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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PREAMBLE

W E , T HE P EO P LE OF I ND I A, h avin g sol emnl y r esolved to const itut e Indi a into a S OVERE IGN S O CI ALIST S E CULAR D E M O C R AT I C R E P UB LI C an d t o s e cu r e t o all i t s ci t i z en s : J US TI C E, so ci al , econo mi c and polit i cal; LI BERT Y of thought , expr ession , b eli ef , f aith and worship; E Q U A LI T Y o f s t atu s an d o f o p p o r t u n it y; and to pro mot e amo ng th em al l F R ATERNI TY assur ing th e dignit y of th e individu al and th e unit y and int egri t y o f th e Nation; I N OU R C O NS TI T UE N T ASS E MB L Y t h i s t w en t y- s i x t h d ay of N o v e mb e r , 1 9 4 9 , d o H E REB Y A D OP T , E N A C T AN D G I V E TO O U RS E L V ES TH I S CO NS TI T UT I O N.


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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART I THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY 1 . Na me a nd t errito ry of th e Union .—(1 ) Indi a, th at is Bh ar at , sh all b e a Un ion o f S t at es . (2 ) Th e St at e s a n d th e t er rito ri es th er eo f sh all b e as sp e c ifi ed in th e Fir st Sch edu l e. (3) Th e t errito ry of Indi a sh all co mpris e — (a ) t h e t err itori es of th e St at es ; (b ) t h e Union t erri tori es sp ecif ied in th e First Sch edul e; and (c ) s u ch oth er t erri tori es as may b e acquir ed . 2 . Ad mi ssion or es tablish men t of n ew Stat es .—Parli ament may b y l aw ad mit in to th e Union , or est ab lish , n ew S t at es on su ch t er ms and condit ions as it th inks fit . 2 A . [S i kki m to b e asso ciat ed with th e Union .] Rep . b y th e Const itution (T h i rt y- si xth Am e n d men t ) A c t, 1 9 7 5 , s . 5 ( w.e. f. 2 6 - 4 - 1 9 7 5 ) . 3 . Fo rma tion of n ew S tat es and a lt eration of a rea s, bounda ri es o r na me s of ex isting Stat es .—P arli ament may b y l aw— (a ) f o r m a n ew St at e b y s ep ar ation of t errito r y fro m an y St at e or b y unit ing t wo o r mo r e St at es or p arts of S t at es or b y unit ing any t err itor y to a p art o f an y St at e ; (b ) i n cr e as e t h e a r e a o f an y S t ate ; (c ) d i mini sh th e ar ea of an y St at e; (d ) al t er the bound ari es of an y St at e; (e ) al t er th e n ame o f an y St at e: Provid ed th at no Bill for th e purpos e sh al l be introdu ced in ei th er Hous e of P arli a me nt ex cept on th e r eco mme nd ation of th e Pr esid en t and un l ess , wh er e th e propos al cont ain ed in th e Bi ll aff ects th e ar ea, bound ari es or n a me of an y of th e St at es , th e Bil l h as b e en r e ferr ed b y th e Pr esid ent to th e Legisl atur e of th at S t at e for expr ess ing its vi ews th er eo n within su ch p eriod as ma y be sp ecifi ed in the r e f er en ce or with in su ch further p e riod as th e Pr esid en t may allo w and th e p eriod so sp ecifi ed or allo wed h as expir ed . Explanation I .— In this arti cl e, in cl aus es (a ) to (e), “ St at e’ ’ in clud es a Union t erritor y, bu t in th e proviso , “St at e’’ do es not in clud e a Union t err itor y. Explanation II .— Th e p o w e r co n f err ed o n P ar l i a men t b y cla u s e (a ) in clud es th e power to for m a new St at e or Union t erritor y b y unit ing a p ar t of an y St at e or Union t erri tor y to an y oth er St at e or Union t erritor y. 4 . Law s ma d e und er a rti cl es 2 and 3 to p rovide f o r th e a mend men t of th e Fi rst and th e Fou rth S chedul es and suppl emen tal , in cid ental and cons equ entia l ma t t e rs . —(1 ) An y l a w r ef err ed to in arti cl e 2 or ar ti cl e 3 sh al l co n t ain such provision s for th e amend men t of th e Firs t S ch edul e an d th e Fou rth S ch edul e as ma y b e n ecess ar y to give eff e ct to th e provis ions of 2


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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

th e l aw and may al so cont ain su ch suppl ement al , in cid ent al and cons eq u ent ial provis ions (in cluding prov isions as to r epr es en t a tion in P arl i ament and in th e Legis l atur e or Legisl atur es o f th e S tat e o r St at es a ff e ct ed b y su ch l a w) as P a rli a me n t ma y d e e m n e c e ss ar y . (2 ) N o s u ch l a w a s a f o r es aid s h a l l b e d e e me d t o b e an a me n d me n t o f t h i s Consti tution for th e purpos es of arti cle 368 .


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PART II CITIZENSHIP 5 . Citiz enship at th e co mmen cemen t of th e Co nstitu tion .— At th e co mmen cement of this Constitution , ev er y p erson who h as hi s do mi cil e in th e t err itor y of Indi a and — (a ) wh o was born in th e t erri tory of Indi a; or (b ) ei th er of whos e p ar ents was born in th e t erritor y of Indi a; or (c ) wh o h as b e en ordin ar il y r esid ent in th e t erritor y of Indi a for not l ess th an f iv e years i mmed i at el y pr eceding su ch co mmen cement , sh al l b e a citi zen of Indi a. 6 . Rights of cit iz enship of certain p e rson s w ho hav e mig rat ed to India f ro m P aki s tan. —Not withst and ing an ything in arti cl e 5 , a p erson who h as migr ated to th e t e rritor y of Indi a from t h e t er ritor y no w in clud ed in P ak ist an sh all b e d eemed to b e a cit i z en of Indi a at th e comme n cemen t of this Const itution if — (a ) h e o r eith er of hi s p ar ents or an y of his gr andp ar ents was born in Indi a as d ef in ed in th e Gov ern me nt of Indi a Act , 1935 ( as orig in all y en act ed); and (b )(i ) i n th e c as e wh er e su ch p erson h as so mi gr at ed b efor e th e nin et e en th d a y of Ju l y, 1948, h e h as b e en ordin ar il y r esid ent in th e t err itor y of India sin ce th e d at e of his migr ation, o r (i i ) i n th e cas e wh er e su ch p erson h as so migr at ed on or aft er th e nin et een th d ay of Jul y, 1948 , he h as b een r egist er ed as a ci ti zen of Ind i a b y an offi cer appoint ed in th at b eh alf b y th e Go v ern me nt of th e Do minion of Indi a on an appli cation ma d e b y h i m th er efor to su ch offi cer b efo r e th e co mmen cement of thi s Const itution in th e for m and ma n n er pr es cribe d b y th at Gov ern me nt: Provid ed th at no p erson sh all b e so r eg ist er ed unl ess h e h as b e en r esid en t in th e t er ritor y of Indi a fo r at l e ast six months i mme d i at el y pr eceding th e dat e of his appli cation . 7 . Rights of cit iz enship of certain mig rants to Pa kis tan.— Not withs t anding an ything in arti cl es 5 and 6, a p er son who h as aft er th e fir st d a y of Ma r ch , 1947, migr at ed fro m the t err itor y of Indi a to th e t err itor y no w includ ed in P ak ist an sh al l not b e d eemed to b e a cit i z en o f Indi a: Provid ed th at nothing in this art i cl e sh al l apply t o a p erson who , aft er h aving so migr at ed to th e t e rritor y no w in clud ed in P akis tan , has r eturn ed to th e t erri tor y of Ind i a und er a p er mit for r es ettl ement or p er man en t r e turn is su ed b y o r u n d er th e au th o r ity o f an y l a w an d ev er y su ch p erso n sh al l fo r 4


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th e purpos es of cl aus e ( b) o f art i cl e 6 b e d e eme d to h av e mig r at ed to th e t err itor y of India aft er th e nin eteenth d ay of July, 1948 . 8 . Rights of citiz ensh ip of certain p ersons of Indian origin resid ing outs id e India .— No twithst anding an yth ing in art i cl e 5 , an y person who or eith er o f whos e p ar ents or an y of whos e gr andpar ents was born in Indi a as d efin ed in th e Gov ern ment o f Indi a Act , 1935 ( as origin al l y en act ed) , and who is ord in arily r esiding in any countr y ou tsid e Indi a as so defin ed sh all b e d e e me d to b e a c i t i z en o f In d i a if h e h as b ee n r eg ist er ed a s a c i t i z en o f Indi a b y the d iplo mati c or consul ar r epr es ent ativ e o f Indi a in th e countr y wh er e h e is for th e ti me b eing r esiding on an appli c at ion ma d e b y h i m th er efo r to su ch diplo mati c or consul ar r epr es en t a tiv e, wh eth er b efor e or aft er th e co mm en cement of this Const itution , in th e for m and mann er pr es cr ib ed b y the Gov e rn men t of th e Do minion of Indi a or th e Gov ern me nt of India. 9 . Persons volunta ri ly a cqu i ring citiz en ship of a fo reign Stat e not to b e ci tiz ens .— N o p erson sh all b e a citi zen of Ind i a b y vi rtu e of arti cl e 5, o r b e d e e me d to b e a c i ti z en o f I n d i a b y v irtu e o f art i cl e 6 o r a rt i cl e 8 , if h e h as volunt aril y acquir ed th e cit i z enship of an y for eign St at e. 10 . Continuan ce of th e rights of cit iz enship .— Ev er y p erson w ho is or is d eemed to b e a citi zen of Indi a und er an y of th e for egoing provis ions of thi s P ar t sh all , subj ect to th e provis ions of any l a w th at ma y b e mad e b y P arl i ament , continu e to b e su ch cit i zen. 11 . Pa rlia me n t to regu lat e the righ t of cit izenship by law .— No t h in g in th e for egoing provis ions of thi s P art sh all d erog at e f ro m th e po wer of P arl i ament to mak e an y provis ion with r espect to th e acquis ition and t er min at ion o f cit i z en ship and all oth e r matt ers r el a ting to citi ze nship .


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PART III FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS G e n er a l 1 2 . D ef i n i t io n .—In this P art , unl ess th e cont ext o th er wis e r equir es , “ th e St at e’’ in clud es th e Gov ernmen t and P arli ament of Indi a and th e Gov ern ment and th e Legisl atur e of each of th e St at es and all local or oth er author iti es within th e t erri tor y of Indi a or und er th e contro l of th e G o v er n me n t o f I n d i a . 13 . Law s in consi st ent w ith o r in deroga tion of th e funda me n tal rights . —(1) All l a ws in for ce in th e t errito r y of Ind i a i mmed iat el y b efor e th e co mmen cement of this Const itution , in so f ar as th ey ar e in cons ist ent with th e prov isions of thi s Part , sh all , to th e ext ent of su ch in consi st en cy, b e void . (2) Th e S t at e sh all not mak e an y l aw whi ch t ak es aw ay or abridg es th e righ ts conf err ed b y this P ar t an d an y l a w mad e in contr av ention of this cl au s e sh al l, to th e ex t ent of th e contr av ention , b e void . (3) In this ar ti cle, un l ess th e cont ext oth er wi s e r equir es,— (a ) “ l aw” in clud es an y Ordin an ce, ord er , b ye-l aw, rul e, r egulation , noti fi c ation , cu sto m or us ag e having in th e t erri tor y o f Ind i a th e for ce of l aw; (b ) “ l aw s in force” in clud es l aws p ass ed or mad e b y a Legisl atur e o r oth er co mp et ent autho rit y in th e t erritory of Indi a befor e th e co mmen cement of this Consti tution and not pr evious l y r ep eal ed , not with st anding t h at an y su ch law or an y p art th er eof may n ot b e th en in op er at ion ei th er a t all or in p arti cul a r ar e as . (4) No thing in t his ar ti cl e shall appl y to any amen d ment of this Consti tution mad e und er arti cl e 368 . Right to Equali ty 14 . Equal ity befo re law .—The S t at e shall not d en y to an y p erson equ ali t y b efor e th e l aw or the equ al pro t ection of th e l aws within th e t err itor y of India. 15 . Prohib ition of dis cri mi nation on g rounds of relig ion, ra ce, ca st e, s ex o r pla ce o f bi rth .—(1 ) The S t at e sh all not dis cr i min at e ag ainst an y cit i zen on g rounds onl y of r eligion , r ace, caste, s ex , p l ace of bir th o r an y o f t h e m. ( 2 ) N o cit i z en s h all , o n g r o u n d s o n l y o f r el ig i o n , r a c e , c a s t e , s ex , p l a c e of birth or an y of th em, b e subject to an y dis abil it y, l i abilit y, restr i ction or condit ion wi th reg ard to — (a ) acces s to shops , publi c r es taur ants , hot els and pl aces of publi c e nt er t ain men t; or 6


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(b ) t h e us e of well s, t anks , b athing gh ats , ro ads and pl aces of publi c r esor t ma int ain ed wholl y or p artl y ou t of St at e funds or d edi cated to th e us e of th e g en eral publi c. (3) Noth ing in thi s arti cl e shall p r ev ent th e St at e fro m making an y sp eci a l prov ision for wo men an d ch ildr en . (4) Noth ing in this arti cl e or in cl au s e (2) of arti cl e 29 sh al l prev en t th e St at e fro m ma king an y sp ecial provision for th e ad v an c emen t o f an y so ci all y and edu c ation a ll y back ward cl ass es of ci ti zens or for th e S ch ed u l ed C ast es an d th e S ch ed u l ed Trib es . 16 . Equa lity of oppo rtunity in ma tt ers o f publ ic emp loymen t.—(1) Th er e sh all b e eq u ali t y of opportuni t y for all citi zens in ma tt ers r el ating to emp lo yment or appoint ment to an y offi ce und er th e St at e. (2) No citi zen sh all , on grounds onl y of relig ion, r ace, cast e, s ex , d es cent , pl ace of bir th, r esid en ce or an y of th em, b e in eligibl e for, or dis cr i min at ed ag ains t in r esp ect of , an y emplo yment or off i ce und er th e S t at e . (3) No thing in this arti cl e sh all pr ev en t P arl i amen t f ro m making an y l a w pr es cr ibing , in r eg ard to a cl ass or cl as s es of emp lo yme nt or appoint me nt to an off i ce und er th e Gov ernme n t of , or any lo cal or o th er author it y within , a St at e or Union t err itor y , an y r equir emen t as to r es id en ce within th at St at e or Union t err itor y prior to su ch emp lo yment or appoint ment . (4) Noth ing in thi s arti cl e shall p r ev ent th e St at e fro m making an y provis ion for th e r es erv ation of appoin t men ts or po sts in favour of an y b a ck ward cl ass of ci ti zens whi ch , in th e opinion of th e St at e, is not ad equ at el y r epres ent ed in th e servi ces und er the St at e. (4 A) No thing in this art i cl e sh all pr ev en t the St at e fro m making an y provis ion fo r res erv at ion in ma t t ers of promo tion , with cons equ ent i al s enior it y, to any cl ass or cl asses o f posts in the s e rvi c es und er t h e St at e in f avour of th e Sch edul ed Cast es and th e S ch edul ed Trib es whi ch , in th e opinion of th e St at e, ar e not ad equ at el y r epr es ent ed in th e s ervi ces und er th e St at e. (4 B) Nothing in this art i cl e sh all pr ev ent th e Stat e fro m considering an y u n fi ll ed v a c an cie s o f a y e ar wh i ch ar e r es erv ed fo r b ein g fi ll ed u p in th at year in accord an ce wi th an y provis ion for r es erv at ion mad e und er cl aus e (4 ) o r cl au s e (4 A ) as a s ep a ra te c l ass o f v a c an ci es to b e fil le d u p in an y su cceeding year or years and su ch cl ass of v acan ci es sh all not b e consid er ed tog eth er with th e v acan ci es of th e year in whi ch th ey ar e b eing fi ll ed up fo r d et er min ing th e ce il ing of f ift y per cen t. r es erv ation on tot a l n u mb er o f v a c an ci es o f t h at y ea r . (5) No thing in thi s art i cl e sh all aff ect th e op er at ion of an y l aw w hi ch provid es th at the in cu mb ent of an off i ce in conn ection wi th the aff ai rs of an y r el igious or d eno min ation a l in stitut ion or an y memb er of the gov erning


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bod y th er eof shall b e a p erson prof es sing a p arti cu l ar r el igion or b e longing to a p arti cul ar deno min ation . 17 . Abolition of Untou chabi lity .—“ Un to u ch ab il it y’’ i s ab o lish ed an d it s pr acti ce in an y for m i s forbidd en . Th e en for cement of an y di sab ilit y aris ing out of “ Untou ch ab ilit y’’ shall b e an off en c e punish ab l e in accord an ce with l aw. 18 . Abo lition of tit l es .—(1) No ti tl e, no t b eing a milit ar y or acad emi c dis tin ction , sh all b e conf err ed by th e St at e. (2) No citi zen of Indi a sh al l accept an y tit l e f rom an y for eign St at e. (3) No p erson who is no t a citi zen of Indi a sh all , whil e h e holds an y offi ce of profi t or trust und er th e St at e, accep t withou t th e cons ent of th e Pr esid en t an y t itl e fro m an y foreign St at e. (4) No p erson holding an y of fi ce of profi t or trust und er th e S tat e sh al l, without th e cons ent of th e Pr esid en t, accept an y p res ent , emolu ment , or offi ce of an y kind fro m o r und er an y for eign Stat e. Right to Fr eedom 19 . Prot ection of certain rights rega rding f reedo m o f sp eech , et c.— (1) All cit i zens sh al l h av e th e right — (a ) t o fr eedo m of sp eech and expr ess ion; (b ) t o ass embl e p eaceabl y and withou t ar ms ; (c ) t o for m associ at ions or un ions; (d ) t o mov e fr eel y throughou t the t erri tor y of Indi a; (e ) t o r esid e and s ett l e in an y p art of th e t err itory of Indi a; and * * * * * (g ) t o pr actis e an y prof ess ion, or to carr y on an y o c cup ation , tr ad e or busin ess . (2) Nothing in sub- cl au s e (a) of cl aus e (1) sh all aff e ct th e oper at ion of an y ex isting l aw , or p r ev ent th e S t at e fro m mak ing an y l aw, in so f ar as su ch l a w i mpos es r e ason ab l e r est ri ctions on th e ex er cis e of th e righ t conf err ed b y the s aid sub - cl au s e in th e int er est s o f th e sov er eign t y and int eg rit y of Ind ia, th e s e cu ri t y of th e S t at e, fr iendl y r el ation s with for eign St at es, publi c ord er , decen cy or mo r alit y, o r in r el ation to cont empt of court , d ef a ma tion or in cit e me nt to an off en ce. (3) Noth ing in sub- cl aus e (b ) o f th e s aid cl au s e sh al l aff e ct th e o p er at io n of an y exist ing l aw in so f ar as it i mpos es , or pr ev ent th e S t at e fro m ma k ing an y l aw i mpos ing, in the in t er ests o f the sov er e ignt y an d in t egrit y of Indi a or publi c ord er , r e asonabl e r estr i ctions on th e ex er cis e of th e right conf err ed b y th e s aid sub- cl aus e. (4) Nothing in sub- cl au s e (c) o f th e s aid cl au s e sh al l af f e ct th e o p er at io n of an y exist ing l aw in so f ar as it i mpos es , or pr ev ent t h e S t at e f r o m ma k ing an y l aw i mpos ing, in the in t er ests o f the sov er e ignt y an d in t egrit y


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of Indi a or publi c ord er or mor ali t y, r eason ab l e r est ri ctions on th e ex er cis e of th e right conferr ed b y th e s aid sub- cl aus e. (5) Nothing in sub- cl aus es (d ) and ( e) o f th e s aid cl au s e sh al l a ff e ct th e op er at ion of any ex isting l aw in so f ar as it imp os es , or pr event th e S t ate fro m mak ing any l aw i mposing , r eason abl e r es tri ctions on th e ex er cis e of an y of th e rights conf err ed b y th e s aid sub- cl au s es eith er in th e int er est s of th e g en er al publi c o r for th e prot ection of th e int e r ests of any S ch edul ed Trib e. (6) Noth ing in sub- cl aus e (g ) o f th e s aid cl au s e sh al l aff e ct th e o p er at io n of an y exist ing l a w in so f ar as it i mpos es , or pr ev ent th e S t at e fro m mak ing an y l aw i mposing , in the int er es ts o f the g en er al publi c, r eason abl e r est ri ctions on th e ex er cis e of th e r ight conf er red b y th e s a id sub- cl au s e, and , in p arti cu lar , noth ing in th e s aid sub- cl au s e sh all aff e ct th e op er ation of an y ex isting l a w in so f ar as it r el at e s to , or p r ev en t th e St at e fro m mak ing an y l aw r el ating to,— (i) th e prof ession al or t e chni cal qu al ifi c ation s n eces s ary for pr act ising an y prof es sion or carr ying on an y o c cup ation, tr ad e or busin es s, or (i i) th e carr ying on b y th e S tat e, o r b y a corpor at ion o wned or contro ll ed b y th e S t at e, of any t r ad e, busin ess , industr y or s e rvi c e, wh eth er to th e ex clus ion, co mplet e or p arti al, of citi zen s or oth er wis e. 20 . Prot ection in resp ect of convi ct ion fo r off en ces .—(1) No p e rson sh al l b e convi cted of an y off ence ex cept for viol at ion o f a l aw in for ce at th e ti me of the co mmi ss ion of th e Act ch arg ed as an offen ce, nor b e subj ect ed to a p en alt y gr eat er th an th at wh i ch mi ght h av e b een infl i ct ed und er th e l aw in for ce at th e ti me of th e co mmission of th e off en ce. (2 ) No p erso n sh al l b e p ro s e cu t ed an d p u n ish ed fo r th e s ame o ff en c e mo r e th an once. (3) No p erson accus ed of an y off en ce sh all b e co mp ell ed to b e a wi tn ess ag ains t h i ms elf. 21 . Prot ection of lif e and p ersonal lib erty .— No p er so n sh al l b e d epriv ed of his l if e or p er sonal lib ert y ex cept accord ing to pro c edur e e st ab lish ed b y la w . 1

22 . Prot ection agains t a rrest and d et ention in certain cas es . — ( 1 ) No p erson wh o is arr est ed sh al l b e d e t ain ed in cu stod y without b eing infor med , as soon as may b e, of th e grounds for su ch arr est nor sh all h e b e d eni ed th e r ight to consu lt, and to b e d ef end ed b y, a l eg al pr ac ti tion er of h i s ch o i c e . (2) Ev er y p e rson who is a rr est ed and d et ain ed in cu stod y sh al l be produ ced b efore th e n e ar est ma g istr a t e within a p er iod of t w ent y- four hours of su ch arr es t ex cluding th e t i me n ecessar y for th e jou rn e y fro m th e pl ace of arr est to th e court of th e ma gis tr at e an d no su ch p erson sh al l b e

_______________________________________________ 1.On the commencement of s. 3 of the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, art. 22 shall stand amended as directed in s. 3 of that Act. For the text of s. 3 of that Act, see Appendix III.


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d et ain ed in cu stod y b eyond the s a id p eriod without th e au thori t y of a ma g istr a t e. (3) Nothing in cl aus es (1) and (2) sh all appl y— (a) to an y p erson who for th e t ime b eing is an en emy ali en; or (b) to an y p erson wh o is arr est ed or d e t ain ed und er an y l a w provid ing fo r prev en tiv e d et en tion . (4) No l a w providing for prev en tiv e d e t ention sh all au thoris e th e d et ent ion of a person for a longer p eriod th an thr ee months unless — (a) an Adv isor y B o ard con sisting of p ersons who ar e, or h av e b een , or ar e qu al ifi ed to b e appoint ed as , Judg es of a High Court h as r eport ed b efor e th e exp iration o f th e s aid p eriod o f thr ee mo nths th at th er e is in it s op inion suffici en t caus e for su ch d et ention : Provid ed th at nothing in this sub- cl au s e sh all au thor is e th e d etention of an y p er son beyond th e maximu m p eriod pr es crib ed b y an y l aw mad e b y P arli a me nt und er sub- cl aus e (b) of cl aus e (7); or (b) su ch p e rson is d e t ain ed in accord an ce with th e prov isions of an y l aw mad e b y P arl i ament und er sub- cl aus es ( a ) and (b ) o f cl au s e (7 ) . (5) Wh en an y person is d et ain ed in pur su an ce of an ord er ma d e und er an y l aw providing fo r pr ev ent ive d e t ention , th e au thorit y ma king th e ord er s h al l , as s o o n as ma y b e , co mmu n i c at e t o s u ch p e r s o n t h e g r o u n d s o n wh i ch th e o rd er h as been ma d e and sh all afford hi m th e earli es t opportun it y of ma k ing a rep r esent at ion ag ainst th e ord er . (6) Nothing in cl aus e (5) sh al l r equir e th e author it y mak ing an y su ch ord er as is r ef err ed to in th at claus e to dis clo se f acts whi ch su ch autho rit y consid er s to b e ag ains t the publi c int e rest to disclos e . ( 7 ) P ar l i a men t ma y b y l a w p r esc r i b e — (a) th e cir cu ms tan ces und er which , and th e cl ass or cl as s es of cas es in wh i ch, a p erson ma y b e det ain ed for a period long er than thr e e mo nths und er an y l aw providing for pr ev entiv e d et ent ion without obt ain ing th e opinion of an Advisor y Bo ard in accord an ce with th e provis ions of sub- cl aus e (a) of cl aus e (4) ; (b) th e ma xi mum p e riod for whi ch an y p erson ma y in an y cl ass or cl ass es of cas es b e det ain ed und er an y l aw provid ing for pr ev ent iv e d et ent ion; and ( c) th e pro cedure t o b e fol lowed b y an Advisor y Bo ard in an inquir y und er sub- cl ause (a) of cl aus e (4) . Right agains t Ex ploi tation 23 . Proh ibition of t raffi c in hu ma n b eings and fo rced labou r .—(1) T r affi c in h u man b ein g s an d b egar and oth er s imi l ar for ms of for ced l abour ar e prohibit ed and an y contr av ention of this provis ion sh al l b e an off en c e punish ab l e in accord an ce with law.


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(2) Nothing in this arti cl e sh all pr ev ent the S t at e fro m imp osing co mpulsor y s ervi ce for publ i c purpos es , and in i mpos ing su ch s ervi ce th e St at e sh all no t mak e an y dis cr imi n ation on grounds on l y of r eligion , r ace, c a s t e o r cl ass o r a n y o f t h e m. 24 . Prohibition of emp loy ment of chi ld ren in fa cto ri es, et c. — No child b e low th e ag e of four t e en years sh all be emp lo y ed to work in an y f actor y or min e or eng ag ed in an y oth er h azardous emplo yment. Right to Fr eedom of Religion 2 5 . F re ed o m o f co n s ci en c e a n d f r e e p ro f ess io n , p ra ct i c e a n d p ropagation of relig ion. —(1) Subj ect to pub li c ord er , mo r alit y and h e alth and to th e oth er provi sions of this P art , all p ersons ar e eq u ally ent itl ed to fr eedo m o f cons ci en ce and th e right fr eel y to prof ess, pr act is e and p r o p ag at e r el ig i o n . (2) Nothing in this art i cl e sh all aff e ct th e op eration of an y ex ist ing l aw or pr ev ent th e St at e fro m mak ing an y l aw — (a) r egul ating or r est ri cting an y econo mi c, fin an ci a l, pol iti ca l or oth er s e cul ar activ it y wh i ch ma y b e asso ci at ed with r el igious pr act i ce; (b) providing for so ci al wel far e and r efor m or th e throwing op en of Hindu r e ligious i n stitu tions of a p ubli c ch aract er to al l cl ass es and s e ct i o n s o f Hin d u s . Explanation I .—Th e wearing and carr ying of kirpans sh all b e deemed to b e in clud ed in th e prof ession of th e Sikh r eligion . Explanation II .— In sub- cl aus e (b ) o f cl aus e (2) , th e ref er en ce to Hindu s sh al l b e con strued as in clud ing a r e f er en ce to persons prof ess ing th e Sikh , J ain a or Buddh ist r elig ion, and th e r ef er en c e to Hindu r eligious ins titution s sh al l b e const rued accordingl y. 2 6 . F r e ed o m t o ma n a g e r el ig i o u s a f f a i rs .— Subj ect to publi c ord er , mo r ali t y and h ealth , ev er y r el igious d eno min ation or an y s e ction ther eof sh al l h av e th e right — (a) to est abli sh and maint ain inst itutions for r elig ious and ch arit ab l e purpos es ; (b) to man ag e its o wn aff airs in mat t ers of r el igion; ( c) to o wn and ac quir e mov abl e a nd i mmov ab l e prop ert y; and (d) to ad minist er su ch prop ert y in accord an ce with l a w. 27 . F r e edo m a s to pay me n t of tax e s fo r p romo t ion of any pa rti cu la r relig ion.— No person sh all b e co mp ell ed to p a y an y t axes, th e pro ceeds of w hi ch ar e sp ec if i c all y appropri a t ed in p a yme n t of exp ens es for th e pro motion o r ma i n t en an c e of an y p arti cul ar r eligion or r eligious d eno min ation .


