MULTIMEDIA SOLUTION FOR SHARING KNOWLEDGE in the construction industry
Jelmar van Voorst 2025286 Linda Janssen 2029485 Peter van den Hurk Loes Bogers Communication and Multimedia Design Avans Hogeschool â€˜s-Hertogenbosch
FOREWORD This thesis describes the design process in the period of February 2013 - July 2013 under the supervision of Peter van den Hurk, Avans university of applied sciences and with assistant of Loes Bogers, MediaLAB Amsterdam. MediaLAB Amsterdam is the company were Linda en Jelmar did their research of which this thesis describes the prrocess. The reasons why they made the decision to participate at the STIHO Project at the MediaLAB is because it involved service design and interaction design, which are great passions of Linda en Jelmar. We would like to thank Loes Bogers and Peter van den Hurk for their support and assistance during these five months. Sabrina Doornekamp and Aishwarya Babu for being of great help in our project team and a great thanks to Bruno Giebels and all the STIHO members that were involved within our research. 足
ABSTRACT STIHO, a prominent supplier of construction materials and tools in the Netherlands, explained that the Dutch construction industry is currently faced with the challenge of preserving and circulating its knowledge and skills. The main reason that this issue has arisen is because a lot of specialists in the construction industry are now ageing and as a result retiring. This eventually leads to a knowledge gap between the older and the newer generations in this field. The main question of this research is: How can STIHO be a source of knowledge within the construction industry using digital storytelling so that the Dutch construction workers are not constrained by the knowledge they possess? The goal was to understand the way in which knowledge is transferred within the construction industry and to understand what resources can be used to maintain the knowledge transfer. We have focussed on the integral role of STIHO in the knowledge loop, how to store knowledge and make it accessible to the entire STIHO community. To give an answer to the main question we used service design methods combined with desk research and talked with STIHO employees and customers of STIHO. Important insights from our research include that construction workers like to have interpersonal relationships with each other and that construction workers learn from sharing experience with each other. Construction workers already use multimedia tools such as WhatsApp and Voxer but these apps have an unstructured information flow. One of the most important insights of our research was that the STIHO employees and the customers have a strong working relationship based on trust. We learned that the customers rely on the STIHO employees for information. These research results are reflected in the various features of our app. Based on these insights a prototype of the mobile app â€˜STIHO Antwoordâ€™ was developed. The goal of this app is to bridge the growing knowledge gap by creating a virtual community of people in the construction industry who share information and to digitally capture this exchange. We focussed on keeping it simple and familiar. The feature that sets our app apart from regular multimedia chat applications is the archive, which serves as a knowledge platform.
TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 Introduction
2 Research methods 2.1 What are the best means of knowledge transfer within the construction industry? 2.2 What is the service of STIHO? 2.3 How do STIHO employees get the information to help the clients at STIHO? 2.4 What are existing multimedia technologies within the construction industry?
3 Results 3.1 Current state: Knowledge transfer in the construction industry 3.2 The STIHO service 3.3 The STIHO employee and sharing knowledge 3.4 The usage of multimedia technologies in the construction industry 4 Proof of concept 4.1 Research insights 4.2 Methods 4.3 Three concepts 4.4 Final concept 4.5 Formal Concept description 4.6 How is our research reflected in the concept we developed?
14 14 17 18 20
5 Developing the concept 5.1 Functional Aspect 5.2 Information structure 5.3 Interaction Concept 5.4 Visualisation 5.5 Concept Test with User
28 28 29 30 30 31
6 Evaluation of concept and design 6.1 Peer Evaluation 6.2 Assigner Feedback 6.3 User Feedback
32 32 32 32
7 Developing the prototype 7.1 Technical aspects 7.2 Hiring a developer
33 33 33
11 12 12
23 23 24 24 25 26 26
7.3 The prototype
8 Conclusion and recommendation 8.1 Conclusion 8.2 Practical case examples of app usage 8.3 Implementation as part of STIHO service
35 35 36 37
11 Appendix Debriefing Infographic Interviews Quotes Bouwbox analyse Plan stakeholder workshop Personaâ€™s Journey maps Stakeholder & Touchpoint map Storyboards Flowchart 1 Paper prototype sketches Concept user test 1 Flowchart 2 Axure wireframes Designs User test 2 Graphs
43 44 45 46 49 55 56 57 61 63 64 68 69 75 79 80 94 101 103
Construction is a field that requires a highly technically skilled and experienced workforce in order deliver quality products. This education is effectively imparted by watching, doing and mentoring (Styhre 99101; Goulding et al. 103-16). The Dutch construction industry is currently faced with the challenge of preserving and circulating its knowledge and skills. Bruno Giebels, Innovation manager at STIHO indicates that this issue has arisen because the specialists in the field are now ageing and as a result retiring. Thus, there is a “knowledge gap” between the new generation and the more experienced personnel in the field. STIHO, a leading building materials supplier in the Netherlands, plays an important role in the knowledge circulation in this industry. They learn from their suppliers who have information about the products and how to use them. The end-users gain knowledge from STIHO through advice and information regarding tools and materials. STIHO is a source of information for the newer generation when there are few seniors around to teach them on the job. However, STIHO is also affected by the ageing population and wants to retain this knowledge so that it doesn’t fade as experienced employees retire. STIHO has approached us with the task of developing a media application concept using digital storytelling to address this concern.
The main research question will be: How can STIHO be a source of knowledge within the construction industry using digital storytelling so that the Dutch construction workers are not constrained by the knowledge they possess? We focus on digital storytelling because this was something that innovationg from STIHO wanted to be included. To answer the main question we formulated the following subquestions: What are the best means of knowledge transfer within the construction industry? What is the service of STIHO? How do STIHO employees get the information to help the clients at STIHO? What are existing multimedia technologies within the construction industry? The motivation of this study is the fact that constructors and specialists are getting older and retire. This leads to a lack of qualified people who can teach the newer generation. This younger generation and the growing group of self-employees needs a new source of information which can help them in gaining enough knowledge for the task they are doing at that moment. STIHO is an important source and wants to expand on this important function for the industry. The end goal of this research is to understand the way in which knowledge is transferred within the construction industry and understanding what resources we can use to maintain the knowledge transfer. In the end it is important to make a day in the construction work field less of a struggle when finding solutions for problems that
these people encounter while working. We want to develop a working prototype which simulates all the features that helps the STIHO customer but also the STIHO employee to share knowledge with each other. For STIHO it is important that this platform contains a feature to store knowledge so users can learn from each other. The research is relevant for STIHO because it gives them insights in the current knowledge loop and how to store this knowledge and make it accessible for the STIHO customers and employee. The main focus of the research is usercentred. The focus is on the end-users needs and feelings. It contains an iterative process where analysing, designing, testing/ evaluating and implementing are the main parts. We used articles, papers, surveys, interviews and co-creation workshops as inputs for our research. Subsequently, we used a range of service design methods to compile and analyse the data. This includes debriefing, infographics, personas, stakeholder & touchpoint map, customer journey maps. We used the following terms in our thesis: STIHO-Bouwplein STIHO-Bouwplein is a place where every question about building gets an answer. STIHO-Bouwplein also offers various facilities and services. STIHO-Bouwplein is the place for the construction workers to meet, to inspire, to seek, to collect and to get materials delivered. Stakeholders The stakeholders of this project are the employees, customers and suppliers of STIHO.
The employees Vary from sales rep and floor managers to front and back office employees. The customers of STIHO The customers of STIHO vary from construction workers and contractors to freelancers. Sales representative Referred to as sales rep are the contact persons for the clients of STIHO. Clients have their own contact person/ sales rep. There are 22 sales reps in the Netherlands.
Our first step was the definition of the research problem. Meeting with Mr Bruno Giebels, innovation manager at STIHO, followed by a debriefing (appendix, page 45), made the problem statement clear. We then developed an infographic (appendix, page 45) based on our assumptions of the stakeholder relationships. The goal of this research is to understand how knowledge is transferred within the construction industry and understanding what resources we can use to maintain this knowledge transfer. The main research question reads:
and the suppliers of the materials. STIHOâ€™s customers are construction workers, contractors, freelance construction workers and, to some extent, hobbyists.
What are the best means of knowledge transfer within the construction industry?
