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Final Major Project Report

JEMIL SAKA BA HONS DESIGN (PRODUCT) RAVENSBOURNE 2013


Content Page Introduction

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Disabled or Superhumans?

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Marginal gains

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Paralympic Sports

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Blind Football

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Deaf Athletics

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Testing

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Existing Equipment

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Deaf Football

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Swimming

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Equipment

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Sketches

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Testing

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Vibrating Concepts

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Starter Pistol

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Omega

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Starting blocks

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Rules and Regulations

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Developments

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Modeling

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Details

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Critical Reflection

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Product Summary

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Bibliography

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Introduction My interest in sport is what lead me to choosing this project I find the design element really interesting, especially sports equipment. With the never ending growth of technology I find the affect or lack of affect it has on sports particularly interesting. Also how some traditional sports are slow when it comes to embracing technology. One prime example of this is football and the subject of goal line technology ‘after years of heartache, wrong decisions and arguments, goal-line technology’ is finally coming to the Premier League for next season. I chose my brief to be ‘Create a design that improves an athletes performance and challenges the notion of disability in sport.’ With the popularity of the 2012 Paralympics I find the subject of disability in sports quite interesting and would like to investigate potential design opportunities within this. large amounts of both primary and secondary research have been involved in this project. The secondary research mainly consists of internet sources, whilst the primary research developed out of professional athletes and thier coaches.

http://www.independent.co.uk 1


Disabled? or Superhumans?s

With the 2012 Paralympics being such a hit I was really inspired by the way channel 4 promoted the paralympic athletes as ‘Superhumans’ ‘It’s fair to say that the Paralympics has not had the best coverage in past Olympic games. Unfortunately many countries view the Paralympics as almost a ‘sympathy vote’, something that has to be staged for political correctness to accompany the ‘main event’. When Channel 4 became the official broadcaster of the Paralympics, only 14 per cent of the population said they were looking forward to them and virtually no-one could name a Paralympian. Being acutely aware of this issue in public perception 4Creative set about creating a campaign that presented the Paralympians in a new light, one that showcased their grit and determination whilst giving people a snapshot into the adversities they had overcome. - There is no room for patronising or pity’ (http://good-design.org.uk)


“There is no room for patronizing or pity�

Images courtesy of Channel 4


Marginal gains

Some examples Team GB implemented for marginal gain. - Sticky tyres: Spraying alcohol on the wheels to remove a layer of dirt and increase tackiness before a standing start. - Experiments discovered that cyclists were soaking up too much sweat, mainly in their shorts. Where possible, cyclists wear a one-piece to aid smooth air flows and seams are kept to a minimum to prevent “dirty air” getting trapped. Dave Brailsford (above) believes that by breaking down and identifying every tiny aspect of an athlete’s performance and then making just a 1% improvement in each area the athlete’s overall performance can be significantly enhanced. His concept of ‘the aggregation of marginal gains’

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There is debate about how many tenths of a second some of these innovations shave off a rider’s time. But they also have the added benefit of psyching out the opposition. This is of potential interest ,when it comes to sports performance having the power to psych out the competition and giving the athlete a confidence. boost could make a different in a win.


Paralympic sports Archery: Although Archery was originally developed as a means of rehabilitation and recreation for people with a physical disability, it rapidly evolved into the internationally competitive sport on show at the Games today. Boccia: Played on a rectangular court by individuals, pairs and teams, the sport offers both tension and excitement, as athletes aim to land balls close to a target ball, across a series of demanding ends. The sport is similar to boules or petanque. Cycling road: Paralympic Cycling was originally developed as a sport for blind athletes, who first competed using tandem bicycles. Technological advancements have since opened up the sport to a wider range of athletes; as a result, it is now the third largest sport on the Paralympic program.

Athletics: Some athletes compete in wheelchairs or throwing frames, others with prostheses, and others with the guidance of a sighted companion.

Rowing: Adaptive rowing boats are equipped with special seats, which vary according to the disability of the athlete. Equestrian: Visually impaired riders are permitted to use callers to help them navigate around the arena. Norway’s Ann Cecile Orr rode to a whistle on her way to winning two silver medals at Sydney 2000 – she is totally blind.