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28 . Freedo m a s to att endan ce at religiou s ins truction o r relig ious w orship in certain edu cational i nstitut ions .— (1) No r elig ious i nstru ct ion sh al l b e provided in an y edu cation al ins titution wholl y mai ntain ed ou t of S t at e f u n d s . (2) Nothing in cl aus e (1) sh all appl y to an edu cation al in stitu tion wh i ch is ad min ist er ed b y th e S t at e but h as b e en e st ablish ed und e r an y e ndo w me nt or t rust whi ch requir es th at r eligious instru ct ion sh al l b e i mp art ed in su ch ins titution . (3) No p erson att end ing an y ed u c ation a l institut ion r e cognised b y th e St at e or r eceiv ing aid out of St at e funds sh all b e r equir ed to t ak e p art in an y r elig ious instru ction th at may b e i mp ar t ed in su ch inst itution or to att end an y r e ligious worship that ma y b e condu ct ed in su ch inst itution or in an y pr emis es at t a ch ed th er eto un l ess su ch person or, if su ch p er son is a mi nor , his gu ardi an h as giv en his cons ent th er eto . Cultura l and Edu cationa l Righ ts 29 . Prot ection of in t erests of mi no rit i es.— (1) An y s e ction of th e cit i z en s r esiding in th e t erritor y of Indi a or an y p art th er eo f h aving a dis tin ct l angu ag e, s c ript or cu ltu r e of its own shall h av e th e right to c o n s erv e t h e s ame . (2) No citi zen sh all b e d eni ed ad mission into an y edu cation al inst itution mai nt ain ed b y th e St at e or r eceiving aid out of St at e funds on grounds onl y o f r el i g i o n , r a c e, c a s t e , l an g u ag e o r an y o f t h e m. 30 . Right o f mi n o riti es to establ ish and ad mi nist er edu cationa l ins titutions . — (1) Al l minoriti es , wh eth er b ased on r el igion or l angu ag e, sh al l h av e th e right to est abl ish and ad mini st er edu cat ion al inst itutions of th ei r ch o ic e . (1 A) In making an y l a w providing for th e co mpulsor y acqu isition of an y prop ert y of an edu cation al institu tion est abl ish ed and ad minist er ed b y a mi nori t y, r ef e rred to in cl au s e (1) , th e St ate sh all en su r e th at th e amount fix ed b y o r d et er min ed und er such l a w for th e ac quis ition of such prop ert y is su ch as would no t r es tri ct or abrog at e th e right gu ar ant e ed und er th at c l au s e . (2) Th e St at e sh al l no t, in gr ant ing aid to edu cation al insti tutions , dis cr i min at e ag ains t an y ed u c ation a l inst itution on th e g round th at it is und er th e manag ement of a mi nori t y, wh eth er b as ed on r el igion or l an g u ag e .


13

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

* * * 31 . [ Co mpul sory a cquisit ion of prop ert y .] Re p . b y th e Const itution (F o rt y- fo u rth Am e n d men t ) A c t, 1 9 7 8 , s . 6 ( w.e. f. 2 0 - 6 - 1 9 7 9 ) . Sa ving of Certain La ws 31 A. Saving of law s p roviding fo r a cqu isition of estat es, et c.— (1) Not wi thst anding an yth ing cont ain ed in arti cl e 13, no l aw providing for — (a) th e acquisi tion b y th e St at e of an y est at e or of an y rights ther ein or th e extingui sh me nt or modi fication of an y such rights , or (b) th e t aking ov er of th e man ag e me nt of an y prop ert y b y th e St at e for a l i mit ed p eriod eith er in the pub li c int er est o r in ord er to secur e th e prop er man ag ement of th e prop ert y, or (c) the amalgamation of two or more corporations either in the public interest or in order to secure the proper management of any of the corporations, or (d) th e ex tinguish me nt or modifi cation of an y righ ts of man aging ag ents , s ecr et ari es and tr easur ers , man aging di r ectors , directors or man ag ers of corpor at ions , or o f an y vo ting rights of shar ehold er s th er eof , or ( e) th e ext inguish me nt or modif i cation o f any r ights accruing b y vir tu e of an y agr eement , l eas e or li cen ce for th e pu rpos e of s ear ching for , or winning , an y mi n er al or mi n er al oil , or th e pr ematur e t ermi n ation o r c an c ell at io n o f an y s u ch ag r ee me n t , l e as e o r l i c en c e , sh al l b e d eemed to b e void on th e ground th at it i s in consis tent wi th, or t ak es away or abridg es an y of th e right s conf err ed b y arti cl e 14 or arti cl e 19: P rovid ed th at w h er e su ch l a w is a l a w mad e b y th e Leg isl atur e of a St at e, th e provision s of this arti cl e sh all not appl y th er eto unl ess such l a w, h aving b e en r eserv ed for th e consid er ation of th e Pr esid en t , has r eceiv ed his ass en t: Provid ed furth er th at wh ere an y l aw mak es an y provision for th e acquis ition b y th e S t at e of an y est a t e and wh ere an y l and co mpris ed th er ein is h eld b y a p erson under his p erson al cult ivation , i t sh al l not be l a wfu l for th e St at e to acquir e an y port ion of su ch l and as i s with in th e ceil ing li mi t appli c ab l e to him u nd er an y l aw for th e t i me being in for ce or an y bu ilding or stru ctur e st anding th er eon or appurt en ant th ereto , unl ess th e law r el ating to th e acquisit ion of su ch l and, build ing or structur e, provid e s for p a yment of co mpen s ation at a r at e which sh all not b e l ess th an th e mar k et v alu e th er eo f . (2) In this articl e ,— (a) th e expr ession ‘‘ es t at e’’ sh all , in r el ation to an y lo cal ar ea, h av e th e s ame mean ing as th at expression or its local equiv al en t h as in th e


14

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

exis ting l a w r elating to l and t enur es in for ce in th at ar ea an d sh al l also in clud e— (i) an y jagir , ina m o r muafi or oth er si mil ar gr ant and in the S t at e s o f T a mil N a d u and K er al a , an y jan ma m rig h t ; (i i ) an y l and h eld und er r yot wari s et tl emen t; (i i i ) an y l and h eld or l et for purpos es of agri cu ltur e or for purpos es an cillar y th er eto, in cluding was t e l and , for est l and, l and for p astur e o r sit e s of bu ildings and oth er stru ctur es o c cupi ed b y cult iv ators of l and , ag ri cu ltur a l l abour er s an d vill ag e art is ans; (b) th e expr ession ‘‘right s’’ , in r el ation to an est a t e, sh all in clud e an y rights v esting in a propri eto r, sub-propri e tor, und er-propri e tor, t enur e-ho ld er, r a i ya t , u n d er- ra i y a t o r o th er in te r me d i ar y an d an y rig h ts or privi l eg es in r esp ect of l and rev enu e. 31 B. Va lidation of certain Ac ts and Regulation s. —Wi thout pr ejud ice to th e g en er al ity of th e prov isions cont ain ed in arti cl e 31A, non e of th e Acts and Regul at ions sp eci fi ed in th e Ninth S ch edu l e nor an y of th e provis ions th ereof sh al l b e d eemed to b e void , or ev er to hav e b e co me void , on th e ground th at su ch Act , Regul at ion o r provis ion is i n consist en t w ith , o r t ak es a w a y o r ab rid g es a n y o f th e r ig h ts co n f err ed b y, a n y provis ions of this P art , and notwiths t anding any j udg men t, d ecr ee o r ord er of an y court or Tribun al to th e cont r ar y, each of th e said Acts and Regul at ions sh all , subj ect to th e po wer of any co mp et ent Legis l atur e to r ep eal or amend it , continu e in for ce. 31 C. Saving of law s giving eff e ct to certain di rectiv e p rincipl es.— Not withs t anding an ything cont ain ed in ar ti cl e 13 , no l aw giving eff ect to 1 th e poli c y o f the S t at e to wards s e cu ring [ a ll or an y of th e prin cip l es l a id do wn in P a rt IV] sh all b e d eemed to b e void on th e g round th at it is in cons ist ent with , or t ak es away or abridg es any of th e r ights conf err ed b y 2 a rt i cl e 1 4 o r arti cl e 1 9 ; and no la w contain ing a d e clarat ion that i t is for gi ving eff e ct to su ch po li cy sha ll b e ca ll ed in qu est ion in an y court on th e ground that i t do es not gi ve eff ect to su ch poli cy: Provid ed th at wh er e su ch l a w is ma d e b y th e Legisl atur e of a S t at e, th e provis ions of this arti cl e sh all no t appl y th ereto un l ess su ch l a w, h av ing b e en r es erv ed for th e consid er at ion of th e Pr esid en t, h as receiv ed his a s s en t . 3 1 D. [Sa ving of la ws in r esp ect of anti-na tional a cti viti es .] Rep . b y th e Consti tution (F ort y- third Amen d m en t ) Act ,1977, s .2 (w . e . f .13-4-1978 ). Right to Consti tutiona l Remedi es 32 . Remedi es fo r enfo rcemen t of rights con ferred by thi s Pa rt .—(1) Th e righ t to mov e th e Sup r eme Court b y appropri at e pro ceedings for th e enfor cement of th e righ ts con ferr ed b y this P art is gu ar ant eed .

____________________________________________ 1. Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, s. 4, for “the principles specified in clause (b) or clause (c) of article 39” (w.e.f. 3.1.1977). Section 4 has been declared invalid by the Supreme Court in Minerva Mills Ltd. and others vs. Union of India and others (1980) s. 2, S.C.C. 591. 2. In Kesavananda Bharati vs. the State of Kerala (1973),Supp. S.C.R.1., the Supreme Court held the provisions in italics to be invalid.


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(2) Th e Sup r eme Court sh all h av e power to is su e dir e ction s or ord ers or writs , in clud ing writs in the n atur e of hab eas corpus , mandamus , prohib ition , quo warranto a n d cert iorari , which ev er may b e appropri at e, for th e enfor c emen t of an y of th e rights conf err ed b y this P art . (3) Without pr ejudi ce to th e powers conf err ed on th e Supr eme Court b y c l au s es (1 ) an d (2 ), P arli a me n t ma y b y l a w emp o w e r an y o th er co u rt to ex er cis e wi thin th e lo cal li mits of it s jurisdi ction all or an y of th e po wers e x er cis ab l e b y th e Supr e me Court und er cl aus e (2) . (4) Th e right guar ant eed b y this ar ti cl e sh al l not b e susp end ed ex cept as oth er wis e prov id ed for b y this Consti tution . 3 2 A . [ Consti tutional validi t y of S tat e la ws not to b e consid er ed in pro ceedings und er arti cl e 32 .] Rep. b y th e Con stitut ion (F o rt y- third A m e n d m en t ) A ct , 1977 , s . 3 (w . e . f . 1 3 - 4 - 1 9 7 8 ) . 33 . Pow er of Pa rlia men t to modify th e rights conf erred by thi s Pa rt in th ei r appli cation to Fo rces , et c.—P ar li a me n t ma y , b y l a w, d e t er min e to wh at ex t en t any of th e rights conf err ed b y th is P art sh all , in th eir appli cation to ,— (a ) t h e me mb ers o f th e A r med F o r c es; o r (b ) t h e memb ers of th e For ces ch arg ed with th e maint en ance o f publi c ord er ; or (c ) p e rsons emp lo yed in an y bur eau o r oth er org anis at ion est ab lish ed b y th e S t at e for purpos es of int e llig en ce or count er int e llig en ce; or (d ) p e rsons emp lo y ed in , or in conn ection with , th e t el eco mmu ni cation s yst ems s et up for th e purpos es of an y For ce, bur eau or org anis a tion r ef err ed to in claus es (a ) to ( c) , b e r e stri ct ed o r a b ro g a t ed so as to en su r e th e p ro p e r d is ch arg e o f th eir duti es and th e maint en an ce of dis cip lin e among th em 34 . Rest ri ction o n rights conf erred by thi s Pa rt w hil e ma rtia l law is in fo rce i n any a r ea . —Not with st anding an ything in the f o r egoing provis ions of this P ar t, P ar li ament may b y l aw ind emnif y an y person in the s ervi ce of th e Union or of a St at e o r an y oth er p erson in r esp ect of an y act don e b y hi m in conn ection wi th th e ma int en an ce or r esto ration of ord er in an y ar ea within th e t erri tor y of Indi a wh er e mar ti al l aw was in for ce or v alid at e an y s ent en ce p ass ed , punish me nt in fli ct ed , forf eitur e ord er ed or oth er act don e und er marti al l aw in su ch ar ea. 35 . Legislat ion to giv e ef fect to th e p rovis ions of this Pa rt . — Not withs t anding an ything in this Constitu tion ,— (a) P ar li ament sh al l h av e, and th e Legis l atur e of a St at e sh all not h av e, po w er to mak e l aw s—


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(i) with r esp ect to an y of th e matt ers whi ch und er cl aus e (3) of art i cl e 16, cl ause (3) of art i cl e 32 , arti cl e 33 and arti cl e 34 may b e provid ed for b y l a w mad e b y P arl i a ment ; and (i i) for pr es cribing punish me nt for thos e acts wh i ch are d ecl ar ed to b e off en ces und er this P art ; and P arli ament sh al l, as soon as may b e af t er th e co mmen cement of thi s Consti tution , mak e l aws fo r pr es crib ing pun ishmen t for th e acts r ef err ed to in sub- cl au s e ( ii) ; (b) an y l a w in for ce i mme d i at el y b efor e th e co mme n cement of this Consti tution in th e t err itor y of Indi a with r espect to an y o f the mat t ers r ef err ed to in su b - cl au s e ( i) of cl aus e (a) or provid ing fo r punish me nt fo r an y a c t r ef err ed to in su b - cl au s e (ii ) o f th at cl au s e sh all , su b j e ct to th e t er ms th er eof and to an y a d apt at ions and mo difi c at ions th at ma y b e ma d e th er ein und er arti cl e 372 , cont inu e in f or ce unt il alt er ed or r ep e al ed or a me nd ed b y P a rli a me nt . Explanation . —In this ar ti cl e, the expr es sion "l aw in for ce'' h as th e s ame mean ing as in arti cl e 372 .


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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART IV DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY 3 6 . D ef in i t i o n .—In this P art , unl ess th e cont ext oth er wis e r equir es , ‘‘th e St at e’’ h a s the same mean ing as in P art III . 3 7 . App li ca tio n o f th e p rin cipl e s co n ta in ed in thi s P a rt .— Th e provis ions contain ed in th is P art sh all not b e enfor ceabl e b y an y cour t, but th e p rin cip l es th er e in l aid d o w n ar e n ev er th el ess fu n d a me n t al in th e gov ern an ce o f th e coun tr y and i t sh all b e th e du t y of th e Stat e to appl y th es e prin cipl es in mak ing l aws. 38 . Sta t e to s e cu re a so cia l o rd er fo r th e p romo t ion of w elfa re of th e p eopl e .—(1) The St at e sh all s triv e to pro mo t e th e welf ar e of the p eopl e b y s e curing and prot ect ing as eff ectiv el y as it ma y a so ci al order in whi ch jus ti ce, so ci al , econo mi c and poli ti c al , sh all infor m all th e inst itutions of th e n ation al lif e. (2) Th e St at e sh all , in p art i cular , s triv e to mi ni mis e th e in equ ali ti es in in co me, an d en d e avour to elimi n at e in eq u aliti es in st atu s, facil iti es and opportun iti es , not onl y amongst indiv idu als but also amongst groups of p eopl e r esid ing in diff er ent ar eas or eng ag ed in diff er ent vocations . 39 . C ertain p rin cip l es of poli cy to b e follow ed by th e Stat e.— Th e St at e sh all, in part i cul ar , d ir e ct it s po li cy to wards s e cu ring — (a ) t h at th e citizens , men and w o men equ all y, h av e th e right to an ad equ at e me ans of liv elihood; (b ) t h at th e o wn ership an d contro l of th e ma t eri al r esour ces of th e co mmun it y ar e so distr ibut ed as b est to subs erv e th e co mmon good; (c ) t h at th e op er at ion of th e econo mi c s ys t em do es no t r esult in th e con c en tr at ion of wealth an d mean s of produ ction to th e co mmon d etr i ment ; (d ) t h at th er e i s e q u al p a y fo r eq u al wo rk fo r b o th men an d wo me n ; (e ) t h a t th e h ea lth and str eng th of work ers , men a nd wo men , and th e t en d er ag e o f ch ild r en ar e n o t ab u s ed an d th at cit i z en s a r e n o t fo r c ed b y econo mi c n ecessi t y to en ter avocation s unsu it ed to th eir ag e or str eng th; (f ) t h at ch ildr en ar e giv en opportun iti es an d f acil iti es to d ev e lop in a h e al th y ma nner and in condit ions of fr eedo m and d ignit y and th at childhood and youth ar e protect ed ag ainst exploi t ation and ag ainst mo r al an d mat e r i al ab an d o n me n t . 39 A. Equal ju sti ce and f ree l egal aid .— Th e S t at e sh all s e cu re t h at th e o p er at io n o f th e l eg a l s yst em p ro mo t es ju st i c e, o n a b asi s o f eq u al opportun it y, and sh al l, in p ar ti cul ar, prov id e fr ee l eg al aid, b y sui t abl e l egi sl ation or s ch e me s or in an y oth er way, to en sur e th at opportuni ti es for 17


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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

s ecuring justi ce ar e not d eni ed to an y cit i zen b y r eason of econo mi c or oth er dis ab ilit i es . 40 . Organisation of vi llag e pan chayats .—Th e St ate sh all t ake st ep s to org anis e vill age p an ch ayat s and endo w th em wi th su ch po wers and author it y as ma y b e n ecess ar y to en ab l e th em to fun ction as unit s of s e lfgov ern ment . 41 . Right to wo rk, to edu cation and to publi c assis tan ce in certain cas es .— Th e St at e sh all , within th e l i mits of it s econo mi c cap acit y and d ev elop ment , ma k e ef fectiv e provis ion for s e curing th e r ight to work , to edu cation and to publ i c assis tan ce in cas es of un emplo yment , old age, s i ck n es s an d d i s a b l e me n t , an d i n o t h er c as es o f u n d es erv ed w an t . 42 . Provis ion fo r ju st and huma n e condit ions of w ork and ma t ernity reli e f. —Th e S tat e sh al l mak e provision for s ecuring jus t and hu man e condit ions of work and for materni t y r eli ef . 4 3 . Liv i n g w ag e, et c. , f o r w or ke r s .— Th e S t at e s h a l l en d e av o u r t o s e cur e , b y suitabl e l eg isl ation or econo mi c org anis a tion or in an y oth er way, to all work ers , agr i cultural , industri a l or o th erwis e, work , a living wag e, condi tions of work ensuring a d ecent st and ard of lif e and ful l enjo yment of l ei sur e an d soci al an d cu ltur al oppor tunities an d , in p art i cul ar , th e St at e sh al l endeavour to pro mot e cott ag e industr i es on an in d iv id u al o r co -o p er at iv e b as is in ru r al ar e as . 43 A. Pa rt i cipation of w orkers in ma nag emen t of indust ri es . — Th e S t at e sh all t ak e st ep s , b y su it ab le l eg i sl atio n o r in an y o th e r w ay , to s e cu r e th e p arti cip a tio n o f wo rk ers in th e ma n ag e me n t o f u n d ert ak in g s, est ab lish ments or oth er org anisation s en g ag ed in an y industr y. 44 . Uni fo rm civil cod e fo r the citiz ens . —The St at e sh all en d e avour to s e cu r e for th e cit i z en s a un ifor m civil co d e throughout th e t erri tor y of India. 45 . Provision fo r f ree and comp u lso ry edu cation fo r chi ldren .— Th e St at e sh all endeavour to provid e , within a p eriod of ten years fro m th e co mmen cement of this Const itution , fo r fr ee and co mpulsor y edu cation for all chi ldr en un til th ey co mpl et e th e ag e of fourteen years . 46 . Pro mo tion of edu cational and econo mi c int erest s of S ch edul ed C a st es , S ch ed u l ed T rib es a n d o th e r w ea ke r s e ctio n s.— Th e S t at e s h a l l pro mot e with sp eci al car e th e edu c ation a l and econo mi c inter est s of th e weak er s ections o f th e p eopl e, and , in p arti cu lar , of th e S ch edul ed Cast es a nd th e S ch edule d Trib es , and sh all p rot e ct th em f ro m so ci al injus ti c e and all for ms of exploi t ation . 47 . Duty of th e Stat e to ra is e th e l ev el of nutrit ion and th e standa rd of liv ing and to i mp r ov e publi c h eal th.— Th e S t at e sh all r eg ard th e r ais ing of th e l ev el of nutrit ion and th e st an d ard of living of its p eopl e and th e i mprov ement of pub li c health as among i ts pri mar y duti e s and , in p art i cul ar , th e St at e sh all endeavour to bring about prohibit ion of th e


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consu mption except for me di cin al pu rpos es of i ntoxi cating drinks and of drugs whi ch ar e injur ious to h e alth . 48 . Organisation of ag ri cultu re and an i mal hu sband ry.—T h e St at e sh al l en d e avour to org anis e ag ri cu ltur e an d an i mal husb and ry on mo d ern a nd s ci en tifi c lin es and sh a ll , in p art i cul ar , t ak e st ep s for pr es erving a nd i mproving th e br eeds , and prohibi ting th e s l aught er , of co ws and calv es and oth er mil ch and dr aught cattl e. 4 8 A . P ro t e ct io n a n d i mp r o v eme n t o f en v i ro n me n t a n d s a f e g u a rd i ng of fo rests and w ild lif e. —Th e St at e sh al l end eavour to prot ect and i mprov e th e environ ment and to s af egu ard th e f o r ests an d wild lif e of th e country. 49 . Prot ection of mo nu men ts and p la ces and obj ects of nationa l i mp o rta n c e .—I t s h all b e th e oblig ation of th e S t at e to prot ect ev er y mo nu men t or place or obj ect of ar tist i c or h istori c int er es t, d ecl ar ed b y or u n d er l aw ma d e b y P a rli a me n t to b e o f n atio n a l i mp o rta n c e , fro m spol i ation , disfigur ement , d estru ction , r e mo v al, dispos al o r export , as th e c a s e ma y b e . 50 . S epa ration of judi cia ry f rom ex ecutiv e.—Th e St at e sh all t ak e st ep s to s ep ar at e th e judi ci ar y fro m th e ex ecutiv e in th e publi c s ervi c es of th e S t at e . 5 1 . P ro mo ti o n o f i n t e rn a t i o n a l p ea c e a n d s ec u rit y . —Th e Stat e sh al l e n d e av o u r t o — (a ) p ro mot e int ern at ion al peace and s ecurit y; (b ) ma i nt ain just and honor abl e r el a tions b et w een n ations ; (c ) f o s t er r esp ec t for int ern ation al l a w an d t rea t y obl ig ations in th e d ealing s of org ani zed p eopl es with on e anoth er; and (d ) en cour ag e sett l emen t of in tern at ion al d isput es b y arbit ration .

PART IVA


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PART IVA FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES 51 A. Funda me ntal du ti es .—I t sh al l b e th e dut y of ev er y cit i z en of India— (a ) t o ab ide b y th e Consti tution an d r esp ect i ts id eals and ins titution s, th e Nation al Fl ag an d th e Nation al Anth em; (b ) t o ch erish and fol low th e nobl e id ea ls whi ch in spired our n ation a l struggle for fr eedo m; (c ) t o uphold and prot ect th e sov er eign t y, unit y and int egrity of Indi a; (d ) t o def end th e coun tr y and r end er n at ion al s ervi ce wh en call ed upon to do so; (e ) t o pro mot e h ar mon y and t h e spir it of co mmon broth erhood amo ngst all th e p eop l e of India t r ans cending r el igious , l inguis ti c and r egion al or s ection al div ersi ti es; to r enoun ce p racti c es d erog ator y to th e digni t y o f wo men; (f ) t o v alu e an d p r es erv e th e ri ch h erit ag e o f o u r co mp o sit e cu ltu r e; (g ) t o pro t ect and i mprov e th e n atur al environ ment in cluding for es ts, l ak es , riv ers and wild li f e, and to h ave co mp assion for living cr eatur e s; (h ) t o d ev elop th e s ci en tifi c temp er , hu manism and the sp irit of inqui r y and r efor m; (i ) t o s af egu ard publi c prop er t y and to abjur e viol en ce; (j ) t o striv e tow ards ex cell ence i n all sph eres o f indiv idu al and coll ectiv e activit y so th at th e nation const an tl y ris es to high er l ev el s of e n d e av o u r an d ac h i ev e me n t .

20


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PART V THE UNION C HA P TE R I.—T H E E X EC U TI VE Th e Pr esid ent and Vi ce- Pr esid ent 52 . Th e Presid ent of India .— Th er e sh all b e a Pr esid en t o f Indi a . 53 . Ex ecutiv e pow er of th e Union .—(1 ) The ex ecut iv e power of the U n io n sh all b e v est ed in th e Pre sid en t an d sh a ll b e ex er cis ed b y h i m e ith er dir ectl y or through offi cers subordin a t e to him i n accord an ce with th is Consti tution . (2) Without pr ejudi ce to th e gen er al it y of th e for egoing provis ion, th e supr eme co mmand of th e Def ence For ces of the Un ion sh all be v est ed in th e Pr esid en t and th e ex er cis e th er eof sh al l b e re gul at ed b y l a w . (3) Nothing in this art i cl e sh all— (a ) b e d eemed to tr an sf er to th e P r esid en t any f u n ctions conf err ed b y an y ex isting l a w on th e Gov ern me nt of any St at e or oth er authori t y; or (b ) p r ev ent Parl i a ment fro m conf erring by l a w fun c tions on author iti es oth er th an th e Pr esid ent . 54 . El ection of Pres id ent.—T h e P r es id en t sh al l b e el e ct ed b y th e memb er s o f an el ecto r al co ll eg e consis ting of— (a ) t h e el ect ed memb er s o f bo th Hous es of P arli ament ; and (b ) t h e el ect ed memb er s o f the Legisl ativ e As semb li es of th e St at es. Explanation . —In this arti cl e and in art i cl e 55 , ‘‘S t at e’’ in clud es th e Nation al Capit al Territor y of Delhi and th e Union t erri tor y of Pondi ch err y. 55 . Mann er of el ect ion of Presid en t. —(1) As f ar as pr acti cabl e, ther e sh al l b e u n ifo rmi t y in th e s c a le o f r ep r es en t atio n o f th e d i ff er en t S t at es a t th e el ect ion of th e Pr esid ent . (2) For th e purpos e of s e curing su ch unifor mit y among th e S tat es in t er s e as w ell as p ari t y b e tw e en th e S t at e s as a w h o l e an d th e U n io n , th e nu mb er o f vot es whi ch each el ect ed memb er of P arli ament and of th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y of each St at e is entit l ed to cast at su ch election sh all b e d et er min ed in th e follo wing man n er: — (a ) ev er y el ected memb er o f th e Leg isl ativ e Ass embl y o f a St at e sh al l h av e as ma n y vot es as ther e ar e mu lt ipl es of on e thous an d in th e quoti en t ob t ained b y d ividing th e popul at ion of th e St at e b y th e tot al n u mb er o f th e e le c t ed me mb er s o f th e Ass e mb l y; 21


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(b ) i f , aft er t aking th e s a id mu ltipl e s of on e thous an d , th e r e maind er is not l es s th an fiv e hundr ed , th en th e vot e of each me mb er r ef err ed to in sub- cl au s e (a) s h all b e fu rth er in cr e as ed b y o n e; (c ) e a c h e l e c t ed member of either House of Parliament shall have such number of votes as may be obtained by dividing the total number of votes assigned to the members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States under sub-clauses (a) and (b) by the total number of the elected members of both Houses of Parliament, fractions exceeding onehalf being counted as one and other fractions being disregarded. (3) The election of the President shall be held in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote and the voting at such election shall be by secret ballot. Explanation.— In this article, the expression ‘‘population’’ means the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published: Provided that the reference in this Explanation to the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published shall, until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2026 have been published, be construed as a reference to the 1971 census. 56. Term of office of President.—(1) The President shall hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office: Provided that— (a ) t h e Pr es id en t may, b y writing und er his hand addr ess ed to th e Vi ce-Pr es id ent , r esign hi s of fi ce; (b ) t h e Pr esid en t may, for viol ation of th e Consti tution , b e r e mo v ed fro m offi ce b y imp each men t in th e mann er prov id ed in arti cl e 61; (c ) t h e Pr esid en t sh all , not withst an d ing th e expir a tion of his t er m, continu e to hold offi ce unti l h is su ccessor ent e rs upon h is offi ce. (2) Any resignation addressed to the Vice-President under clause (a) of the proviso to clause (1) shall forthwith be communicated by him to the Speaker of the House of the People. 57. Eligibility for re-election.—A person who holds, or who has held, office as President shall, subject to the other provisions of this Constitution, be eligible for re-election to that office. 58. Qualifications for election as President.—(1) No person shall be eligible for election as President unless he— (a ) i s a citi zen of Indi a, (b ) h as co mpl eted th e ag e of th irt y- fiv e years , and (c ) i s qu al ifi ed for el ect ion as a memb er of th e Hous e of th e P eopl e. (2) A p er son sh all not b e eligibl e for el ection as Pr esid ent if h e holds an y offi ce of p rofi t und er th e Gov ern ment o f Indi a or th e Gov ern ment of an y St at e or under an y lo cal or oth er au thorit y subj ect to th e contro l of an y of th e s aid Gov ern ments .


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Explanation . —For th e purpo s es of th is arti cl e, a p erson sh all not b e d eemed to ho ld an y offi ce of profi t b y r e ason onl y th at h e is the Pr esid ent or Vi ce- Pr esident of th e Un ion or th e Governor of an y St at e or i s a Minist er eith er for th e Union or for an y S t at e. 59 . Condit ions of Presid ent's offi ce.—(1 ) Th e Pr esid en t sh all n o t b e a memb er of either Hou s e of P arli ament or of a Hous e o f th e Legis l atur e o f an y St ate, and if a memb er of eith er Hou s e of P arl i ament or of a Hous e of th e Legisl atur e of an y St at e b e el ect ed Pr es ident , h e sh all b e d eemed to h av e v acat ed his s eat in th at Hous e on th e d at e on whi ch h e enters upon hi s offi ce as Pr es ident . (2) Th e Pr esid ent sh al l no t hold an y o th er offi ce of profit . (3) Th e Pr es id en t sh all b e en titl ed without p a ymen t o f r ent to th e us e o f his of fi ci al r esid en c es and sha ll b e al so en tit l ed to su ch emo lu me nts , a llo w an c es and priv il eg es as ma y b e d e t er min ed b y P a rli a me nt b y l a w and , unti l provision in th at b eh alf i s so ma d e, su ch emo lu me nts , allow a n c es and priv il eg es as are sp ecifi ed in the S e cond S ch edul e. (4 ) T h e e mo lu me n ts a n d allo w a n c es o f th e P r esid en t sh all n o t b e di mini sh ed dur ing his t er m of offi ce. 60 . Oath o r affi rma tion by the Presid ent . —Ev er y Pr es id ent a nd ev er y p erson acting as Pr esid en t or dis ch arg ing th e fun ctions of th e Pr esid en t sh al l, b efor e ent er ing upon hi s offi ce, ma k e and subs crib e in th e pr es en ce of th e Chi e f Just i c e of Indi a or , in his abs en ce, th e s enior - most Judg e o f th e Supr eme Court av ail abl e, an o a th or affir mation in th e fol lo wing for m, th at i s to s a y— "I , A. B . , d o s w e a r i n t h e n a m e o f G o d t h a t I wi l l f ai t h f u l l y ex e cu t e solemnly affirm

th e of fi c e of President (or discharge the functions of the President) of India and will to the best of my ability preserve, protect and defend the Constitution and the law and that I will devote myself to the service and well-being of the people of India.". 61 . P ro c edu re fo r i mp e a chme n t of th e P r esid ent . —(1) Wh en a Pr esid en t is to b e i mp each ed for v iol ation of th e Cons titut ion, th e ch arg e sh al l b e pr ef erred b y eith er Hous e of P arli ament . (2) No su ch ch arg e sh all b e pr eferr ed unl ess — (a ) t h e p ropos al to p ref er su ch ch arg e is contain ed in a r esolution w h i ch h as b e en mo v ed af t er at l e ast fo u rt e en d a ys' n o ti c e in wri ting sign ed b y not l ess th an on e-fou rth of th e tot al nu mb er of memb ers of th e Hous e h as b een giv en of th eir int ent ion to mov e th e r esolu tion , and (b ) s u ch r eso lu tio n h as b e en p ass ed b y a ma jo rit y o f n o t l ess th an t wo-th irds of the tot al memb ership of th e House. (3) Wh en a ch arg e h as b een so pr ef err ed b y eith er Hous e of P arl i ament , th e oth er House sh all inv e stigat e th e ch arg e or cau s e th e ch arg e to b e in v es tig at ed an d th e P re sid en t sh al l h av e th e rig h t to ap p e ar an d to b e r epr es en t ed at su ch inv est iga tion .


