] unto Aaron. And he received [them] at their hand, and fashioned it with a graving tool, after he had made it a molten calf: and they said, These [be] thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt.” (Exodus 32:3-4) God told Moses that they should not be worshiping the calf and to worship him and him alone. Just how Ralph kept telling the boys that there was no beast on the island. “‘We’ve got to talk about this fear and decides there’s nothing in it. I’m frightened myself, sometimes; only that’s nonsense! Like bogies. Then, when we’ve decided, we can start again and be careful about things like the fire..... and be happy’”(Golding 82) Ralph says. Ralph is confirming in all of the boys that there is no beast on the island. He is telling them that there is nothing to be afraid of and you should not believe in it. Just how Moses told his people that you should not believe in the golden calf. It is easily proven that Ralph and Moses share very alike qualities that make them similar. Ralph and Moses both saw a burning bush. Ralph brought rules to the island and Moses brought rules to his people. Ralph lead his people through a wave of fire and Moses lead his people through a wave of water. Ralph and Moses both told their people that you should not believe in false idols. It is true that Ralph represents Moses in Lord of the Flies.
n e d E f o n e d Island as Garden of Eden r a G s a d n Isla
by Wayne Barnaby and Rachel Merullo
n the novel Lord of the Flies by William Golding, the island that the boys end up on bears a resemblance to the Garden of Eden as described in Genesis of the Old Testament. The island the boys land on resembles the Garden of Eden because it is similar in beauty, has devil symbols, is also created by God, and contains a forbidden fruit which affects its inhabitants. The Garden of Eden is a beautiful location where Adam and Eve are placed to live in, similar in beauty to the island the boys land on. The island the boys land on has “...dazzling beach and water”(10). Both islands are magnificent places with gorgeous scenery. However, in contrast with the pulchritude of the island, the coconuts are described as being “...skull-like...”(10) which suggests that this place was once beautiful, but has been tarnished in some way. The snake from the Garden of Eden and other devil symbols appear on the island. For example, the belt Ralph wears when he first arrives is described as having a “...snake-clasp...”(10), and a snake is a commonplace symbol of evil. This suggests a biblical reference to the Garden of Eden because a snake is a devil symbol that appears there. The beastie, the source of fear on the island, is called a “...snake-thing...”(36), another biblical reference to the Garden of Eden, stating how the devil is the source of fear on the island as the snake is in the Garden of Eden. The Garden of Eden is said to be created by God, as is the island the boys crash onto. The island looks “...as though a giant had bent down to reproduce the shape of the island...” (29), which is a reference to God creating the island, just as God creates the Garden of Eden. In Genesis, God also creates Adam with his own hands and places him in the Garden of Eden. The very first image seen in Lord of the Flies is Ralph waking up in
LORD OF THE FLIES: a collection of essays
an unfamiliar place. Ralph has no idea where he is, and simply “...lowered himself down the last few feet of rock and began to pick his way toward the lagoon” (1). He does not look back to see where he came from. It is almost like he is placed there. He then goes on to find the lagoon and gets answers pertaining to why he is placed there. An important feature in the Garden of Eden is the Forbidden Fruit. In Genesis this serves as temptation for the people in the Garden, and is parallel to the pig blood/meat on the island for the boys. When the hunters return from their expedition, “Ralph meant to refuse meat but his past diet... gave him too little resistance” (73). Ralph knew not to eat the meat because it would disable him from making his point, but the temptation of nourishment is too large for Ralph to resist. He gives in and eats the half raw meat. This happens in Genesis when Adam and Eve eat the Forbidden Fruit. The Forbidden Fruit has a perplexing effect on Adam and Eve when they give into temptation. Their eyes are opened, and they truly see each other. Adam and Eve care about nudity and try to cover up immediately. When Jack feels the blood in his hands,“He noticed Ralph’s scarred nakedness,and the sombre silence of all four of them” (70). This connects to Genesis since Jack has his eyes opened when he eats his version of the Forbidden Fruit. The pig meat/blood is the parallel to the Tree of Knowledge and the Forbidden Fruit because it makes the characters feel the same way as Adam and Eve.
Golding’s Lord of the Flies shows different connections regarding Genesis in the Bible. For many reasons, the island that the boys inhabit is parallel to the Garden of Eden. These parallels affect the boys the same as Adam and Eve from the Old Testament. Whether it is temptation, a gain of awareness, or concrete symbols like serpents or skulls, it is not difficult to find a biblical reference.