To answer this question, we read papers and searched the web for current trends and existing cases where multimedia is used in construction education. We paid attention to articles that discuss education and knowledge management in the construction How can STIHO be a source of industry. We read about different topics knowledge within the construction like education, multimedia, mentoring and industry using digital storytelling so peer-learning while keeping in mind their that the Dutch construction workers are relevance to the construction industry. not constrained by the knowledge they This desk research gave us great insights possess? into education in the construction industry and the importance of multimedia in To give a proper answer to this question we education because it was linear to the formulated different sub questions: insights we have got from our field research. With these insights we developed ideas that 1. What are the best means of knowledge included these forms of education within a transfer within the construction industry? multimedia tool. 2. What is the service of STIHO? 3. How do STIHO employees get the 2.2 information to help their clients? What is the service of STIHO? 4. What are existing multimedia technologies within the construction To get a clear answer for this question we had industry? multiple discussions with Bruno Giebels. He
gave us a background story of the company The target audience for our research and told us what customers expect when comprises three groups of stakeholders they visit STIHO. i.e. the STIHO employees, their customers
We travelled with one of the sales representatives and visited three different locations in Haarlem, Amsterdam and Amstelveen where we spoke with five different clients. The reason we chose a contextual inquiry was that we could see the environment in which the clients work and interact with the STIHO sales representatives on-site. We had the opportunity to ask questions about interesting things that caught our eye. We organised a co-creation workshop with members from each stakeholder group. The purpose of this workshop was to get input from the stakeholders and to start a discussion with all of them. To get a better view of the relationship among the three stakeholders and what they already use to communicate with others, we asked them to reflect on some case examples and then discussed their thoughts.
How do STIHO employees get the information to help the clients? To get a clear idea about what problems clients encounter while working, we conducted semi-structured interviews and made observations at the STIHO Bouwplein in Haarlem, Amstel, Amsterdam and Amstelveen. We chose the semi-structured interview method because we wanted a qualitative outcome of the research. Along with specific questions that we wanted answered, we had the opportunity to ask them new questions that came up during the conversations. When the employee or client said something that was interesting for our research we pursued the subject.
While at the STIHO bouwplein we also observed the interactions between customers and employees. We noted the steps that the customers followed from the instant they entered the bouwplein till they exited. Using the results of our observations and interviews, we developed a stakeholder and touchpoint map. We interviewed five STIHO employees to find out how they receive their education, what their background is, what their average day looks like, how they help the customers, what kind of customer queries they encounter, what kind of problems they encounter and how they solve these problems. These employees have different responsibilities. A few work in the back office and are expected to help customers transfer materials from the shelf to the vehicle and perform some warehouse tasks, like sawing wood. The front office employees work in the shop where they help customers if they need any help and they work at the payment desk. A third type of employee is the floor manager who manages the STIHO bouwplein. In the semi-structured interviews, the STIHO employees mentioned that the suppliers of STIHO play a big role in information transferring. To get an idea of how the suppliers convey their information to their different users and what kind of feedback they get, we interviewed two of the many suppliers of STIHO: Makita and Weber. With these interviews we got an idea of how they currently convey knowledge about their products and what service they offer to STIHO and its customers.
What are existing multimedia technologies within the construction industry? We asked customers who were waiting at the service desk to fill out a survey. The focus of the survey was to gauge the extent to what technology is used by them. We asked them whether they use smart phones, tablets, Internet or phone apps. The workshop also gave us information about what phone apps the construction workers use and how they use these particular apps. We combined the field research with desk research on the Internet to look what is out there for construction workers. Our interview results regarding the use of technology were in tandem with statistics we found in the Communicatie Monitor 2011 of a company, BouwKennis. The paper contains information to understand what kind of media and other sources construction workers use. We plotted the results in graphs (appendix 103), which gave us an idea of the distribution of the resources being used by construction workers and contractors.
happens in a day-to-day setting where Current state: Knowledge transfer in the stories thus function as learning material. Considering this there needs to be a notion construction industry of time within a practical framework that What are the best means of knowledge functions as education tool (Styhre, 63). transfer and more specifically for the We now know that the mentor-mentee and peer-peer interactions are essential aspects construction industry? Primarily, we tried to understand the and that we must ensure the manifestation perspective of the learner/ user. We wanted of these relationships in our concept. to understand what are the best methods of imparting education and how to sustain The second effective method of learning the interest of the learners and ensuring was ‘practice’. This indicates that people that they gain maximum benefit. We learned who learn will benefit the most when they are that, in the construction industry, the two taught in a practical manner. The requirement most effective methods of learning are of practical implementations highlights the firstly, experience sharing, which is a part of possibility of the use of simulations, 3D mentoring and peer-peer relationships, and modelling, and other such concepts. When using a digital construction scenario there is secondly, practice (Hoffmeister, 676). scope to make mistakes and learn from these Mentoring is an important and very mistakes without any adversities (Goulding, commonly stated effective method of 104). Again, the emphasis lies on interaction knowledge transfer in the construction and interactivity. Getting the construction industry. A mentor, who is defined based workers involved in the act of teaching by on certain characteristics, is considered to handing them the tools and let them make be a knowledge transmitter or as a person mistakes will let them be an active part of the who can learn the art of craftsmanship learning without losing focus. Such methods (673). It is important to see and understand help to maintain the interest of the users. To the role of the mentors while thinking summarize this point in a quote: of a new or different way of transferring “Interest of the user is maintained knowledge. The effectiveness of mentoring throughout since they are forced to cannot be ignored when conceptualizing, make choices and are provided with as it is an indispensable part of knowledge feedback as to decisions made ensuring transfer. Peer to peer relationships also misconceptions and user problems are play a significant role in one’s learning. The answered immediately” exchanges of experiences happen at an (Shelbourn, Aouad and Hoxley, 93) informal level with no inhibitions. In a group of peers there would be ideas and stories being discussed to a great extent. All this Our research and discussion with Giebels
highlighted the possibility of experts/ specialists being reluctant to share their knowledge and skills. This directed us to think of incentives for them and we started to explore the subject of gamification. Gamification is a technique that has been adopted by a number of companies to keep users continually interested. The idea is to incorporate game elements like points, progress bars, badges, etc. and game design in a particular strategy. It has proven very effective as seen on numerous websites like stackoverflow.com, studentoffortune. com, linkedin.com, foursquare.com, etc. These are extrinsic forms of motivation. We must also think about producing engaging experiences and activating intrinsic motivation. (Gamification, coursera.org) This is a concept, which could be given a thorough thought. We spoke to and observed some of the customers who visited the STIHO bouwplein. We asked them what their work background was, how they keep themselves up to date, if they have questions and doubts, whether they use the Internet or any other digital means to obtain information and we tried to understand their relationships with STIHO (appendix 47). It was interesting to notice that when we asked some employees at the STIHO establishment at Haarlem some questions about transferring knowledge and receiving questions they replied that having the knowledge was part of the job (appendix 48).
They obtained knowledge by reading what kind of information the package material of a product contained. When asked about how they obtain knowledge the customers too replied that it was part of the job to have certain knowledge. For them it is a very natural process and they didnâ€™t seem to be aware of the process they had undergone to obtain this knowledge (interv. ref). The STIHO employees shared the conviction that the customers who worked in construction should have some basic knowledge about construction and that they only helped them if they needed some information about a new tool or technology (Interview, 7th of March 2013). To stay informed about new techniques and materials the customers of STIHO talk with colleagues, use the Internet, take help from STIHO, workshops, fairs and they get information from the suppliers. Six out of the eight respondents mentioned they use a smartphone and/or tablet. They use a smartphone and/or tablet to get more information about specific products or materials or to send an e-mail. They all (want to) share their knowledge and would like to do this face-to-face, again reiterating the necessity of personalized communication. The role of the supplier The STIHO employees mentioned that when they want to know more about a specific product or tool they will contact the suppliers. The suppliers also organize workshops in which the STIHO employees and their customers can take part.