Table tennis: includes wheelchair athletes, standing athletes and athletes with Intellectual disabilities.

Goalball: Since it was developed as a rehabilitation activity for injured soldiers returning from World War II, Goalball has spread around the world. Played by visually impaired athletes using a ball with bells inside, it is among the most exciting team sports on the Paralympic programme. Other Paralympic sports include:- Judo - Powerlifting - Sailing - Shooting - Sitting volleyball - Swimming - Sailing - Wheelchair fencing - Wheelchair rugby - Wheelchair tennis - Cycling track

5 and 7 aside football: played by visually impaired athletes using a ball with a noise-making device inside. 7-a-side Football is a fast-moving and fiercely competitive sport played by athletes with cerebral palsy. (http://www.london2012.com) 5


Blind football The coaches play an important roles as well. During the game a coach will stand behind the attacking goal, directing the forward players, another coach stands on the sideline and will instruct the midfield players, while the sighted goalkeeper will help organize his defense. During a penalty, the attaching coach will tap both the vertical posts and cross bar, so that the player will know where to place their penalty strike. Specially designed acoustic boards around the pitch create an echo that allows the players to determine their own position (by clicking their fingers) and to locate each other and the ball as it goes in and out of play. Importantly, all players must shout the word ‘voy’ when in defensive situations. This allows the attaching player to determine the position of the defensive players on the field. Rules are strict, and generally well adhered to, and we see a limited number of personal or team fouls. There are very few injuries. How players prepare There is, of course, some work to do before players get to the full-on tackling stage. Blind players, like any other football players, have to develop key skills and we always take it slowly and carefully with students so that work is done before the launch into a game on a Saturday morning!

How it works Five players, rather than 11, make up a blind football squad – four blind players and a sighted goalie. The ball contains loose ball-bearings so it rattles when it moves, allowing the players to locate it as they play. Players learn to keep the ball close, and perfectly controlled, as they dribble across the pitch, only letting it away from their feet when ready to pass to a team mate or take a shot. Concentration is everything because, as well as hearing the ball, they’re guided by the voices of other players as they pass the ball.

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The most important thing a player has to learn – and one of the first he or she will be taught – is how to run, stop and start again, and to change direction, with or without the ball. Without these first, but crucial, skills, they will be in danger of hurting themselves or each other. We spend a great deal of time and coaching developing these skills – and basic ball control – before moving on to a competitive game. (http://www.rncb.ac.uk)


Deaf Athletics

Lauren Peffers (Above) 17 “I can only hear the gun very faintly, so I usually watch the starting gun, or the feet of other competitors so I know when to go.” ‘There are deaf athletes who have competed in the Olympics and Paralympics at London 2012, but they’re few and far between. Another separate disability is required for them to compete in the Paralympics because, remarkably, there is no category for deaf athletes. In this country, deaf athletes have for a few years now been the poor cousins in funding terms. The Guardian’s Datablog identified total spending of £11bn on London 2012 (£9bn from the government, and £2bn budgeted by Locog), while UK Sport has been spending more than £100m per annum on Olympic and Paralympic sports and athletes. In the context of those sums, £42,000 seems minuscule.’

Briton Olivia Breen, who has cerebral palsy and is deaf, was unaware a false start had been called in her T38 100m heat and carried on until the end. She was allowed to rest for an hour before returning and eventually finished fifth in the final. (http://www.dailymail.co.uk)

http://www.flickr.com)

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Rebecca Zelic (Above) 19 Rebecca Zelic is 400m 200m and 100m runner/ hurdler, but is also deaf. As A deaf runner who competes in able body competitions Rebecca struggles with the start of her races as she can’t hear when the ‘GO!’ gun goes off. Some methods she and her coach have previously used to tackle this problem are:- Coach waving hand to Rebecca to signal start of race, this makes Rebecca lose crucial seconds that could make the difference between a win or loss.