Dirtiness on t
Dirtiness on the Island by Patrick Jackman and Lina Wu
s time passes in William Golding’s Lord of the Flies, the boys become increasingly dirty. Their hair grows longer and more tangled. Everyday use reduces their clothing to rags. Over time, the boys cease caring about the general hygiene of themselves or of others. Their deteriorating cleanliness represents the decline of civility and order on the island. The boys arrive on an island that has not been tampered with. The island provides substantial life for the boys. Ralph says several times that they need to keep things as clean as possible, such as having a designated area for “doing business” and another for bathing. Ralph brings this to the others’ attention when he states, “There’s another thing. We chose those rocks right along beyond the bathing pool as a lavatory. That was sensible too. The tide cleans the place up. You littluns know about that.”(115) He keys in on the littluns but raises this valid point to everybody. The boys show carelessness once again when they “drop anchor” as they please, thus hindering their goal of keeping the island clean. Ralph is the one whose main concern is sanitation, while Jack’s tribe focuses on hunting. Also contrary to keeping the island clean is how the boys bathe in the area assigned for drinking. Ralph emphasizes that they are running short on water due to their lackadaisical behavior. Water is essential, and should not be wasted due to their laziness. All the boys’ hair grows “…much too long, tangled here and there…”(110) and “…knotted around a dead leaf or twig…”(110) As the book progresses, they become more frustrated with their hair. Being the most concerned about keeping order, Ralph especially dislikes “…perpetually flicking the tangled hair out of his eyes…”(77) He must do so increasingly often as chaos begins to break loose, showing that Ralph is losing his ability to see clearly and decide what must be done as a leader. Having clean and short hair soon becomes a thing of the past for the boys. Ralph fantasizes about cutting his “…filthy hair right back to half an inch.”(109) The lengthening and entangling of their hair shows the descent of their society into confusion and disorder. The boys arrive on the island clothed. Some in formal wear, others in choir robes. Ralph, who tries to be civilized throughout the book, is coincidentally the first one to strip down: He became conscious of the weight of clothes, kicked his shoes off fiercely and ripped off each stocking with its elastic garter in a single movement. Then he leapt back on the terrace, pulled off his
LORD OF THE FLIES: a collection of essays
shirt, and stood there among the skull-like coconuts with green shadows from the palms and the forest sliding over his skin. He undid the snake-clasp of his belt, lugged off his shorts and pants, and stood there naked... (10-1) Ralph emphasizes the importance of order and pushes to get things how they use to be. As time passes, the less important clothing becomes. Clothing is only worn in the beginning to guard from sunburns as the boys adapt to the hot sun. Their choice of clothing goes hand-in-hand with their mind set; despair. They become less and less motivated and have little hope, so clothes or the lack thereof is not a large issue. The lack of clothing shows how uncivilized and barbaric the boys become. They strive to bring their homeland values to the island, and the lack of clothing does not help. As the boys’ hygiene standards decrease, chaos breaks loose. Jack, the first boy to rebel against Ralph’s leadership, is also the first to paint himself with clay, another way that he becomes dirtier. As others follow suit and begin to paint themselves, their society breaks apart, taking order on the island along with it. Ralph, with whom all civility lies, does not allow his small tribe to paint themselves because they understand “…only too well the liberation into savagery that the concealing paint…”(172) would bring. The boys arrive on the island clean and with their innocence intact. When the naval officer rescues them, the boys are covered in dirt and soot and have seen death and horrors beyond their years. Realizing that he is safe, Ralph weeps “…for the end of innocence…” (202) and “…the darkness of man’s heart…”(202) Increasing physical dirtiness on the island represents increasing chaos on the island. On the island, the boys and the conditions they live in become dirty. From Ralph constantly pushing his long, greasy hair out of his eyes to having dirt and clay plastered on their faces. The boys lose the idea of civilization from their past lives and become more barbaric. The dirtiness of the children and the island symbolizes the loss of their previous lifestyle. Personal hygiene and cleanliness become the least of their concerns.
by Toni Noe and Stephanie Baril
n Lord of the Flies by William Golding the scar symbolizes order, chaos, and civilization. The scar is a reminder of where the boys came from, and what happened to them. It is a constant reminder of how the boys should act like adults and set rules for themselves. The boys destroy the island, which shows how they feel about being told what to do before they inhabited the island. During Lord of the Flies Ralph and Piggy resemble Adam and Eve in the Garden Of Eden. Ralph and Piggy first meet at the scar. Piggy says “Them fruit.” (9) which shows that they are surrounded by fruit just like Adam and 15
Sim The Scar (cont.)