We had an interview with Andries, account manager from Makita and we had an interview with Marco Vonk and Peter Sonntag from Weber which enlightened us about the role of a supplier in the whole knowledge loop between customers, supplier and STIHO, the dealer (appendix 46). Makita is a supplier of products at construction sites. They deliver a very personal and trusted service for the dealer. Weber is a supplier of industrially manufactured premix mortars and adhesives. The company develops, manufactures and supplies products and solutions for the construction, taking into account the efficient use of energy and sustainable protection of its habitat. They both convey information through different touchpoints not only focussing on the dealer but also on the end-user (customer of the dealer). Especially Weber is focussing on their end-users. These touchpoints can be separated into two groups: digital touchpoints and physical touchpoints. Makita Digital touchpoints On the Makita website customers can contact Ike, the trainer, to ask questions. These questions are mainly about product information and how to use these products. A second digital touchpoint is the Makita YouTube channel on which they offer a large amount of videos, which provide product information and give work instructions. Also Makita uses monthly mailings in which they provide new products in their assortment.
drive around in a mobile showroom, which offers 100 - 150 products. It is possible that STIHO is unable to answer a question of a customer. In this situation STIHO will contact the supplier. The supplier, in this case, Makita, can choose to send a mobile showroom directly to the customer. A very important aspect of Makita is that they offer a large amount of trainings and educations. They have their own intern education centre in which they provide educations at four different levels: 1. Wood 2. Metal 3. Drilling and breaking 4. Gardening tools These trainings are offered to dealers to get knowledge of new technologies and materials and learn how to use them. It is possible for a dealer to bring customers with them. These trainings can be customized. It is possible to deliver trainings for 30 - 40 people but also smaller trainings on the shop floor level. Besides these touchpoints Makita also delivers brochures on construction sites which are sent by post and can be put on coffee tables and can be read during lunch or when having a break.
It was very evident that Makita is very keen on getting information to dealers (STIHO) and even to the end users (clients from STIHO). At the headquarters of Makita Physical touchpoints information about these different tools can Makita has five people all over the country be obtained through accessing different who have direct contact with end-users. workshops or training programs offered by Two of these persons are in contact with Makita. (appendix 52, quote 49 ) the larger construction companies. This contact is mainly focussed on efficiency and money matters. The other three people
Weber Digital touchpoints On the Weber website people can find more information about their products and they can download documents and the app of Weber. With the app, the users have direct access to detailed information about Weber products that are available; on the road, at a shop and on the construction site. The weber app offers besides product information also a couple of interactive tools. In the app, users can find a QR-code scanner (that can be found on products) to download information about that particular product, a calculator, videos which provide product information and give work instructions, a helpdesk and news feeds. Physical touchpoints Weber has more that 180 ‘plants’ in the whole world to be close to their customers. They go to a lot of fairs to talk with their end-users. Weber is committed to educate people. This applies not only for their own staff, but also for their sales rep and endusers of their products. That is why they offer open training courses. The courses are ideal to gain practical experience. Both for working with the products from Weber and Beamix like getting answers to questions that the users face every day. These courses are held at the trainingscentrum and are open for everyone that wants to join. After a course they will get a certificate. The courses they provide are based on:
1. Floors 2. Waterproofing 3. Facades 4. Concrete
website or the app of Weber.
The STIHO service As mentioned in the introduction the Dutch construction industry is currently faced with the challenge of preserving and circulating its knowledge and skills. Giebels indicates that this issue has arisen because the specialists in the field are now ageing and as a result retiring. Thus, there is a “knowledge gap” between the new generation and the more experienced personnel in the field. STIHO wants to take a leading role in this social shift within the construction field. All respondents that we spoke at the STIHO bouwplein visit the bouwplein more than once a week to get supplies. Some of them go there to order materials or for help. This statistic and our observation allowed us to conclude that the customers share an amiable relationship with the employees (appendix 49). This fortifies a fact we learned as part of our desk research that emphasises the importance of such relationships. In the workshop with all the stakeholders the relationship between the STIHO sales rep, Andre, and the two contractors, Jasper en Rik, became clearer (appendix 56). We saw in the discussion and in the personal examples that arises in the discussion that the relationship between the customer and the sales rep was very personal. We experienced during the contextual inquiry that the role of the sales rep is to create a trusted and comfortable relation.
Ed, one of the contractors we spoke in Besides these touchpoints Weber also Amstelveen, told us that each contractor or delivers brochures that are sent by post. construction company has their own STIHO These brochures can be ordered on the contact person: ‘Their man’ (appenix, page
52, quote 50). They liked this because the STIHO contact person is always aware of company’s conditions and specifications.
attention are definitely well received. Also, trying to get the customers’ feedback about the product and trying to find out what kind of experiences they had builds the trust of the The contractors, Jasper en Rik, mentioned customer and also enhances the knowledge in the workshop that STIHO is their contact of the STIHO employees (appendix 50, person for everything that they buy. They quote 14). hardly have direct contact with the supplier. They trust STIHO that they select their Storytelling as a vehicle for knowledge suppliers. So when there is a problem with transfer one of the products, STIHO is their contact From the talks with Giebels, and the person. conversations with employees and customers, we have found out that people working in construction industry do not like 3.3 The STIHO employee and sharing to be educated in a way that reminds them of school. Moreover, according to STIHO knowledge employees the construction workers are not always transparent about their degree How do STIHO employees get the information to help the clients at STIHO? of expertise. They feel independent and can We interviewed five employees. We asked be hesitant to show that they need help. them where they obtain their knowledge This requires a delicate balance in tone of from and we found out that while some conversation that the STIHO employees have had a technical education, others understand well. If the end users get involved have predominantly learned on the job. This in a story or conversation about tools and their indicates that there are differing levels of uses it will be easier to transfer information technical expertise among the employees. between these two stakeholders. Although the employees are knowledgeable, their backgrounds may or may not be Two opposite views were gathered from sufficient. Our design must ensure that the the conversations with the employees and employees attain the necessary knowledge customers. Customers mentioned that they talk about things that have to do with and/or add to their existing expertise. construction but they actually never ask the We learned that the customer feedback is employees questions about the usage of extremely valuable to the employees. They techniques, only about the products they share their experiences with the use of a sell (appendix 53, quotes 51, 52). Employees particular product and this enriches the told us that they often get questions about knowledge base at STIHO (appendix 50, different techniques “How should I do this, or what do I need to do this?” (appendix 53, quote 15). quotes 53, 54). Sometimes, when the customers need information, they contact STIHO who help Knowledge transfer takes place as a casual them and in case of doubt revert to them exchange of experiences more than in a after consulting an expert or supplier. Such formal “I will teach you how to...” setting. tailor-made responses and immediate In an informal exchange, the end users (or
customers) are more comfortable to actively take part and speak freely. They will be more likely to ask for a solution when they encounter a problem. Storytelling can be seen as a very important vehicle for knowledge transfer in this setting. Learning is done in the form of exchange of experiences, telling a peer a story about your workday. Hence, storytelling is a way to get information from one person to the other in a way that doesn’t make them feel like they’re being taught (Kamara et al., 2002). The employees at STIHO recognize this very well and know how to find the right tone of voice in order to achieve this (STIHO Employee, Interview, 28 February 2013).
It was interesting to note that one employee started off working for the section that deals with wood and eventually switched to hardware and tools. This displays the versatility of the employees to learn about the various sections under the umbrella of STIHO, thus rendering our concept an asset to the company (STIHO Employee, Interview, 28 February 2013).
Employees on the different customers and the time they spend on them There are different customers at STIHO. Looking at the kind of questions they ask it is possible to see what kind of customer someone is. There are more and more ‘bunglers’ who ask a lot of questions and cost a lot of time to help. At the moment experienced contractors are too expensive to hire and this leads to more inexperienced ones. This means that the real contractor that comes everyday has to wait, which STIHO money costs (appendix 50, quote 16).
Uses of technology We discovered two opinions towards the use of technology by the employees. Some of the employees rely on the Internet for their knowledge and when they wish to get questions answered, but there were a few who currently do not. This is an indication of the conservative nature of the construction industry. A digital media design will definitely bring about a renewal in the traditional structure. However, we must also keep in mind the ease of use to take into consideration the spectrum of technical adeptness and willingness to use these tools
Workshops We asked STIHO if they could arrange for us to attend a workshop. Unfortunately, this was not possible. Interestingly, we later found out, while interviewing the employees, that they do not have as many workshops as we first thought they did. So, the workshops While asking the employees about the kind that were supposed to be conducted were of questions they got, we found out that not available and/ or scheduled (appendix they are seeing a change in the customer 53, quote 54). type. There are also freelancers that started as a construction worker but now work as When talking to Giebels we found out that a contractor. They have a lot of questions the reasons for fewer workshops than two because before they were only specialised in years ago are time and number of people. one profession. The employees spend a lot Two years ago STIHO had more employees of time on them and aren’t left with enough and this meant more time for workshops and time to spend on their regular customers, the trainings but now the employees of STIHO professionals (contractors, and construction are often too busy with the customers that workers). come to STIHO and other proceedings.
in the workplace (appendix 50, quote 23). We developed a journey map depicting the workday routine of two STIHO employees based on our interviews with them (appendix 61, 62).