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(4) If as a result of the investigation a resolution is passed by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the total membership of the House by which the charge was investigated or caused to be investigated, declaring that the charge preferred against the President has been sustained, such resolution shall have the effect of removing the President from his office as from the date on which the resolution is so passed. 62. Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy. —(1) An election to fill a vacancy caused by the expiration of the term of office of President shall be completed before the expiration of the term. (2) An election to fill a vacancy in the office of President occurring by reason of his death, resignation or removal, or otherwise shall be held as soon as possible after, and in no case later than six months from, the date of occurrence of the vacancy; and the person elected to fill the vacancy shall, subject to the provisions of article 56, be entitled to hold office for the full term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office. 63. The Vice-President of India.—There shall be a Vice-President of India. 64. The Vice-President to be ex officio Chairman of the Council of States.—The VicePresident shall be ex officio Chairman of the Council of States and shall not hold any other office of profit: Provided that during any period when the Vice-President acts as President or discharges the functions of the President under article 65, he shall not perform the duties of the office of Chairman of the Council of States and shall not be entitled to any salary or allowance payable to the Chairman of the Council of States under article 97. 65. The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functions during casual vacancies in the office, or during the absence, of President.— (1) In the event of the occurrence of any vacancy in the office of the President by reason of his death, resignation or removal, or otherwise, the Vice-President shall act as President until the date on which a new President elected in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter to fill such vacancy enters upon his office. (2) When the President is unable to discharge his functions owing to absence, illness or any other cause, the Vice-President shall discharge his functions until the date on which the President resumes his duties. (3) The Vice-President shall, during, and in respect of, the period while he is so acting as, or discharging the functions of, President, have all the powers and immunities of the President and be entitled to such emoluments, allowances and privileges as may be determined by Parliament by law and, until provision in that behalf is so made, such emoluments, allowances and privileges as are specified in the Second Schedule. 66. Election of Vice-President.—(1) The Vice-President shall be elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of the members of both Houses of Parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote and the voting at such election shall be by secret ballot. (2) Th e Vi ce-Pr esid en t sh all not b e a me mb er of eith er Hous e of P arl i ament or of a Hous e of the Legi sl atur e o f an y St at e, and if a memb er of eith er Hous e of P arli ament or of a Hous e of th e Legi sl atur e of an y St at e b e el e ct ed Vi c e-Pr es id en t , h e sh all b e d e e me d to h av e v a c at ed h is s e at in


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th at Hous e on th e d at e on whi ch h e ent ers upon hi s offi ce as Vi ceP r esid en t. (3) No p erson sh al l b e eligib le for el ection as Vi ce-Pr esid ent un l ess h e— (a ) i s a citi zen of Indi a; (b ) h as co mpl eted th e ag e of th irt y- fiv e years; and (c ) i s qu al ifi ed for el ect ion as a memb er of th e C oun cil of St at es . (4 ) A p er so n sh all n o t b e el ig ib l e fo r el e ct io n as Vi c e -Pr esid en t if h e holds an y office of p rofit und er th e Govern me nt of Indi a or th e Gov ern ment of an y St at e or und er an y lo cal or oth er autho rity subj ect to th e control of an y of th e s aid Go v ern me nts . E x p l a n a t i o n . — For th e purposes of th is arti cl e, a p erson shall no t b e d eemed to ho ld an y offi ce of profi t b y r e ason onl y th at h e is the Pr esid ent or Vi ce- Pr esident of th e Un ion or th e Governor of an y St at e or i s a Minist er eith er for th e Union or for an y S t at e. 6 7 . T e r m o f o f f i c e o f Vi c e- P re s i d en t . —Th e Vi ce-Pr es id ent sh al l hold offi ce for a t erm o f fiv e years f ro m th e d at e on whi ch h e enters upon his offi ce: Provid ed th at— (a ) a Vi ce-P r esid ent may, b y writ ing und er his h and addr ess ed to th e Pr esid en t, r es ign his offi ce; (b ) a V i c e -Pr esid en t ma y b e r emo v ed fro m h is o ffi c e b y a r e so lu t io n of th e Coun cil of St at es p ass ed b y a ma jori t y of all th e th en me mb ers of th e Coun ci l and agr e ed to b y the Hous e of th e P eopl e; bu t no resolu tion for th e purpos e of this cl au s e sh al l b e mo v ed unl ess at l e ast fourt e en d ays' noti ce h as b een g iv en o f th e int ent ion to mo v e th e resolution ; (c ) a Vi ce-Pr esid en t sh al l, not with st anding th e ex p ir ation of his t er m, continu e to hold offi ce unti l h is su ccessor ent ers upon his offi ce. 68 . Ti me o f holding el ection t o fi ll va can cy in th e offi ce o f Vi cePresid ent and th e t erm of offi ce of p erson el ect ed to fil l casua l va can cy .—(1) An election to fil l a v acan c y caus ed b y th e expir a tion of th e t er m o f offi ce of Vi ce-Pr esid ent sh all b e co mpl et ed b efor e the exp ir ation o f t h e t er m. (2) An el ection to f ill a vacan cy in th e offi ce of Vi ce-Pr esid en t o ccurring b y r eason of hi s d eath, r esign at ion or r emov al , or other wis e sh all b e h eld as soon as possib l e after th e o c curr ence of th e v acancy, and th e p erson el ect ed to f ill th e v acancy sh al l, subj ect to th e provi sions of arti cl e 67 , b e en ti tl ed to ho ld offi ce for th e full t er m of f iv e years fro m th e d at e on whi ch h e enters upon his offi ce. 69. Oath or affirmation by the Vice-President.—Every Vice-President shall, before entering upon his office, make and subscribe before the President, or some person appointed


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in that behalf by him, an oath or affirmation in the following form, that is to say— "I , A. B . , d o s w e a r i n t h e n a m e o f G o d t h at I w i l l b e ar t r u e f ai t h and solemnly affirm

all eg i an ce to the Consti tution of Indi a as b y l aw est abl ish ed and th at I will f ai thfull y dis charg e th e dut y upon whi ch I am about to ent er . " 70. Discharge of President's functions in other contingencies.—Parliament may make such provisions as it thinks fit for the discharge of the functions of the President in any contingency not provided for in this Chapter. 71. Matt ers relating to , o r co nn ect ed w ith, th e el ection of a Presid ent o r Vi ce- P resi den t.— (1) All doub ts an d disput es aris ing out o f or in conn ect ion wi th th e el ection o f a Pr esid ent or Vi ce-P resident sh all b e inqui r ed into and d e cid ed b y th e Supr eme Court whos e d e cision sh al l b e fin a l. (2) If the election of a person as President or Vice-President is declared void by the Supreme Court, acts done by him in the exercise and performance of the powers and duties of the office of President or Vice-President, as the case may be, on or before the date of the decision of the Supreme Court shall not be invalidated by reason of that declaration. (3) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, Parliament may by law regulate any matter relating to or connected with the election of a President or Vice-President. (4) The election of a person as President or Vice-President shall not be called in question on the ground of the existence of any vacancy for whatever reason among the members of the electoral college electing him. 72. Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases.— (1) The President shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence— (a) in all cases where the punishment or sentence is by a Court Martial; (b) in all cases where the punishment or sentence is for an offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the Union extends; (c) in all cases where the sentence is a sentence of death. (2) Nothing in sub-clause (a) of clause (1) shall affect the power conferred by law on any officer of the Armed Forces of the Union to suspend, remit or commute a sentence passed by a Court Martial. (3) Nothing in sub-clause (c) of clause (1) shall affect the power to suspend, remit or commute a sentence of death exercisable by the Governor of a State under any law for the time being in force. 73. Extent of executive power of the Union.— (1) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the executive power of the Union shall extend— (a ) t o th e matt ers with r esp ect to whi ch P arliamen t h as power to mak e l aw s; and


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(b ) t o th e ex erc is e o f su ch r ig h ts , au th o r it y an d ju ri sd i ctio n a s ar e e x er cis ab l e b y th e Gov ern me nt of Indi a b y v irtu e of an y tr ea t y or agr eement: Provid ed th at th e ex ecu tiv e po wer r ef er r ed to in sub- cl aus e (a ) s h all not , s av e as expr ess l y provid ed in this Const itution or in an y law ma d e b y P arl i a ment , extend in an y St at e to matt ers with r esp ect to whi ch th e Legisl atur e o f th e St at e h as also po wer to make l aws . (2) Un t il o th erwis e provid ed by P arli a ment , a St at e an d an y offi cer or author it y of a St at e ma y, not withst and ing an ything in th is arti cl e, continu e to ex er cis e in matt ers with r e spect to whi ch P arl i a ment h as power to mak e l aws for th at S tat e su ch ex ecutiv e po wer or function s as th e S t at e or offi cer or authorit y th er eof could ex ercis e i mme d i at ely b e for e th e comme n cemen t of this Const itution . Coun cil of Minist er s 74 . Coun cil of Min ist ers to aid and advise Presid ent .—(1) Th er e sh al l b e a Council of Minist er s with th e Pri me Minis t er at th e h e ad to aid and advi s e th e Pr esid en t who sh all , in th e ex ercis e of his fun ction s, act in accord an ce with su ch advi ce: Provid ed th at th e P r esid ent may r equi r e th e Coun cil o f Minis t ers to r e consid er su ch adv i ce, eith er g en er al l y or o th er wis e, and the P r esid ent sh al l act in accord an ce with th e advi ce t end er ed aft er su ch r e consid er ation . (2) Th e qu es tion wh eth er an y, and if so wh at , adv i ce was t end er ed b y Minist ers to th e Pr esid en t sh all not b e inquir ed into in an y court . 75 . Oth er p rovis ions as to Minist ers . —(1) Th e Pri me Minis t er sh all b e appoint ed b y th e Pr esid ent and th e oth e r Minis t ers sh all b e appoint ed b y th e Pr esid en t on th e advi ce of the Pri me Min ist er . (1 A) Th e tot al nu mb er of Ministers , in clud ing th e Pri me Minister , in th e Coun cil of Minist er s sh all not ex ceed fift een per cent . o f th e tot al nu mb er of memb er s of th e Hou s e of th e P eopl e. (1 B) A me mb er of eith er Hous e of P ar li ame nt belonging to an y pol iti cal p art y who is disqu alifi ed for b eing a memb er of th at H ous e und er p ar agr aph 2 of th e T enth S ch edul e sh al l a lso b e disqu al ifi ed to b e appoint ed as a Minis t er und er cl aus e (1) for dur ation of th e p eriod co mmen c ing from t h e d at e of his d isqu alif i c ation till th e d at e on whi ch th e t er m of h is office as su ch memb er would expi re or wh er e h e cont es ts an y el ect ion to eith er Hou s e of P arliamen t b efor e the expir y o f su ch p eriod , t ill th e d at e o n wh i ch h e is d e cl ar ed e l e ct ed , wh i ch ev er is e arl ie r. (2) Th e Mini st ers sh al l ho ld of fi ce during th e pl easur e of th e Pr esid en t. (3) Th e Coun cil o f Min ist ers sh al l b e co ll ectiv el y r esponsible to th e H o u s e o f t h e P eo p l e .


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(4) Befor e a Minist er ent ers upon his off ice, th e P r esident sh all ad minis ter to him t h e o aths of offi ce and of s e cr ecy accord ing to th e for ms s et out for th e purpos e in th e Third S ch edul e. (5) A Minis t er who for an y period of six cons ecut iv e months is not a memb er of eith er Hous e of P ar liamen t sh all at th e exp ir ation o f t h at p eriod ceas e to b e a Minis t er. (6 ) Th e s a l ari es an d a llo w an c es o f M in ist ers sh all b e su ch as P arl i a men t ma y f ro m ti me to ti me b y l a w d et e r min e a n d , u n ti l Pa rl i a men t so d et er min es , sh all b e as sp ecifi ed in th e S econd Sch edul e. The Attorney-General for India 76. Attorney-General for India.—(1) The President shall appoint a person who is qualified to be appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court to be Attorney- General for India. (2) It shall be the duty of the Attorney-General to give advice to the Government of India upon such legal matters, and to perform such other duties of a legal character, as may from time to time be referred or assigned to him by the President, and to discharge the functions conferred on him by or under this Constitution or any other law for the time being in force. (3) In the performance of his duties the Attorney-General shall have right of audience in all courts in the territory of India. (4) The Attorney-General shall hold office during the pleasure of the President, and shall receive such remuneration as the President may determine. Conduct of Government Business 77. Conduct of business of the Government of India.—(1) All executive action of the Government of India shall be expressed to be taken in the name of the President. (2) Orders and other instruments made and executed in the name of the President shall be authenticated in such manner as may be specified in rules to be made by the President, and the validity of an order or instrument which is so authenticated shall not be called in question on the ground that it is not an order or instrument made or executed by the President. (3) The President shall make rules for the more convenient transaction of the business of the Government of India, and for the allocation among Ministers of the said business. * * * * * 78. Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President, etc.—It shall be the duty of the Prime Minister— (a ) t o co mmu ni cat e to th e Pr esid en t all d e ci sions of th e Coun cil of Minist ers r e l ating to th e ad minis tr ation of th e aff ai rs of th e Union and propos al s fo r l egis l ation; (b ) t o furnish su ch infor mation r el ating to th e ad min istr ation of th e aff ai rs of th e Un ion and p roposals for l egis l ation as th e Pr es id en t ma y call for ; and (c ) i f th e Pr esid en t so r equir es , to sub mit for th e consid eration of th e Co u n cil o f M in ist e rs an y ma tt e r o n wh i ch a d e cisio n h as b ee n t ak en b y a Min ist er but whi ch h as not b een consid er ed b y th e Coun cil.


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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA CHAPTER II.—PARLIAMENT General

79. Constitution of Parliament.—There shall be a Parliament for the Union which shall consist of the President and two Houses to be known respectively as the Council of States and the House of the People. 80. Composition of the Council of States.—(1) The Council of States shall consist of— (a) twelve members to be nominated by the President in accordance with the provisions of clause (3); and (b) not more than two hundred and thirty-eight representatives of the States and of the Union territories. (2) The allocation of seats in the Council of States to be filled by representatives of the States and of the Union territories shall be in accordance with the provisions in that behalf contained in the Fourth Schedule. (3) The members to be nominated by the President under sub-clause (a) of clause (1) shall consist of persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of such matters as the following, namely:— Literature, science, art and social service. (4) The representatives of each State in the Council of States shall be elected by the elected members of the Legislative Assembly of the State in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote. (5) The representatives of the Union territories in the Council of States shall be chosen in such manner as Parliament may by law prescribe. 81. Composition of the House of the People.—(1) Subject to the provisions of article 331, the House of the People shall consist of— (a) not more than five hundred and thirty members chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the States, and (b) not more than twenty members to represent the Union territories, chosen in such manner as Parliament may by law provide. (2) For the purposes of sub-clause (a) of clause (1),— (a) there shall be allotted to each State a number of seats in the House of the People in such manner that the ratio between that number and the population of the State is, so far as practicable, the same for all States; and (b) each State shall be divided into territorial constituencies in such manner that the ratio between the population of each constituency and the number of seats allotted to it is, so far as practicable, the same throughout the State: Provided that the provisions of sub-clause (a) of this clause shall not be applicable for the purpose of allotment of seats in the House of the People to any State so long as the population of that State does not exceed six millions.


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(3) In this article, the expression “population” means the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published: Provided that the reference in this clause to the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published shall, until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2026 have been published, be construed, — (i) for the purposes of sub-clause (a) of clause (2) and the proviso to that clause, as a reference to the 1971 census; and (ii) for the purposes of sub-clause (b) of clause (2) as a reference to the 2001 census. 82. Readjustment after each census.—Upon the completion of each census, the allocation of seats in the House of the People to the States and the division of each State into territorial constituencies shall be readjusted by such authority and in such manner as Parliament may by law determine: Provided that such readjustment shall not affect representation in the House of the People until the dissolution of the then existing House: Provided further that such readjustment shall take effect from such date as the President may, by order, specify and until such readjustment takes effect, any election to the House may be held on the basis of the territorial constituencies existing before such readjustment: Provided also that until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2026 have been published, it shall not be necessary to readjust— (i) the allocation of seats in the House of People to the States as readjusted on the basis of the 1971 census; and (ii) the division of each State into territorial constituencies as may be readjusted on the basis of the 2001 census, under this article. 83 . Du ration of Hous es of Pa rlia men t .—(1) Th e Coun c il of St at es sh al l no t b e subj ect to d issolution , but as n e arl y as pos sibl e on e-th ird of th e me mb ers ther eof sh all r et ire as soon as ma y b e on th e expir a tion of ev er y s e cond year in acco rd an ce with th e provision s mad e in that b eh al f b y P arl i ament b y l aw . (2) Th e Hous e o f th e P eopl e, un l ess soon er dis solv ed, sh all con tinu e for fiv e years fro m t h e d at e appoint ed for its fir st me eting and no long er and th e expi r ation of th e s a id p eriod o f fiv e years sh all oper at e as a dis solution of th e Ho u s e: Provid ed th at th e s aid p eriod ma y, w hil e a P ro cl a ma tion of Eme r g en c y is in op er ation, b e ex t end ed b y P arli a me nt b y l a w for a p eriod not ex ceeding on e year at a ti me and not ext ending in an y cas e b eyond a p eriod o f six mo n th s aft er th e Pro cl a ma tio n h as c e as ed to o p er at e . 84 . Qualif i cation fo r me mb er ship of Pa rliamen t.— A p erson sh all not b e qu alif ied to b e chos en to fill a s eat in P arli amen t unl ess h e— (a ) i s a c it i zen o f In d i a , an d ma k e s an d su b s crib e s b efo r e so me p erson au thorised in th at b eh alf b y th e El ection Co mmi ssion an o ath or


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affi r mation according to the for m s et out for th e purpos e in th e Th ird S ch edul e; (b ) i s , in th e cas e of a s eat in th e Coun cil of St at es, not l ess th an thi rt y years of ag e and , in th e cas e of a s eat in th e Hous e of the P eopl e, not l ess th an t we nt y- fiv e ye ars of ag e; and (c ) p oss ess es suc h o th er qu al ific a tion s as ma y b e pr e s crib ed in t h at b eh al f b y o r u n d e r an y l a w ma d e b y P a r l i a me n t . 85 . S essions of Pa rlia me n t , p ro rogation and disso lution .—(1) Th e Pr esid en t sh al l fro m t i me to time s u mmo n each Hous e of P arl i ament to meet at su ch time an d p l ace as h e thinks f it , but six months sh al l no t int e rv en e b e twee n it s l ast si tting in on e s ess ion and th e d at e appoint ed fo r it s f irst si tting in th e n ext s ession . (2) Th e Pr esid ent may fro m t i me to ti me— (a ) p rorogu e th e Hous es or eith er Hous e; (b ) d is solv e th e Hous e of th e P eopl e. 86 . Right of Presid ent to add ress and s end messag es to Hous es .—(1) Th e Pr esid ent may ad dr ess eith er Hous e of P arl i ament o r both Hous es ass e mbl ed tog eth er , and for th at purpos e requir e th e attend an ce of memb er s. (2) Th e Pr es id ent ma y s end me ss ag es to either Hous e of P arl i a ment , wh eth er with r esp ect to a Bi ll th en p ending in P arl i ament or o th er wis e, and a Hou s e to whi ch an y me ss ag e is so s ent sh all w ith all conv enie nt d esp at ch consid er an y matt er r equ ir ed b y th e mess ag e to b e t ak en into consid er ation . 87 . Sp ecia l address by th e Presid en t. —(1) At th e co mme n c ement of th e fir st s es sion af ter each g en er al el ect ion to th e Hous e of th e P eopl e and at th e co mme n cement of th e f irst s ess ion o f each year th e Pr esid en t sh all addr ess both Hous es of P arli a me nt ass e mbl ed tog eth er and infor m P arl i ament of the caus es of its su mmon s. (2) Prov ision sh all b e ma d e by th e rul e s r egul at ing th e procedur e of eith er Hous e for th e al lot ment of t i me fo r dis cus sion of th e ma tt ers r ef err ed to in such addr ess . 88 . Right s of Minist ers and Atto rn ey- G en eral as resp ects Hous es. — E v er y Mini st er a nd th e Attorn ey- G en er al of Indi a sh all h av e th e right to sp eak in , and oth er wis e to t ake p a rt in th e pro ceedings of , eith er Hous e, an y joint sit ting of th e Hous es , and an y co mmi tt ee of Parli a me nt of wh i ch h e ma y b e n a me d a me mb er , but sh all not by virtu e of this arti cl e b e enti tl ed to vot e. Offi cers o f Par lia ment 89 . Th e Chai rma n and Deputy Chai rman of th e Coun cil of Stat es .— (1) Th e Vi ce- Pr esid en t of Indi a sh all b e ex o ffi cio Ch airman of th e C oun cil of St at es .


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(2) Th e Coun ci l of S tat es sh all , as soon as may b e, choos e a memb er of th e Coun ci l to b e Deput y Ch air man th er eof and , so oft en as th e offi ce o f Deput y Ch air man b eco mes vacant , th e Coun cil sh al l choos e anoth er me mb e r to b e De p u t y Ch air ma n th er eo f . 90 . Va ca tion and resignat ion of , and removal f ro m, t h e offi ce of Deputy Chai rman .— A memb er hold ing offi ce as Deput y Ch air man of th e C oun cil of St at es — (a ) s h all v acate hi s offi ce if h e ceas e s to b e a me mb er of th e C o u n cil ; (b ) may at any ti me, b y writing und er h is hand addr ess ed to th e Ch air man , resign his offi ce; and (c ) ma y b e r e mov ed fro m h is offi c e b y a r eso lution of th e Coun cil p ass ed b y a majori t y of al l th e th en memb ers of th e Coun cil: Provid ed th at no r eso lution fo r th e purpos e of cl au s e (c ) s h al l b e mo v ed unl ess at l e ast fourt e en d a ys ’ noti ce h as b e en giv en of th e int ent ion to mo v e th e resolution . 91 . Pow er o f th e D eputy Chai rma n o r oth er p erson to p erfo rm t h e duti es of th e offi ce o f, o r to a ct as , Chai rman .—(1 )Whil e th e off ice of Ch air man i s v acant , or during an y p er iod wh en th e Vi ce-Pr esident is act ing as , o r dis ch a rging th e fun c tions of, Pr esid en t, th e duti es of th e offi ce sh all b e perfor med b y th e Deput y Ch air man , or , if th e off i ce of Deput y C h air man is al so v acant , b y such memb er o f th e Coun cil of St at es as th e Pr esid en t ma y appoint for th e purpos e. (2) During th e abs en c e of th e Ch air man fro m an y si tting of th e Coun cil of St at es th e Deput y Ch air man , or , if h e is also abs ent , su ch p erson as may b e d et er min ed b y th e ru les of pro c edur e of th e Coun cil , or , if no su ch p erson is pr es en t , su ch oth er p erson as ma y b e d et er min ed b y th e Coun cil , s h al l a c t as Ch air ma n . 92 . Th e Chai rma n o r th e D eputy Chai rma n not to p res id e w hi l e a resolut ion fo r his remo val f ro m o ffi ce is und er consid eration .— (1) At an y sit ting of th e Coun cil of St at es, whil e an y r esolu tion for th e r e mov al of th e Vi ce-Pr esid ent fro m hi s offi ce is und er consid er ation , the Ch ai r man , or wh il e an y r esolu tion fo r th e r e mo v al of th e Deput y Ch air man fro m his offi ce is und er consid er ation , th e Deput y Ch airman , sh all not , though he is pr es ent , pr es id e, and th e provisions of cl aus e (2) of ar ti cl e 91 sh al l appl y in r el ation to ev er y su ch s itting as th ey appl y in r el ation to a si tting fro m w h i ch t h e Ch air ma n , o r, as t h e c a s e ma y b e , t h e D ep u t y Ch air ma n , i s a b s en t . (2) Th e Ch air man sh all h av e the r ight to sp eak in , and oth er wis e to t ak e p art in th e pro ceedings of , th e Coun cil of S t ates wh il e an y r esolu tion fo r th e r e mo v al of th e Vi ce-Pr esid ent fro m h is o ffice is und er consid er ation in th e Coun cil , but , not withs t anding an ything in arti cle 100 , sh al l no t b e


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enti tl ed to vot e at al l on su ch r esolu tion or on an y oth er ma t t er during such p r o c e ed i n g s . 93 . Th e Sp ea ker and Deputy Sp ea ker of th e Hou s e of th e Peopl e.— T h e Ho u s e o f t h e P eo p l e s h al l , a s s o o n as ma y b e , ch o o s e t wo me mb e r s o f th e Hous e to b e r esp ectiv el y Sp eak er and Deput y Sp eak er th er eof and , so oft en as th e offi ce of Speak er or Deput y Speak er b eco mes v acant , th e Hous e sh all choos e anoth er memb er to b e Sp eak er or Deput y Sp eak er , as t h e c as e ma y b e. 94 . Va cat ion and resignation o f, and remo val f ro m, t h e offi ces of S p ea ke r a n d De p u t y S p ea ke r . — A memb er holding of fi ce as Sp eak er or Deput y Sp eak er of th e Hous e o f th e P eopl e— (a ) s h al l v acat e his offi ce if h e ceas es to b e a memb er of th e Hous e of th e P eopl e; (b ) may at an y ti me, b y writ ing und er hi s h and addr ess ed , if su ch memb er is th e Sp eak er , to th e Deput y Sp eak er , and if su ch memb er is th e Deput y Sp eak er , to th e Sp eak er , r esign his offi ce; and (c ) may b e r emov ed fro m h is offi ce b y a r eso lution of th e Hous e o f th e P eopl e p assed b y a majori t y of all th e th en memb er s o f the Hous e: Provid ed th at no r eso lution fo r th e purpos e of cl au s e (c ) s h al l b e mo v ed unl ess at l e ast fourt e en d a ys ’ noti ce h as b e en giv en of th e int ent ion to mo v e th e resolution : Provid ed furth er th at, wh en ev er th e Hous e of th e P eop le is dis solv ed, th e Sp eak er sh all no t v acat e his off i ce until imme d i at el y b efor e th e first meet ing of th e Hous e of th e P eopl e aft er th e disso lution . 95 . Pow er of th e Depu ty Sp ea ker o r oth er p erson to p erfo rm th e duti e s of th e offi ce of , o r to a ct as , Sp ea ke r.—(1) Whil e th e offi ce of Sp e ak er is v a ca n t , th e d u t i es o f th e o f fi c e sh al l b e p erfo rme d b y th e Deput y Sp eak er o r, if th e off i ce o f Deput y Sp eak er is also v acant , b y su ch memb er of th e Hous e of th e Peopl e as th e P resid en t may appoint for the purpose. (2) During th e abs en ce of th e Sp eak er fro m an y sitt ing of the Hou s e of th e P eop l e th e Deput y Sp eak er or , if h e is also abs en t, su ch person as may b e d et er min ed by th e rul es of pro cedur e of th e Hous e, o r, i f no su ch p erson is pr esen t, such oth er p erson as ma y b e d e t er min ed b y th e House, sh all act a s S p e ak er . 96 . Th e Sp ea ker o r th e Deputy Sp ea ker not to p resid e w hil e a resolut ion fo r his remo val f ro m o ffi ce is und er consid eration .— (1) At an y sitting of th e Hou s e of th e P eop l e, whil e an y r eso lution for th e r e mov al of th e Sp eak er fro m h is of fi ce is und er consid er ation , th e Sp eak er , or whil e an y r esolu tion for th e r e mov al of th e Deput y Sp eak er fro m hi s offi ce is und er consid er ation , th e Depu t y Sp eak er , sh all not , though h e i s pr es ent , pr es id e, and th e provisions of cl aus e (2) of ar ti cl e 95 sh al l appl y


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in r el ation to ev er y su ch s itting as th ey appl y in r el ation to a si tting fro m w h i ch t h e S p e ak e r , o r , as t h e c as e ma y b e , t h e D e p u t y S p e ak er , i s ab s en t . (2) Th e Sp eak er sh all h av e th e righ t to sp eak in , and o th erwise to t ake p art in th e pro ceedings of , th e Hous e of th e P eopl e whil e an y resolu tion for his r e mo v al f rom o ff i ce is und er consid er ation in th e House and sh all , not with st anding an ything in articl e 100 , b e en t itl ed to vot e onl y in th e first ins t an ce on su ch r eso lution o r on an y o th er ma tt er during such pro ceed ings but not in th e cas e of an eq u a lity of vot es . 97 . Sala ri es and allow ances of th e Cha irma n and Deputy Chai rma n a n d t h e S p ea ke r a n d D ep u t y S p ea ke r . — Th er e sh all b e paid to th e C h air ma n and th e D epu t y Ch air ma n o f th e Coun cil of St at es , a nd to th e Sp eak er and th e Deput y Sp eak er of th e Hous e of th e P eopl e, su ch s al ari es a nd al low an c e s a s ma y b e r esp e ctiv e l y fix ed b y P arli a me nt b y l a w and , unti l prov ision in th at b eh alf is so mad e, su ch s al ari es and allo wan ces as ar e sp ecif ied in th e S e cond S ch edul e. 98 . Secreta riat of Pa rlia men t.— (1) Each Hous e of P ar li ament sh all h av e a s ep ar at e s e cr et a ri al st aff: Provid ed th at nothing in this claus e sh all b e constru ed as pr ev en ting th e cr eat ion of posts co mmon to both Hous es of P arl i ament . (2) P arl i ament may b y l aw r egul at e th e r ecruit ment , and th e condit ions of s ervi ce of p ersons appoint ed, to the s ecr et ari al st aff of either Hous e of P arl i a ment . (3) Un til provision is ma d e b y P arl i a ment und er cl au s e (2) , th e P r esid en t ma y, aft e r consult a tion with the Sp eak er o f the Hou s e of th e P eopl e or th e C h air man of th e Coun cil of St at es , as th e cas e may b e, mak e rul es r egul ating th e r e cruit ment , and th e condi tions of s ervi ce o f p ersons appoint ed , to the s ecr et ari al s t aff of th e Hous e of th e P eopl e o r th e Coun cil of S t at es , and an y ru l es so ma de sh all h av e effect subj ect to the prov isions o f an y l a w ma d e u n d er t h e s ai d c l au s e . Condu ct of Busin ess 99 . Oath o r af fi rma tion by me mb ers .— Ev er y memb er o f either House o f P ar li a men t sh all , b efo r e t ak in g h is s e at , ma k e an d su b s c rib e b efo r e th e Pr esid en t, or so me p erson appoint ed in th at b eh al f b y hi m, an o a th or affi r mation according to the for m s et out for th e purpos e in th e Th ird S ch ed u l e . 100 . Vot ing in Hous es , power of Hous es to a ct notw ithstand ing v a can ci es a n d q u o ru m. — (1) S av e as other wis e provid ed in this Consti tution , all qu estions at an y s itting of eith er Hous e o r joint sit ting of th e Hous es sh all b e d et er min ed b y a ma j o rity of vot es o f th e me mb ers pr es ent and voting , oth er than th e Sp eak er or person acting as Ch air man or Sp eak er .