Rebecca pointed out , she has competed in Deaf running races as well, they currently start the race with a louder starting gun and traffic lights in between the running block for the deaf runners to see. The problem with this existing solution for deaf runners is you have to look in between your legs to keep your eyes on the traffic lights this is not helpful for the way Rebbecca has been trained to start her race as she looks straight down and looking in between her legs makes a slower start. (The image above is an example of the stance most professional sprinters adhere to) (Top left)

- Someone waving flag ahead to signal start of race.

Heres an image of the traffic lights used in the 2009 Tapei Deaflympics. (Bottom left)

- Rebecca watches the feet of her competitors, this is a problem because the runners sometimes flinch and this sets Rebecca to start running. She also can’t run on the 8th lane because she won’t be able see the other runners feet move. (Image above: http://filmessurdez.blogspot.co.uk)

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Image taken at Mile end stadium by author. 9


For the deaf running block the traffic lights are placed here.

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To Solve Rebecca’s problem a device could be placed within the running block to indicate the start of the race?

The running block could be connected to the start up gun and maybe vibrate or react simultaneously with the ‘on your marks’ ‘Get set’ and ‘Go!’ of the start up gun.

Images taken at Mile end stadium by author. 11


Testing

ON YOUR MARKS!

GET SET!

GO!

I decided to further explore the idea of the running block being the indicator of when to start the race, By doing a little test making Rebecca race a runner that was able to hear. To start the race I shouted the ‘on your marks’ ‘get set’ and ‘Go’ from the distance the gun bearer usually stands, Rebecca couldn’t hear my instructions but to test hear reaction I got her coach to tap her running block for ‘get set’ and kick it a bit harder for ‘Go’ this little experiment was just to test my idea of the running block vibrating.

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Images taken at Mile end stadium by author.


Existing equipment

This running block has hidden sensors within the foot pads that detect the pressure of a runner’s foot to determine false starts. The pads can be fine tuned to detect the pressure of runners of virtually any size, from a child to an Olympic sprinter so no one gets away with anything.

The starter’s pistol is an emblem of track and field races – the crack of the gun, a puff of smoke and the roar of the crowd as sprinters take off down the track. At the 2010 Vancouver Games, OMEGA introduced a futuristic new starter’s pistol that is not only more reliable and accurate, but also has the added advantage of being airline carry-on safe. When the starter’s finger pulls the trigger, the classic “bang” is played through speakers behind each runner’s starting block, a visual flash is emitted and a pulse is sent electronically to the timing system. No smoke and the only drama is at the finish line. (http://gearpatrol.com)

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Deaf Football

Deaf Football Clubs There are currently 25 active deaf football clubs in Great Britain - most of them compete in mainstream football leagues around Britain. The majority of clubs compete in the British Deaf Football Cup annually, which has been running since 1959. Clubs from England also compete for the English Deaf Cup, and Scottish clubs participate in the Scottish Deaf Cup. Famous Professional Deaf Footballers Billy Nesbitt – Burnley Cliff Bastin – Arsenal and England Raymond Drake – Stockport County Rodney Marsh – QPR, Manchester City, Fulham and England Jimmy Case – Liverpool, Southampton Deafness As a sensory impairment, deafness is a hidden ‘disability’. While deaf footballers compete regularly against their hearing peers, they face certain 14

hidden disadvantages, such as not being able to to hear instructions during a game when in motion, a referee’s decision or crowd reactions. These are all aspects of the game enjoyed by a hearing player and that can make a difference during the course of a match. Under international criteria, to be eligible to compete in deaf football competitions, players must have an average hearing loss of 55 Decibels or more in the best ear. All players competing in deaf matches must remove all hearing aids before competing, which can affect balance - another important element for a hearing player’s game. (http://gb.deaf-forum.org.uk) Fulham Deaf Football Club I had the chance to visit Fulham FC training ground to see the Fulham deaf team play a match against a non deaf team. In the Intermediate division 2 league. It was interesting to see how the Fulham players communicated with each other. Fulham deaf FC are working towards being the first deaf team to go to the Semi Pro league.


Was interesting to see the Coach communicating with the players during half time.