Eve were in the Garden of Eden. Piggy resembles Eve and Ralph resembles Adam in the book. Ralph’s first thoughts about the island are that his time there will be a great experience. Ralph “...stood there among the skull-like coconuts...” (10) which is a sign of foreshadowing that what was coming would not be a good experience. Ralph “undid the snake-clasp of his belt” (10) which shows he is sneaky and sly just like the snake in the Garden Of Eden. The scar leads right to where the boys meeting place is. The scar is a reminder of how the boys destroyed part of the island and how they arrived there. The scar also shows total destruction of a part of the island. It shows how it is dangerous to inhabit the island when there has not ever been any one else living there. The scar for shadows how the island will eventually be totally demolished from the boys. In chapter 2 Golding writes, “Then, with the martyred expression of a parent who has to keep up with the senseless ebullience of the children, he picked up the conch, turned toward the forest, and began to pick his way over the tumbled scar.” (38) This is one of the very few times where the scar is simply brought up. You get an idea of what it looks like. This destruction was an accident but as the story goes on, you see that they start acting recklessly and they intentionally destroyed the entire island by chapter 12. The scar symbolizes how the boys have the power to ruin an area. At the very end of the novel, when the boys are being saved, Golding writes about Ralph’s thoughts. “For a moment he had a fleeting picture of the strange glamour that had once invested the beaches. But the island was scorched up like dead wood.” (202) Just like the Garden of Eden, the island was a perfect place before mankind brought along chaos and destroyed it. In Lord of the Flies, the scar, which is the place where the boy’s plane crashed, is significant in many ways. It mirrors order, chaos, and civilization. The scar is a continual reminder of the devastating crash, their homes, and what they have had to go through. By the end of the story, the
LORD OF THE FLIES: a collection of essays
boys have destroyed their new home, the island. It is a clear display of how these young boys feel and how much they’ve lost during this tough time; physically and mentally.
a e r A e r u t a Simon’s Nature Area N s ’ n o m by Ashley Gelin and Hani Dekaidek
n Lord of The Flies by William Golding, Simon’s nature area plays a key role on the island. The significance of the balance of concepts on the island is shown through various traits expressed by the island. The nature area has physical traits that differ than other places on the island. There is symbolism throughout the nature area. It affects the boys on the island, especially Simon. Simon’s nature area shows a balance of various concepts on the island. The nature area symbolizes something completely different to Simon; it almost is like a sanctuary for him. Simon falls in love with the area because he has a deep connection with nature and he thinks of it as beautiful gift. The nature area is a large open space filled with plants Golding describes it as , “The whole space was filled was walled with dark aromatic bushes, and was a bowl of heat and light. A great tree, fallen across one corner. “(56) This is the first time in the book that we see Simon in his nature area ; we get the description that it there is dark colored bushes covering the area .This is the first time we see Simon go to the area mostly to get away from the fight between Jack and Ralph. The area being described as a “bowl of heat and light” lets the readers know that there is some type of lighting in this area and this area is always referenced back to light. The area itself is isolated and sort of blends in with the things around it, “...he was in a little cabin screened off from the open space by a few leaves... Nothing moved but a pair of gaudy butterflies that danced round each other in the hot air.”(57). Simon sat in the area that was covered with leaves in order to block out the sun. Simon is concerned with his feelings and rarely shares them with the other boys; he likes to stay in his own little world. Throughout the book butterflies are mentioned in this area, this is the first time they are introduced to the readers. Flowers and candle buds pointed out several times in this area and stand for a greater meaning described as,”The candle-buds stirred, their green sepals drew back a little and the white tips of the flowers rose delicately to meet the open air.”(57) The flowers go through the stages of the candles by taking the form of a candle before it is lit and after. The candle buds flower in the dark just like candles flames are more visible in the dark .The candles take on the sensitive female symbol during the day and at night it has a more aggressive feel showing a more phallic (male) feel. The sanctuary is a place where he can think, have hope and feel safe. Simon’s nature area functions as many things for Simon and tells a lot about his conservative personality. The nature area affects both Simon and the boys in diverse ways throughout the story that symbolizes a greater meaning. Simon is a symbolic character in Lord of the Flies by showing human goodness and innocence throughout
Simon’s Nature Area (cont.)