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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Th e Ch air man or Sp eak er, or p erson acting as su ch , sh al l not vot e in th e fir st in st an c e , b u t sh all h av e an d ex er cis e a c astin g v o t e in th e c a s e o f an e q u al i t y o f v o t es . (2) Eith er House o f P arl i a ment s h all h av e po we r to act not withst an d ing an y v acan c y in th e me mb ersh ip t h er eof , and any p ro ceed ings in P a rli a me nt sh al l b e v al id not with st anding th at it i s d is cov er ed subs eq u ent ly th at so me p erson who was not en titl ed so to do s at or vo ted or o th er wis e took p art in th e pro ceedings . (3) Un til P arl i ame n t b y l a w other wis e provid es , th e quoru m to const itut e a meet ing of eith er Hous e of P arl i a ment sh all b e on e-t enth of th e tot a l n u mb er o f me m b ers o f t h e Ho u s e . (4) If at an y time d uring a meeting of a House th er e is no quoru m, it sh al l b e th e dut y of th e Ch airman or Sp eak er, o r p erson act ing as su ch, eith er to ad journ the Hou s e or to susp en d the meet ing un til th er e is a q u o r u m. Disqual ifi cations of Memb ers 101 . Va cat ion of s eats .— (1) No p erson sh all b e a memb er of both H ous es o f P arliamen t and provision sh all b e mad e b y P arli ament b y l aw fo r th e v acat ion b y a p erson who is cho s en a memb er of both Hous es of his s e at in on e Hous e or th e oth er . (2) No p erson sh all b e a memb er bo th of P arliamen t and of a Hous e of th e Legis l atur e of a St at e, and if a p erson is chos en a memb er both of P arl i ament and of a Hous e of th e Legis l atur e of a St at e, th en , at th e e xpir a tion of su ch p eriod as may b e sp e cifie d in ru l es mad e b y th e Pr esid en t, th at p erson’ s s eat in P ar li ament sh all b eco me v acant , unl ess h e h as pr evious l y resign ed his s eat in th e Legisl atur e of th e St at e. (3) If a me mb er of eith er Hous e of P arli a me nt — (a ) b eco mes subj ect to an y of th e disqu ali fi cation s men tion ed in c l au s e ( 1 ) o r cl au s e ( 2 ) o f art i cle 1 0 2 , o r (b ) r e sign s his s e at b y wri ting und er his hand addr ess ed to th e Ch air man or the Sp eak er , as th e cas e may b e, and his r esign ation is accept ed b y th e Ch air man or th e Sp eak er , as th e cas e may b e, his s eat sh all ther eupon b eco me v acant: Provid ed th at in th e cas e of an y r esign ation r eferr ed to in sub-cl aus e (b) , if fro m info r mation r e ceiv ed or oth er wis e an d aft er ma king su ch inquir y as h e th inks fit , the Ch air man or th e Sp eak er , as th e cas e ma y b e , i s s atis fi ed th at su ch resignation is not volunt ar y or g enuin e , h e sh all not accep t su ch r esign ation . (4) If for a p eriod of sixt y d a ys a me mb er o f eith er Hou s e of Parl i a ment is without p er mis sion of th e Hous e abs ent f rom al l meet ings th er eof , th e Hous e may d eclar e his s eat v acant:


36

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Provid ed that in co mputing th e s aid p er iod of sixt y d a ys no account sh all b e t ak en of an y p eriod dur ing whi ch th e Hous e is prorogu ed o r is adjourn ed for mor e th an four cons ecutiv e days . 102 . Di squalifications fo r me mb ersh ip.— (1) A p erson sh al l b e disqu a lifi ed for b eing chos en a s , and for b e ing, a me mb e r o f eith e r Hou s e of P arli ament — (a ) i f h e holds an y offi ce of profi t und er th e Gov ern ment of Indi a or th e Gov ernme n t o f an y St at e , oth er th an an off i c e d ec l ar ed b y P arl i a ment b y l aw not to d isqu alif y i ts ho ld er; (b ) i f h e is of unsound mind and st ands so d eclar ed b y a co mpet ent court ; (c ) i f h e is an undis ch arg ed in solv en t ; (d ) i f h e is not a cit i z en of Indi a, o r h as volunt ar il y acqui r ed th e cit i zenship o f a f or eign S t at e, or is und er an y ackno wl edg ment of all eg i an ce or adh er en ce to a foreign St at e; (e ) i f h e is so d isq u al ifi ed b y o r u n d er an y l aw ma d e b y P ar li ame n t . Explanation . —For th e purpos es of this cl ause a p erson sh all not b e d eemed to hold an offi ce of profi t und er th e Gov ern ment of Indi a or the Gov ern me nt of an y St at e b y r e ason onl y th at h e is a Minist er eith er for th e U n i o n o r f o r s u ch S t at e . (2) A p erson sha ll b e disqu a lifie d for b eing a me mb e r of ei th er Hous e of P arl i ament i f h e is so disqu al ified und er th e Tenth S ch edul e. 103. Decis ion on qu es tions as to disqual ifi cat ions of me mb ers.— (1) If an y qu est ion ari s es as t o wh eth er a memb er of either Hou se of P arl i a ment h a s b e co me subj ect to an y of th e disqu al ifi cations me n tion ed in cl aus e (1) of arti cl e 102 , th e qu est ion sh all b e r ef er r ed for the d ecis ion of th e Pr esid en t and his d e cision sh all b e fin al . (2) Befor e g iving an y d e cision on an y su ch qu es tion , th e Pr esid ent sh al l ob t ain th e opinion of th e El ection Co mmis sion and sh all act according to su ch opinion . 104 . Penalty fo r sitt ing and voting b efo re ma ki ng oath o r affi rma tion und er a rti cl e 99 o r w hen not qua lifi ed o r w hen disqua lifi ed .— If a p erson sits or vot es as a me mb er of either Hous e of P arl i a ment b efor e h e h as co mp li ed with th e requir e me nts of ar ti cl e 99 , or wh en h e knows th at h e is not qu ali fi ed or th at h e i s disqu ali fi ed for memb er ship ther eof , or th at h e is proh ibit ed fro m so doing b y th e provis ions of an y l aw mad e b y P ar li ament , h e sh al l b e li abl e in r esp ect of each d ay on which h e so s its or vot es to a p en alt y of fiv e hundred rup ees to b e r ecov er ed as a d ebt du e to the Un ion.


37

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA Po wers , Pr i vil eg es and Immuni ti es of Parl iament and its Memb ers

105 . Pow ers , privi l eg es , et c., of th e Hous es of Pa rlia men t and of t he me mb e r s a n d co mmi t t e es t h e re o f .— (1) Subj ec t to th e prov isions of thi s Consti tution an d to th e rul es an d st anding orders r egul ating th e pro c edur e of P arli ament , th er e sh all b e fr eedo m o f sp eech in P arl i ament . (2) No me mb er of P arli a me nt sh all b e li ab l e to an y pro ceedings in an y court in r esp ect of an y thing s aid or an y vot e giv en b y h i m in Parl i ament or a n y co mmi tt e e th er eof , and no p erson sh all be so li abl e in re sp e ct of th e publi cation b y or und er th e authori t y o f eith er Hous e of P arli ame n t of an y r eport , p ap er , vot es or pro ceedings . (3) In o th er r esp ects , th e powers , priv il eg es and i mmu niti es of each Hous e of P arliamen t , and of th e memb ers and th e co mmi ttees of each H o u s e , sh all b e su ch as ma y fro m t i me to ti me b e d efin ed b y Pa rl i a men t b y l a w , and , until so d efin ed , sh a ll b e thos e of tha t Hous e and of its me mb ers and co mmi tt ees i mme d i at el y b efor e th e co ming i nto for ce of section 15 of th e Consti tution (Fort y-fou rth Amen d men t) Act , 1978. (4) Th e provisions o f cl aus es (1) , (2) and (3) sh al l appl y in rel at ion to p ersons w ho b y v irtu e o f th is C onsti tution h av e th e righ t to sp eak in , and oth er wis e to t ake p art in th e pro ceedings of , a Hous e of P arli amen t or an y co mmi tt ee th er eo f as th ey appl y in r el ation to memb ers of P arli amen t . 106 . Sala ri es and allow ances of me mb ers .— M emb er s o f eith er Hous e of P a rli a me nt sh all b e enti tl ed to r e c eiv e su ch s a l ari es and a llo w an c es a s may f ro m ti me to t i me b e d et er min ed b y P arl i ament b y l aw and, un til provis ion in that r e sp ect is so ma d e , allo wances at su ch r ates and upon su ch condi tions as wer e i mmedi at el y b efor e th e co mmen cement of this Consti tution appli cab l e in th e cas e o f memb ers of th e Constitu en t A s s e mb l y o f t h e D o min io n o f I n d i a . L egis lati ve Pro cedur e 107 . Prov isions as to i nt rodu ction and pa ssing of Bil ls .— (1) Subj ect to th e provisions of arti cl es 109 an d 117 wi th r esp ect to Mo n ey Bil ls and oth er fin an ci al Bil ls, a Bill may origin ate in eith er Hous e of Parl i ament . (2) Subj ect to th e provision s of arti cl es 108 and 109, a Bill shall not b e d eemed to h av e b een p ass ed b y th e Hous es of Parl i ament unl ess i t h as b een agr e ed to b y both Hous es , eith er without amen d ment or with su ch amen d men ts on ly as ar e ag r eed to b y both Hou ses . (3) A Bill p ending in P arl i ame n t sh all not l a ps e b y r e ason of th e prorog at ion o f th e Hou s es. (4) A B ill p end ing in th e Coun cil of St at es which h as not b een p ass ed b y th e Hous e of the P eopl e sh all not l aps e on a dissolu tion o f th e Hous e o f th e P eo p l e .


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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(5) A Bill whi ch is p ending in th e Hous e of the P eopl e, or whi ch h aving b een p ass ed b y th e Hous e of the P eopl e is p endin g in th e Council of St at es , sh al l, subj ect to th e provisions of arti cl e 108 , laps e on a di ssolution of th e H o u s e o f t h e P eo p l e . 108 . Jo int si tting of both Ho us es in certain ca s es . — (1) If aft er a Bill h as b e en p ass ed b y o n e Ho u s e an d tr an s mit t ed to th e o th er Ho u s e — (a) th e Bill i s r ej ect ed b y th e oth er Hous e; or (b) th e Hous es h av e fin all y disagr eed as to the amen d men ts to b e mad e in th e Bi ll; or ( c) mor e th an six months el aps e f ro m th e d at e of th e r ecept ion of th e Bil l b y th e oth er Hous e wi thout th e Bill b eing pass ed b y it , th e Pr esid en t ma y, un l ess th e Bil l h as el ap s ed by r e ason o f a disso lution of th e Hous e o f the P eopl e, no tif y to th e Hous es by mes s ag e if th ey ar e sitt ing or b y pub li c noti fi c ation if th ey ar e not sitt ing , his int ention to su mmon th em to meet in a joint sit ting for th e pu rpos e of d elib er ating an d voting on th e Bil l: Provid ed th at nothing in th is claus e sh all appl y to a Mon e y Bill. (2) In r eckoning an y su ch p eriod of s ix months as is r ef err ed to in cl au s e (1) , no accoun t sh all b e t ak en of an y p er iod during whi ch th e Hou s e r ef err ed to in sub- cl aus e ( c) of th at cl aus e i s prorogu ed or adjourn ed for mo r e th an four cons ecut ive d ays . (3) Wh er e th e Pr esid en t h as und er cl au s e (1) notifi ed his int ent ion of su mmo ning th e Hous es to meet in a joint sit ting , n eith er Hous e sh all pro ceed fur th er with th e Bil l, but th e Pr esid ent ma y at an y ti me aft e r th e d at e of h is not ifi cation su mmo n th e Hous es to meet in a jo int sitt ing for th e purpo s e sp ecif i ed in th e noti fi cation and , if h e do es so , th e Hous es sh al l meet accordingl y. (4) If at th e join t sit ting of th e t wo Houses th e Bi ll , with su ch amen d men ts, if an y, as ar e agr e ed to in joint sitt ing, is pass ed b y a ma j ori t y o f th e tot a l nu mb er of me mb ers of both Hous es pr es ent and voting , it sh al l b e d eemed for th e purpos es of this Const itution to h av e b e en p ass ed b y both Hous es: Provid ed th at at a joint sit ting— (a) if th e Bi ll, h av ing b een pass ed b y on e H ous e, h as no t b een p ass ed b y th e oth er Hous e wi th amen d men ts and r etu rn ed to the Hous e in whi ch it origin at ed , no amendmen t sh all b e propos ed to th e Bil l o th er th an su ch a me n d me n ts (if an y) a s ar e ma d e n e ce ss ar y b y th e d el a y in th e p ass ag e of th e Bil l; (b) if th e Bi ll h as b e en so p ass ed an d re tu rn ed , o n l y su ch amen d men ts as afor es aid shall b e propos ed to th e Bil l an d such oth er amen d men ts as ar e r el ev ant to th e matt ers with r esp ect to whi ch th e H o u s es h av e n o t agr e ed; and th e d e cision of th e p erson pr esiding as to th e amen d ments whi ch ar e ad missib l e und er this cl au s e sh all b e fin al .


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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(5) A joint s itting may b e h e ld und er this arti cl e an d a Bill p ass ed th er eat, not withst and ing th at a dis solution of th e Hous e of th e P eop l e h as int erv en ed sin ce th e P r esid ent noti fi ed h is int ention to su mmon th e Hous es to meet th er ein . 109 . Special p ro cedu re in resp ect of Mon ey Bil ls.—(1) A Mon e y Bill sh al l no t b e int rodu ced in th e Coun cil of St at es. (2) Aft er a Mon e y Bill h as b ee n p ass ed b y the H ous e o f th e P eopl e it sh al l b e tr ans mitt ed to th e Coun cil of S t at es for its r eco mmend ation s and th e Coun cil of St at es sh all within a p eriod of fourt e en d a ys fro m th e d a t e of its r eceipt of t h e Bill r eturn th e Bill to th e Hous e of th e P eopl e wi th it s r e co mme nd ations and th e Hous e of th e P eopl e ma y t h er eupon eith er accept or r ej ect al l or an y of th e r eco mmen d ations of th e Coun cil of Stat es . (3) If th e Hous e of th e P eopl e accepts an y of the r eco mmen d ations of th e C oun cil of St ate s , th e Mon e y B il l sh a ll b e d ee me d to h av e bee n p ass ed b y both Hous es with th e amend ments r eco mmen d ed b y th e Coun cil o f St at es and accept ed b y th e Hou s e of the P eopl e. (4) If th e Hous e of th e P eopl e do es not accept any o f th e r e co mme nd ations of th e Coun cil of S t at es , th e Mon e y Bill sh all b e d eemed to h av e b e en p ass ed b y both Hous es in th e fo rm i n whi ch it wa s p as s ed b y th e Hous e of the P eopl e wi thout an y o f th e amen d men ts r ecomme n d ed b y th e Coun cil of St at es. (5) If a Mon e y B il l p as s ed b y th e Hous e o f th e P eopl e and tr ans mit t ed to th e Coun cil of St at es for i ts r eco mme nd ations is not r eturn ed to th e Hous e of th e P eopl e with in th e s a id p eriod of fourt e en d a ys , i t sh all be d eemed to h av e b een p ass ed b y both Hou s es at th e expir ation of th e s aid period in th e for m in wh i ch it was p a ss ed b y th e Hou s e of th e P eopl e. 110 . Def inition o f "Mon ey Bil ls'' .— (1) For th e purpos es of thi s Ch ap t er , a Bill sh all b e d eemed to b e a Mon e y Bill i f it cont ain s on l y provis ions d e aling with all or an y of th e follo wing ma tt ers , n ame l y: — (a) th e i mposition , abolit ion, remi ssion , al t er ation or r egul at ion of a n y t ax ; (b) th e r egul ation of th e borrowing of mon e y or th e giving of an y g u ar an t e e b y th e G o v ern me n t o f In d i a, o r th e ame n d men t o f th e l a w wi th r esp ect to an y fin an ci a l obl ig ations und ert ak en or to b e und ert ak en b y th e Gov ern me nt of Indi a; ( c) th e custod y of th e Con solidat ed Fund o r th e Conting en c y Fund of Indi a, th e p ayment of mon eys into or th e withdr awal of moneys fro m an y su ch Fund; (d) th e appropri at ion of mon eys out of th e Consolid at ed Fund of Indi a;


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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

( e) th e d e cl aring of an y ex p enditu r e to b e ex p enditu r e ch arged on th e Consol idat ed Fund of Indi a or th e in cr easing of th e amount of an y su ch ex p en d itu re ; (f) th e r eceip t of money on account of th e Consolid at ed Fund of Indi a or th e publi c account of Ind i a or th e custod y or is su e of su ch mo n ey o r th e audit of th e accounts of th e Union or of a St at e; or (g) an y mat t er in cid en t al to an y of th e matters sp ecifi ed in subcl aus es ( a) to ( f) . (2) A Bill sh all not b e d eemed to b e a Mon ey Bil l b y r eason onl y th at it provid es for th e i mposition of fin es or oth er p ecuni ar y p en alt i es , or for th e d emand or p ayment of f ees fo r li cen ces or f ees for s ervi ces r end er ed , o r b y r eason th at it provid es for th e i mposi tion , aboli tion , r emiss ion , al t er ation or r egul at ion of an y t ax b y an y lo cal authori t y or bod y for lo cal purpos es . (3) I f an y qu estion aris es wh eth er a Bill is a Mon e y Bill or not , th e d e cis ion of th e Sp eak er of th e Hous e of th e P eopl e th er eon sh all b e fin al . (4) Th er e sh all b e endors ed on ev er y Mo n e y Bill wh en it i s tr an s mit t ed to th e Coun cil of St at es und er art i cl e 109 , and wh en it i s pr esent ed to th e Pr esid en t for ass ent und er arti cl e 111 , th e certifi cat e of th e Speak er of th e Hous e of th e P eopl e sign ed b y hi m th at it is a Mon ey Bill . 111 . As s ent to Bil ls.—Wh en a B ill h as b een p ass ed b y th e H ous es of P arl i a men t , i t sh all b e p r e s en t ed to th e Pr e sid en t , an d th e Pr esid en t sh all d e cl ar e eith er th at h e as s ents to th e Bill , or th at h e withholds ass ent th er ef ro m: Provid ed th at th e Pr esid ent ma y, as soon as pos sibl e aft er th e pr es en t a tion to hi m of a Bill for as s ent , r eturn th e Bill i f it is not a Mon e y Bil l to th e Hous es with a messag e r equ esting th at th ey will r econsid er th e Bil l or an y sp ecif i ed provi sions th er eof and, in p art i cul ar , wil l consid er th e d esir ab ilit y of introdu cing an y su ch amend ments as h e may r eco mmend in his mess ag e, an d wh en a Bill is so r eturn ed , th e Hous es sh all r e consid er th e Bill accordingl y, and if th e Bill is p ass ed ag ain b y th e Hous es with or without amend ment and pr es ent ed to th e Pr es id ent for ass ent , the Pr esid ent sh al l no t wi thhold ass ent th erefro m. Pro c edur e in Finan cial Matt er s 112 . Annua l finan cial stat ement .—(1 ) Th e P r esid ent sh all in r esp e ct of ev er y fin an c ial year caus e to be l aid b efor e both th e Hous es of P arl i a ment a st at ement of th e esti mat ed r eceipt s and exp enditu r e of th e Gov ern ment of Indi a fo r th at year , in th is Part r e f err ed to as th e " annu al f in an ci al st at ement ''. (2) Th e es ti ma t es o f ex p enditur e embodi ed in th e annu al fin an c i al st a t e men t sh a ll sh o w s ep ar at el y—


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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(a) th e su ms r eq u ir ed to me e t e x p en d itu r e d es c rib ed b y t h is Consti tution as exp end itur e ch arg ed upon the Conso lid at ed F und of Indi a; and (b) th e su ms r equir ed to meet oth er exp enditur e propos ed to b e mad e fro m th e Consolid at ed Fund of Indi a, and sh al l distingui sh ex p enditu r e on r evenu e account fro m oth er exp enditu re. (3) The following expenditure shall be expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India— (a) the emoluments and allowances of the President and other expenditure relating to his office; (b) the salaries and allowances of the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Council of States and the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the House of the People; (c) debt charges for which the Government of India is liable including interest, sinking fund charges and redemption charges, and other expenditure relating to the raising of loans and the service and redemption of debt; (d) (i) the salaries, allowances and pensions payable to or in respect of Judges of the Supreme Court; (ii) the pensions payable to or in respect of Judges of the Federal Court; (iii) the pensions payable to or in respect of Judges of any High Court which exercises jurisdiction in relation to any area included in the territory of India or which at any time before the commencement of this Constitution exercised jurisdiction in relation to any area included in a Governor's Province of the Dominion of India; (e) the salary, allowances and pension payable to or in respect of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India; (f) any sums required to satisfy any judgment, decree or award of any court or arbitral tribunal; (g) any other expenditure declared by this Constitution or by Parliament by law to be so charged. 113. Procedure in Parliament with respect to estimates.—(1) So much of the estimates as relates to expenditure charged upon the Consolidated Fund of India shall not be submitted to the vote of Parliament, but nothing in this clause shall be construed as preventing the discussion in either House of Parliament of any of those estimates. (2) So much of the said estimates as relates to other expenditure shall be submitted in the form of demands for grants to the House of the People, and the House of the People shall have power to assent, or to refuse to assent, to any demand, or to assent to any demand subject to a reduction of the amount specified therein. (3) No demand for a grant shall be made except on the recommendation of the President. 114. Appropriation Bills.— (1) As soon as may be after the grants under article 113 have been made by the House of the People, there shall be introduced a Bill to provide for the appropriation out of the Consolidated Fund of India of all moneys required to meet— (a) the grants so made by the House of th e P eopl e; and


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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(b) the expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India but not exceeding in any case the amount shown in the statement previously laid before Parliament. (2) No amendment shall be proposed to any such Bill in either House of Parliament which will have the effect of varying the amount or altering the destination of any grant so made or of varying the amount of any expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India, and the decision of the person presiding as to whether an amendment is inadmissible under this clause shall be final. (3) Subject to the provisions of articles 115 and 116, no money shall be withdrawn from the Consolidated Fund of India except under appropriation made by law passed in accordance with the provisions of this article. 115. Supplementary, additional or excess grants.— (1) The President shall— (a) if the amount authorised by any law made in accordance with the provisions of article 114 to be expended for a particular service for the current financial year is found to be insufficient for the purposes of that year or when a need has arisen during the current financial year for supplementary or additional expenditure upon some new service not contemplated in the annual financial statement for that year, or (b) if any money has been spent on any service during a financial year in excess of the amount granted for that service and for that year, cause to be laid before both the Houses of Parliament another statement showing the estimated amount of that expenditure or cause to be presented to the House of the People a demand for such excess, as the case may be. (2) The provisions of articles 112, 113 and 114 shall have effect in relation to any such statement and expenditure or demand and also to any law to be made authorising the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of India to meet such expenditure or the grant in respect of such demand as they have effect in relation to the annual financial statement and the expenditure mentioned therein or to a demand for a grant and the law to be made for the authorisation of appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of India to meet such expenditure or grant. 116. Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.—(1) Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Chapter, the House of the People shall have power— (a) to make any grant in advance in resp ect of th e estimat ed exp endi tur e for a p ar t of an y fin an ci al year pending th e co mpl et ion of th e pro cedur e pr es cr ib ed in arti cl e 113 fo r the voting of su ch gr an t an d th e passing of th e l a w in accord an c e with th e provis ions of art i cl e 114 in rel at ion to th at ex p en d i tu r e; (b) to ma k e a gr ant for meeting an un exp ected d e mand upon th e r esour ces of Indi a wh en on account o f th e ma gnitud e or th e ind efin it e ch ar act er of the s erv i ce th e dema n d cannot be s tat ed with th e d et a ils ordin ar il y giv en in an annu al f in an ci al s tat ement; ( c) to mak e an ex ception al gr ant whi ch for ms no p art of th e curr ent s ervi c e of an y fin an ci al ye ar;


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a n d P arl i a men t sh al l h av e p o w e r to au th o rise b y l a w th e with d r aw a l o f mo n eys fro m t he Conso lid at ed Fund of Indi a for th e purpos es for whi ch th e s aid gr ant s ar e mad e. (2) Th e provis ions of art i cl es 113 and 114 sh all h av e eff ect in r el at ion to th e making o f an y gr ant und er cl aus e (1) and to an y law to b e mad e und er th at cl aus e as th ey h av e eff ect in r el ation to th e making of a gr ant wi th r eg ard to an y exp enditu r e mention ed in th e annu al fin an ci al st at ement and th e l a w to b e ma d e for th e au thoris ation of appropri a tion of mo n e ys out of th e Consolid at ed Fund of Ind i a to meet su ch exp enditu r e. 117 . Special p rovis ions as to finan cia l Bills .— (1) A Bill or amen d men t ma k ing provision for an y of th e ma t t ers sp ecif ied in sub- cl au ses (a) to (f) of cl aus e (1) of ar ti cl e 110 sh all not b e introdu ced or mov ed ex cept on th e r e co mme nd ation of th e Pr esid en t an d a Bill ma king su ch provis ion shall not b e introdu ced in th e Coun cil of St at es: Provid ed th at no r e co mme nd ation sh al l b e r equir ed und er this cl au s e fo r th e moving of an amend ment ma king provision fo r th e redu ction or aboli tion of an y t ax . (2) A Bill or amen d men t sh al l no t b e d eemed to ma k e provision fo r an y of th e matt ers afor es aid b y r e ason onl y th at it provid es for th e i mpos ition of f in es or oth er p ecuni ar y p enalt i es , or for the d emand or p aymen t of fees for li cen c es or fees for s ervi c es r end er ed, or b y r e ason that i t provid es for th e i mposition , aboli tion , r e mission , alt er ation or r egul ation of an y t ax b y an y lo cal authorit y or bod y for lo cal purpos es . (3) A Bil l whi ch , if en act ed and brought into op er at ion, would involv e exp enditu re from th e Consolidat ed Fund of Indi a sh all not b e pass ed b y eith er Hous e of P arli ament un less th e Pr esid ent h as r eco mme nd ed to th at Hous e th e consid er at ion of th e Bil l. P ro c ed u r e G en era l l y 1 1 8 . Rul e s o f p ro c edu r e .— (1) Each Hous e of P arli ament may mak e rul es for r egulating , subj ect to th e provi sions of th is Constitu tion , i ts pro c edur e and th e condu ct of its busin es s. (2) Until rul e s ar e mad e und er cl aus e (1) , th e rul es of pro c edur e and st and ing ord ers in for ce i mme di at el y b efor e th e co mme n cement of this Consti tution with r esp ect to th e Legisl atu r e o f th e Do minion of Indi a sh all h av e eff e ct in r el a tion to P ar li a ment subj ect to su ch mo d ification s and ad apt at ions as may b e mad e th er ein b y th e Ch air man of the Coun cil of St at es or th e Speak er of th e Hous e of th e P eople, as th e cas e may b e. (3) Th e Pr es id ent , aft er consu ltation wi th th e Ch air man of th e Coun cil of St at es and th e Sp eak er of th e Hous e o f th e Peopl e, ma y make rul es as to th e pro cedur e with r esp ect to joint sit tings of , and co mmu ni cations b et w e en , th e two Hous es .