Players struggle to communicate with referee, Listens to able speaking players more. Referee blowing whistle but deaf players can’t hear. Sometimes the referee thinks the certain players are wasting time when their trying to explain something. Referee’s sometimes use a bright cloth or handkerchief to get players attention. Images taken at Fulham FC stadium by author. 15


Manager trying to get players attention to give them direction, But players do not notice. This happens through out the match.

Coach and player communicate via sign language quickly during a pause to the match because of a foul.

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Images taken at Fulham FC stadium by author.


Swimming

I found swimming interesting because it is one of the most popular sports in the Paralympics. China’s Lu Dong, who has no arms, grips a towel between her teeth so she can launch herself into the pool. (above) 17


Equipment

Carbon-fibre prosthetic blades inspired by the hind legs of a cheetah. Developed by Icelandic company Ă–ssur, the blades caused controversy, when “blade runnerâ€? Oscar Pistorius (above) was beaten in the T44 200m by Alan Oliveira. Pistorius later claimed the Brazilian had started using longer blades, giving him an unfair advantage.

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Discus-thrower Derek Derenalagi competes using a custom frame that’s specially designed to meet strict rules for Paralympic athletics, which state that any equipment can be used so long as he can get set up and ready to compete within 60 seconds. “Derek wanted to use his prosthetic legs while competing but didn’t know how or where to place them with his previous equipment” says Roger Thorn, an engineer and volunteer for charity Remap that makes custom-built equipment for people with disabilities. Replacing a heavy steel stool that restricted movement and provided little comfort, the new frame allows Derenalagi to make adjustments in height, seat pitch and shoe positioning to find the most comfortable and effective throwing position.

These Rugby wheelchairs are designed to withstand heavy impacts and be easily maneuverable. The full-contact sport requires equipment that is incredibly durable and can endure constant bombardment, as well as being light, fast and agile. A bumper designed to help strike and hold opponents is attached to the front of the chairs. Wings are positioned in front of the main wheels to make the wheelchair more difficult to stop and hold. The wheels are covered by spoke protectors to prevent damage during collisions, and all chairs include an anti-tip device at the back. (http://www.dezeen.com) 18


Design a device that levels the plain field for deaf athletes.

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LED prototype (Left)

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Trusty Nokia! Vibrating prototype

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Testing The other obvious solutions to Rebbecca’s hearing problem is the ability to see or feel when it comes to the start of the race. So I decided to create a rough prototype of LEDs that was inspired by the style of F1 start up lights. The lights turn on to the ‘GET SET’ signal and turns off to ‘GO’. Although lights are currently whats used in the Deaflympics the one I am proposing would be a lot smaller in size and less of an obstruction during the start of a race.

Heres a development of my Arduino sound sensor I’ve added a smaller bread board and attached a button also this is for the athlete to test out the product just before a race as an indication that the sensor is working.

A wristband similar to the Nike Fuelband is also an idea, it could have a sound sensor inside and react to the sound of the starter pistol. A wristband could also potentially be used for deaf footballers and could vibrate to the sound of the referee’s whistle. The vibration to the foot is also a potential outcome because it could lead to a fast Reaction, faster then the wristband or even the time it takes a runner to hear the pistol at the start of a race. I decided to get the step to an existing starting block and put my old mobile phone inside it and call it to test if the vibration was strong enough to for the runner to feel.

Testing Results After my own internal testing I decided to take some of my rough prototypes to Mile End stadium for Rebbecca to test so I could get accurate professional feedback. I first tried out my F1 style light idea to her, after several test runs I noticed using the lights to indicate the start of the race made Rebbecca quite tense as she ended up not really following the lights but she kept predicting when she thought the light would turn off (which was the ‘GO’ signal), which lead to some false starts. This result indicates my idea would need modification if I was to develop it. I then tried my idea of the vibration coming from within the running block, I made my initial prototype from a vibrating motor a push button and 9V battery but my before working prototype failed on me just before I could test it with Rebbecca, So I resorted back to the trusty Nokia phone and did some tests with that, I noticed Rebbecca reacted the feel of a vibration a lot more then she did to my light prototype. She told me it could be perfect if I could get the frequency of the vibration right. 24


Testing


Images taken at Mile end stadium by author.