his time on the island. Simon feels a deep connection with the nature around him on the island, while most of the boys don’t have the same respect for nature like Simon does. Simon first sees his “nature area” when he explores the island with Ralph and Jack. Simon feels the connection with the area immediately when he sees it, but the boys show it no importance, “The bushes were dark evergreen and aromatic and the many buds were waxen green and folded up against the light. Jack slashed at one with his knife and the scent spilled over them”(30). Simon felt relaxed and connected to this area on the island. Jack shows his aggressive and violent side for one of the first times in the story when he cuts one of the buds with his knife saying that they aren’t useful. Ralph isn’t as violent towards the candle buds; he just wants to keep going on. Simon’s realization of the candle buds is like an indicator of each boy’s personality; Jack shows how violent he is and Ralph shows how he just doesn’t care because they cannot be lit or much dealt with. If the candles could have been lit it could have been a possible light source or function as something to start the fire. Simon loves this area and sometimes even sneaks to it at night; “...I saw something big and horrid moving in the trees...Simon grabbed the conch convulsively. I wanted-- to go to a place--a place I know” (85). Simon has the urge to go to his area at night. He goes even if it scares the littluns making them think it’s the beast. Simon is reluctant to tell the boys about his nature area and where it is on the island, Simon is afraid that the boys will make fun of him like they usually do and think he’s crazy. This shows how Simon feels intimidated by the boys and doesn’t want to confess about his area to them he would rather keep it to himself. As Jack’s tribe is forming, they start making new goals that are different from Ralph’s rules. Jack’s tribe makes the main goal hunting. Simon’s innocent self has to witness the rape of the sow by Jack’s tribe,Golding described as ” A small brown image, concealed by the leaves. “Even if he shut his eyes the sow’s head still remained like an afterimage. The half-shut eyes were dim with the infinite cynicism of adult life. They assured Simon that everything was a bad business.”(137)Jack’s tribe brutality kills /rapes the sow they stab at it with a sharp stick and give the head of the sow as a offering to the beast. At this moment is when Simon loses all his innocence on the island, the brown image of the sow takes over his mind and not able to leave and the area starts to empty out and the butterflies fly away. Simon becomes dizzy and eventually faints from the fatal image. At this point, Simon has lost all of his innocence.
Simon’s nature area holds a great significance. It is portrayed as a chapel for Simon, considering he is a Christ figure. Golding says, “...the green candle-like buds...” (57). Candles are used in chapels which is a symbolic reference. Also, there is a representation that shows how the nature area
LORD OF THE FLIES: a collection of essays
is intended for Simon. Simon is in the middle of the masculine/feminine spectrum, as the nature area, because of the buds. Also, the candles are phallic, or a symbol that references male genitals. “Their green sepals drew back a little...” (57). This is a clear yonic symbol, or a symbol that references female genitals, because it is a flower that is being pulled back into its stem. This happens during the evening, while the sun is still out. ”The candlebuds opened their wide white flowers...”(57). Symbolism is shown through here in order to further express the significance of the nature area. This is a phallic symbol because is a flower blooming outward at nightfall. Also, there is a balance of this concept in the nature area, due to having both phallic and yonic features. This means that the chapel is in the of the phallic/yonic spectrum, just as Simon is in the middle of the masculine/feminine spectrum. This shows that the nature area is intended for Simon. The butterflies play a key role in the nature area. “Nothing moved but a pair of gaudy butterflies that danced round each other in the hot air” (57). The butterflies are there to ensure that the nature area is peaceful and safe at the time. This is said by Golding when Simon enters the nature area. It is very peaceful and quiet at this time. “Even the butterflies deserted the open space where this obscene thing grinned and dripped” (151). This is said when Jack’s tribe slaughtered and raped the sow. This “thing” in the nature area is the pig’s head on a stick. The pig’s head is very grotesque and a potentially dangerous thing. The butterflies leave from this place to show that the nature area is now a dangerous and frightening place. This means that the butterflies were generally a symbol of peace. Simon’s nature area was used as an important part of Lord of The Flies. Simon’s nature area is like a sanctuary to him. The nature area shows a remarkable amount of symbolism portrayed throughout the period of time on the island. It affects Simon more than the other boys on the island. There are elements that affect Simon in this area, while also there are elements that affect the other boys. William Golding has given Simon’s nature area an important role in Lord of the Flies.