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(4) At a join t sitt ing of th e t wo Hous es th e Sp ea k er of th e Hous e of th e P eopl e, or in his abs en ce su ch p erson as ma y b e det er min ed b y rul es of pro cedur e mad e und er cl aus e (3), sh all pr esid e. 119. Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial business.— Parliament may, for the purpose of the timely completion of financial business, regulate by law the procedure of, and the conduct of business in, each House of Parliament in relation to any financial matter or to any Bill for the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of India, and, if and so far as any provision of any law so made is inconsistent with any rule made by a House of Parliament under clause (1) of article 118 or with any rule or standing order having effect in relation to Parliament under clause (2) of that article, such provision shall prevail. 120. Language to be used in Parliament.— (1) Notwithstanding anything in Part XVII, but subject to the provisions of article 348, business in Parliament shall be transacted in Hindi or in English: Provided that the Chairman of the Council of States or Speaker of the House of the People, or person acting as such, as the case may be, may permit any member who cannot adequately express himself in Hindi or in English to address the House in his mother-tongue. (2) Unless Parliament by law otherwise provides, this article shall, after the expiration of a period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, have effect as if the words “or in English” were omitted therefrom. 121. Restriction on discussion in Parliament.— No discussion shall take place in Parliament with respect to the conduct of any Judge of the Supreme Court or of a High Court in the discharge of his duties except upon a motion for presenting an address to the President praying for the removal of the Judge as hereinafter provided. 122. Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Parliament.— (1) The validity of any proceedings in Parliament shall not be called in question on the ground of any alleged irregularity of procedure. (2) No officer or member of Parliament in whom powers are vested by or under this Constitution for regulating procedure or the conduct of business, or for maintaining order, in Parliament shall be subject to the jurisdiction of any court in respect of the exercise by him of those powers. CHAPTER III—LEGISLATIVE POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT 123. Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament.—(1) If at any time, except when both Houses of Parliament are in session, the President is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action, he may promulgate such Ordinances as the circumstances appear to him to require. (2) An Ordinance promulgated under this article shall have the same force and effect as an Act of Parliament, but every such Ordinance— (a) shall be laid before both Houses of Parliament and shall cease to operate at the expiration of six weeks from the reassembly of Parliament, or, if before the expiration of


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that period resolutions disapproving it are passed by both Houses, upon the passing of the second of those resolutions; and (b) may b e withdr awn at an y time b y th e Pr es id ent . Explanation . —Wh e r e th e Ho u s es o f P arli ame n t ar e su mmo n ed to r e ass e mbl e on diff er ent d at es , t h e p eriod of six week s sh al l b e r e ckon ed fro m th e l at er of thos e d at es for th e purpos es of this cl aus e. (3) If and so f ar as an Ordin ance und er th is arti cl e ma k es an y provision whi ch P a rli a ment wou ld not und er this Constitution b e co mp etent to en act, it sh all be void . * * * * * C H A P T E R I V .—T H E U N I O N J U D I C I A R Y 124 . Establishmen t and constitu tion of Sup reme Cou rt .— (1) Th er e sh al l b e a Supreme Co urt of Indi a cons isting of a Chi ef Justi ce of Indi a and , unti l P arliamen t b y l aw pr es cr ib es a l arger nu mb er , of not mor e th an 1 s ev en o t h er J u d g es . (2) Ev er y Judg e of th e Supr eme Cou rt shall b e appointed b y th e Pr esid en t b y warr ant und er his h and and seal aft er consult at ion with su ch of th e Judg es of th e Sup r eme Court and of th e High Courts in th e St at es as th e Pr esid ent may d eem n ecessar y for the purpos e and sh al l hold offi ce unti l h e at t ains th e ag e of sixt y-fiv e years : Provid ed th at in th e cas e of appoint me nt of a Judg e oth er th an th e Chi ef Jus ti c e, th e Chief Just i c e of Indi a sh al l al ways b e consult ed: P r o v i d ed f u r t h er t h at — (a) a Judg e ma y, b y wri ting und er hi s h and addr essed to th e Pr esid en t, r es ign his offi ce; (b) a Judg e ma y b e r e mov ed fro m h is offi ce in th e mann er provid ed in cl aus e (4) . (2 A) Th e ag e of a Judg e o f the Supr eme Court sh al l b e d et ermi n ed b y su ch authori t y and in su ch manner as P arli ament may b y l aw provid e. (3) A p er son sh all not b e qu ali fi ed for appo int ment as a Judg e of th e Supr eme Cou rt unl ess h e is a citi zen of Indi a and— (a) h as been for at l east f iv e years a Judg e of a High Cour t or of two or mor e su ch Courts in su cces sion; or (b) h as b een for at l east t en years an advo cat e of a High Court or of t wo or mor e su ch Courts in su ccession ; o r ( c) is , in th e opinion of th e Pr esid en t, a dist inguish ed jur ist . Explanation I .— In thi s cl aus e "High Court'' mean s a High Court wh i ch ex er cis es, or whi ch at an y t i me b efor e th e co mmen cemen t of this Consti tution ex er cis ed , jur isdi ction in an y p art of th e t err itor y of Indi a.

_______________________________________________ 1. Now “twenty-five”, vide Act 22 of 1986, s. 2


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Explanation II .— In co mputing for th e purpose of this cl au s e th e p eriod during whi ch a p erson has b een an advo cat e, an y p eriod during wh i ch a p erson h as h e ld judi ci al offi ce not in f erior to th at of a d istri ct judg e af t er h e b e c a me an ad v o c at e s h all b e i n clu d ed . (4) A Judg e of th e Supr eme Court sh all not b e r emov ed fro m his of fi ce ex cept b y an ord er of th e Pr esid ent p ass ed aft er an addr ess b y each Hous e of P ar li a me nt support ed b y a ma j o ri t y of th e to t al me mb er ship of th at Hous e and b y a maj ori t y of not l ess th an t wo-thirds of th e memb ers o f th at Hous e pr es en t an d voting h as been pr es en t ed to th e Pr esid en t in th e s a me s ess ion for such r e mov al on th e ground of prov ed misbeh aviour or in c ap a ci t y. (5) P arli ament may b y l aw r egul at e th e pro cedur e for th e pr esent at ion of an addr ess and for th e inv estig at ion and proof of th e misbeh aviour or in cap aci t y of a Judg e und er cl aus e (4) . (6) Ev er y p erson appo int ed to b e a Judg e of th e Sup r eme Court sh all , b efor e h e ent er s upon his off i ce, ma k e and sub scrib e b efor e th e Pr esid en t, or so me p erson appoint ed in th at b eh alf b y hi m, an o ath or affi r mation according to th e for m s et out for th e purpos e in th e Third S ch edul e. (7) No p e rson who h as h eld o ffice as a Judg e of th e Supr eme Court sh al l pl ead or act in an y court or befor e an y authori t y wi thin th e t err itor y of India. 1 2 5 . S a l a r i e s , e t c . , o f J u d g e s .— (1) Th er e sh all b e p aid to th e Judg es of th e Supr eme Court su ch s a l ari es as ma y b e d et er min ed b y P arl i a ment b y l aw and, unti l provis ion in that b eh alf is so mad e, su ch s al ar i es as ar e sp ecif i ed in th e S e cond S ch edule. (2) Ever y Judg e s h all b e entit l ed to su ch privileg es and allo wan c es and to su ch right s in r esp ect of l eav e of abs en ce and p ension as may fro m ti me to ti me b e d et er min ed b y o r u n d er l a w ma d e b y P arl i a men t an d , u n ti l so d et er min ed , to su ch priv il eg es , allo wan ces and right s as ar e sp ecif i ed in th e S econd S ch edul e: Provid ed th at neith er th e privi leg es nor th e allo wan c es of a J udg e no r his rights in r esp ect o f l e av e of abs en c e or p ension sh all b e v ari ed to his dis adv an t age af ter his appoint ment . 1 2 6 . Appo int me nt o f a ct ing Chi ef J u sti c e .—Wh en th e offi ce of Chi ef Jus ti ce of India is v acant or wh en th e Chief Just i c e is , b y r e ason of abs en ce or oth er wis e, un abl e to p erfo r m th e duti e s of his offi ce , th e du ti es of th e offi ce shall b e p erfor med b y su ch on e of th e oth er Judg es of th e Court as th e Pr esid en t ma y appoint for th e purpos e. 127 . Appoint ment of ad ho c Judg es .— (1) If at an y ti me ther e should not b e a quorum o f th e Judg es of th e Supr eme Court av ail abl e to hold or continu e an y s ess ion of th e Court , th e Chi ef Just i ce of Indi a may, wi th th e pr evious cons ent of th e Pr esid en t and after consult a tion with th e Chi ef Justi ce of th e High Court con c ern ed , r equ est in writ ing th e


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att end an ce at the sit tings of th e Court , as an ad ho c Judg e, for su ch p eriod as may b e n ecess ar y, of a Judg e of a High Court dul y qu ali fi ed for appoint ment as a Judg e of th e Supr eme Court to b e d esign at ed by th e Chi ef Jus ti ce o f Ind i a. (2) I t sh all b e th e dut y of th e Judg e who h as b e en so d esign at ed , in prior it y to o th er duti es of his offi ce, to att end th e sitt ings o f th e Supr eme Court at th e time an d for th e p eriod for wh i ch his att end an ce is r equir ed , a n d wh il e so att en d in g h e sh a ll h av e a ll th e ju r isd i ctio n , p o w ers an d priv il eg es , and sh al l d is ch arg e th e duti e s, of a Judg e of th e Supr eme Cou rt . 128 . Att endance of reti red Judg es at sitting s of th e Sup reme C o u rt .— Not withst an d ing an ything in this Ch apt er , th e Ch i ef Justi ce of Indi a ma y at any ti me , with th e pr evious cons ent of th e Pr esident , r equ est an y person who h as h eld th e offi ce of a Judg e of th e Sup reme Court or o f th e F ed er al Court or who h as held th e off i ce of a Judg e of a High Court and is dul y qu ali fi ed for appo int ment as a Judg e of th e Supr eme Co urt to si t and act as a Judg e of th e Supr eme Court , and ev er y su ch p er son so r equ est ed sh all , whil e so s itting an d acting , b e ent itl ed to su ch al lowan ces as th e Pr esid en t may b y ord er d et er min e and h av e all th e jurisd i ction , po wers and privil eg es of , but shall not o th erwise b e d eemed to b e, a Judg e of th at Court: Provid ed th at nothing in this arti cl e sh all b e d eemed to r equi r e an y su ch p erson as afor es aid to sit and act as a Judge of th at Court unl ess h e cons en ts so to do . 1 2 9 . S u p r e me C o u rt t o b e a co u rt o f r e co rd .— Th e Supr eme Court sh al l b e a court o f r ecord and sh all hav e all th e powers of su ch a court in cluding th e po wer to punish for cont empt of its elf . 1 3 0 . S ea t o f S u p r e me C o u rt . —T h e S u p r e me C o u rt sh all sit in D e lh i o r in such oth er place or p l aces, as the Chi ef Jus ti ce of Indi a may, with th e approv al of th e Pr esid en t, fro m ti me to ti me, appoint . 131 . Orig inal ju risd i ction of th e Sup reme Cou rt . —Subj ec t to the provis ions of this Constitu tion , th e Supr eme Court sh all , to the ex clu sion of an y oth er court , h av e origin al jurisd i ction in an y disput e— (a) b et w een th e Gov ern ment of Indi a and on e o r mo r e St at es; or (b) b etween th e Gov ern ment of Indi a and an y St at e or St at es on on e sid e and on e or mo r e oth er St ates on th e oth er; or ( c) b et w e en t wo o r mo r e S t a t es , if an d in so f ar as th e dispu t e involv es an y qu est ion (wh e th er of l a w or f act) on whi ch th e exist en ce or ext ent of a l eg al right d ep ends: Provid ed th at th e s a id jurisd i ction sh all no t ex t end to a disput e ar ising out of an y t r e aty, a gr e e men t, cov en ant , eng ag eme n t , sanad or oth er s i mil ar ins tru men t wh ich , h aving b een en t er ed into or ex ecut ed b efor e th e co mmen cement of this Constitu tion , con tinues in op er ation aft er su ch


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co mmen cement , or whi ch provid es th at th e s aid jur isdi ction sh all no t ext end to su ch a disput e. 1 3 1 A . [ Exclu si ve ju risdi ct ion of th e Supr em e Court in r egard to qu est ions a s to consti tutional va lid it y of Central la ws .] Rep. b y th e Consti tution (F ort y- third Amen d m en t ) Act , 1977 , s. 4 (w . e . f . 13-4-1978 ). 132 . App el lat e ju ris di ction of Sup reme Court in app ea ls fro m Hi gh Cou rts in certain ca s es .— (1) An app e al shall l i e to th e Supr eme Cour t fro m an y judg ment , d ecr ee o r fin al o rd er of a High Cour t in th e t erritor y o f Indi a, wh eth er in a civil , cri min al or oth er proceeding , if th e High Court cert ifi es und er art i cl e 134A th at th e cas e involv es a subs t anti al qu es tion of l a w as to th e interpr et a tion of this Const itution . * * * * * (3) Wh er e su ch a certif i c at e is giv en , an y p art y in th e cas e ma y app e al to th e Supr eme Court on th e ground th at an y su ch qu estion as afor es aid h as b een wrongl y d ecid ed . Explanation . — For th e purposes of this arti cl e, th e expr ession “f in al ord er ” in clud es an ord er d e ciding an i ssu e wh i ch , if d e cid ed in f avour o f th e ap p ell an t, would b e suffi cien t for th e fin al dispo sal o f th e cas e. 133 . App el lat e ju ris di ction of Sup reme Court in app ea ls fro m Hi gh C ou rts in rega rd to civ il ma t t ers .— (1) An ap p e al shall li e to th e Supr eme Court fro m an y judg me nt , d ecr ee or fin al ord e r in a civil pro ceeding of a High Court in th e t erritor y of Indi a if th e High Court c e r t if i es u n d er art i cl e 1 3 4 A — (a) th at th e case involv es a subst an ti al qu estion of l a w of gen er al i mp o r t an c e; an d (b) th at in th e opinion of th e High Court th e s aid qu es tion n eeds to b e d ecid ed b y the Supr eme Court . (2) No t with st anding an yth ing in art icl e 132, an y p art y ap p e aling to th e Supr eme Court und er cl aus e (1) may u rg e as on e of th e grounds in su ch app e al th at a subst an ti al qu estion of l aw as to th e int erpr et ation of this C onsti tution h as b een wrong l y decid ed . (3) No twithst anding an ything in this ar ti cl e, no ap p e al sh all, unl es s P arl i a ment b y law oth er wis e provid es , l i e to th e Supr eme Court fro m th e judg ment , d ecr ee or fin al ord er of on e Judg e o f a High Cour t. 134 . App el lat e ju ris di ction of Sup reme Cou rt in rega rd to cri mi nal ma t t ers .—(1) An app eal sh all lie to th e Supr eme Court f ro m any judg ment , fin a l o rder o r sent en ce in a cri min al pro ceeding of a High Court in th e t err itor y of India if th e High Court — (a) h as on app eal r ev ers ed an ord er of acquit t al of an accus ed p erson and s enten ced hi m to d eath; or


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(b) h as wi thdraw n for t ri al befor e its elf an y cas e f ro m an y court subordin a t e to its au tho rit y and h as in su ch tr ial convi ct ed th e accus ed p erson and s enten ced hi m to d eath; or ( c) certif i es und er arti cl e 134A th at th e cas e is a fit on e fo r app e al to th e Supr eme Court: P ro v id ed th a t an ap p e al u n d er su b - cl au se (c) sh all li e subj ec t to su ch provis ions as ma y b e ma d e in th at b eh a lf under cl au s e (1) of art i cl e 145 and to su ch condit ions as th e High Court may est ab lish or r equir e. (2) P arli ament may b y l aw conf er on th e Supr eme Cour t any f urth er po wers to ent ert ain and h ear app eals fro m any judg ment , f inal ord er or s ent en ce in a cri min al pro ceeding of a High Court in th e t erritor y of Indi a subj ect to su ch condit ions and li mit a tions as may b e sp ecifi ed in su ch l a w. 134 A. Certifi cat e fo r app eal t o th e Sup reme Co u rt .— Ever y High Court , p assing or making a judg ment , d ecr ee, fin al ord er, or s ent en ce, r ef err ed to in cl aus e (1) of art i cl e 132 or claus e (1 ) of art icl e 133 , or c l aus e (1) of arti cl e 134 , — (a) ma y, i f it d eems fit so to do , on its o wn mot ion; and (b) sh all , if an or al appli c ation i s mad e , b y or on b eh alf of th e p ar t y aggri ev ed , i mmedi at el y aft er th e p ass ing or mak ing of su ch judg ment , d e cr e e , fin al o rd er o r s en t en c e , d et er min e, as soon as ma y b e aft er su ch p assing o r ma king , th e qu estion wh eth er a certifi c at e of th e n atur e r ef err ed to in cl aus e (1) of ar ti cl e 132 , o r cl au s e ( 1 ) o f a r t i cl e 1 3 3 o r , as t h e c as e ma y b e , s u b - cl au s e (c) of cl au s e (1) of arti cl e 134 , may b e giv en in r esp ect of that cas e. 135 . J urisdi ction and pow ers of th e Fed era l Cou rt und er ex isting law t o b e ex e r ci s a b l e b y t h e S u p r e me C o u rt .— U n til P arli ame n t b y l a w oth er wis e prov id es , th e Supr eme Cou rt sh all also h av e jurisdi c tion and po wers with r esp ect to an y ma tter to whi ch th e provis ions of arti cl e 133 or art i cl e 134 do not appl y i f jurisdi ct ion and po we rs in r e l ation to th at ma tt er w e r e ex er ci s abl e b y th e F ed er al C ourt i mme d i at e l y b efo r e th e co mmen cement of this Const itution und er an y exis ting l aw. 136 . Special leav e to appeal by th e Sup reme C ou rt .—(1 ) Not withs t anding an ything in this Ch ap t er, th e Supr eme Court ma y, i n its dis cr etion , gr ant sp eci al l eave to appeal f ro m an y judg ment , d ecr ee, d et er min at ion, sent en ce or ord er in an y caus e or mat t er p as s ed or mad e b y an y court or tribun al in th e t err itor y of Indi a. (2) Noth ing in cl au s e (1) sh all appl y to an y judg ment , d et ermi n ation , s ent en ce or order p a ss ed or ma d e b y an y court or tribun al con sti tut ed b y o r u n d er an y l a w r e l at in g t o t h e Ar me d F o r c es . 1 3 7 . R ev i ew o f j u d g me n ts o r o r d e rs b y t h e S u p r e me C o u rt .— Subj ect to th e p rovisions of an y l a w ma d e b y P arl i a ment or an y rul es ma d e und er


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art i cl e 145, th e Supr eme Cour t sh all h av e power to r evi ew an y judg ment pronoun ced or ord er mad e b y i t. 138 . Enla rg ement of th e ju risdi ct ion of th e Sup reme Cou rt . — (1) Th e Supr eme Court sh al l h av e su ch furth e r jurisdi c tion an d po wers with r esp ect to an y of th e matt ers in th e Union List as P arli amen t may b y l aw con f er. (2) Th e Supr eme Court sh all hav e su ch fu rth er ju risdi ct ion and po wers with r esp ect to an y ma tt er as the Gov ern me nt of Indi a and th e Gov ern me nt of an y St at e may b y sp eci al agr eement conf er , if P ar li amen t b y l aw provid es for th e ex er cis e of su ch jur isdi ction and po wers b y th e Supr eme Court . 139 . Conf erme nt on th e Su pre me Co u rt of pow ers to i ssu e certa in w rits .— P arli amen t may b y law conf er on th e Supr eme Court po wer to is sue d ir ections, ord ers or writs , in cluding writs in th e n atur e of hab eas c o r p u s , ma n d a m u s , prohibi tion , quo warran to an d certiorari , or an y of th em, for an y purpos es oth er than thos e me ntion ed in cl aus e (2) of ar ti cl e 32. 1 3 9 A . T ra n s f e r o f c e r t a i n ca s es .— (1) Wh er e cas es involv ing th e s a me or subst ant i all y th e s a me qu estions of l a w ar e p ending b efor e th e Supr eme Court and on e or mor e High Courts or b efor e two or mo r e High Cour ts and th e Supr eme Court is s ati sfi ed on i ts own mo tion or on an app li cat ion mad e b y th e At to rn e y- G en er al o f In d i a o r b y a p art y to an y su ch c as e th at su ch qu est ions ar e subst an ti al qu estions of g en er al i mport an ce, the Supr eme Court ma y withdr aw th e cas e or cas es p ending b efor e th e High Court or th e High Courts and dispos e of all th e cas es its el f: Provid ed th at th e Supr eme Court ma y af ter d e t er mining t he s aid qu est ions of l aw r eturn an y cas e so withdr awn tog e th er with a cop y of its judg me nt on such qu estions to th e High Cou rt fro m whi ch th e cas e h as b e en withdr awn, and th e High Court sh all on r eceip t th er eof , pro ceed to dispo se of th e ca s e in confor mity with su ch judg me nt . (2) Th e Supr eme Cour t ma y, if it d eems it exp edi ent so to do for th e ends of justi ce, tr ans f er an y cas e, app eal or oth er pro ceed ings p ending b efor e an y High Court to an y o th er High Cou rt . 140 . An cilla ry pow e rs of Sup reme Cou r t.— P arli ame nt may b y l aw mak e provi sion for conf erring upon th e Supr eme Cour t su ch suppl ement al po wers not in consi st ent with any of th e prov isions of this Const itution as ma y ap p e ar to b e n ecess ar y or d esir ab l e for th e purpos e of en abling th e Court mo r e eff ectiv el y to ex er cis e th e jurisd i ction conf er r ed upon i t b y or und er this Constitu tion . 141 . Law d eclared by Sup reme Cou rt to b e bind ing on all cou rts .— Th e l aw d ecl ared b y th e Supreme Cour t sh all b e b inding on all courts within th e t er ritor y of Indi a. 1 4 2 . En f o r c e me n t o f d e c r e es a n d o rd e rs o f S u p r e me C o u rt a n d o rd e rs as to dis cov ery , et c.— (1 ) Th e Supr eme Court in th e ex ercis e of its


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ju r isd i ctio n ma y p as s su ch d e cr e e o r ma k e su c h o rd e r as is n e c e ss ar y fo r doing co mpl et e ju sti ce in an y caus e or mat t er p ending b efor e i t, and an y d e cr ee so p ass ed or o rd er so ma d e sh all b e enfor ceabl e throughout th e t err itor y of India in su ch ma nn er as ma y b e pr es crib ed b y or und er an y l a w mad e b y P arli amen t and , until provis ion in th at b eh alf is so mad e, in su ch ma n n er as th e Pr esid en t ma y b y ord er pr es crib e. (2) Subj ect to t h e provis ions o f an y l a w ma d e in this b eh alf b y P arl i ament , th e Supr eme Court sh al l, as r esp ects the who l e of th e t er ritor y of Ind i a, h av e all and ev er y po wer to mak e an y ord er for the purpos e o f s e curing th e attend an ce of an y p erson , th e d is cov er y or produ ction of an y do cu ments , or th e inv est igation or punish ment of an y cont emp t of its el f. 143 . Pow er o f Presid ent to consul t Sup reme Cou rt . — (1) If at an y ti me i t ap p ears to th e Pr es id en t th at a qu es tion of l a w or f a ct has aris en , or is lik el y to ar ise, whi ch is of su ch a n atur e an d of su ch pub lic i mport an ce th at it is ex p edient to ob t ain the opinion o f th e Supr eme Court upon it , h e ma y r e f er th e qu est ion to th at Court fo r consid er at ion an d the Court ma y, aft er su ch h e aring as it th inks f it , r eport to th e Pr esid en t it s opinion th er eo n . (2) Th e Pr esid en t may, no twithst an d ing an ything in th e p roviso to arti cl e 131 , r ef er a disput e of th e kind men tion ed in th e s aid proviso to th e Supr eme Court for opinion and th e Supr eme Court sh all , aft er su ch h ear ing as it th inks fit , r eport to th e Pr esid en t its opinion th er eo n . 144 . Civil and judi cial autho rit i es to a ct in aid of th e Sup reme C o u rt .— All authori ti es , civi l and judi ci al , in th e t errito r y of Ind i a sh al l act in aid of th e Supr eme Cour t. 1 4 4 A . [ Special pro vis ions as to disposa l of qu est ions r elating to const itutional va lid it y of laws.] Rep . b y th e Co n stitu tion (Fort y- third A m e n d m en t ) A ct , 1977 , s . 5 ( w . e. f . 1 3 - 4 - 1 9 7 8 ) . 145 . Rul es of Cou rt , et c.— (1) Subj ect to th e provisions of an y l a w mad e b y P ar li amen t , th e Sup r eme Co urt may f ro m t i me to time, wi th th e approv al of th e Pr esid en t, mak e ru l es for r egulating g en er all y th e pr acti ce and pro cedur e of th e Court in cluding — (a) rul es as to th e p ersons pr actis ing b efo r e the Court; (b) rul es as to th e pro c edur e for h earing ap p eals and oth er ma tt ers p ert aining to app eals in cluding th e t i me within whi ch app eals to th e Court ar e to b e ent er ed ; ( c) rul e s as to th e pro c eedings in th e Court fo r th e en for c ement of an y of th e rights conf err ed b y Part III ; ( c c) rul es as to th e pro ceedings in th e Court under arti cl e 139 A; (d) ru l es as to th e en t e rt ain me n t o f ap p e als u n d er su b - cl au s e (c) o f cl aus e (1) of arti cl e 134;


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( e) rul es as to th e condi tions subj ect to whi ch an y judg me nt pronoun ced or o rd er mad e by t h e Court may b e r evi ewed and th e pro c edur e for su ch r evi ew in cluding th e ti me within wh i ch appli cations to th e Court for su ch r evi ew ar e to b e ent er ed; (f) ru l es as to th e co sts o f an d in cid en t al to an y p ro c e ed in g s in th e Court an d as to th e f e es to b e ch arg ed in r esp ect of pro ceedings th er ein ; (g) rul es as to th e gr anting of bail ; (h) rul es as to stay of pro ceedings; (i) rul es providing for th e summa r y d e t er min ation of an y app e al whi ch app e ar s to th e Court to b e f rivolous or v ex atiou s or b rought for th e purpos e of del ay; (j) ru l es as to the pro c edur e for inqui ri es r ef err ed to in cl au s e (1) of a rt i cl e 317 . (2) Subj ect to th e provision s of cl au s e (3) , rul es ma d e und er this art i cl e may f ix th e mini mu m nu mb er of Judg es who ar e to sit for an y purpos e, and may p rovid e for th e powers o f singl e Judg es and Division Courts . (3) The mi ni mum n u mb er o f Judg es who ar e to sit for th e purpos e of d e ciding an y cas e involving a subs t anti al qu est ion of l a w as to th e int e rpr et ation of this Co n stitution or for the pu rpos e of h e aring an y r ef er en ce und er art i cl e 143 sh all b e fiv e: Provid ed th at , wh er e th e Court h e aring an app e al under an y of th e provis ions of this Ch ap t er oth er th an arti cl e 132 consis ts o f l ess th an fiv e Judg es and in th e cour s e of th e h e ar ing of th e app e al th e Court is s atisfi ed th at th e app e al involv es a subs tan ti al qu est ion of l a w as to th e int e rpr et ation of this Cons titution th e d et er mination of wh i ch is n ecess ar y for th e d ispos al of th e app eal, su ch Court sh all r ef er th e qu est ion for opinion to a Court cons titut ed as r equi r ed b y this cl aus e for the purpos e of d e ciding an y cas e involv ing such a qu estion and sh all on r e ce ipt of th e opinion di spos e of th e app eal in confor mit y with su ch opinion . (4) No judg ment sh all b e d eliver ed b y th e Supr eme Court s ave i n op en Court , and no report sh all b e mad e und er articl e 143 s av e in accord an ce with an opinion also d el iver ed in op en Cour t. (5) No judg me nt and no su ch opinion sh al l b e d eliv er ed b y th e Supr eme Court s av e wi th th e con cur ren ce of a ma jor it y of th e Judg es pres ent at th e h e aring o f th e ca s e , but no thing in this cl au s e sh all b e d eemed to p r ev en t a Judg e who do es no t con cur fro m d eliv ering a di ss enting judg me nt or opinion . 146 . Off i cers and s ervants and th e exp ens es of th e Sup reme Cou rt . — (1) Appoin t ments of offi cers and s erv an ts of th e Sup r eme Court sh all b e ma d e b y th e Chi ef Justi ce of Indi a or su ch oth er Judg e or offi cer of th e Court as h e may dir ect :


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Provid ed th at th e P resid en t may b y rul e r equir e th at in su ch cas es as may b e sp ecif i ed in th e rul e , no p erson not alr e ad y at t a ch ed to th e Co u rt sh al l b e appoint ed to an y offi ce conn ect ed with th e Court , s av e aft er consul t ation with th e Un ion Publi c S erv i ce Co mmi ssion . (2) Subj ect to th e provisions of any l a w ma d e b y P arl i ame n t , th e condit ions of servi ce of off i cers and s erv ant s of th e Sup r eme Cour t sh all b e su ch as ma y b e pr es crib ed by rul es mad e by th e Ch i ef Justi ce of Indi a or b y so me other Judg e or offi cer of th e Court author is ed by th e Chi ef Jus ti ce o f Ind i a to mak e rul es for th e purpos e: Provid ed th at the ru l es ma d e und er this cl au se sh all , so f ar as th e y r e l at e to s al ar ies, allo wan c es , l e av e or p ens ions , requir e th e approv al of th e P r esid en t. (3) Th e ad ministr a tiv e exp enses o f th e Supreme Co urt , in cluding all s al ar i es , allo wan c es and p ensions p a yabl e to or in r esp ect of th e off icers and s erv an ts o f th e Court , sh al l b e ch arg ed upon th e Consol id at ed Fund of In d i a , an d an y fe e s o r o th er mo n e ys t ak en b y th e Co u rt sh all fo r m p art o f th at Fund . 147 . Int erp retation .—In this Ch apt er and in Ch apt er V of P ar t VI, r ef er en c es to any s ubst anti a l quest ion of l aw as t o th e int erpr etation of this Consti tution shall b e const ru ed as in cluding r ef er en c es to an y sub st anti al qu est ion of l a w as to th e in t erpr et a tion o f th e Gov e rn ment of Indi a Act, 1935 (in cluding an y en act ment amen ding or suppl ementing th at Act) , or o f an y Ord e r in Coun cil o r ord er mad e th er eund er , or of th e Ind i an I n d ep en d en c e Ac t , 1 9 4 7 , o r o f an y o r d er mad e t h er eu n d er .