Our interview results regarding the use of technology were in tandem with statistics we found in the Communicatie Monitor 2011 of a company, BouwKennis. The paper contains information to understand what kind of media and other sources construction workers use. We plotted the results in graphs, which give us an idea of the distribution of the resources being used by construction workers and contractors (appendix 103). We discovered various apps and websites that are specially designed for the construction industry, which gave us an idea of what the current trends are and the extent to which digital media is being utilized in this industry.
The usage of multimedia technologies in the construction industry
Instructional videos Bouwbox.nl (appendix 55) and constuctioninstruction.com are some websites that provide online tutorials and instructional videos useful for people in the construction industry. The use of the Internet is definitely a step forward for this industry which until recently focussed on conservative methods of knowledge management because they are visual. These websites are comprehensive and can be accessible to an audience that may be distributed over the globe. Despite these benefits, this medium does not encourage sufficient interactivity, personal interaction and live feedback. Professionals produce these videos, which makes them costly to make. Crowdsourcing the production of these could be an option but it is unsure how one could guarantee quality that way.
What are existing multimedia technologies within the construction industry? First of all there are the traditional brochures and manuals that manufacturers supply regularly. While these prove advantageous in that they are regularly updated, contain accurate information and can be trusted since the manufacturers themselves deliver them, they possess their share of drawbacks. The end users as we have concluded, prefer to learn by seeing and doing, thus reading pages of information may prove boring. Also, from our interviews we inferred that personalized attention is often preferred. Supplier apps Weber and Cadenas Relying on printed media leaves less room We found a number of interactive mobile and for immediate feedback from the customers. tablet apps like those of Weber and CADENAS PART solutions (Weber - iPhone app, Mobile
Apps for Industrial Manufacturers, Youtube), which store product details, data sheets, videos, contact details, etc. These apps give the user a comprehensive description of the product. The Weber iPhone App, for example, has a section called ‘Problem Solutions’ which has a list of common problems faced by applicators and selecting the problem provides a detailed solution. There is also a ‘case study’ section, which gives details of the most recent projects. Almost every detail regarding the product is available. Interactivity is also incorporated wherein the user can play around with the colour swatches and even email a desired pattern to a contractor. The drawback in such an app is that personal attention and feedback are missing.
can keep the users updated on the various happenings in the industry. Such apps may be interesting and will keep the users informed. People might use these apps in their leisure time. These are interesting as well as informative.
Forum apps There are forum apps in which different users can discuss problems that they encounter and share their experiences. This is interesting and important given that experience sharing and mentoring are integral to knowledge transfer in the construction industry. The information being circulated on such forums would be personalized. There would be discussions of problems that common people encounter and solutions given by experts or others who faced such problems before.
Farnell is a leading global, service-and customer-oriented distributor of electronic, electrical, industrial and MRO Products (Maintenance, Repair & Operations). Their online support is inspiring. They provide technical documents and videos. They advertise access to engineers directly via 24-hour Live chat, email and phone and also to the industry manufacturers and legislative experts in their community. Although Farnell is not a player in the construction industry, their service incorporates interesting concepts to keep in mind.
Magazine apps We also discovered magazine apps, which
Folksonomy or collaborative tagging is yet another interesting concept which is popular
Solutions not related to the construction industry The concept of crowdsourcing is a very strong one, which hasn’t been widely used for the construction industry. Crowdsourcing as seen in Wikipedia and on the Instructables channel exemplifies the benefits that many people can add information, encouraging experience sharing and also distributes the workload of archiving information across a large number of people. A difficulty is that this solution requires a large number of people Dictionary apps to participate and it’s hard to tell if there’s Dictionary apps provide a quick reference an audience for it. There’s the issue of how to terms that are related to the particular quality of the materials can be maintained or industry. Such applications are time efficient controlled. We tried the Instructables channel and are convenient to use. These provide and asked a question, after 20 minutes we succinct descriptions but may not be useful got two answers to the question already. If for someone who needs information on how the user needs an answer on demand it may to use the product or any other details. not be useful when at the workplace.
and could be one to consider in our concept. Tags are used to make a certain content online easier to find. Combining different tags will make a content better searchable because the tags can be assigned freely by anyone. These tags donâ€™t belong to a system or taxonomy and therefore arenâ€™t incorporated in a system that only works by rules (Simons, 1). The problematic thing about tagging is that tags can have different meanings for different people and therefore the content can have a conflicting character (Simons, 2). How and whether such a concept can be incorporated is something we need to discuss and investigate. WhatsApp & Voxer WhatsApp is an app that people use to communicate with each other through text message, sending picture, video and sound files. Voxer is basically the same kind of app but with the main focus on speech instead of text. In the co-creation workshop, the stakeholders mentioned they use this app to communicate with colleagues and other people in the construction field.
All these applications address different aspects of education all of which are necessary. This encourages us to think in a direction, which may incorporate one or more of these ideas. By exploring the existing digital media, we have gathered some concepts. These include personal relationships (e.g. live chats), practical learning (simulations, virtual reality), interactivity, crowdsourcing, collaborative tagging, knowledge and experience sharing (in forums and some social media methods).
PROOF OF CONCEPT
Research insights There are numerous insights we derived from our research. Our field research was on most accounts in tandem with our desk research, which has bolstered a number of aspects. Firstly, we should pay utmost attention to the presence of inter-personal relationships, experience sharing and human-human interaction. The importance of mentormentee and peer-peer relationships was encountered in our desk research as well as during our interviews.
conceptualizing. Our research showed that construction workers use technologies such as tablets, smart phones and/or computers with internet connection but it would be useful to know more about how and where they are used on the construction site. There are suggestions that the devices may get dirty, damaged or stolen. We know that construction workers already use WhatsApp within their personal communities but there is a lack of structure within the app. In the co-creating workshop the contractors mentioned that it is just an unstructured flow of information and you do not know what is important and what is not. Another finding from the co-creating workshop included that the focus should not only be on storing existing knowledge but more the conversation between construction workers.
The userâ€™s feedback is something that is very valuable and is integral to the feedback loop. Their experiences also contribute greatly to the knowledge pool. There has to be room for the possibility of including user Suppliers are open for sharing their feedback. knowledge and information. Their main goal Interactivity is another important aspect. A is that users use their products and materials concept that incorporates interactivity may as meant to. They do not care via which help maintain the userâ€™s interest. We know touchpoints users get this information. that people in the construction industry learn by practice and our concept might be Before we develop our concept we must inspired by the ideas of multimedia such understand how our purpose will benefit as simulations, virtual reality, which involve our various stakeholders. People who will be contributing to the content/ information more hands-on user participation. base will be willing to share their experiences As our assigner wishes and given that majority and knowledge only if they too are gaining of our target audience uses technology something out of it. This aspect is something such as the internet via smart phones, we may have to ponder and work on, one tablets, PCs etc., we have the freedom to stakeholder at a time. For example, experts explore digital media to a great extent while and specialist may be threatened to give
away their knowledge risking the reduction of people depending on them. We will consider gamification to work on this particular aspect and also for our concept. What we did find out is that construction workers are really keen on helping each other within their personal communities. We now have an overview on the stakeholder relationships and knowledge transfer in the construction industry (appendix 63). We are aware of some aspects of these relationships that we need to focus on and incorporate while developing a concept.
minuses. We then narrowed down the important aspects and compiled the ideas that adhered to our research findings. We decided to pay attention to personal contact, information storage, gamification and simplicity. We narrowed down the fifty ideas from our first brainstorm to three concepts that we are going to discuss next.