Vibrating wrist concepts Wristband for deaf people This device is an approach to give access to the world of sounds and ambient noises to deaf people. It displays and categorizes the source of the sounds and warns in cases of danger. Vibrates in case of danger. The micro device records sounds, interprets and relates them to their source. You wear it on your belt.

A wristband that connects to the user’s phone via bluetooth. When the phone receives a call Buzzband will vibrate and flash. The wristband will additionally vibrate when separated from the phone by more than 10 meters. (http://www.amazon.com)

Buzzband

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Vibering A sound detection and identification system called ‘Vibering’, to help the deaf and hard of hearing capture the sounds around them and ward off any impending danger lurking in their surroundings. The Vibering system comes in the form of a wrist watch and a pair of rings which have to be worn on both hands. The rings are designed to act as the person’s ears as they listen for sounds coming from behind the individual. (http://www.yankodesign.com) I don’t think any of these concepts could be of use in deaf athletics but could be of interest in the deaf football, for the manager keeping contact with the players during the game.

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Starter Pistol Pressure exerted by the athlete’s foot against the block is detected by the sensors built into the starting blocks and measured by the OMEGA timing device. If the time measured is less than the time in which a person can possibly react to the sound of the starter’s gun, the runner has “jumped the gun”, and the timekeeper signals a false start. (http://www.omegawatches.com) When a starting pistol is used to start a race, the runner closest to the gun has a slight advantage over the athlete furthest away. To combat this, Olympic timing sponsor Omega created an electronic starting pistol that makes no noise at all, but is instead wired to speakers directly behind each runner. (http://www.core77.com)

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Previously Omega had tried wiring a regular starting pistol (pictured) to speakers, but it didn’t work; runners would instinctively only respond to the sound of the real gun, not the speaker-borne sound emitted a millisecond earlier. The new gun, which only sounds through the speakers, solves that problem. Another potential way to combat the problem of the sound not being spread equally to the competing runners could be to adapt my vibration idea and scrap using sound as the race indication starter all together, The race easily be started by the push of a button which would trigger an instant sync vibration to all the running blocks.

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OMEGA

OMEGA has been providing timekeeping and data-handling services to the Olympic Games since 1932 31


(http://news.watchprosite.com)

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Starting blocks

Henry Rottenburg tests out the starting blocks he invented.(Right)

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Gill National Starting Block

All the features of the world’s finest starting blocks. Thick aircraft aluminum with extra wide cast aluminum pedals with adjustable angle. 1/2” needle spikes (synthetic tracks) and anchor pins (cinder tracks) included.

Gill Collegiate Starting Block

Designed for high level competition. Constructed of aircraft aluminum. Extra wide pedals with four angle adjustments. 1/2” needle spikes (synthetic tracks) and anchor pins (cinder tracks) included.

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(http://speedendurance.com)


Gill All Surface Starting Blocks

Designed for sure starts on any type of surface. Wide pedals allow for a wider stance if preferred. One piece sixteen gauge steel with no loose parts to misplace. Rubbed faced pedals. Anchor pins for cinder tracks.

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Rules and regulations I managed to get in contact with the IAAF and the UK Athletics board I spoke to the British Athletics board on the phone and got responses from the IAAF via Facebook and email. Firstly I asked if it was possible for deaf athletes to compete against able hearing athletes and if they could compete on all levels, I got the same answer from everyone I spoke to which was ‘Yes’. I then found out that in regional and amateur league competitions athletes could bring their own starting blocks to the event.

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Developments After doing further research into the existing starting block equipment currently available and the current equipment available for deaf athletes, I found the in regional and amateur league competitions that athletes could bring their own starting blocks to the event interesting, Rebbecca further confirmed this is also what she sometimes does when she competes. This discovery lead me to the idea of just re-appropriating the existing running block for regional and amateur athletes.