C HA P TE R V.—C OM P TR O L LE R A N D A U DI T OR -G E N ER A L OF I N D I A 148 . Co mpt ro ller and Audito r- Gen eral of India .— (1 ) Th er e sh a ll b e a Co mptroll er and Aud itor- Gen er al of Indi a who sh all b e appoint ed b y th e Pr esid en t b y wa rr ant und er his h and and s eal and sh all onl y b e remov ed fro m offi ce in lik e ma nn er and on th e lik e grounds as a Judg e of th e S u p r e me Co u rt . (2) Ev er y p erson appoint ed to be th e Co mpt roller and Aud itor-Gen er al of Indi a sh all , b efor e h e en t ers upon hi s offi ce, mak e and sub s crib e b efor e th e Pr esid en t, or so me p erson appoint ed in th at b eh al f b y hi m, an o a th or affi r mation according to the for m s et out for th e purpos e in th e Th ird S ch ed u l e . (3) Th e s al ar y and oth er cond ition s of s ervi ce of th e Co mptroll er and A u d ito r- G en er al sh al l b e su ch a s ma y b e d et ermi n ed b y P a rli ame n t b y l aw and , unti l th ey ar e so d et er min ed , sh al l b e as sp ecifi ed in th e S e cond S ch edul e: Provid ed th at neith er th e s al a ry of a Co mp troll e r an d Auditor- Gen er al nor his rights in r esp ect of l e av e of abs en ce, p ension or ag e of r etir ement sh al l b e v ari ed to his dis adv ant ag e aft er his appoint me nt .


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(4) Th e Co mptroll er and Aud itor- G en er al sh all not b e el igibl e for fur th er offi ce eith er und er th e Gov ernme n t of Indi a or und er th e Gov ern me nt o f an y St at e aft er h e h as ceas ed to hold his offi ce. (5) Sub j ect to the prov isions of this Con stitut ion and of an y l a w mad e by P arl i ament , th e condit ions o f s ervi ce of p ersons s erving in th e Indi an Audit and Accounts Dep art ment and th e ad min istr ative po wers of the Co mptroll er a n d Au d ito r- G en er al sh all b e su ch as ma y b e p r es cr ib ed b y ru l es ma d e b y th e Pr esid en t aft er consul t ation with th e Co mptroll er and Auditor- Gen er al . (6) Th e ad min istr a tiv e ex p enses of th e off ice of th e Co mp trol l er and A u d ito r- G en era l , in clu d in g all s a l ari es , allo w a n c es an d p en sio n s p a y ab l e to or in r esp ect of p e rsons s erv ing in th at offi ce, sh al l b e ch arged upon th e Consolid at ed Fund of Indi a. 149. Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General.—The Comptroller and Auditor-General shall perform such duties and exercise such powers in relation to the accounts of the Union and of the States and of any other authority or body as may be prescribed by or under any law made by Parliament and, until provision in that behalf is so made, shall perform such duties and exercise such powers in relation to the accounts of the Union and of the States as were conferred on or exercisable by the Auditor-General of India immediately before the commencement of this Constitution in relation to the accounts of the Dominion of India and of the Provinces respectively. 150 . Fo rm o f accounts of th e Union and of th e Sta t es.— Th e a c c o u n t s of the Un ion an d of th e St at es sh al l b e k ept in su ch for m as th e Pr es id en t may, on th e advi ce of th e Co mptrol ler and Aud itor- Gen eral of Indi a, p r es cr ib e. 151 . Audi t repo rts .—(1) Th e r eport s of th e Co mptroll er and Aud itorGen er al of Indi a r e l ating to th e accounts of th e Union sh all b e sub mitt ed to th e Pr esid ent , who sh all cause t h em to b e laid b efor e each Hous e of P arl i a ment . (2) Th e r epor ts of th e Co mptro ll er and Audi tor-Gen er al of Ind ia r el a ting to th e accoun ts of a St at e sh all b e sub mit t ed to th e Gov ernor of th e S t at e, who sh all caus e th em to b e l aid b efor e th e Legisl atu r e of th e St at e.


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PART VI THE STATES C HA P TE R I.—G EN ER A L 1 5 2 . D ef i n it i o n .— In th is P ar t, unl ess th e cont ex t oth er wis e r equir es , the expr ess ion “S t ate” do es not in clud e th e St at e of J ammu and Kash mir . C H A P T E R I I. — T H E E X E C U T I V E Th e Governor 153 . Gov erno rs of Stat es .— Ther e sh all b e a Gov ernor for each St at e: Provid ed th at nothing in this arti cl e sh all pr ev en t th e appoin t me nt of th e s a me p er s o n as G o v er n o r f o r t wo o r mo r e S t a t es. 154 . Ex ecutiv e pow er of Stat e.—(1) Th e ex ecutiv e po wer o f th e St at e sh al l b e v est ed in th e Gov ernor and sh a ll be e x er cis ed b y hi m ei th er dir ectl y or through offi cers subordin a t e to him i n accord an ce with th is Consti tution . (2) Nothing in this art i cl e sh all— (a) b e d eemed to tr an sf er to th e Go v ernor any fun c tions conf err ed b y an y ex isting l aw on an y oth er authori t y; or (b) pr ev ent Pa rl i a ment or th e L eg isl atur e of th e St at e fro m conf err ing b y l a w fun ction s on an y authorit y subo rdin at e to th e G o v er n o r . 155 . Appoint ment of Gov erno r.— Th e Gov ernor of a St at e sh all b e appoint ed b y the Pr esid ent b y warr ant und er his h and and s eal. 1 5 6 . T e r m o f o f f i c e o f Go v e rn o r .—(1) Th e Gov ernor sh all hold offi ce during th e pl easur e of th e Pr esid ent . (2) Th e Gov ernor ma y, b y wri ting und er his h and addr essed to th e Pr esid en t, r es ign his offi ce. (3) Subj ect to th e fo r egoing provis ions of this ar ti cl e, a Gov ernor sh all hold offi ce for a t e r m of fiv e years fro m th e dat e on whi ch h e en t ers upon his off i ce: Provid ed th at a Go v e rnor sh all, no twithst anding th e expir ation of his t er m, continu e to hold offi ce unti l h is su ccessor ent ers upon his offi ce. 157 . Qualifi ca tions fo r appoint men t as Gov e rn o r .—No p erso n sh al l b e elig ibl e for appoint ment as Governor unl ess h e is a cit i zen of Indi a and h as co mpl et ed th e ag e of thirt y-fiv e years . 158 . Condit ions of Gov e rno r's offi ce.—(1 ) The Gov erno r sh all not b e a memb er of either Hou s e of P arli ament or of a Hous e o f th e Legis l atur e o f an y St at e sp ecifi ed in th e Firs t S ch edul e, and if a me mb er of eith er Hous e

55


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of P arli ament or of a Hou s e o f th e Legislatur e of an y su ch S t at e b e appoint ed Gov ernor , h e sh al l be d eemed to h av e v acat ed hi s s e at in th at Hous e on th e d at e on wh i ch h e ent ers upon his offi ce as Gov ernor . (2) Th e Gov ernor sh all not hold an y o th er office of profit . (3) Th e Gov ernor sh all b e enti tl ed without p a ymen t o f r ent to th e us e of his of fi ci al r esid en c es and sha ll b e al so en tit l ed to su ch emo lu me nts , a llo w an c es and priv il eg es as ma y b e d e t er min ed b y P a rli a me nt b y l a w and , unti l provision in th at b eh alf i s so ma d e, su ch emo lu me nts , allow a n c es and priv il eg es as are sp ecifi ed in the S e cond S ch edul e. (3 A) Wh er e th e s a me p e rso n is a p p o in t ed as G o v ern o r o f t wo o r mo re St at es, th e emolu ments and al lo wan ces p ayable t o th e Gov ernor sh all b e a llo c a t ed a mo n g th e S t at es in su ch p ro p o rtio n as th e Pr es id e n t ma y b y o rd er d et er min e. (4) Th e emo lumen ts and allowan ces of th e Gov ernor sh all not b e di mini sh ed dur ing his t er m of offi ce. 1 5 9 . Oa th o r a ffi r ma tio n by the G o v e rno r .—Ev er y Gov ernor and ev er y p erson di s ch arging th e fun c tions of th e Go v ernor sh all , b e for e en t er ing upon his offi ce, ma k e an d subscrib e in th e pr es en ce of th e Ch i ef Jus ti c e o f th e High Cour t ex er ci sing jurisdi c tion in r e l ation to th e St ate, or , in his abs en ce, th e senior mos t Judg e of th at Court av ail abl e, an o ath or affi r mation in th e follo wing form, th at is to s ay— “ I , A . B. , d o s w e a r i n t h e n a m e o f G o d th at I will solemnly affirm

f ai thfull y ex ecut e th e offi ce of Gov ernor (or dis ch arg e th e function s of G o v er n o r ) o f . .. . . . .. . . .. .(na m e of th e S tat e) and w ill t o the b est my ab ilit y pres erv e , prot ect and def end th e Consti tution and l a w and th at I will d evot e mys elf to th e s ervi ce and wel l-b eing of p eopl e of .. ……… (n ame of th e Stat e) . ”

th e of th e th e

160 . Dis cha rge of th e functions of th e Gov erno r in certain conting en c i es.— Th e Pr esid en t ma y ma k e su ch provision as h e thinks fit for th e dis ch arg e of th e fun ction s of th e Gov ernor of a St at e in an y conting en c y not provid ed for in this Ch apt er . 161 . Pow er of Gov erno r to g rant pa rdons , etc., and to susp end , remi t o r co mmu t e s ent en ces in certain cas es .— Th e Gov ernor of a St at e sh all h av e th e power to gr ant p ardons , r epr i eves, r espi t es or remi ssion s of punish me nt o r to susp end , r e mit or co mmut e th e s ent en ce o f an y p erson convi ct ed of any off en c e ag ainst an y l a w r el a ting to a ma tt er to wh i ch th e ex ecutiv e po wer of th e St at e extends . 162 . Ex t ent of ex ecutiv e pow er of Stat e.—Subj ect to th e provis ions of thi s Consti tution , th e ex ecutiv e po wer of a St ate s h all ex t end to th e matt ers with r esp ect to whi ch th e Leg isl atu r e of th e St at e h as po wer to mak e l aws: Provid ed th at in an y matt er with r esp ect to whi ch th e Legis l atur e of a St at e a n d P arl i ame n t h av e p o w er to ma k e l a ws , t h e ex e cu tiv e p o w er o f th e


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St at e sh all b e subj ect to, and li mit ed b y, th e ex ecutiv e po wer expr es sl y conf err ed b y this Consti tution or b y an y l aw ma d e b y Parli a me nt upon th e Union or authorit i es th er eof . Coun cil of Minist er s 1 6 3 . Co u n ci l o f M i n i s t e rs t o a i d a n d a d v i s e G o v e rn o r. —(1) Th er e sh al l b e a Council of Minist er s with th e Ch i e f Minist er at th e h e ad to aid and advis e th e Gov ernor in th e ex er cis e of hi s fun ction s, ex cept in so f ar as h e is b y or und er thi s Cons titut ion r equir ed to ex er cis e h is fun ction s o r an y of th em in his dis cr e tion . (2) If an y qu estion aris es wh eth er an y ma tt er i s or is not a ma t t er as r esp ect s wh i ch th e Gov ernor i s b y or und er this Cons titut ion r equir ed to act in his dis c r etion , th e d e cis ion of th e Go v e rnor in his dis c retion sh al l be fin a l, and th e valid it y of an yth ing don e b y the Gov ernor sh al l not b e call ed in question on th e ground th at h e ought or ought not to h av e act ed in his dis cr etion . (3) Th e qu estion wh eth er an y, and if so wh at , advi ce w as t end er ed b y Minist ers to th e Governor sh all not b e inquir ed into in an y court . 164 . Oth er p rovis ions as to Mini st ers .—(1 ) Th e Ch i ef Min iste r sh al l b e appoint ed b y the Gov ernor and th e oth e r Min ist er s sh all b e appoint ed b y th e Gov ernor on th e advi ce of th e Chi ef Minist er , and th e Mini st ers sh all hold offi ce during th e pl easur e of th e Gov ernor: Provid ed th at in th e St at es of B ih ar , M adh ya Pr ad esh and Oriss a, th er e sh al l b e a Minist er in ch arg e of trib al w elf ar e who may in addit ion b e in c h arg e o f th e we lf ar e o f th e S ch ed u l ed C ast es a n d b a ck w ard cla ss es o r an y oth er work . (1 A) Th e to t al nu mb er of Mini sters , in cluding th e Ch i ef Minis ter , in th e Coun cil of Min ist er s in a Stat e sh all not exceed fift een p er cent . of th e tot a l nu mb er of memb er s o f the Legisl ativ e As semb l y of th at Stat e: Provid ed th at th e nu mb er of Mini st ers , in cluding th e Chi ef Minis t er in a St at e sh all no t be l ess th an t w elv e: Provid ed fur th er that wh er e th e to t al nu mb er of Mini st ers in cluding th e Chi ef Minis ter in th e Council of Minis t ers in an y Stat e at th e co mmen cement of th e Cons titution (Nin et y-first Amend ment) Act , 2003 ex ceeds th e s a id fif t een p er ce nt . or th e numb e r sp ecif ied in th e first proviso , as th e cas e ma y b e , th en th e to t al nu mb er of Minist er s in th at St at e sh all b e brought in confor mit y with th e prov isions of thi s cl au s e within six months fro m su ch d at e* as the Pr es id en t may b y pub li c noti fi cation appoint . (1 B) A memb er of th e Legis l ativ e Ass embl y of a St at e or either Hous e of th e Legis l atur e of a St at e h aving Legisl at ive Coun cil b elonging to an y p o li ti c al p ar t y w h o is d isq u alifi ed fo r b ein g a me mb e r o f th at H o u s e u n d er p ar agr ap h 2 of th e Ten th S ch edul e sh all also b e disquali fi ed to b e ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

*7.1.2004: vide Notification No. S.O. 21(E), dated 7.1.2004.


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appoint ed as a Minis t er und er cl aus e (1) for dur ation of th e p eriod co mmen c ing from t h e d at e of his d isqu alif i c ation till th e d at e on whi ch th e t er m of h is office as su ch memb er would expi re or wh er e h e cont es ts an y el ect ion to th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y of a Stat e or ei th er Hous e of th e Legisl atur e of a St at e h av ing Legisl ativ e Coun cil , as th e cas e may b e, b efor e th e expir y of su ch p eriod , til l th e d ate on whi ch h e is d e cl ar ed e l e ct ed , wh i ch ev er is e arl ie r. (2) Th e Coun cil of Minis t ers sh al l b e co ll ectiv el y r esponsibl e to th e Legisl ativ e As semb l y of th e St at e. (3) Befor e a Minist er ent er s upon his offi ce, th e Gov ernor sh all ad minis ter to him t h e o aths of offi ce and of s e cr ecy accord ing to th e for ms s et out for th e purpos e in th e Third S ch edul e. (4) A Minis t er who for an y p eriod of six cons ecut iv e month s is no t a memb er o f th e Legisl atur e of th e St at e sh all at th e expir ation of th at p er iod ceas e to b e a Minis t er. (5) Th e s al a ri es and al low an ce s of Mini st ers sh all b e su ch as th e Legisl atur e of th e St at e ma y fro m ti me to ti me b y l a w d et e r min e and , unti l th e Legisl atur e o f th e St at e so d e t er min es , sh all b e as sp ecif i ed in th e S e co n d S ch ed u l e . Th e Ad vo cat e- Ge n eral for th e Stat e 1 6 5 . Ad v o ca t e- G e n e ra l f o r t h e S t a t e. —(1) Th e Gov ernor of each S tat e sh al l appoint a p erson who is qu ali fi ed to b e appoint ed a Judge of a High C ourt to b e Advo cat e- G en er al for th e St at e. (2) It sh al l b e th e du t y of th e Advo cat e- G en er al to giv e ad v ice to th e Gov ern ment of t h e St at e upon su ch l eg al matt ers, and to p erfor m s u ch o th er d u t i es o f a l eg al ch ar a c t er , as ma y fro m ti me to ti me b e r ef err ed o r assign ed to hi m b y th e Gov e rnor , and to dis ch arg e th e fun c tions conf err ed on hi m b y or und er this Const itution or an y other l a w for th e time b e ing in force. (3) The Advo cat e- G en er al sh all ho ld off i ce during th e p l easure o f th e Gov ernor , and sh al l r eceiv e su ch r e mun eration as th e Gov ernor may d et er min e . Condu ct of Go vern ment Busin ess 166 . Condu ct of bus in ess of th e Gov ern ment of a S tat e. — (1) All ex ecutiv e action of th e Go v ernme n t of a St at e sh al l b e expressed to be taken in the name of the Governor. (2) Orders and other instruments made and executed in the name of the Governor shall be authenticated in such manner as may be specified in rules to be made by the Governor, and the validity of an order or instrument which is so authenticated shall not be called in question on the ground that it is not an order or instrument made or executed by the Governor.


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(3) The Governor shall make rules for the more convenient transaction of the business of the Government of the State, and for the allocation among Ministers of the said business in so far as it is not business with respect to which the Governor is by or under this Constitution required to act in his discretion. * * * * * 167. Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to Governor, etc.—It shall be the duty of the Chief Minister of each State— (a) to communicate to the Governor of the State all decisions of the Council of Ministers relating to the administration of the affairs of the State and proposals for legislation; (b) to furnish such information relating to the administration of the affairs of the State and proposals for legislation as the Governor may call for; and (c) if the Governor so requires, to submit for the consideration of the Council of Ministers any matter on which a decision has been taken by a Minister but which has not been considered by the Council. CHAPTER III.—THE STATE LEGISLATURE General 168. Constitution of Legislatures in States.—(1) For every State there shall be a Legislature which shall consist of the Governor, and— (a) in the States of Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh, two Houses; (b) in other States, one House. (2) Where there are two Houses of the Legislature of a State, one shall be known as the Legislative Council and the other as the Legislative Assembly, and where there is only one House, it shall be known as the Legislative Assembly. 169. Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in States.—(1) Notwithstanding anything in article 168, Parliament may by law provide for the abolition of the Legislative Council of a State having such a Council or for the creation of such a Council in a State having no such Council, if the Legislative Assembly of the State passes a resolution to that effect by a majority of th e to t al me mb e rsh ip o f th e A ss e mb l y an d b y a ma jo ri t y of not l e ss th an two -thirds of t h e me mb ers of th e Ass e mb l y p r es en t an d voting . (2 ) An y l a w r e fe rr ed to in cl au s e (1 ) sh all co n t ain su ch p ro v isio n s fo r th e amend ment of this Consti tution as may b e n ecess ar y to giv e eff e ct to th e provision s of th e l a w and ma y also cont ain su ch suppl ement al , in cid en t al and cons equ ent i al p rovis ions as P ar li ament may d eem n ecess ar y. (3) No su ch l aw as afor es aid shall b e d eemed to b e an amend ment o f this Consti tution for th e purpos es of arti cle 368 . 170 . Co mp osition o f th e Leg islat iv e Ass e mb li es.—(1) Sub j ect to th e provis ions of art i cl e 333 , th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y of each St at e sh all


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consis t of not mo r e th an fiv e hundr ed , and not l ess th an sixt y, me mb ers chos en b y dir ect el ection fro m terri tori al const itu en ci es in th e St at e. (2) For th e purpos es of cl ause (1) , each St at e sh all b e divid ed in to t err itori al consti tu en ci es in su ch mann er that th e r atio bet w een th e popul at ion of each cons titu en cy and th e nu mb er of s e ats allott ed t o it sh all , so f ar as pr acti cabl e, b e th e s ame throughout th e St at e. Explanation . —In this cl au s e , th e expr ession “popul at ion ” means th e popul at ion as ascert ained at th e l as t pr eceding census of whi ch th e r el ev ant figur es h av e b een publish ed : Provid ed th at th e r ef er en ce in this Explanat ion to th e l ast pr eceding c e nsus of wh ich th e r e l ev ant figur es h av e b e en publish ed sh all , until th e r el ev an t figur es for th e firs t ce nsus t ak en after th e year 2026 h av e b e en publi sh ed, b e constru ed as a r efer en ce to th e 2001 census . (3) Upon th e comp l etion of each census , the tot al nu mb er of s eats in th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y of each St at e and th e divi sion of each St at e into t err itori al constitu en ci es sh all b e r e ad jus t ed by su ch au tho rity and in su ch ma n n er as P a rlia me n t ma y b y l aw d e t er min e: Provid ed th at su ch r e ad jus t ment sh al l not affect r epr es en t ation in th e Legisl ativ e As semb l y until th e dis solution of th e th en existing Ass e mbl y: Pro v id ed fu rth er th at su ch r e ad ju s t men t sh a ll ta k e eff e ct fro m su ch d at e as th e Pr esid en t ma y, b y ord er , sp eci f y an d unti l su ch r e ad just me nt t ak e s eff ect , an y el ection to th e Legisl ativ e As sembly may b e h eld on th e b asis of th e t err itori al consti tu enci es exis ting b efor e su ch r e adjus t ment: Provided also that until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2026 have been published, it shall not be necessary to readjust— (i) the total number of seats in the Legislative Assembly of each State as readjusted on the basis of the 1971 census; and (ii) the division of such State into territorial constituencies as may be readjusted on the basis of the 2001 census, under this clause. 171. Composition of the Legislative Councils.—(1) The total number of members in the Legislative Council of a State having such a Council shall not exceed one third of the total number of members in the Legislative Assembly of that State: Provid ed th at th e tot al nu mb er of me mb er s in th e Legisl at iv e Coun cil of a St at e sh all in no cas e b e less th an fort y. (2 ) Un til P arli ame n t b y l a w o th er wis e p ro v id es , th e co mp o sit io n o f th e Legisl ativ e Coun cil of a St at e sh all b e as provid ed in cl aus e (3) . (3) Of th e tot al nu mb er o f me mb ers of th e Legisl ativ e Coun cil of a S t at e —


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(a) a s n e arl y a s ma y b e , o n e-th i rd sh al l b e el e ct ed b y el e cto r at es consis ting of me mb ers of municip al iti es , distr ict bo ards and su ch oth er lo cal au thor iti es in th e St at e as P arl i a ment may b y l a w sp ecif y; (b) a s n e arl y a s ma y b e , o n e-tw e lfth sh all b e e l e ct ed b y el e cto r at es consis ting of persons r esid ing in th e St at e wh o h av e b e en for at l e ast thr ee year s g r adu at es of an y un iv ersi t y in th e t erri tor y of Indi a or h av e b e en fo r at l e ast th r e e y e ar s in p o ss ess io n o f q u ali fi c atio n s p r es cr ib ed b y or und er any l aw mad e b y P ar li ament as equiv al ent to th at of a gr adu at e of an y su ch univ ers it y; ( c) as n e ar l y as ma y b e , o n e -tw e lfth sh a ll b e e l e ct ed b y e l e cto r at es c onsis ting of p ersons who h av e b e en for a t l e ast thr e e ye ars eng ag ed in t eaching in su ch ed u cation al inst itutions within th e S t at e, not lo wer in st an d ard th an th at of a s e condar y s chool , as ma y b e pr es crib ed b y or u n d er an y l a w ma d e b y P ar li ame n t; (d) a s n e arl y a s ma y b e , o n e -th ird sh all b e el ec t ed b y th e me mb e rs of th e Legisl ativ e Ass e mbl y of t h e St at e fro m amo ngst p er sons who ar e n o t me mb er s o f th e Ass e mb l y; ( e) th e r e main d e r sh al l b e n o min at ed b y th e Go v ern o r in a c co rd an c e with th e provis ions of cl aus e (5) . (4) Th e memb ers to b e el ect ed und er sub- cl aus es ( a ) , (b ) and ( c) of cl au s e (3) sh all b e chos en in s u ch t err itori al constitu en ci es as may b e pr es cr ib ed b y or und er an y law mad e b y Parl i ament , and th e el ections und er th e s aid sub- cl aus e s and und er sub- cl ause ( d ) of th e s aid cl aus e sh al l b e h e ld in accord an ce wi th th e s yst em of p roport ion al r epr esent at ion b y me a n s of th e singl e tr ans f er abl e vot e . (5) Th e memb ers to b e no min ated b y th e Gov ernor und er sub- cl aus e ( e) of cl aus e (3) shall consi st of p ersons h aving speci al kno wl edg e or pr acti c al exp eri en ce in r esp ect of su ch ma tt ers as the fo llo wing , n a me l y:— L it er atur e, s ci en ce, art , co-op er at iv e mov ement and so ci al s ervi ce. 172. Duration of State Legislatures.—(1) Every Legislative Assembly of every State, unless sooner dissolved, shall continue for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting and no longer and the expiration of the said period of five years shall operate as a dissolution of the Assembly: Pro v id ed th at th e s aid p er io d ma y , w h i l e a Pro cl a ma tio n o f Eme r g en cy is in op er ation, b e ex t end ed b y P arli a me nt b y l a w for a p eriod not ex ceeding on e year at a ti me and not ext ending in an y cas e b eyond a p eriod o f six mo n th s aft er th e Pro cl a ma tio n h as c e as ed to o p er at e . (2) Th e Legisl ativ e Coun cil of a St at e sh all not b e subj ect to d issolu tion , but as n e ar l y as possib l e on e-third of th e memb e rs th er eof sh all r etir e as soon as may b e on th e expir ation o f ev er y s econd year in accord an ce with th e provis ions ma d e in th at b eh alf b y P arli a me nt b y l a w.


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173 . Qual ifi cation fo r me mb ership of the Stat e Leg islatu re.—A p erson sh al l not b e qu alifi ed to b e chos en to fill a s e at in th e Legisl atur e o f a S t at e u n l ess h e— (a) is a c it i zen o f In d i a , an d ma k e s an d su b s crib e s b efo r e so me p erson au thorised in th at b eh alf b y th e El ection Co mmi ssion an o ath or affi r mation according to the for m s et out for th e purpos e in th e Th ird S ch edul e; (b) i s, in th e ca s e of a s e at in th e Legis l ative Ass e mbl y, not l e ss th an t w ent y-f ive years of age and , in th e cas e of a s eat in the Legisl ativ e Coun cil , not l ess than thir t y years of ag e; and ( c) poss ess es such o th er qu al ification s as may b e pr es crib ed in t h at b eh al f b y o r u n d e r an y l a w ma d e b y P a r l i a me n t . 174 . S essions of th e Stat e Legis latu re, p ro rogation and dis solut ion.— (1) Th e Governor sh al l f ro m t ime t o ti me su mmo n th e Hou se or each Hou s e of th e Legis l atur e of th e St at e to meet at su ch ti me and pl ace as h e think s fi t, but six months sh al l not int e rv en e b et w ee n its l ast sit ting in on e s ess ion an d th e d at e appoint ed for its f irst sit ting in th e n ext s ession . (2) Th e Gov ernor may f ro m ti me to ti me— (a) prorogu e th e Hous e or ei th er Hous e; (b) dis solv e th e Legisl ativ e As semb l y. 175 . Right of Gov erno r to address and s end mes sag es to th e Hous e o r H o u s es .—(1) Th e Gov erno r may addr ess th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y o r, in th e cas e of a St at e h aving a Legis l ativ e Coun cil , eith er Hous e of th e Legisl atur e of th e St at e, or both Hou ses as sembl ed tog eth er , and ma y for th at purpos e r equir e th e att end an ce of memb ers . (2) Th e Gov ernor ma y s end me ss ag es to th e Hous e or Houses of th e Legisl atur e of th e S t at e, wh ether wi th r esp ect to a Bill th en pending in th e Legisl atur e or oth er wis e, and a Hous e to wh ich an y mes s ag e is so s ent sh al l with all conv en i ent d esp at ch consid er an y ma tt er r equir ed b y th e mes s ag e to b e t ak en into consid er at ion. 176 . Sp ecial add ress by the Gov erno r.—(1) At th e co mmen cemen t of th e firs t s e ssion aft er each g en er al el ect ion to th e Leg isl ativ e Ass e mb l y and at th e co mmen cemen t of th e fi rst s ess ion of each year , th e Gov ernor sh al l addr ess the Legisl ativ e Ass embl y or , in th e cas e of a S tat e h aving a Legisl ativ e Coun cil , both Hous es ass e mb l ed tog eth er and infor m th e Legisl atur e o f th e caus es of its su mmo ns. (2) Prov ision shall b e mad e b y th e ru les r egul ating th e pro c edur e of th e Hous e or ei th er Hous e fo r the allot ment of ti me for dis cussion of th e mat t ers r ef er r ed to in su ch address . 177 . Rights of Minist ers and Advo cat e-Gen eral as resp ects th e H o u s es .— Ev er y M in ist er an d th e Ad v o c at e- G en er al fo r a St ate sh all h av e th e right to sp ea k in, and oth erwis e to t ak e p art in th e pro ceedings of , th e