Citation: Some ideas from the Physical Traits of the Nature Area paragraph were from: http://sites.google.com/site/thelotfisland/home/simon-s-nature-area
y g g i P f o h t Dea Death of Piggy
by Destiny De La Rosa and David Horwitz
n the novel Lord of the Flies by William Golding, Roger kills the most logical boy on the island, Piggy. Roger is a sadist, a person who likes to see other people in pain. Piggy is effeminate, fat, and the most logical boy on the island. When Roger kills Piggy, he also destroys the conch. The conch is a symbol of order which is why the island goes into chaos when it is set on fire by Jack’s tribe.
Ralph, Piggy, Sam, and Eric decided to confront Jack about how he stole Piggy’s specs and the fire. Ralph and Jack immediately began to fight. Soon Sam and Eric are tied up, leaving Ralph and Piggy to fight for themselves. As Ralph and Jack fought, Piggy held up the conch and tried to convince everyone to be in Ralph’s tribe, not Jack’s. Meanwhile,“Roger, with a sense of delirious abandonment, leaned all his weight on the lever” (180). Ralph felt and heard the rock rolling when, “The rock struck Piggy a glancing blow from chin to knee; the conch exploded into a thousand white fragments and ceased to exist. Piggy, saying nothing, with no time for even a grunt, traveled through the air sideways from the rock, turning over as he went.” (181). Piggy had no time to protect himself, and he is soon dead. The boulder which is meant to guard the fort is dropped onto Piggy. When the boulder hits Piggy, he “ fell forty feet and landed on his back across the square rock in the sea”(181). When he hit the rock, he cracked his head and he started bleeding. He twitches a little bit but after that he was dead. Roger had murdered Piggy. Roger shows this side of himself earlier in the novel when he picks on the littluns and Henry while they were playing on the beach. The littluns had made sand castles on the beach. Soon after, “Roger led the way right through the castles, kicking them over, burying the flowers, scattering the chosen stones” (60). Roger seemed to enjoy hurting the littluns. Roger is a sadist and a dark figure on the island. Roger is described as, “...not noticeably darker than when he had drooped in, but the shock of dark hair, down his nape and low on his forehead, seemed to suit his gloomy face and made what had seemed at first an unsociable remoteness into something
LORD OF THE FLIES: a collection of essays
forbidding” (60). On the other hand, Piggy is the smartest boy on the island. He is also the effeminate boy on the island. Piggy is described as being very fat, having asthma, resembling a pig, and is not as wealthy as the other boys on the island. Piggy is a member of Ralph’s tribe and is not respected at all by Jack. Piggy is described as “ ...shorter than the fair boy [Ralph] and very fat”(7). It is clear that Roger and Piggy are complete opposites. When Roger drops the huge bolder on Piggy, the conch is also destroyed since Piggy is holding it. When the boulder hit Piggy “the conch exploded into a thousand white fragments and ceased to exist”(181). The conch is a symbol of order and democracy on the island. When it is destroyed, the island is in chaos. After the conch was shattered, Jack’s tribe set a fire. This only happened since all order and democracy on the island was extinguished. The fire Jack’s tribe set “...was a big one...”(197). They burned the entire island. This only happened because all order on the island was suppressed. The conch was described as being shattered into a thousand pieces. It was not broken, but it was completely gone. Ralph, Piggy, Sam, and Eric are the only kids on the island that are not savages. After confronting Piggy, Samneric are tied up and are forced to be in Jack’s tribe. This adds more chaos on the island alone. But more importantly, Piggy is gone. He believed that the conch was a symbol of democracy and tried to persuade members of Jack’s tribe to believe that, too. With Piggy gone, the balance between savages and non-savages is extremely unbalanced. This is another reason why after Piggy is murdered, the island is burned and is in complete chaos. There is not even the tiniest bit of order on the island. The death of Piggy has destroyed the island. After his death, things have been going opposite the way Ralph and Piggy wanted them to go. Now Ralph is left alone to bare with the consequences. By Roger killing Piggy and destroying the conch, it results in no more order and structure on the island. What remains is only a broken conch and a loss of logic.
Mr. Timothy Calvin Burlington High School English Teacher
Ms. Lauren Fidler
Stoughton High School English Teacher
Ms. Jennifer Fidler
Wilmington High School Graphic Design Teacher