Digital bill For our first concept we came up with the idea of making a digital bill, which allows 4.2 the customer to search for more information Methods about the products that they purchased. The bill is provided with a QR code. When We used different methods in the concept the QR code is scanned with a smart phone phase to create the best concept. We created it will convert the bill into a digital bill and the mind maps, had a brainstorm workshop customer has the possibility to search for with Charlie Mulholland, a teacher from the more information about a particular product Hogeschool van Amsterdam, brainstorm that he or she bought. This information sessions with the team, discussions, concept consists of video, text and pictures. testing with the end-user and as a result we came up with a number of interesting ideas. With this concept we focussed on giving information about the specific products the When creating the mind maps we didnâ€™t user bought. This covers the fact that the look at the research insights all the time customers of STIHO receive a content based to get some other ideas without too much on the products that they bought. Most of focussing on what we found out. In this way the end-users have a smartphone so they we got ideas that were not that obvious. can scan the QR code easily. It is a small concept that especially focuses on STIHO Together with Charlie Mulholland we used as an information source. The problem with some brainstorm techniques that are this concept is that the information only described in Gamestorming. Gamestorming comes from STIHO and not from specialists is a book with all kind of techniques that in the field. helped us come up with a lot of new ideas. We have put the outcomes of that brainstorm Speech chat application session together as clusters and each of us As an inspiration we looked at Voxer and created new concepts. Whatsapp for our second concept. It is really easy and fast to communicate with These concepts were presented to each these apps and besides that some members other so we could discuss the pluses and of our target group use similar already. Voxer
is an app that uses speech to communicate such as a walkie-talkie. Whatsapp is an app that uses mainly text to communicate. With this in mind we thought of a concept that the construction workers could use in the context of their work. We focussed on the inter-personal relationships, experience sharing and human-human interaction. With this app it is possible to talk to each other in an easy way. STIHO employees can also contact customers with this app to get feedback without calling them. They can interact with each other by sending speech and text messages, pictures and video’s to explain the problem. Webshop Our concept of the webshop is a combination of a webshop and a digitized invoice. When doing a purchase online, the digital invoice can be added to the account of the customer. This account can contain multiple projects. The projects include information on where the customer works and what the job entails. In this way the customer can store information about all the materials that he needs for a particular job. This information can be added to this digital project space and contains information about the tools or material. By clicking on the object the user can get more information. In addition to this function there is also the possibility to add other people working on the job to the project so they have the same overview as the one who created the digital project space. We focussed on the fact that they always need products so they do not have an extra app or website where they have to search for more information. This will make the knowledge transferring easier because they
have only one point where they can order products, show projects they are working on and find information. By sharing projects people can see where someone is working on so they can help each other without asking something. We find out in our research that the clients don’t like being teached, but learn by talking about it and sharing stories and information with each other.
Final concept Our assigner Bruno Giebels was particularly impressed with the voice chat application. The strong points of this concept was its simplicity and the fact that it got the users in touch with relevant people at the moment they had a problem. Although the structure required further detailing at the time, this concept strongly appealed to our assigner since it focussed on helping the users and ensured the exchange of experience among people of the construction industry. A second thing that Giebels mentioned is that this is a really innovative concept for in the construction industry and STIHO can take advantage of that when they are profiling themselves in the field. Strong point about it is that it reflects the current most dominant modes of interaction between STIHO and construction workers (casual chats, phone conversations, Whatsapp like apps). Other benefits are that a voice app doesn’t require typing and allows the user to quickly explain their problem and illustrate it with a video or image. After finalizing our concept we tweaked our problem to read as follows: To digitally capture the exchange of information among people working in the construction industry and to make it available to all the members
of the construction community. We then began to develop this raw idea into a concrete concept while ensuring that it takes into consideration the important findings from our research.
Formal Concept description The app will help to bring people from the construction field together with employees of STIHO. Construction workers, STIHO employees and the suppliers can use the app. It is useful for getting answers and starting discussions with others from the field. In this app it is easy to find the right person for every genre of questions. The questions and answers can be exchanged by voice, text and/or picture/video messages. It is possible to create group conversations within this app. In this group it is possible to mark a message as a question. Others can reply on this question and start creating a question cluster. When the question is solved the person that asked the question can store this question as solved in the archive by supplying it with a category and tags. The reason why the user adds a category and tags is so others can easily find the question cluster in the archive. The archive does not only contain usergenerated knowledge. STIHO also has the opportunity to fill this archive with FAQ by using a desktop computer. The archive is an important feature because it is important to store the information so others can find it easily.
this information from someone who is experienced and someone he trusts. Personal contact is of great importance within this community (Research 17). The relationship between STIHO employees and the end users is built on a trust (workshop, Jasper). It is based on this trust that they share more information with each other (Research 17). The sharing is important when STIHO wants to know something from the end user. The end-user is careful when sharing information with other parties to protect their commercial interests (workshop, Jasper). Within the construction field, end-users are sharing and helping each other with different cases. When someone has a question they call someone they know from their own personal community of construction workers (workshop, Jasper and Rik). Not every construction worker creates his own community so a lot of them may have a hard time getting information when needed. They will probably call someone from STIHO or someone who teaches them how to do things (workshop, AndrĂŠ and interview Weber). In this arrangement, they can only get in touch with their immediate acquaintances but with our app they can be connected to a wide range of STIHO employees.
Our concept will help to bring people from the field and STIHO together to get an answer to a question or to start a discussion where they can exchange knowledge in a way they are doing now. They can create a group conversation with people they already know who can further add people as well. 4.6 Another advantage of this app is that even How is our research reflected in the if the person being contacted is unavailable concept we developed? at the particular moment he can respond to When a construction worker wants more the message once he gets the opportunity. information it is important that he gets Based on our research we found that most
of our stakeholders use smartphones and such a digital medium of communication will prove efficient and cheaper than making phone calls. Our focus on speech stems from the fact that pressing/holding a button and talking into the microphone is easier and quicker than typing a long question and more so an elaborate answer. A “play all” feature may be useful since the user can go through the entire conversation without dedicating exclusive focus and also leaving their hands free to do other work. Construction workers often learn new things from the workshops and trainings that are conducted by the suppliers. Here they get to learn by doing. When they want to get more information it is good if they get this information in an interactive way. With our concept they can ask questions by voice, text or picture/video message and they get response in the same interactive way. The voice message is easy to use when they are at work and want to ask a question or respond on a question. With text they can send a link or other information that has to be written. The picture/video message is good to add for more information and to make it visual. They are visually oriented and this is sometimes easier than explaining the problem via text.
Because we want to keep all this information in one place we have to store it where all the users can find it as well. That is why we implement an archive, based on the conversations that are stored by the users and on FAQs that STIHO can implement as well. We hope to have question-answer snippets from a group conversation saved in the archive. Each question-answer cluster will have a different colour, which helps to keep it organized. Tags must be added to the cluster, which the users can later use to search for something in the archive. One of our concerns is that the archive needs active participation for it to sustain. If the users do not save question clusters to the archive often enough, the archive may not have sufficient entries and the purpose of it is not served. That is why STIHO can add FAQs, by monitoring it via a desktop computer, to the Archive so users can search in the archive for answers.
The reason that we developed a concept wherein information easily can be exchanged is because we found out that construction workers prefer to share knowledge in an informal setting without the feeling of being “taught”. End users who will use the app can start a conversation whenever they want to and can control who will see the conversation and reply to certain questions. This way they are part of exchanging the information.
DEVELOPING THE CONCEPT
Contact list The contact list is divided into two sections. One section is the personal contact list based on phone numbers from the phonebook, which also use the app. The other section is made out of all the STIHO employees that are expert in a specific skill. You can search We started off with the storyboards and through this section based on expertise and scenarios (appendix 65/67) . While creating their name. them we tried to step into the shoes of the user and tried to understand how the Create Groups/communities user would use the various features of the The app provides a system that allows users app that we had defined. We were able to create a group. For instance a user can to recognize the possible loopholes and create a group for each project that you are efficiently provide solutions. In the following working on. Within this group one can have sections we describe the important aspects all their project members in one place. Also of our concept. one could make a group with their personal contacts so they can easily share contacts 5.1 and recommendations with each other. A Functional Aspect user can ask for an invitation to join a group or invite others to their group. In this section we describe the prominent features of the application we are going to Asking and answering questions develop. It is possible to ask and answer questions within the group/ community via speech, Profile text, pictures and/or videos. Other people in The users must create a personal profile with the group get a notification and can reply to a picture and their company name. They log the question. It is possible to link an entry in by using their customer number. They from the existing archive to the question can add skills, expertise and a profession. cluster. We would like to link the existing customer database of STIHO with the app so users do Question Cluster not have to fill in their entire profile. When a user asks a question, others in the group get a notification and can reply to the question. All the specific media files within We used various methods, i.e. storyboards, flowchart, paper prototypes, card sorting and concept testing with the user, while developing our concept. With the help of these methods we were able to systematically build each aspect.
this conversation are clustered (and maybe saved in the archive). The question clusters are supplied with tags and a category so others can easily look in the archive and find the relevant question cluster. Archive In the archive one can explore previous questions by searching for tags and/or categories. This archive consists of clustered question files and contains speech, text, pictures and videos. You can search through the archive by searching for tags or browsing through the different categories. The archive is both user- and STIHO generated. Categories and tagging When starting a new question cluster the user has to choose a category based on the kind of question and add tags so the archive becomes a structured information database and others can easily find previous questions. The categories form the basis of the app structure and are based on the existing categories that STIHO already uses.
conversation the various topics do not get mixed. The topics of relevance are separated from the casual exchanges. We spoke with our colleague, Niall, who is an information architect. He explained to us that when creating the information structure we should be careful with the options that we give to the user. There needs to be a balance between the existing structure and the extent to which the user can alter it. In our archive, we intend to have categories for various question-answer clusters to be organized in. The levels of freedom need to be appropriately defined so that while the users don’t feel restricted by the app’s functionality, they are not given too much freedom, which may result in a chaotic information structure. With Niall’s help we established that the categories could be predefined so that the archive is not cluttered with multiple user-defined categories. The naming of the categories would be difficult if it is left to the user and might lead to a less organized structure.