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Legisl ativ e As semb l y of the St at e or , in th e cas e of a St at e h aving a Legisl ativ e Coun cil , both Houses , and to sp eak in, and oth e rwis e to t ak e p art in th e pro ceedings of , an y co mmi tt ee of th e Leg isl atur e of whi ch h e may b e n a med a memb er , but shall not , b y v irtue of this arti cl e, b e en titl ed to vot e. Offi cers o f th e Stat e L egi slatur e 178 . Th e Sp ea ker and Deputy Sp ea ker of th e Legisla tiv e Asse mb ly .— E v er y L eg is l at i v e As s e mb l y o f a S t at e s h all , as s o o n as ma y b e, ch o o s e t wo memb er s of th e Ass embl y to be r esp ect iv el y Sp eak er and Deput y Sp eak er th er eof and , so oft en as th e offi ce of Sp eak er or Depu t y Sp eak er b eco mes v acant , th e Ass emb l y sh al l choos e anoth er memb er to b e Sp eaker or Depu ty S p e ak er , as t h e c a s e ma y b e . 1 7 9 . Va ca t i o n a n d r es ig n a t i o n o f , a n d r e mo v a l f ro m, t h e o f f i c es o f Sp ea ker and Deputy Sp ea ker.— A memb er holding off i ce as Sp eak er or D e p u t y S p e ak er o f an A s s emb l y— (a) sh all v acate hi s offi ce if h e ceas e s to b e a me mb er of th e A ss e mb l y; (b) may at an y ti me b y writing und er his h and addr ess ed , if su ch memb er is th e Sp eak er , to th e Deput y Sp eak er , and if su ch memb er is th e Deput y Sp eak er , to th e Sp eak er , r esign his offi ce; and ( c) ma y b e r e mo v ed fro m his offi ce b y a r esolution of th e Assemb l y p ass ed b y a majori t y of al l th e th en memb ers o f th e A ss emb l y: Provid ed th at no r eso lution fo r th e purpos e of cl au s e (c) sh al l b e mo v ed u n l ess a t l e ast fo u rt e en d a ys' n o ti c e h as b e en g iv en o f th e in t en t io n to mo v e th e resolution : Provid ed furth er th at , wh en ev er th e Ass embl y is dissolv ed , the Sp eak er sh al l not v acat e his o ffi ce unti l i mme d i at el y b efor e th e first meeting o f th e Ass e mbl y aft er th e disso lution . 1 8 0 . Po w e r o f t h e D ep u t y S p e a ke r o r o t h e r p e r s o n t o p e rfo r m t h e duti es o f th e offi ce of , o r to a ct as , Sp ea ker. —(1) Whil e th e offi ce of Sp eak er is v a ca nt , th e dut i es of th e of fi ce sh al l b e p erformed b y th e Deput y Sp eak er o r, if th e off i ce o f Deput y Sp eak er is also v acant , b y su ch memb er of th e Ass embl y as th e Governor may appoint for th e purpos e. (2) During the absence of the Speaker from any sitting of the Assembly the Deputy Speaker or, if he is also absent, such person as may be determined by the rules of procedure of the Assembly, or, if no such person is present, such other person as may be determined by the Assembly, shall act as Speaker. 181 . Th e Sp eaker o r th e Deputy Sp ea ker not to p res ide w hil e a resolut ion fo r his remo val f ro m o ffi ce is und er consid eration .—(1 ) At an y sitt ing of th e Legisl at iv e As s e mb ly, whil e an y r esolution for th e r e mov al of th e Sp eak er fro m h is of fi ce is und er consid er ation , th e Sp eak er , or whil e an y r esolu tion for th e r e mov al of th e Deput y Sp eak er fro m hi s


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offi ce is und er consid er ation , th e Depu t y Sp eak er , sh all not , though h e i s pr es ent , pr esid e, and th e prov isions of cl aus e (2) of arti cl e 180 sh all appl y in r el ation to ev er y su ch s itting as th ey appl y in r el ation to a si tting fro m whi ch th e Sp eaker or , as th e case may b e, th e Deput y Sp eak er , is abs ent . (2) Th e Sp e ak er sh all h av e th e righ t to sp e ak in , and oth er wise to t ak e p art in th e pro ceedings of , th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y whil e any r esolu tion for h is r emov al fro m off i ce is und er cons id eration in th e Ass embl y and sh al l, not withstanding an ything i n arti cl e 189 , b e entitl ed to vot e onl y in th e first inst an ce on su ch r esolut ion or on an y oth e r ma tt er dur ing su ch pro ceedings but not in th e cas e of an equ alit y of vot es . 182 . Th e Chai rma n and D eputy Cha i rma n o f th e L egisla tiv e C o u n cil .— Th e Legisl ativ e Coun cil of ev er y St at e h av ing su ch Coun cil sh al l, as soon as may be, choos e t wo memb ers of th e Coun cil to b e r esp e ct iv el y Ch a ir ma n an d D ep u t y Ch air ma n th er eo f an d , so o ft en as th e offi ce o f Chairman or Deput y Ch air man b ecomes v acant , th e Coun cil sh all choos e ano ther memb er to b e Ch air man or Deput y Ch air man , as th e cas e ma y b e . 1 8 3 . Va ca t i o n a n d r es ig n a t i o n o f , a n d r e mo v a l f ro m, t h e o f f i c es o f C hai rma n and D eputy Cha i rman .— A memb er holding off i ce as Ch air man or Deput y Ch airman o f a Legislativ e Coun cil — (a) sh all v acate hi s offi ce if h e ceas e s to b e a me mb er of th e C o u n cil ; (b) may at an y ti me b y writing und er his h and addr ess ed , if su ch memb er is th e Ch air man , to th e Deput y Ch ai r man , and if su ch memb er i s th e Deput y Ch air man , to the Chair man , r esign his off i ce; and ( c) ma y b e r e mov ed fro m h is offi c e b y a r eso lution of th e Coun cil p ass ed b y a majori t y of al l th e th en memb ers of th e Coun cil: Provid ed th at no r eso lution fo r th e purpos e of cl au s e (c) sh al l b e mo v ed u n l ess a t l e ast fo u rt e en d a ys' n o ti c e h as b e en g iv en o f th e in t en t io n to mo v e th e resolution . 1 8 4 . Po w e r o f t h e D ep u t y Ch a i r ma n o r o t h er p e rso n t o p er f o r m t h e d u t i e s o f t h e o f f i c e o f , o r t o a ct a s, C h a i r ma n .—(1 ) Wh il e th e offi ce of Ch air man is v acant , th e duti e s o f th e offi ce sh al l b e p e rformed b y th e Deput y Ch air man or , if th e office of Depu t y Ch air man is also v acant , b y su ch memb er of th e Coun cil as th e Gov ernor may appoint for th e purpos e. (2) During th e abs en ce of th e Ch air man fro m an y si tting of th e Coun cil th e Deput y Chair man or , if he is also abs ent , su ch p erson as may b e d et er min ed b y th e rul es of pro cedur e of th e Coun cil , or , i f no su ch p erson is pr es en t, su ch oth er p erson as ma y b e d e t ermi n ed b y th e Coun cil , sh al l a c t as Ch air ma n . 185. The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration.—(1) At any sitting of the Legislative Council, while any resolution for the removal of the Chairman from his office is under consideration,


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the Chairman, or while any resolution for the removal of the Deputy Chairman from his office is under consideration, the Deputy Chairman, shall not, though he is present, preside, and the provisions of clause (2) of article 184 shall apply in relation to every such sitting as they apply in relation to a sitting from which the Chairman or, as the case may be, the Deputy Chairman is absent. (2) Th e Ch air man sh all h av e the right to sp eak in , an d oth er wis e to t ak e p art in th e p roceedings of , the Legisl ativ e Coun cil whil e an y resolu tion fo r his r e mo v a l from o ffi ce is under cons id er ation in th e Coun cil an d sh all , not with st anding an ything in articl e 189 , b e en t itl ed to vot e onl y in th e first ins t an ce on su ch r eso lution o r on an y o th er ma tt er during such pro ceed ings but not in th e cas e of an eq u a lity of vot es . 186 . Sala ri es and al low ances of th e Sp ea ker and Deputy Spea ker and t h e Ch a i r ma n a n d D ep u t y Ch a i r ma n .— Th er e sh al l b e p aid to th e Sp eak er and th e Deput y Sp eak er of th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y, and to th e Ch air man and th e Deput y Ch air man of th e Legisl ativ e Coun cil , su ch sal ar i es and allo wan c es as ma y b e r esp ectiv el y fix ed b y th e Legisl atur e of th e S t at e b y l a w an d , until provis ion in th at b eh alf is so mad e, su ch s al ar i es an d allo wan ces as are sp ecifi ed in the S econd S ch edul e. 187 . S ecreta riat o f Stat e Legislatu re.—( 1 ) Th e H o u s e o r e a c h H o u s e o f th e L eg isl a tu r e o f a St at e sh all h av e a s ep ar at e s e cr et a ri al st aff: Provid ed th at nothing in this claus e sh al l, in the cas e of th e Legis l ature of a S t at e h aving a Legis l ative Coun cil , b e constru ed as pr ev enting th e cr eat ion of posts co mmon to both Hous es of such Legisl atur e. (2) Th e Legisl atur e of a St at e may b y l aw r egul at e th e r ecruitmen t , and th e cond itions of s e rvi ce of persons appoint ed , to th e s e cr etari a l st aff of th e Hous e or Hous es of th e Legisl atur e o f the Stat e. (3) Unt il provision is ma de b y th e Legi sl atur e of th e St at e under cl au s e (2) , th e Go v ernor ma y, af t er consult a tion with th e Sp eak er of th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y or th e Ch air man of th e Legisl ativ e Coun cil , as th e cas e ma y b e , ma k e rul es r egul ating th e r e crui tmen t , and th e condit ions o f s ervi ce o f p ersons appoin t ed, to th e s ecr et ari al st af f of th e Assemb l y or th e Coun cil , and any rul es so ma d e sh all h av e eff ect subj ect to the provis ions o f an y l a w ma d e u n d er t h e s ai d c l au s e . Condu ct of Busin ess 188 . Oath o r a ffi rma tion by me mb ers .— Ev er y me mb e r o f th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y or th e Le gis l ativ e Council of a St at e sh all , b efo r e t aking his s e at , ma k e and subscrib e b efor e th e Gov ernor , o r so me p erson appoint ed in that b eh a lf b y him, an o ath or affi r mation according to th e for m s et out for th e purpos e in th e Third S ch edul e. 189 . Vot ing in Hou s es, pow e r o f Hous es to a c t notw ithstand ing va can ci es and quo ru m. — (1) S av e as other wis e provid ed in this Consti tution , al l qu es tions at any s itting of a Hous e o f th e Legisl atur e of a


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St at e sh al l b e det er min ed b y a maj ori t y of votes of th e memb ers pr es ent and voting , oth er th an th e Sp eaker or Ch air man, or p erson acting as su ch. Th e Sp eak er or Ch air man , or p erson acting as su ch , sh al l not vot e in th e fir st in st an c e , b u t sh all h av e an d ex er cis e a c astin g v o t e in th e c a s e o f an e q u al i t y o f v o t es . (2) A Hous e of th e Legi sl atur e of a St at e sh al l h av e power to act not with st anding an y v acan c y in th e me mb ership th er eo f , an d an y pro ceedings in th e Legisl atu re of a St at e sh all b e v alid notwiths t anding th at it i s dis cover ed sub sequ en tl y th at so me p erson who was not en titl ed so to do s at or vot ed or oth er wis e took p art in th e pro ceedings . (3) Unt il th e Le gis l atur e of the St at e b y l a w oth er wi s e provid es , th e quoru m to consti tut e a meeting of a Hous e o f th e Legi sl atur e of a St at e sh al l b e t en me mb ers or on e-t enth o f th e to t al nu mb er of me mb ers of th e H o u s e , wh i ch ev e r i s g r e at er . (4) If at an y t ime d uring a me eting of th e Legis l ativ e Ass e mbl y or th e Legisl ativ e Coun cil of a St at e th er e i s no quoru m, it sh all b e th e dut y of th e Sp eak er or Ch air man , or person acting as su ch , ei th er to adjou rn th e Hous e or to susp end th e meeting until th er e i s a quoru m. Disqual ifi cations of Memb ers 190 . Va cation of s eats .—(1) No p erson sh all b e a memb er o f both Hous es of th e Legisl atur e of a St at e and provis ion sh al l b e ma d e b y th e Legisl atur e o f th e St at e b y l aw for th e v acation b y a p erson who is chos en a memb er of both Hous es of h is s eat in on e house or th e oth er . (2) No person sh al l b e a memb er of th e Legisl atur es of two or mor e St at es sp ecifi ed in th e First S ch edul e and if a p erson is chos en a memb er of th e Legi sl atur es of two or mor e su ch St at es , th en, at th e expir a tion of su ch p eriod as may b e sp ecifi ed in rul es mad e b y th e Pr esid en t, th at p erson's s eat in t h e Legis l atures of al l su ch St at es sh al l b eco me v acant , unl ess h e h as p revious l y r esign ed his s e at in th e Legisl atur es of all bu t on e of th e St at es . (3) If a memb er of a Hous e of the Legisl atur e of a S t at e— (a) b e co mes subj ect to an y of th e disqu a lification s mentioned in cl aus e (1) or cl aus e (2) of arti cle 191; or (b) r es igns his s e at b y writing und er h is h and addr es sed to th e sp eak er or th e Ch air man , as th e cas e may be, and his r es ign ation is accept ed b y th e Sp eak er or th e Ch air man , as the cas e may b e, his s eat sh all ther eupon b eco me v acant: Provid ed th at in th e cas e of an y r esign ation r eferr ed to in sub-cl aus e (b) , if fro m info r mation r e ceiv ed or oth er wis e an d aft er ma king su ch inquir y as h e th inks fit , the Sp eak er or the Ch air man , as th e cas e may b e, is s atisf ied th at su ch resignation is not volunt ar y or g enuin e , h e sh all not accep t su ch r esign ation .


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(4) If for a p eriod of s ixt y d ays a memb er of a Hous e o f th e Legis l atur e of a St at e is withou t p er mission of th e House abs ent fro m all me et ings th er eof , th e Hous e may d ecl ar e his s eat v acant : Provid ed that in co mputing th e s aid p er iod of sixt y d a ys no account sh all b e t ak en of an y p eriod dur ing whi ch th e Hous e is prorogu ed o r is adjourn ed for mor e th an four cons ecutiv e days . 191 . Disqual ifi cat ions fo r me mb ersh ip.—(1) A p erson sh all b e disqu alifi ed for b eing chos en as , and for b eing , a memb er of th e Legisl ativ e As semb l y or Leg islativ e Coun cil of a S t at e— (a) if he holds an y o ffi ce of profi t und er th e Gov ern me nt o f Indi a or th e Go v ern me nt of an y St at e specif i ed in th e Firs t S ch edul e, oth er th an an of fi ce d eclar ed b y th e Legis l atur e of th e S t at e b y l aw not to disqu alif y its hold er ; (b) if h e is of unsound mind and st ands so d eclar ed b y a co mpet ent court ; ( c) if h e is an undis ch arg ed in solv ent ; (d) if h e is no t a ci ti zen of Indi a, or h as vo lunt ar il y acquir ed th e cit i zenship o f a f or eign S t at e, or is und er an y ackno wl edg ment of all eg i an ce or adh er en ce to a foreign St at e; ( e) if h e is so d isq u a lifi ed b y o r u n d er an y l aw ma d e b y P ar li ame n t . Explanation .—For th e purpo ses of th is claus e , a p erson shall not b e d eemed to hold an offi ce of profi t und er th e Gov ern ment of Indi a or the Gov ern ment of an y St at e sp ecifi ed in th e Fi rst S ch edul e b y reason onl y th at h e is a Minis t er eith er for th e Un ion o r fo r su ch St at e. (2) A p erson shall b e d isqu alif ied for b eing a memb er of th e L egisl ativ e Ass e mb l y o r Legis l ativ e Coun cil of a St at e if h e is so disqu alif i ed und er th e Tenth S ch edul e. 192. Decision on qu estions as to di squalifi cation s of me mb ers .—(1 ) If an y qu est ion aris es as to wh eth er a memb er of a Hous e of th e Legisl atur e of a St at e h as beco me subj ect to an y of th e d isqu ali fi cations me ntion ed in cl aus e (1) of arti cl e 191 , th e qu est ion sh all b e r ef er r ed for the d ecis ion of th e Go v ern o r an d h is d e cisio n sh all b e fin al . (2) Befor e giv ing an y d ecis ion on an y su ch qu est ion, th e Gov ernor sh all obt ain th e opinion of th e El ect ion Co mmi ssion and sh all act according to su ch opinion . 193. Pena lty fo r si tting and voting befo re ma ki ng oath o r affi rma tion und er a rt i cl e 188 o r w hen not qualifi ed o r w hen disqua lifi ed .— If a p erson si ts or vot es as a memb er of th e L eg isl ativ e Ass embl y or th e Legi sl ativ e Coun cil of a St at e b efor e h e h as comp li ed wi th th e r equi r e ments of art i cl e 188, or wh en h e kno ws th at h e is not qu al ifi ed or th at h e is disqu al ifi ed fo r memb er ship th er eof , o r th at h e i s proh ibit ed fro m so do ing b y th e provisions of an y l a w ma d e b y P arl i ame n t or th e


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Legisl atur e o f th e St at e, h e sh all b e li abl e in resp ect of each day on whi ch h e so sits or votes to a p en a lt y of fiv e hundr ed rup e es to b e r e co v er ed as a d ebt du e to th e St at e. Po wers , Pr i vil eg es and Immuni ti es of Sta te L egisla tur es and th eir M embe rs 1 9 4 . Pow e r s , p ri v i l eg es , et c. , o f t h e Ho u s es o f L e g i s la t u r es a n d o f t h e me mb ers and co mmi t t ees th ereof .—(1 ) Subj ec t to th e provi sions of this Consti tution an d to th e rul es an d st anding orders r egul ating th e pro c edur e of th e Leg isl atur e, th er e sh all b e fr eedo m of sp eech in th e Legis l atur e of e v er y S t at e . (2) No me mb er of th e Legislatur e of a St ate sh all b e li abl e to an y pro ceedings in an y cour t in r esp ect o f an ything s a id or an y vot e g iv en b y hi m in th e Legisl atur e or an y co mmi tt ee th er eo f , an d no p erson sh all b e so li ab l e in r esp ect o f th e publi c ation b y or und er th e au thorit y of a Hous e of s u ch a L eg is l atu r e o f an y r ep o r t , p ap er , v o t es o r p r o c e ed i n g s . (3) In other respects, the powers, privileges and immunities of a House of the Legislature of a State, and of the members and the committees of a House of such Legislature, shall be such as may from time to time be defined by the Legislature by law, and, until so defined, shall be those of that House and of its members and committees immediately before the coming into force of section 26 of the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978. (4) The provisions of clauses (1), (2) and (3) shall apply in relation to persons who by virtue of this Constitution have the right to speak in, and otherwise to take part in the proceedings of, a House of the Legislature of a State or any committee thereof as they apply in relation to members of that Legislature. 195. Salaries and allowances of members.—Members of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council of a State shall be entitled to receive such salaries and allowances as may from time to time be determined, by the Legislature of the State by law and, until provision in that respect is so made, salaries and allowances at such rates and upon such conditions as were immediately before the commencement of this Constitution applicable in the case of members of the Legislative Assembly of the corresponding Province. Legislative Procedure 196. Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills.—(1) Subject to the provisions of articles 198 and 207 with respect to Money Bills and other financial Bills, a Bill may originate in either House of the Legislature of a State which has a Legislative Council. (2) Subject to the provisions of articles 197 and 198, a Bill shall not be deemed to have been passed by the Houses of the Legislature of a State having a Legislative Council unless it has been agreed to by both Houses, either without amendment or with such amendments only as are agreed to by both Houses. (3) A Bill pending in the Legislature of a State shall not lapse by reason of the prorogation of the House or Houses thereof.


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(4) A Bill pending in the Legislative Council of a State which has not been passed by the Legislative Assembly shall not lapse on a dissolution of the Assembly. (5) A Bill which is pending in the Legislative Assembly of a State, or which having been passed by the Legislative Assembly is pending in the Legislative Council, shall lapse on a dissolution of the Assembly. 197. Restriction on powers of Legislative Council as to Bills other than Money Bills.—(1) If after a Bill has been passed by the Legislative Assembly of a State having a Legislative Council and transmitted to the Legislative Council— (a) the Bill is rejected by the Council; or (b) more than three months elapse from the date on which the Bill is laid before the Council without the Bill being passed by it; or (c) the Bill is passed by the Council with amendments to which the Legislative Assembly does not agree; th e Legis l ativ e Ass e mbl y may, subj ect to th e ru l es r egul at ing its pro c edur e, p ass th e Bi ll ag ain in th e s a me or in an y subs eq u ent s es sion with o r without su ch amend ments , if an y, as h av e b een mad e, sugg est ed o r agr e ed to b y th e Legis l ativ e Coun cil and th en tr an s mit th e Bil l as so p ass ed to th e Legisl ativ e Coun cil . (2) If aft er a Bill h as b e en so p a ss ed fo r th e s e cond time b y the Legisl ativ e As semb l y and tr ansmi tt ed to th e Legis l ativ e Coun cil — (a) th e Bill is r ej e ct ed b y the Coun cil; or (b) mo r e th an on e month el ap ses fro m th e d at e on wh i ch th e Bil l is l a id b efo re the Coun cil without th e Bill b eing p ass ed b y it; or ( c) th e Bill is p ass ed b y th e Coun cil with amend ments to which th e Legisl ativ e Ass embl y do es not agr ee; th e Bill sh al l b e d eemed to h av e b een p assed b y th e Hous es of th e Legisl atur e of th e St at e in th e fo r m in whi ch it was p ass ed b y th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y for th e s econd ti me with su ch amend ments , if an y, as h av e b e en ma d e or sugg est ed by th e L eg isl ative C oun cil a nd agr e ed to b y th e Legisl ativ e Ass e mbl y. (3) Nothing in thi s ar ti cl e sh all appl y to a Money Bill . 198. Sp ecial pro cedu re in resp ect of Mon ey Bil ls.— (1) A Mon e y Bill sh al l no t b e int rodu ced in a Legis l ativ e Coun cil. (2 ) Aft er a Mo n e y Bil l h as b ee n p ass ed b y th e L e g isl a tiv e Ass e mb l y o f a St at e h av ing a Legisl ativ e Coun cil , i t sh all b e tr an s mit t ed to th e Legisl ativ e Coun cil for its r e co mme nd ations , and th e Legi sl ativ e Coun cil sh al l with in a period of fourt een d ays f ro m th e d at e o f i ts r eceipt of th e Bil l r eturn th e Bil l to th e Legisl ativ e Ass embly wi th it s r ecommen d ations , and th e Legi sl ativ e Ass e mbl y ma y t h er eupon eith er accept or r ej e ct all or an y of th e r e comme n d a tions of th e Legisl at iv e Coun cil .


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(3) I f th e Leg isl ativ e Ass embly accep ts an y of th e r eco mmen d ation s of th e L eg isl ativ e C oun ci l, th e M on e y Bil l sh all b e d e e me d to h av e b e en p ass ed b y both Hous es w ith th e amend ments r eco mmended b y th e Legisl ativ e Coun cil and accept ed b y th e Legi sl ativ e Ass embl y. (4) I f th e Le gis l ativ e Assemb l y do es not accept an y of th e r e co mme nd ations of th e Legisl at iv e Coun cil , t h e Mo n e y Bill sh al l b e d eemed to h av e b e en p ass ed by both Hous es in th e for m in whi ch it was p ass ed b y th e Legis l ativ e Ass e mb l y wi thout an y of th e amen d men ts r eco mmend ed by th e Legisl at ive Coun cil . (5) If a Mon ey B il l p ass ed b y th e L egi sl ativ e A ss embl y and trans mit t ed to th e Leg isl at iv e Coun cil for it s r e co mmen d ation s i s not r eturn ed to th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y wi thin the s aid p e riod of fourt e en d a ys , it sh all b e d eemed to h av e b een p ass ed b y both Hou s es at th e expir ation of th e s aid p erio d in th e fo rm i n wh i ch i t wa s p ass ed b y th e L e g isl at iv e Asse mb l y . 199. Definition of “Money Bills”.—(1) For the purposes of this Chapter, a Bill shall be deemed to be a Money Bill if it contains only provisions dealing with all or any of the following matters, namely:— (a) the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax; (b) the regulation of the borrowing of money or the giving of any guarantee by the State, or the amendment of the law with respect to any financial obligations undertaken or to be undertaken by the State; (c) the custody of the Consolidated Fund or the Contingency Fund of the State, the payment of moneys into or the withdrawal of moneys from any such Fund; (d) the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the State; (e) the declaring of any expenditure to be expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of the State, or the increasing of the amount of any such expenditure; (f) the receipt of money on account of the Consolidated Fund of the State or the public account of the State or the custody or issue of such money; or (g) any matter incidental to any of the matters specified in sub-clauses (a) to (f). (2) A Bill shall not be deemed to be a Money Bill by reason only that it provides for the imposition of fines or other pecuniary penalties, or for the demand or payment of fees for licences or fees for services rendered, or by reason that it provides for the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax by any local authority or body for local purposes. (3) If any question arises whether a Bill introduced in the Legislature of a State which has a Legislative Council is a Money Bill or not, the decision of the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of such State thereon shall be final. (4) There shall be endorsed on every Money Bill when it is transmitted to the Legislative Council under article 198, and when it is presented to the Governor for assent under article 200, the certificate of the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly signed by him that it is a Money Bill.


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200. Assent to Bills.—When a Bill has been passed by the Legislative Assembly of a State or, in the case of a State having a Legislative Council, has been passed by both Houses of the Legislature of the State, it shall be presented to the Governor and the Governor shall declare either that he assents to the Bill or that he withholds assent therefrom or that he reserves the Bill for the consideration of the President: Provided that the Governor may, as soon as possible after the presentation to him of the Bill for assent, return the Bill if it is not a Money Bill together with a message requesting that the House or Houses will reconsider the Bill or any specified provisions thereof and, in particular, will consider the desirability of introducing any such amendments as he may recommend in his message and, wh en a Bill is so r eturn ed , th e Hous e or Hous es sh al l r e consid er th e Bil l accordingl y, an d if th e Bill is p ass ed ag ain b y th e Hous e or Hous es with or wi thout amend ment and pr es ent ed to th e Gov ernor for ass ent , th e Gov ernor sh all not withhold assent th er ef ro m: Provid ed furth er th at th e Gov ernor sh all not ass ent to , but sh all r es erv e for th e consid eration of th e Pr esid en t, an y Bill whi ch in th e opinion of th e Gov ernor would, if i t b ecame l aw, so d erog at e fro m th e po wers of th e High Court as to endang er th e position wh i ch th at Court is b y this Consti tution d esign ed to fi ll . 201 . Bills res erv ed fo r consid eration . —Wh en a B ill is r es erv ed b y a Gov ernor for the cons ider ation of th e Pr esid ent, th e Pr esid ent sh all d e cl ar e eith er that h e ass ents to th e Bil l or th at h e withholds ass en t th er efro m: Provid ed th at, wh er e th e Bil l is no t a Mon e y Bil l, th e P r esid ent may dir ect th e Governor to r eturn th e Bill to th e Hous e or, as th e cas e ma y b e, th e Hous es of th e Legisl atur e of th e S t at e tog eth er with su ch a me s s ag e as is mention ed in th e fi rst proviso to ar ti cl e 200 and , wh en a Bill is so r eturn ed , th e Hous e o r Hous es sh all r e cons ider it accordingl y wi thin a p eriod of six months fro m th e d at e of r eceipt of su ch me s s age and , if it i s ag ain p ass ed b y t h e Hous e or Hous es wi th or without amen dmen t , i t sh al l b e p r es en t ed ag a in to th e Pr esid e n t fo r h is co n sid er at io n . Pro c edur e in Finan cial Matt er s 202 . Annual finan cial stat emen t .—(1 ) Th e Governor sh all in r esp ect o f ev er y f in an ci al year caus e to be l aid b efor e the Hous e or Hous es o f th e Legisl atur e o f th e St at e a st at ement of th e esti ma t ed receipt s and exp enditu re of th e St at e for th at year , in this P art r ef err ed to as th e “ an n u al fin an ci al st a t e men t " . (2) Th e es ti ma t es o f ex p enditur e embodi ed in th e annu al fin an c i al st a t e men t sh a ll sh o w s ep ar at el y— (a) th e su ms r e q u ir ed to me e t e x p en d itu r e d es crib ed b y t h is Consti tution as exp enditu re ch arg ed upon th e Consolid at ed Fund of th e S t at e ; an d (b ) t h e su ms requir ed to meet oth e r ex p end itur e propo s ed to b e ma d e fro m th e C o n so lid a t ed F u n d o f th e S t at e;


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and sh al l distingui sh ex p enditu r e on r evenu e account fro m oth er exp enditu re. (3) Th e follo wing exp enditu r e sh all b e exp enditu r e ch arg ed on th e Consolid at ed Fund of each S t at e— (a) th e emolumen ts and allowan c es of th e Gov ernor and oth er exp enditu re r el ating to hi s of fi ce; (b) th e s al ari es and al lowan ces of th e Sp eak er and th e Deput y Sp eak er of th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y and , in the cas e of a St ate h aving a Legisl ativ e Coun cil , also of the Ch air man and th e Deput y Chair man of th e Legisl ativ e Coun cil ; ( c) d ebt ch arges for whi ch the St at e is li ab le in clud ing inter est , sink ing fund ch arg es and r ede mp tion ch arg es , and o th er exp enditu r e r el ating to th e rais ing of lo an s and th e s ervi ce and r ed emption of d ebt; (d ) ex p enditu r e in resp ect of th e s al a ri es an d allo wan c es of Judg es o f an y H i g h Co u r t ; (e ) an y su ms requir ed to s atisf y an y judg ment , d ecr ee or award of an y court or arbit r al tribun al ; (f ) an y oth er ex p enditu r e d e clar ed b y this Const itution , or by th e L egisl atur e o f th e St at e b y l aw, to b e so ch arg ed . 203 . Proced ure in Legis latu re w ith resp ect to esti ma t es . —(1) So mu ch of th e est i mat es as r el at e s to exp enditu re ch arg ed upon th e Consolid at ed Fund of a St ate sh all no t b e sub mitt ed to th e vot e of th e Legisl ativ e Ass embl y, bu t nothing in th is cl aus e sh al l b e constru ed as prev enting th e dis cus sion in the Legisl atur e of an y o f thos e esti ma t es. (2) So much of the said estimates as relates to other expenditure shall be submitted in the form of demands for grants to the Legislative Assembly, and the Legislative Assembly shall have power to assent, or to refuse to assent, to any demand, or to assent to any demand subject to a reduction of the amount specified therein. (3) No demand for a grant shall be made except on the recommendation of the Governor. 204. Appropriation Bills.—(1) As soon as may be after the grants under article 203 have been made by the Assembly, there shall be introduced a Bill to provide for the appropriation out of the Consolidated Fund of the State of all moneys required to meet— (a) the grants so made by the Assembly; and (b) the expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of the State but not exceeding in any case the amount shown in the statement previously laid before the House or Houses. (2) No amendment shall be proposed to any such Bill in the House or either House of the Legislature of the State which will have the effect of varying the amount or altering the destination of any grant so made or of varying the amount of any expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of the State, and the decision of the person presiding as to whether an amendment is inadmissible under this clause shall be final.