One of my ideas was to just redesign one of the steps from the uniform starting block used by most athletes, but give it a sound sensor that would trigger vibration to the foot which would aid Deaf runners at the start of a race. I chose to redesign only one step because I noticed through my early tests with Rebbecca (Deaf runner) that the vibration from only one foot was enough to give her a perfect start to a race. The step would be an improvement of the existing one as not only would it have the vibrating motor and sound sensor but it’ll also be universal and attachable to any existing starting block it’ll also have slots on both sides so the runner could decide if they want it on the left or right side.

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I decided to model my design around some existing running blocks this one is taken to competition by all the runners that train at the Mile end stadium and through research one of the most common competition level running block. My design would be modeled around the Vinex Olympics Mark IV. 41


While prototyping I had to look at different ways to create the perfect vibration for my design I experimented with the DC motors, vibrating motors from Iphone’s and more. After various tests the vibrations from the motors I got from a Playstation pad was the best.

Sound sensor 42


After choosing the right vibrating motor I then started experimenting with the sound sensor by connecting it to my Arduino set. After constant tweaking and changing the sensitivity of the sound sensor I managed to trigger the motor by a starting pistol sound clip I downloaded online, played the clip through a speaker and it Worked!!! although theres still some holes i.e things like the distance the sound has to travel before it reaches the vibrating motor and also the time it takes from the sound sensor tracking the pistol noise to it triggering the vibration, its still a step forward proving my idea has potential.

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Modeling

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Here are some rough models I made. These initially were created to duplicate the Vinex Olympics Mark IV starting block Rebbecca uses and to test out my vibrating motors but after several models I noticed it could also be an improvement on some of the existing starting blocks are manufactured as my steps won’t require welding as it could all be cut as a flat pack and stuck together. This potentially could give athletes the opportunity to tailor their running blocks to their needs.

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Here are 6mm water jet cut aluminum pieces cut by Londonwaterjet.com there was some little problems with putting the pieces together so i filed it down a bit. I planned to get one of the pieces of aluminum line bent by Stringer.co.uk but after paying them a visit I was advised the angle I want bent would be to sharp. Heres the profile (below) I wanted Stringer to bend for me.

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PLAN B!!!

Since I could not get the aluminum bent I have to revert back to way I did the bend for my MDF models and add it to my aluminum prototype.

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Sound sensor

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(right) Heres a development of my Arduino sound sensor I’ve added a smaller bread board and attached a button also this is for the athlete to test out the product just before a race as an indication that the sensor is working. To get the right details I 3D printed the shell that holds the sound sensor and feedback button.

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Rubber grip

Universal slot Leaves the option for the athlete to put on either left or right side of running block

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Feedback button Vibrates when clicked to provide comfort to athlete before race.

Sound sensor Triggers vibration when The sounds picked up .

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Critical Reflection

The Future

I’ve found this project to be an interesting journey intially I wanted my final product to be footwear based mainly because that is where my interest lies. I never expected to design a running block that aids deaf athletes and while potentially challenging the notion of disability in sport. My final outcome is not an outcome I could of predicted. I am proud of user testing and pure research lead my designing.

I intend to take my concept to the sports equipment market and also pitch my design to the IAAF and UK Athletics board to see if they approve. When (not if) they approve I shall pitch my concept to the leading running block manufacturers and track and field supplier brands like Vinex, Seiko, Omega. This is one of the reasons I chose not to brand my design as I want to leave it open to bid from various brands. Before I do all of this I’m going to further test my concept with Rebecca and Chris until it’s of competition level so Rebbecca could compete with it, all of this extra research is going to strentghen my design for when I want to take it to the market or for funding. The Plan is to have the step for the starting block available for sale separate from the standard block used in competitions and a deaf athlete could easily purchase this step and attach it to the already provided blocks. I’m also going to look into changing the way the steps for the starting block is manufactured as I learnt from the models I made that welding actually is not need which means potentially saving money and making it a more sustainable product for the market. Theres still a lot to do for the future my concept has two parts to it and this design is just one part. The second part is at the Olympic level for this the both the starter pistol and starting block would be redesigned with the sensor and the vibrating motor being completely internal, this is partly why I want to pitch my concept to Omega who currently provide the timekeeping services for the Olympics.