We concluded that it would be best to set the Information structure categories but give the users the freedom to add multiple tags to the question clusters. A method to segregate the various question- Users will now have the option of browsing answer sections within a group conversation through categories as well as searching with is to give each cluster a different colour the help of keywords/ tags. and allow the users to save each cluster separately. This ensures that within a group To understand the most logical classification
of the categories we spoke with two independent contractors Rik, from Polderbouw and Jasper from Bucabouw. Using the card sorting technique asked them to tell us what they thought might be a good structure when they would use such an app (details of this meeting are in section4). We gathered from them that categorizing based on the location within a house is the best way to sort out the categories, so bathroom, kitchen, hall etc.
Interaction Concept We have quite a few functions in our app that need to be structured. To structure all these functions and to get a better view of what needs to be where we made a flowchart. A flowchart is a diagram that shows the steps followed by the user while using app. All the options that are in the app are shown in the flowchart (appendix 68).
We used the paper prototype to see if all the functions were necessary and whether the steps the user has to take were logical. To test the concept we put the paper prototype in Protosketch. Protosketch is an app that allowed us to make a digital prototype of our paper sketches. We discussed and tested our concept with two independent contractors, Rik and Jasper. This concept test will be elaborated later in this document (section 4). We learnt that some options needed change or addition to the concept. Rik and Jasper mentioned that we have to keep the app as simple as possible and recognizable for the users. This is something we have to keep in mind while designing the app. We are going to look at designs of apps that the users already use, to ensure simplicity and familiarity.
With the help of the flowchart we created a We then created a new flowchart (appendix paper prototype of our concept (appendix 79) since the old one needed an update. We 69/74). added some options and steps to make it complete. With this flowchart we started making the wireframes of our concept in Axure (appendix 80/93). In Axure it is easy to create a prototype of the app and test to see if everything works fine. The functionality is subject to editing while making the wireframes, which may result in more changes for the flowchart. Once we have a final logical flow of activities in the app we can start designing the app to make it visual.
our archive. To understand what the most logical classification would be for the people Visualisation working in the construction industry, we We want the app to be easy to use and very conducted a card sorting session with Rik user-friendly. Therefore we chose to create a and Jasper. clean look with a clear interface so the user wonâ€™t have any trouble while using the app. We took a set of cards with various categories The app needs to enhance the feeling of and subcategories that we could think of, to cosiness and should be familiar for the user them and asked them to tell us what they so it is more appealing and easy for them to would prefer. For example, the category start using the app. Important keywords for materials had subcategories like wood and our design: familiar, cosy, simple, functional, cement. Another category was the kind of work/ project with subcategories like easy (appendix 94/100). kitchen, bathroom, etc. Both Rik and Jasper We chose to work with STIHO colours so it thought the latter was a good method of classification. fits within the STIHO brand.
Rik and Jasper also told us about an existing standard called STABU, which they use to Concept Test with User structure their projects. It is an in-depth We met with two contractors (Rik and documentation of the particular project Jasper) at Haarlem to test our concept with the material and tool requirements, (appendix 75/77). We explained our concept dimensions and other such information and showed them an interactive prototype. required for the contractor and workers. With an application called Protosketch we converted the paper sketches into an interactive prototype to be used on the iPhone. They liked our concept and thought it was a good idea. Although at first they didnâ€™t grasp all details of our concept but with a little more explanation they were able to get a clear idea of what we wanted to convey. Besides that they had a clear idea of our app, they added some details and options we could really use (appendix 78). When developing the information structure we faced some difficulties. In our discussion with a colleague, Niall, we decided that it would be best to predefine categories in
EVALUATION OF CONCEPT AND DESIGN
Peer Evaluation We presented our detailed concept and the methods we used in this phase to our peers at the MediaLAB. The colleagues appreciated our storyboard and thought it helped a great deal in explaining our concept clearly.
be an integral part of the networking. They can connect users who have questions to experts and recommend people who can solve various doubts.
As for our concept, people liked the fact that we emphasised ‘keeping it simple’ and focussed on functionality. Since our target audience may use this app on site and where they may not be able to use their hands freely, the use of speech was recognized as a fitting solution.
Assigner Feedback We accommodated the peer feedback when preparing the presentation for our assigner. We created a stop-motion video based on our paper prototype, which went through some of the features of the app. At the end of this presentation, as like every other, Giebels was very pleased with our effort and had numerous interesting suggestions for us to work with. Giebels reminded us of the STIHO mission “Thuis in de bouw”. They want their clients to feel at home with them and our app tries to reflect this. The STIHO employees would
Giebels raised an interesting point to specify the maximum duration of the audio message, which will help to keep the questions and answers precise and to the point. He was inclined towards the inclusion of the suppliers as part of the community that uses this app. Their involvement is something that needs to be detailed based on their role as primarily information conveyer. He also mentioned that the role of STIHO is an important one. They want to be the ones that are helping their customers. This means that the app should really look like an information based app, not a social media app. The chat function is good to have, but the focus should lay on the archive and the question clusters.
Users feedback Because we are focused on user-centred design, the users are the most important part of the evaluation, we used a concept test (which is fully explained in section 5.5) to get feedback from them and used this feedback to further develop our concept.
DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOTYPE
Technical aspects We have decided to build our prototype (Beta version) for iOS, which can be further developed. The app will be developed for Android at a later stage. We chose to develop for iOS because it is easier to test right now and iOS works with native elements that are faster to use right now for the developer.
We chose Brian Sahertian, who seemed to be the best fit to our profile and was within our budget. Brian studied Information Communication and Technology at the Hogeschool van Amsterdam, and at the University of Amsterdam he studied Information Sciences. We discussed the technical aspects and the functions with him. He had a clear vision of what was possible for the prototype and what was not. We made a functional proposal for the later stages of the development (see 7.3 The prototype).
We are providing the interaction design (.psd and .ai) and the information structure for the archive. We expect to have a fully annotated code, which is documented and shared on 7.3 The prototype GitHub.
The prototype is based on the supplied wireframes flow chart and the initial design. The prototype will be limited to simulations of the functionalities except the chat environment. A part of the functionality of the chat will be developed for working in conjunction with a mini-server. The mini7.2 server will initially only register messages Hiring a developer from the test users and deliver them to To create a fully working prototype we the recipients. Text, images and audio are decided to hire a developer. We put a vacancy included herein. Video is not included in online and four developers replied. We this prototype due to the complexity of invited them for an interview at MediaLAB. compressing them. We used the functional list and flowchart to gauge which features could be implemented The prototype will be developed in the Titanium platform by Appcelerator (http:// by them in the prototype phase. www.appcelerator.com). It is used to develop cross platform mobile applications The developer is working in close collaboration with us. This is necessary to smoothly convey our design and ensure that our ideas are clearly understood while being implemented.