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(3) Subject to the provisions of articles 205 and 206, no money shall be withdrawn from the Consolidated Fund of the State except under appropriation made by law passed in accordance with the provisions of this article. 205. Supplementary, additional or excess grants.—(1) The Governor shall— (a) if the amount authorised by any law made in accordance with the provisions of article 204 to be expended for a particular service for the current financial year is found to be insufficient for the purposes of that year or when a need has arisen during the current financial year for supplementary or additional expenditure upon some new service not contemplated in the annual financial statement for that year, or (b) if any money has been spent on any service during a financial year in excess of the amount granted for that service and for that year, cause to be laid before the House or the Houses of the Legislature of the State another statement showing the estimated amount of that expenditure or cause to be presented to the Legislative Assembly of the State a demand for such excess, as the case may be. (2) The provisions of articles 202, 203 and 204 shall have effect in relation to any such statement and expenditure or demand and also to any law to be made authorising the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the State to meet such expenditure or the grant in respect of such demand as they have effect in relation to the annual financial statement and the expenditure mentioned therein or to a demand for a grant and the law to be made for the authorisation of appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the State to meet such expenditure or grant. 206. Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.—(1) Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Chapter, the Legislative Assembly of a State shall have power— (a) to make any grant in advance in respect of the estimated expenditure for a part of any financial year pending the completion of the procedure prescribed in article 203 for the voting of such grant and the passing of the law in accordance with the provisions of article 204 in relation to that expenditure; (b) to make a grant for meeting an unexpected demand upon the resources of the State when on account of the magnitude or the indefinite character of the service the demand cannot be stated with the details ordinarily given in an annual financial statement; (c) to make an exceptional grant which forms no part of the current service of any financial year; and the Legislature of the State shall have power to authorise by law the withdrawal of moneys from the Consolidated Fund of the State for the purposes for which the said grants are made. (2) The provisions of articles 203 and 204 shall have effect in relation to the making of any grant under clause (1) and to any law to be made under that clause as they have effect in relation to the making of a grant with regard to any expenditure mentioned in the annual financial statement and the law to be made for the authorisation of appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the State to meet such expenditure.


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207. Special provisions as to financial Bills.—(1) A Bill or amendment making provision for any of the matters specified in sub-clauses (a) to (f) of clause (1) of article 199 shall not be introduced or moved except on the recommendation of the Governor, and a Bill making such provision shall not be introduced in a Legislative Council: Provided that no recommendation shall be required under this clause for the moving of an amendment making provision for the reduction or abolition of any tax. (2) A Bill or amendment shall not be deemed to make provision for any of the matters aforesaid by reason only that it provides for the imposition of fines or other pecuniary penalties, or for the demand or payment of fees for licences or fees for services rendered, or by reason that it provides for the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax by any local authority or body for local purposes. (3) A Bill which, if enacted and brought into operation, would involve expenditure from the Consolidated Fund of a State shall not be passed by a House of the Legislature of the State unless the Governor has recommended to that House the consideration of the Bill. Procedure Generally 208. Rules of procedure.—(1) A House of the Legislature of a State may make rules for regulating, subject to the provisions of this Constitution, its procedure and the conduct of its business. (2) Until rules are made under clause (1), the rules of procedure and standing orders in force immediately before the commencement of this Constitution with respect to the Legislature for the corresponding Province shall have effect in relation to the Legislature of the State subject to such modifications and adaptations as may be made therein by the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, or the Chairman of the Legislative Council, as the case may be. (3) In a State having a Legislative Council the Governor, after consultation with the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and the Chairman of the Legislative Council, may make rules as to the procedure with respect to communications between the two Houses. 209. Regulation by law of procedure in the Legislature of the State in relation to financial business. —The Legislature of a State may, for the purpose of the timely completion of financial business, regulate by law the procedure of, and the conduct of business in, the House or Houses of the Legislature of the State in relation to any financial matter or to any Bill for the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the State, and, if and so far as any provision of any law so made is inconsistent with any rule made by the House or either House of the Legislature of the State under clause (1) of article 208 or with any rule or standing order having effect in relation to the Legislature of the State under clause (2) of that article, such provision shall prevail. 210. Language to be used in the Legislature.—(1) Notwithstanding anything in Part XVII, but subject to the provisions of article 348, business in the Legislature of a State shall be transacted in the official language or languages of the State or in Hindi or in English: Provided that the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly or Chairman of the Legislative Council, or person acting as such, as the case may be, may permit any member who cannot


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adequately express himself in any of the languages aforesaid to address the House in his mother-tongue. (2) Unless the Legislature of the State by law otherwise provides, this article shall, after the expiration of a period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, have effect as if the words “or in English” were omitted therefrom: Provided that in relation to the Legislatures of the States of Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura this clause shall have effect as if for the words "fifteen" years occurring therein, the words "twenty-five years" were substituted: Provided further that in relation to the Legislatures of the States of Arunachal Pradesh, Goa and Mizoram, this clause shall have effect as if for the words "fifteen years" occurring therein, the words "forty years" were substituted. 211. Restriction on discussion in the Legislature. —No discussion shall take place in the Legislature of a State with respect to the conduct of any Judge of the Supreme Court or of a High Court in the discharge of his duties. 212. Courts not to inquire into proceedings of the Legislature.—(1) The validity of any proceedings in the Legislature of a State shall not be called in question on the ground of any alleged irregularity of procedure. (2) No officer or member of the Legislature of a State in whom powers are vested by or under this Constitution for regulating procedure or the conduct of business, or for maintaining order, in the Legislature shall be subject to the jurisdiction of any court in respect of the exercise by him of those powers.

CHAPTER IV.—LEGISLATIVE POWER OF THE GOVERNOR 213. Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature.—(1) If at any time, except when the Legislative Assembly of a State is in session, or where there is a Legislative Council in a State, except when both Houses of the Legislature are in session, the Governor is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action, he may promulgate such Ordinances as the circumstances appear to him to require: Provided that the Governor shall not, without instructions from the President, promulgate any such Ordinance if— (a) a Bill containing the same provisions would under this Constitution have required the previous sanction of the President for the introduction thereof into the Legislature; or (b) he would have deemed it necessary to reserve a Bill containing the same provisions for the consideration of the President; or (c) an Act of the Legislature of the State containing the same provisions would under this Constitution have been invalid unless, having been reserved for the consideration of the President, it had received the assent of the President. (2) An Ordinance promulgated under this article shall have the same force and effect as an Act of the Legislature of the State assented to by the Governor, but every such Ordinance— (a) shall be laid before the Legislative Assembly of the State, or where there is a Legislative Council in the State, before both the Houses, and shall cease to operate at the


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expiration of six weeks from the reassembly of the Legislature, or if before the expiration of that period a resolution disapproving it is passed by the Legislative Assembly and agreed to by the Legislative Council, if any, upon the passing of the resolution or, as the case may be, on the resolution being agreed to by the Council; and (b) may be withdrawn at any time by the Governor. Explanation.—Where the Houses of the Legislature of a State having a Legislative Council are summoned to reassemble on different dates, the period of six weeks shall be reckoned from the later of those dates for the purposes of this clause. (3) If and so far as an Ordinance under this article makes any provision which would not be valid if enacted in an Act of the Legislature of the State assented to by the Governor, it shall be void: Provided that, for the purposes of the provisions of this Constitution relating to the effect of an Act of the Legislature of a State which is repugnant to an Act of Parliament or an existing law with respect to a matter enumerated in the Concurrent List, an Ordinance promulgated under this article in pursuance of instructions from the President shall be deemed to be an Act of the Legislature of the State which has been reserved for the consideration of the President and assented to by him. * * * * * CHAPTER V.—THE HIGH COURTS IN THE STATES 214. High Courts for States.—There shall be a High Court for each State. * * * * * 215. High Courts to be courts of record.—Every High Court shall be a court of record and shall have all the powers of such a court including the power to punish for contempt of itself. 216. Constitution of High Courts.—Every High Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and such other Judges as the President may from time to time deem it necessary to appoint. * * * * * 217. Appointment and conditions of the office of a Judge of a High Court.—(1) Every Judge of a High Court shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal after consultation with the Chief Justice of India, the Governor of the State, and, in the case of appointment of a Judge other than the Chief Justice, the Chief Justice of the High Court, and shall hold office, in the case of an additional or acting Judge, as provided in article 224, and in any other case, until he attains the age of sixty-two years: Provided that— (a) a Judge may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office; (b) a Judge may be removed from his office by the President in the manner provided in clause (4) of article 124 for the removal of a Judge of the Supreme Court;


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(c) the office of a Judge shall be vacated by his being appointed by the President to be a Judge of the Supreme Court or by his being transferred by the President to any other High Court within the territory of India. (2) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Judge of a High Court unless he is a citizen of India and— (a) has for at least ten years held a judicial office in the territory of India; or (b) has for at least ten years been an advocate of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession. * * * * * Explanation.—For the purposes of this clause— (a) in computing the period during which a person has held judicial office in the territory of India, there shall be included any period, after he has held any judicial office, during which the person has been an advocate of a High Court or has held the office of a member of a tribunal or any post, under the Union or a State, requiring special knowledge of law; (aa) in computing the period during which a person has been an advocate of a High Court, there shall be included any period during which the person has held judicial office or the office of a member of a tribunal or any post, under the Union or a State, requiring special knowledge of law after he became an advocate; (b) in computing the period during which a person has held judicial office in the territory of India or been an advocate of a High Court, there shall be included any period before the commencement of this Constitution during which he has held judicial office in any area which was comprised before the fifteenth day of August, 1947, within India as defined by the Government of India Act, 1935, or has been an advocate of any High Court in any such area, as the case may be. (3) If any question arises as to the age of a Judge of a High Court, the question shall be decided by the President after consultation with the Chief Justice of India and the decision of the President shall be final. 218. Application of certain provisions relating to Supreme Court to High Courts.— The provisions of clauses (4) and (5) of article 124 shall apply in relation to a High Court as they apply in relation to the Supreme Court with the substitution of references to the High Court for references to the Supreme Court. 219. Oath or affirmation by Judges of High Courts.—Every person appointed to be a Judge of a High Court shall, before he enters upon his office, make and subscribe before the Governor of the State, or some person appointed in that behalf by him, an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule. 220. Restriction on practice after being a permanent Judge.—No person who, after the commencement of this Constitution, has held office as a permanent Judge of a High Court shall plead or act in any court or before any authority in India except the Supreme Court and the other High Courts.


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Explanation.—In this article, the expression “High Court” does not include a High Court for a State specified in Part B of the First Schedule as it existed before the commencement of the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956. 221. Salaries, etc., of Judges.—(1) There shall be paid to the Judges of each High Court such salaries as may be determined by Parliament by law and, until provision in that behalf is so made, such salaries as are specified in the Second Schedule. (2) Every Judge shall be entitled to such allowances and to such rights in respect of leave of absence and pension as may from time to time be determined by or under law made by Parliament and, until so determined, to such allowances and rights as are specified in the Second Schedule: Provided that neither the allowances of a Judge nor his rights in respect of leave of absence or pension shall be varied to his disadvantage after his appointment. 222. Transfer of a Judge from one High Court to another.—(1) The President may, after consultation with the Chief Justice of India, transfer a Judge from one High Court to any other High Court. (2) When a Judge has been or is so transferred, he shall, during the period he serves, after the commencement of the Constitution (Fifteenth Amendment) Act, 1963, as a Judge of the other High Court, be entitled to receive in addition to his salary such compensatory allowance as may be determined by Parliament by law and, until so determined, such compensatory allowance as the President may by order fix. 223. Appointment of acting Chief Justice.—When the office of Chief Justice of a High Court is vacant or when any such Chief Justice is, by reason of absence or otherwise, unable to perform the duties of his office, the duties of the office shall be performed by such one of the other Judges of the Court as the President may appoint for the purpose. 224. Appointment of additional and acting Judges.—(1) If by reason of any temporary increase in the business of a High Court or by reason of arrears of work therein, it appears to the President that the number of the Judges of that Court should be for the time being increased, the President may appoint duly qualified persons to be additional Judges of the Court for such period not exceeding two years as he may specify. (2) When any Judge of a High Court other than the Chief Justice is by reason of absence or for any other reason unable to perform the duties of his office or is appointed to act temporarily as Chief Justice, the President may appoint a duly qualified person to act as a Judge of that Court until the permanent Judge has resumed his duties. (3) No person appointed as an additional or acting Judge of a High Court shall hold office after attaining the age of sixty-two years. 224A. Appointment of retired Judges at sittings of High Courts.—Notwithstanding anything in this Chapter, the Chief Justice of a High Court for any State may at any time, with the previous consent of the President, request any person who has held the office of a Judge of that Court or of any other High Court to sit and act as a Judge of the High Court for that State, and every such person so requested shall, while so sitting and acting, be entitled to such allowances as the President may by order determine and have all the jurisdiction, powers and privileges of, but shall not otherwise be deemed to be, a Judge of that High Court:


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Provided that nothing in this article shall be deemed to require any such person as aforesaid to sit and act as a Judge of that High Court unless he consents so to do. 225. Jurisdiction of existing High Courts.—Subject to the provisions of this Constitution and to the provisions of any law of the appropriate Legislature made by virtue of powers conferred on that Legislature by this Constitution, the jurisdiction of, and the law administered in, any existing High Court, and the respective powers of the Judges thereof in relation to the administration of justice in the Court, including any power to make rules of Court and to regulate the sittings of the Court and of members thereof sitting alone or in Division Courts, shall be the same as immediately before the commencement of this Constitution: Provided that any restriction to which the exercise of original jurisdiction by any of the High Courts with respect to any matter concerning the revenue or concerning any act ordered or done in the collection thereof was subject immediately before the commencement of this Constitution shall no longer apply to the exercise of such jurisdiction. 226. Power of High Courts to issue certain writs.—(1) Notwithstanding anything in article 32 every High Court shall have power, throughout the territories in relation to which it exercises jurisdiction, to issue to any person or authority, including in appropriate cases, any Government, within those territories directions, orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari, or any of them, for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by Part III and for any other purpose. (2) The power conferred by clause (1) to issue directions, orders or writs to any Government, authority or person may also be exercised by any High Court exercising jurisdiction in relation to the territories within which the cause of action, wholly or in part, arises for the exercise of such power, notwithstanding that the seat of such Government or authority or the residence of such person is not within those territories. (3) Where any party against whom an interim order, whether by way of injunction or stay or in any other manner, is made on, or in any proceedings relating to, a petition under clause (1), without— (a) furnishing to such party copies of such petition and all documents in support of the plea for such interim order; and (b) giving such party an opportunity of being heard, makes an application to the High Court for the vacation of such order and furnishes a copy of such application to the party in whose favour such order has been made or the counsel of such party, the High Court shall dispose of the application within a period of two weeks from the date on which it is received or from the date on which the copy of such application is so furnished, whichever is later, or where the High Court is closed on the last day of that period, before the expiry of the next day afterwards on which the High Court is open; and if the application is not so disposed of, the interim order shall, on the expiry of that period, or, as the case may be, the expiry of the said next day, stand vacated. (4) The power conferred on a High Court by this article shall not be in derogation of the power conferred on the Supreme Court by clause (2) of article 32.


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226A. [Constitutional validity of Central laws not to be considered in proceedings under article 226.] Rep. by the Constitution (Forty-third Amendment) Act, 1977, s. 8 (w.e.f. 13-41978). 227. Power of superintendence over all courts by the High Court.—(1) Every High Court shall have superintendence over all courts and tribunals throughout the territories in relation to which it exercises jurisdiction. (2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provision, the High Court may— (a) call for returns from such courts; (b) make and issue general rules and prescribe forms for regulating the practice and proceedings of such courts; and (c) prescribe forms in which books, entries and accounts shall be kept by the officers of any such courts. (3) The High Court may also settle tables of fees to be allowed to the sheriff and all clerks and officers of such courts and to attorneys, advocates and pleaders practising therein: Provided that any rules made, forms prescribed or tables settled under clause (2) or clause (3) shall not be inconsistent with the provision of any law for the time being in force, and shall require the previous approval of the Governor. (4) Nothing in this article shall be deemed to confer on a High Court powers of superintendence over any court or tribunal constituted by or under any law relating to the Armed Forces. * * * * * 228. Transfer of certain cases to High Court.—If the High Court is satisfied that a case pending in a court subordinate to it involves a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of this Constitution the determination of which is necessary for the disposal of the case, it shall withdraw the case and may— (a) either dispose of the case itself, or (b) determine the said question of law and return the case to the court from which the case has been so withdrawn together with a copy of its judgment on such question, and the said court shall on receipt thereof proceed to dispose of the case in conformity with such judgment. 228A. [Special provisions as to disposal of questions relating to constitutional validity of State laws.] Rep. by the Constitution (Forty-third Amendment) Act, 1977, s. 10 (w.e.f. 13-41978). 229. Officers and servants and the expenses of High Courts.—(1) Appointments of officers and servants of a High Court shall be made by the Chief Justice of the Court or such other Judge or officer of the Court as he may direct: Provided that the Governor of the State may by rule require that in such cases as may be specified in the rule no person not already attached to the Court shall be appointed to any office connected with the Court save after consultation with the State Public Service Commission.


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(2) Subject to the provisions of any law made by the Legislature of the State, the conditions of service of officers and servants of a High Court shall be such as may be prescribed by rules made by the Chief Justice of the Court or by some other Judge or officer of the Court authorised by the Chief Justice to make rules for the purpose: Provided that the rules made under this clause shall, so far as they relate to salaries, allowances, leave or pensions, require the approval of the Governor of the State. (3) The administrative expenses of a High Court, including all salaries, allowances and pensions payable to or in respect of the officers and servants of the Court, shall be charged upon the Consolidated Fund of the State, and any fees or other moneys taken by the Court shall form part of that Fund. 230. Extension of jurisdiction of High Courts to Union territories.—(1) Parliament may by law extend the jurisdiction of a High Court to, or exclude the jurisdiction of a High Court from, any Union territory. (2) Where the High Court of a State exercises jurisdiction in relation to a Union territory,— (a) noth ing in this Cons titut ion sh al l b e constru ed as empo wering th e L eg isl atu r e o f th e S ta t e to in cr e as e , r est ri ct o r ab o li sh th a t jur isdi ction ; an d (b) th e r ef er en ce in arti cl e 227 to th e Go v ernor sh all , in r e lation to an y rul es , for ms or t abl es for subordin a t e courts in th at t err itor y, b e constru ed as a ref er en ce to th e Pr esid en t. 231. Establishment of a common High Court for two or more States.—(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in the preceding provisions of this Chapter, Parliament may by law establish a common High Court for two or more States or for two or more States and a Union territory. (2) In relation to any such High Court,— (a) the reference in article 217 to the Governor of the State shall be construed as a reference to the Governors of all the States in relation to which the High Court exercises jurisdiction; (b) the reference in article 227 to the Governor shall, in relation to any rules, forms or tables for subordinate courts, be construed as a reference to the Governor of the State in which the subordinate courts are situate; and (c) the references in articles 219 and 229 to the State shall be construed as a reference to the State in which the High Court has its principal seat: Provided that if such principal seat is in a Union territory, the references in articles 219 and 229 to the Governor, Public Service Commission, Legislature and Consolidated Fund of the State shall be construed respectively as references to the President, Union Public Service Commission, Parliament and Consolidated Fund of India.


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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA CHAPTER VI.—SUBORDINATE COURTS

233. Appointment of district judges.—(1) Appointments of persons to be, and the posting and promotion of, district judges in any State shall be made by the Governor of the State in consultation with the High Court exercising jurisdiction in relation to such State. (2) A person not already in the service of the Union or of the State shall only be eligible to be appointed a district judge if he has been for not less than seven years an advocate or a pleader and is recommended by the High Court for appointment. 233A. Validation of appointments of, and judgments, etc., delivered by, certain district judges. —Notwithstanding any judgment, decree or order of any court,— (a) (i) no appointment of any person already in the judicial service of a State or of any person who has been for not less than seven years an advocate or a pleader, to be a district judge in that State, and (ii) no posting, promotion or transfer of any such person as a district judge, made at any time before the commencement of the Constitution (Twentieth Amendment) Act, 1966, otherwise than in accordance with the provisions of article 233 or article 235 shall be deemed to be illegal or void or ever to have become illegal or void by reason only of the fact that such appointment, posting, promotion or transfer was not made in accordance with the said provisions; (b) no jurisdiction exercised, no judgment, decree, sentence or order passed or made, and no other act or proceedings done or taken, before the commencement of the Constitution (Twentieth Amendment) Act, 1966 by, or before, any person appointed, posted, promoted or transferred as a district judge in any State otherwise than in accordance with the provisions of article 233 or article 235 shall be deemed to be illegal or invalid or ever to have become illegal or invalid by reason only of the fact that such appointment, posting, promotion or transfer was not made in accordance with the said provisions. 234. Recruitment of persons other than district judges to the judicial service.— Appointments of persons other than district judges to the judicial service of a State shall be made by the Governor of the State in accordance with rules made by him in that behalf after consultation with the State Public Service Commission and with the High Court exercising jurisdiction in relation to such State. 235. Control over subordinate courts.— The control over district courts and courts subordinate thereto including the posting and promotion of, and the grant of leave to, persons belonging to the judicial service of a State and holding any post inferior to the post of district judge shall be vested in the High Court, but nothing in this article shall be construed as taking away from any such person any right of appeal which he may have under the law regulating the conditions of his service or as authorising the High Court to deal with him otherwise than in accordance with the conditions of his service prescribed under such law. 236. Interpretation.— In this Chapter— (a) the expression “district judge” includes judge of a city civil court, additional district judge, joint district judge, assistant district judge, chief judge of a small cause


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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA court, chief presidency magistrate, additional chief presidency magistrate, sessions judge, additional sessions judge and assistant sessions Judge; (b) the expression “judicial service” means a service consisting exclusively of persons intended to fill the post of district judge and other civil judicial posts inferior to the post of district judge.

237. Application of the provisions of this Chapter to certain class or classes of magistrates.—The Governor may by public notification direct that the foregoing provisions of this Chapter and any rules made thereunder shall with effect from such date as may be fixed by him in that behalf apply in relation to any class or classes of magistrates in the State as they apply in relation to persons appointed to the judicial service of the State subject to such exceptions and modifications as may be specified in the notification.


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PART VII.—[The States in Part B of the First Schedule]. Rep. by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch.

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PART VIII THE UNION TERRITORIES 239. Administration of Union territories.—(1) Save as otherwise provided by Parliament by law, every Union territory shall be administered by the President acting, to such extent as he thinks fit, through an administrator to be appointed by him with such designation as he may specify. (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in Part VI, the President my appoint the Governor of a State as the administrator of an adjoining Union territory, and where a Governor is so appointed, he shall exercise his functions as such administrator independently of his Council of Ministers. 239A. Creation of local Legislatures or Council of Ministers or both for certain Union territories.—(1) Parliament may by law create for the Union territory of Pondicherry— (a) a body, whether elected or partly nominated and partly elected, to function as a Legislature for the Union territory, or (b) a Council of Ministers, or both with such constitution, powers and functions, in each case, as may be specified in the law. (2) Any such law as is referred to in clause (1) shall not be deemed to be an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368 notwithstanding that it contains any provision which amends or has the effect of amending this Constitution. 239AA. Special provisions with respect to Delhi.—(1) As from the date of commencement of the Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991, the Union territory of Delhi shall be called the National Capital Territory of Delhi (hereafter in this Part referred to as the National Capital Territory) and the administrator thereof appointed under article 239 shall be designated as the Lieutenant Governor. (2)(a) There shall be a Legislative Assembly for the National Capital Territory and the seats in such Assembly shall be filled by members chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the National Capital Territory. (b) The total number of seats in the Legislative Assembly, the number of seats reserved for Scheduled Castes, the division of the National Capital Territory into territorial constituencies (including the basis for such division) and all other matters relating to the functioning of the Legislative Assembly shall be regulated by law made by Parliament. (c) The provisions of articles 324 to 327 and 329 shall apply in relation to the National Capital Territory, the Legislative Assembly of the National Capital Territory and the members thereof as they apply, in relation to a State, the Legislative Assembly of a State and the members thereof respectively; and any reference in articles 326 and 329 to “appropriate Legislature” shall be deemed to be a reference to Parliament. (3) (a) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Legislative Assembly shall have power to make laws for the whole or any part of the National Capital Territory with respect to 85


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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

any of the matters enumerated in the State List or in the Concurrent List in so far as any such matter is applicable to Union territories except matters with respect to Entries 1, 2 and 18 of the State List and Entries 64, 65 and 66 of that List in so far as they relate to the said Entries 1, 2 and 18. (b) Nothing in sub-clause (a) shall derogate from the powers of Parliament under this Constitution to make laws with respect to any matter for a Union territory or any part thereof. (c) If any provision of a law made by the Legislative Assembly with respect to any matter is repugnant to any provision of a law made by Parliament with respect to that matter, whether passed before or after the law made by the Legislative Assembly, or of an earlier law, other than a law made by the Legislative Assembly, then, in either case, the law made by Parliament, or, as the case may be, such earlier law, shall prevail and the law made by the Legislative Assembly shall, to the extent of the repugnancy, be void: Provided that if any such law made by the Legislative Assembly has been reserved for the consideration of the President and has received his assent, such law shall prevail in the National Capital Territory: Provided further that nothing in this sub-clause shall prevent Parliament from enacting at any time any law with respect to the same matter including a law adding to, amending, varying or repealing the law so made by the Legislative Assembly. (4) There shall be a Council of Ministers consisting of not more than ten per cent. of the total number of members in the Legislative Assembly, with the Chief Minister at the head to aid and advise the Lieutenant Governor in the exercise of his functions in relation to matters with respect to which the Legislative Assembly has power to make laws, except in so far as he is, by or under any law, required to act in his discretion: Provided that in the case of difference of opinion between the Lieutenant Governor and his Ministers on any matter, the Lieutenant Governor shall refer it to the President for decision and act according to the decision given thereon by the President and pending such decision it shall be competent for the Lieutenant Governor in any case where the matter, in his opinion, is so urgent that it is necessary for him to take immediate action, to take such action or to give such direction in the matter as he deems necessary. (5) The Chief Minister shall be appointed by the President and other Ministers shall be appointed by the President on the advice of the Chief Minister and the Ministers shall hold office during the pleasure of the President. (6) The Council of Ministers shall be collectively responsible to the Legislative Assembly. (7) (a) Parliament may, by law, make provisions for giving effect to, or supplementing the provisions contained in the foregoing clauses and for all matters incidental or consequential thereto. (b) Any such law as is referred to in sub-clause (a) shall not be deemed to be an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368 notwithstanding that it contains any provision which amends or has the effect of amending, this Constitution. (8) The provisions of article 239B shall, so far as may be, apply in relation to the National Capital Territory, the Lieutenant Governor and the Legislative Assembly, as they apply in relation to the Union territory of Pondicherry, the administrator and its Legislature,


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respectively; and any reference in that article to “clause (1) of article 239A” shall be deemed to be a reference to this article or article 239AB, as the case may be. 239AB. Provision in case of failure of constitutional machinery.—If the President, on receipt of a report from the Lieutenant Governor or otherwise, is satisfied— (a) that a situation has arisen in which the administration of the National Capital Territory cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of article 239AA or of any law made in pursuance of that article; or (b) that for the proper administration of the National Capital Territory it is necessary or expedient so to do, the President may by order suspend the operation of any provision of article 239AA or of all or any of the provisions of any law made in pursuance of that article for such period and subject to such conditions as may be specified in such law and make such incidental and consequential provisions as may appear to him to be necessary or expedient for administering the National Capital Territory in accordance with the provisions of article 239 and article 239AA. 239B. Power of administrator to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature.—(1) If at any time, except when the Legislature of the Union territory of Pondicherry is in session, the administrator thereof is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action, he may promulgate such Ordinances as the circumstances appear to him to require: Provided that no such Ordinance shall be promulgated by the administrator except after obtaining instructions from the President in that behalf: Provided further that whenever the said Legislature is dissolved, or its functioning remains suspended on account of any action taken under any such law as is referred to in clause (1) of article 239A, the administrator shall not promulgate any Ordinance during the period of such dissolution or suspension. (2) An Ordinance promulgated under this article in pursuance of instructions from the President shall be deemed to be an Act of the Legislature of the Union territory which has been duly enacted after complying with the provisions in that behalf contained in any such law as is referred to in clause (1) of article 239A, but every such Ordinance— (a) shall be laid before the Legislature of the Union territory and shall cease to operate at the expiration of six weeks from the reassembly of the Legislature or if, before the expiration of that period, a resolution disapproving it is passed by the Legislature, upon the passing of the resolution; and (b) may be withdrawn at any time by the administrator after obtaining instructions from the President in that behalf. (3) If and so far as an Ordinance under this article makes any provision which would not be valid if enacted in an Act of the Legislature of the Union territory made after complying with the provisions in that behalf contained in any such law as is referred to in clause (1) of article 239A, it shall be void. * * * * *


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240. Power of President to make regulations for certain Union territories.— (1) The President may make regulations for the peace, progress and good government of the Union territory of— (a) th e An d a man an d Ni co b a r Isl an d s ; (b) L aksh ad w eep; ( c) D ad r a an d Na g ar H av el i ; (d) D aman and D iu; ( e) Pondi ch err y: Provided that when any body is created under article 239A to function as a Legislature for the Union territory of Pondicherry, the President shall not make any regulation for the peace, progress and good government of that Union territory with effect from the date appointed for the first meeting of the Legislature: Provided further that whenever the body functioning as a Legislature for the Union territory of Pondicherry is dissolved, or the functioning of that body as such Legislature remains suspended on account of any action taken under any such law as is referred to in clause (1) of article 239A, the President may, during the period of such dissolution or suspension, make regulations for the peace, progress and good government of that Union territory. (2) Any regulation so made may repeal or amend any Act made by Parliament or any other law which is for the time being applicable to the Union territory and, when promulgated by the President, shall have the same force and effect as an Act of Parliament which applies to that territory. 241. High Courts for Union territories—(1) Parliament may by law constitute a High Court for a Union territory or declare any court in any such territory to be a High Court for all or any of the purposes of this Constitution. (2) The provisions of Chapter V of Part VI shall apply in relation to every High Court referred to in clause (1) as they apply in relation to a High Court referred to in article 214 subject to such modifications or exceptions as Parliament may by law provide. (3) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution and to the provisions of any law of the appropriate Legislature made by virtue of powers conferred on that Legislature by or under this Constitution, every High Court exercising jurisdiction immediately before the commencement of the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, in relation to any Union territory shall continue to exercise such jurisdiction in relation to that territory after such commencement. (4) Nothing in this article derogates from the power of Parliament to extend or exclude the jurisdiction of a High Court for a State to, or from, any Union territory or part thereof. 242. [Coorg.] Rep. by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch.


Indian Constitution  

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