table of CONTENTS thesis statement 5
SECTION I introduction definitions 8 history 10
SECTION II analysis elements 15 principles 21 anatomy 25 training 29 arrangement 33
SECTION III application conclusion 39
Typography and Ballet are two disciplines that are very much the same. Elements are constructed to fill an empty space â€“ the page versus the stage. Through similar fundamentals and foundations of each craft, both art forms tell a story which is left to be interpreted by the viewer.
elements are constructed to fill an EMPTY SPACE
definition of TYPOGRAPHY
Typography can be defined as the art and technique of arranging type to make language readable. It involves the selection of medium, choice of ink color, choice of supporting elements and the method of printing. Ballet is defined as a theatrical art form in which conventional body poses and steps are combined with light flowing figures. Along with choreography, ballet uses music, costumes, lighting and scenery to convey a story, theme and/ or atmosphere.
3500 BC | MESOPOTAMIA The primary purpose of Cuneiform was for the Sumerians to record literary information such as contracts, letters, instructions, recipes and more.
3200 BC | INDIA Some of the earliest traces of dance are from tomb paintings, which depict moving figures,
bhimbetka rock shelter
1000 BC | BYBLOS Phoenician writing came from the city of Byblos, and consisted of 22 signs.
3000 BC | EGYPT Music and dance became integral parts of religious worship in Ancient Egypt.
100 BC | PRESENT DAY The Latin alphabet evolved and increased to 26 distinct letters. This is the writing system that we use today.
750 BC | GREECE The Greeks slightly altered the names of the Phoenician letters, and also added five new signs.
1400 | ITALY The formalized style of dance originates from the Italian Renaissance courts.
ballet de la royne
1500 | FRANCE Queen Catherine De Medici introduced ballet to the French, and it became a pastime for the aristocratic society.
JUXT POS T
TA SI TION
analysis of ELEMENTS Within every field of study, there lies distinct framework which is made up of fundamentals that outline the foundation of a subject.
elements of ART
In typography, the elements of art are essentially the building blocks of a composition and consist of the following components: color, value, line, shape, space and texture. Color is an element made up of three properties: hue, value and intensity. Value is an element that refers to the lightness or darkness of the composition. A line is a dot in motion, and can be horizontal, vertical, diagonal or curved. A shape is an element that is twodimensional formed by lines, circles, squares, triangles and rectangles. Space is the feeling of depth and dimensions within a composition, includes positive and negative. Texture is an element that refers to the visual indication of how something might feel if it were to be touched
LINE SHAPE S PAC E COLOR VALUE
elements of DANCE
In ballet, the elements of dance consist of the following components: shape, space, energy and body. Shape is the way the body is formed through choreography, could be symmetrical, curved, twisted or angular. Space refers to the movement of the body that creates directions, paths and floor patterns. Energy is an element that refers to the quality of which a movement is performed; mental (emotional) and physical (muscular) energy. Body is an element that refers to the figure or shape seen by a viewer through the dancerâ€™s expression and visual communication.
analysis of PRINCIPLES Rules keep a craft clean, consistent and focused. Such fundamentals are the key to a core formula, essential to the education of any designer or dancer.
principles of DESIGN & DANCE
In typography, the principles of design detail the way elements of art should be applied (within a composition), and consist of the following components: balance, repetition, movement, proportion, rhythm, unity and variety. In ballet, the principles of dance work together and consist of ideas similar to those of design: repetition, variety, sequence and transition. Balance refers to when elements are arranged and given equal weight in a design to create harmony. Repetition is when an element occurs more than once within a composition, and creates a pattern. Variety is combining contrasting elements in a composition. Rhythm is a continuance, flow or feeling of motion achieved by the repetition of elements. Movement refers to the way the viewerâ€™s eye is directed throughout the entire composition. Proportion is the scale of the design and the elements within it, and unity is the idea of all elements in a composition working together.
analysis of ANATOMY The human body is equivalent to a single letter form. Both characters are structured in parts and each part plays its own role in the characterâ€™s functionality.
analysis of ANATOMY
analysis of TRAINING In every classroom, there is a starting point. This acts as a dock, or a home base for which itâ€™s pupils can return. In both typography and ballet this dock existsâ€“ the baseline versus the barre.
comparison of TRAINING
The baseline in typography is significant in the alignment and structure of letter forms. It is here that a designer can fully examine the anatomy of type, and practice forms. Common baseline usage and education dates back to grade school, handwriting class, where students are first taught how to write. Worksheets were made up of baselines and young children were instructed to repeatedly write words until they learned and were able to retain the information. Very similar to the baseline, the barre in ballet is a handrail used only in the classroom, for support and alignment as well as for practice. At the beginning of each class, dancers will line up at the barre next to each other and will start with warm ups. Barre exercises include those that stretch and prepare muscles, as well as those that strengthen feet and arm positioning and improve a dancerâ€™s flexibility. At both the baseline and barre, designers and dancers are able to learn, correct and perfect their skill set.
CAP HEIGHT X - HEIGHT
ARRANGEMENT There are five main typographical alignments that are noticeably parallel to the five basic positions in ballet.
comparison of ARRANGEMENT
There are five different types of arrangement for text–this refers to the positioning of text within a composition, and how it interacts with the margins on a page. The choice a designer makes in type arrangement has a great impact on how viewers respond to the composition. This critical decision affects visual communication by aiding the level of readability for blocks of type, sentences or paragraphs. The five basic positions in ballet define proper placement and form of feet and body on the stage. These five basic alignments were created by dancing master Pierre Beauchamp in the late 17th century, and are essentially one of the first lessons taught in any beginners’ ballet class. Every movement in ballet starts and ends in one of these five positions; just as every piece of type on any composition must be in one of the five arrangements.
1 FIRST POSITION | CENTERED TYPE The first position places the heels together. The toes are turned out with the goal of the ballet dancer achieving a 180° angle.
SECOND POSITION | JUSTIFIED TYPE
THIRD POSITION | FLUSHED LEFT, RAGGED RIGHT
The second position maintains the 180째 turnout but the feet are spaced approximately a foot apart.
The third position has the heel of the right foot resting against the instep of the left. Turnout is firmly maintained.
4 FOURTH POSITION | ASYMMETRICAL In the fourth position the 180째 turnout is maintained. The heel of the right foot lines up with the toe of the left with a distance of twelve inches apart.
FIFTH POSITION | FLUSHED RIGHT, RAGGED LEFT In fifth position the right foot maintains the 180째 turnout. The left foot comes forward with the heel against the right toe and the feet are pressed closely together.
PER FOR A
the final CONCLUSION This set was choreographed with the English alphabet in mindâ€“ each movement of arms, legs, hands and feet is inspired by the strokes that create letterforms.
Special thanks to dancers, Lizzy Washington and Raymond Baynard; and photographer, Kasheem Daniels.
Published on May 6, 2013