that the users saved and the FAQâ€™s that were added by STIHO. Users can search in the archive by category and/or tags. These categories are predefined based on STIHO product categories (also applicable to STIHO expertise categories in employee profiles). The user can copy and paste or link an archive entry to the conversation but Login screen only as a simulation. It is not viewable by the The login screen will be working but without receiver device because the archive is only needing a login and/or password. This is local to the phone for now (not accessible by normally working with a database, which is other phones until the archive is on a server). not yet available while creating the prototype. Chats Profile It will be possible to have a conversation When a user uses the app for the first time it between two phones via the mini-server, will immediately go to the profile page where later adaptable to a STIHO server. Text, voice one can edit it and adjust the profile. It is a and picture messages can be exchanged. In customizable profile, in this prototype it will a later stage video could be implemented be local to the phone and cannot be viewed too (for now it is too complex because of the by other users. Profiles of other users are compression requirements and space on the also sample profiles local to the device. The server). In a conversation people can create users cannot add their skills yet. a question cluster to keep it structured. Other users can view these clusters as well. Home The home screen of the app will be an Contacts overview of existing chats. In the prototype The contact list comprises two simulated these existing chats are already made. contact lists for personal contacts and Normally the user can create a new chat STIHO employees. The list items are local as well but in the prototype this is only to the phone. In the STIHO employee list simulated. the user can search based on name and expertise. Archive The archive is based on question clusters
CONCLUSION AND RECOmMENDATION
can learn from each other. The research is relevant for STIHO because it gives them Conclusion insights into the current knowledge loop To give an answer to our main research and how to store this knowledge and make question, â€œHow can STIHO be a source of it accessible for the STIHO customers and knowledge within the construction industry employees. using digital storytelling so that the Dutch construction workers are not constrained by Current state: Knowledge transfer in the the knowledge they possess?â€? we formulated construction industry the following sub questions: What are the It is important to pay utmost attention to best means of knowledge transfer within the the presence of inter-personal relationships, construction industry? What is the service experience sharing and human-human of STIHO? How do STIHO employees get interaction. The importance of mentorthe information to help the clients at STIHO? mentee and peer-peer relationships was What are existing multimedia technologies encountered in our desk research as well as within the construction industry? Based on during our interviews.
the results of the sub-questions the main Interactivity is another important aspect. question was answered. We know that people in the construction The goal of this research was to understand industry learn by practice. There are a lot of the way in which knowledge is transferred workshops offered by suppliers. Suppliers within the construction industry and are open to sharing their knowledge and understanding what resources we can use information. Their main goal is that users use to maintain the knowledge transfer. For their products and materials as meant to. us it was important to make a day in the They do not care via which touchpoints users construction work field less of a struggle get this information. Most of the suppliers when finding solutions for problems that organize workshops so the construction these people encounter while working. We workers can learn by doing. wanted to develop a working prototype, which simulates all the features that helps not only the STIHO customer but also the STIHO employee to share knowledge. For STIHO it was important that this platform contains a feature to store knowledge so that users
The STIHO service All respondents that we spoke to at the STIHO bouwplein visit the bouwplein more than once a week to get supplies. Some of them go there to order materials or for help. This statistic and our observation allowed
us to conclude that the customers share an in a story or conversation about tools and their amicable relationship with the employees. uses it will be easier to transfer information between these two stakeholders. The relationship between the customer and their personal contact person/ sales rep is We discovered two opinions towards the based on trust. If there is a problem with a use of technology by the employees. Some product the customer first calls the sales rep of the employees rely on the Internet for who sold it to them. The sales reps function their knowledge and when they wish to as a representative for STIHO so if there is a get questions answered, but there were problem or if the customers are content with a few who currently do not. This is an a product, they are the first to get a call. indication of the conservative nature of the construction industry. A digital media design The STIHO employee and sharing will definitely bring about a renewal in the knowledge traditional structure. However, we also had The userâ€™s feedback is something that was to keep in mind the ease of use to take into very valuable and is integral to the feedback consideration the spectrum of technical loop. Their experiences also contribute adeptness and willingness to use these greatly to the knowledge pool. It is important tools in the workplace. that there is room for the possibility of including user feedback. The usage of multimedia technologies in the construction industry From the talks with Giebels, and the Our research showed that construction conversations with employees and workers use technologies such as tablets, customers, we have found that people smart phones and/or computers with Internet working in construction industry do not like connection. We know that construction to be educated in a way that reminds them workers already use WhatsApp within their of school. Moreover, according to STIHO personal communities but there is a lack of employees the construction workers are structure within the app. not always transparent about their degree of expertise. They feel independent and can In the co-creating workshop the contractors be hesitant to show that they need help. mentioned that it is just an unstructured This requires a delicate balance in tone of flow of information and you do not know conversation that the STIHO employees what is important and what is not. Another understand well. If the end users get involved finding from the co-creating workshop
included that the focus should not only be scaffold builder within this area. on storing existing knowledge but more the conversation between construction workers. 8.3 Implementation as part of STIHO service
Practical case examples of app usage Login & profile A contractor is standing at the counter and a STIHO employee is helping him. He tells him something about the new app and together they are going to login with the customer number and a password he gets from STIHO. At the counter he is going to edit his profile immediately, together with the STIHO employee. Sending a message A contractor is at home and sees in his email that tomorrow morning there will be an asbestos removal. To get all his subcontractors at once to tell them, he is using the STIHO app and the group they created to tell everyone about the asbestos removal at once. Sending a question One of the subcontractors (a construction worker) sees a leak in the bathroom they are working on. He does not know what to do so he is sending an audio file and a picture as a question to all the other construction workers in the project group chat.
STIHO employees should be well acquainted with the features of the app and should initially start using it regularly among themselves to be adept. In order to achieve this the education/ training department could host workshops, which teach the employees how to use the app and get acquainted with its features. Every STIHO employee should be aware of the app existing and functions. The reason for this is that employees are the main part of promoting this app and implementing it within the STIHO service. As mentioned before, the first time that a customer will be confronted with this app will probably be at the service counter in one of the STIHO sales points. The service counter employee will introduce the app to the customer. We know from our research that a face-to-face interaction on a very personal level will have the best effect on reaching your goal when interacting with a construction worker.
The employee at the purchase desk has to be aware of the apps features and possibilities. They are the main touchpoint of promoting this app and elaborate and convince the STIHO customer of using, and Searching advice from an employee keep on using, the app. By keeping a test A contractor from Haarlem is in Amsterdam phone/ sample phone at the purchase desk and needs a scaffold builder in short time. the STIHO employee can demonstrate the He decides to get in touch with one of the app at the purchase desk. STIHO employees in Amsterdam via the app. He sends him a message if he can advise a
After service In the existing STIHO service the sales rep or experts at the STIHO bouwplein very often give a call to STIHO customers to get more aware of how a specific case turned out and if everything went right. They call this the after service. It would be good to consider shifting this after service from telephone calls to messages via the app. The results of this shift will eventually lead to the fact that the STIHO customer will use the app more often.
STIHO experts generate content for in the appâ€™s archive. They have to be aware of how this archive works, what kind of categories there are and how to work with them.
The content generated by the STIHO employees will mainly consist of FAQs. Most of the content will be generated by STIHO experts which know what content is interesting and important for the end-user. The advice is to create a template for the STIHO experts so every archive entry has the same structure and findability. The structure consists of a category, tags, the question in Archive content generating Since the archive is a big part of our concept, text and the answer in text. we would like to further explain what the possibilities and recommendations are for the archive use. The archive consists of two content sources: user generated content and content generated by the STIHO employee. The content generated by the user consists of the question clusters that the user stores in the archive. When a question is stored the ICT department of STIHO moderates all these clusters. They make sure that categories and tags are right and if necessary formulate a clear question and answer in text to increase the findability of these archive entries. With this moderation function we make sure that the archive keeps a clear structure and increases findability. The second source of content exists of content generated by the SITHO employee. The STIHO experts have the task to generate new content for in the archive. They talk a lot with the customer and know what kind of questions they ask. It is important that the
We developed a multimedia solution for transferring knowledge within the construction industry. We are both satisfied with the end results. All the results and outcomes are based on in depth research and contain the end-user needs and feelings. We think our product helps the construction industry of better communication and assistance with and from each other. STIHO can further develop itself as an expert team which can assists a large scale of their customers via this app. Construction workers across the Netherlands can use this app to discuss projects that they are working on with their own team or with one of the many STIHO experts. STIHO can now
offer a communication platform with a lot of knowledge and expertise. We think this is a very nice way to position STIHO as a company in the construction work field. We know from presenting our concept to our personal environment that people were interested in using this concept within their own work environment. For these reasons we came to the conclusion that this concept can be used on a large scale of different work fields and professions. We are considering further development of this concept and try to make it a white label product. The MediaLAB is considering of helping to take this product to the next level.