One of the main problems I faced was making assumptions of what my outcomes should be, I quickly learn to let my primary research with Rebbecca take over my project as my product is targeted at her. My intial research was good and I’m happy I made the leap from footwear into the design of sports equipment for the disabled. I’m a bit disappointed I did not manage to design something for deaf footballers as I found some really interesting communication issues with deaf Fulham FC but I did not want my outcome to solve the problems for all deaf sports because I think it’ll potentially be watered down and sports equipment is usually specialist especially at top level. The user research and testing is one of my strongest elements with this project. Developing a relationship with Rebbecca ,her coach Chris and one or two of the olympic athletes that train at Mile End stadium allowed me to gain valuable insights. It enabled me to work for a client, which meant specific deadlines and expectations as Rebbecca travelled a lot for competitions. Overall I’m happy with my final concept and final prototype, I call it a prototype because I plan to further develop this product to push it to market level.

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Product Summary I believe my product fulfilled my project brief criteria - ‘Design a device that levels the plain field for deaf athletes’ successfully. This product for me is not only about functionality but also about challenging the notion of disability in sport period. I think currently the equipment in a lot of sports are not open enough for the simplest disabilities to get involved in with able athletes I believe in the future some of these lines would blur more and potentially some athletes from the Paralympics would participate in the Olympics instead. My concept is a step towards this. Another reason I think my product is good is because it’s designed for amateur and regional level athletes, this is good because it encourages young deaf athletes to compete against able hearing athletes from a young age and time in their career this already removes them from the mindset of having to compete with just other athletes with their disability.

Manufacturing costs To cut the 9 parts of 6mm aluminum for my final prototype with London WaterJet cost £95 plus +VAT. - £60 for the cutting - £20 for the aluminium - £10 post Bare in mind this was a rush order and could of been cheaper if I allowed time for the order. ’1000 sets would be in the region of £28000 - £29000 +VAT. If you wanted to go ahead with something like that I could probably get a better discount on the aluminium which would reduce costs but that would have to be at the time since ali prices vary all the time.’ - London WaterJet To print my ABS shell that held my electronics was - £39.62

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Bibliography Page 1 - http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/comment/goalline-technology-is-where-foot ball-intervention-must-end-8573465.html Page 2 - http://good-design.org.uk/?p=2187) Page 5 - ttp://www.london2012.com/paralympics/sports) Page 6 - http://www.rncb.ac.uk/,Sport-44/How_to_play_Blind_Football_ Page 7- http://www.flickr.com/photos/bslbt/3870150600/) http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sport/othersports/article-2199573/Paralympic-Games-zoneGB-football-lose-penalties.html) Page 8 - http://filmessurdez.blogspot.co.uk/2012_08_01_archive.html) Page 13 - http://gearpatrol.com/2012/07/24/timekeeping-omega-olympics/ Page 14 - (http://gb.deaf-forum.org.uk/about-deaf-football) Page 17- (http://www.dezeen.com/2012/09/07/paralympic-design-flex-foot-cheetah-blades-by-ossur/) Page 18 - http://www.dezeen.com/2012/09/06/paralympic-design-discus-throwing-frame-by-rogerthorn/) (http://www.dezeen.com/2012/09/01/paralympic-design-wheelchair-rugby/) Page 26 - (http://www.amazon.com/Silicone-Bluetooth-Incoming-Anti-lost-Bracelet/dp/B00A2MCHFW/ ref=pd_sim_sbs_cps_6) Page 28 - (http://www.yankodesign.com/2008/06/03/stereo-listening-rings-two-rings-to-rule-them-all/) Page 29- http://www.omegawatches.com/press/press-release-detail/981 Page 32- http://news.watchprosite.com/show-forumpost/fi-112/pi-4033171/ti-643196/ Page 35 - http://speedendurance.com/2010/02/15/how-to-choose-starting-blocks/ Page 37 - WWW.IAAF.ORG, WWW.BRITISHATHLETICS.ORG.UK (http://www.core77.com/blog/object_culture/omegas_olympic_electronic_starting_pistol_ redesign_23073.asp)

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JEMIL SAKA BA HONS DESIGN (PRODUCT) RAVENSBOURNE 2013

Final major project research book