Goedert, James, et al. A Framework for Virtual Interactive Construction Education(VICE). Automation in Construction 20.1, 2011: 76-87. Goulding, Nadim, et al. Construction Industry Offsite Production: A Virtual Reality Interactive Training Environment Prototype. Advanced Engineering Informatics 26.1 (2012): 103-116. Howard, R. Using multimedia to link expert’s views and derive common conclusions. Automation in Construction 6, 1997: 3-9. Kamara, J. M., et al. “Knowledge Management in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction Industry.” Construction Innovation (Sage Publications, Ltd.) 2.1 (2002): 53-67. Mark Shelbourn, Ghassan Aouad, and Mike Hoxley. Multimedia in construction education: new dimensions. Automation in construction 10, 2001. 265-274 McCullouch, B., R. Patty. An INDOT lessons learned constructability program and integrated multimedia system. JHRP. 1993. Styhre, Alexander. “Peer Learning in Construction Work: Virtuality and Time in Workplace Learning.” Journal of Workplace Learning 18.2 : 93-105. Websites Cognitive Design Solutions. “Interactive design” . Web. 5 Mar 2013 <http://www.cognitivedesignsolutions.com/Instruction/InteractiveDesign.htm> Construction Instruction. Videos. 5 Mar 2013 <http://www.constructioninstruction.com/> Construction Glossary 1.1. 27 Feb 2013 <http://appfinder.lisisoft.com/app/construction glossary.html> Coursera <http://www.coursera.org>
De Bouwbox. Toolbox films voor de bouw. 5 Mar 2013 <http://www.bouwbox.nl/> Farnell element 14. 7 Mar 2013<http://nl.farnell.com/jsp/bespoke/bespoke4.jsp> Foursquare <http://fourquare.com> Instructables. 6 Mar 2013 <http://www.instructables.com/tag/type-id/> International Construction - The magazine for the global construction industry 4.2.7. 27 Feb 2013 <http://appfinder.lisisoft.com/app/international-construction.html> LinkedIn <http://www.linkedin.com> Mobile Apps for Industrial Manufacturers - iPad and Android [Video]. (2012). Retrieved 26 Feb 2013, from <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DwZi3dH_FnQ> Multimedia Focused Industrial Maintenance & Operator Training [Video]. (2009). Retrieved 26 Feb 2013, from <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CUsPy3eEDQY> Stack Overflow <http://www.stackoverflow.com> Student of Fortune <http://www.studentoffortune.com> Weber - iPhone app [Video]. (2012). Retrieved 26 Feb 2013, from <http://www.youtube com/watch?v=Oa9georzL_w> Wikipedia <http://www.wikipedia.org/>
DEBRIEFING Introduction to the problem Constructors and specialists are getting older and retire. This leads to a lack of qualified people who can teach the newer generation. This younger generation needs a new source of information which can help them develop enough knowledge for a job they are working on. STIHO is an important source and wants to expand on this important function for the industry. What we have to keep in mind is that this profession is passed on by watching and doing. Fifty years ago, STIHO was learning from its clients but now the roles have been reversed. The clients also gain knowledge from STIHO through advice and information regarding tools and materials. STIHO is a source of information for the newer generation when there are less senior builders around to teach them on the job. STIHO however is also affected by the ageing population and wants to retain this knowledge so it doesnâ€™t get lost as experienced employees retire. STIHO learns from its suppliers. These suppliers have the knowledge about the products and how to use them. Now the employees are taught in workshops organised by the suppliers of the construction materials and tools. These workshops are very time consuming, expensive and people donâ€™t always feel like going to a workshop. Another difficulty is that STIHO has around seven hundred people working for them on various locations.
The assignment STIHO wants to find out how they can deliver the extra information about tools and construction materials that normally is given to the client by talking to the STIHO employees on the construction place, an interactive environment where the information can be found and is stored. STIHO wants to have a leading role in getting information through digital storytelling on the construction place and the clients, they want to fill the gap. Who has access to this information is still open for discussion but we have to think about copyright and copying by competitors. The assignment is to develop a knowledge platform that helps the STIHO clients but also their own people to learn from information that is needed to sell and to use the products. During the two week research process we will conduct some research about the different stakeholders (STIHO employees, clients and suppliers), these findings will be presented in a visual way on the 8th of March. After the research phase we will work from the 6th till 21th of March on the different concepts from which the assigner can choose. When the assigner has chosen a concept the team will work from the 25th of March till the 14th of May on the design and on a working prototype of the concept.
INTERVIEW SUPPLIER What do we want to find out? 1. How does the service of the supplier looks like? Which knowledge do they offer and how do they present this? (touchpoints?) 2. How often does the supplier receive calls from companys like STIHO? And if so, which questions do they ask? 3. Does the supplier also learns from input from STIHO or STIHO’s customers? If so, can you give examples? 4. What kind of workshops do suppliers offer? How does this workshop or education look like? 5. How does the supplier experience the relationship between STIHO and the supplier? Dutch 1. Hoe ziet de service eruit die u biedt? Welke kennis biedt u aan en hoe doet u dit? (touchpoints?) 2. Hoe vaak ontvangt u telefoontjes van bedrijven als STIHO? En als zij u bellen, wat voor vragen krijgt u dan? Kunt u hier voorbeelen van noemen? 3. Leren jullie ook weer van de input die jullie krijgen van STIHO of van de eindgebruikers? Kunt u hier voorbeelden van noemen? 4. Wat voor workshops bieden jullie aan? Wat houden deze workshops in? 5. Hoe ervaart u de ‘relatie’ tussen STIHO en jullie zelf?
Interview customers 1. How often do you visit STIHO and do you have many questions for the employees regarding materials and tools? 2. Apart from STIHO do you get your information from any other organization ? 3. How do you obtain information and knowledge regarding your work? 4. Have you used or are you aware of mobile apps that can be used to learn about technology/ new stuff? 5. Can you name the applications/ websites/ or any other resources that you use? 6. Do you watch instructional videos ? If you do, how often ? 7. When do you use the internet/ smartphone for info? When you are working at the construction site and have a problem how do you get your information? 8. Do you get in touch with the supplier directly when you need to find out something? 9. How and when do you interact with the supplier? Dutch 1. Hoe vaak komt u bij STIHO en heeft u vragen over producten of diensten waar zij u mee kunnen helpen? 2. Krijgt u ook informatie van andere organisaties of diensten buiten STIHO? 3. Hoe heeft u of hoe krijgt u informatie en de kennis over uw werk? 4. Gebruikt u ooit, of bent u er bewust van dat er apps zijn die gebruikt kunnen worden tijdens of voor het werk? Om meer te leren over nieuwe technologieen en nieuwe kennis? 5. Kunt u misschien wat apps of websites of een andere bron noemen dat u gebruikt om nieuwe kennis op te doen? 6. Kijkt u soms instructie videoâ€™s? En doet u dit vaak? 7. Wanneer gebruikt u internet of een smartphone voor informatie? Doet u dit tijdens het werken of in de pauzes of voordat u gaat werken om u voor te bereiden? 8. Heb je soms direct contact met de leverancier als u vragen heeft voor hen? Of gaat dit via STIHO? 9. Wat voor interactie heeft u met de leverancier, spreekt of ziet u deze wel eens?
SEMI STRUCTURED Interview EMPLOYEES We interviewed the STIHO employees and if there was an interesting answer we asked further. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
What is your work background? Can you describe your tasks? What kind of questions do your clients ask you? And how do you solve them? How do you keep yourself up-to-date with the new technologies and skills? What are you going to do if you donâ€™t know the answer to a questions? Are you using a tablet or SmartPhone? If yes, do you use it for your work?
Dutch 1. Wat is je achtergrond op werkgebied? 2. Kun je een beschrijving geven van je werkzaamheden? 3. Met wat voor vragen komen klanten naar je toe? En hoe los je deze op? 4. Hoe hou je jezelf bij met nieuwe technologie en vaardigheden? 5. Als je geen antwoord weet op een vraag wat doe je dan? 6. Maak je gebruik van een tablet of Smart Phone? En zo ja, gebruik je die ook wel eens voor je werk? 7. Kom je vaak dezelfde klanten tegen? 8. Leer je ook van ervaringen van hen? En kun je hier een voorbeeld van noemen?
quotes 1. “I take my time for him, but I assume that the client, the contractor, knows what kind of material he must use. But I do give him tips on how he could use it the best.” Martin about customer helping 2. “Once in a while I follow an education at a supplier.” - Martin about gaining new knowledge 3. “No it are days at Makita or Bosch, or what so ever.” - Martin about gaining new knowledge 4. “So you’re totally up-do-date en motivated to sell.” - Martin about gaining new knowledge 5. “I’ve had a technical education” - Dennis about his background 6. “It could be technical questions, specific questions, mostly technical. How do I do this? Or what do I need when I want to stick tiles, that sort of questions. Real technical construction questions.” - Dennis about customer questions 7. “Most of the times we stick to the internet. It depends what kind of question it is. Constructionmaterial or techincal questions which we don’t know, than we call the supplier or call in a colleague. We have colleagues at the sale department, that are product specialists. Everyone has it’s own product and he it highly skilled in that. They just shuffle it out of their sleeve. Or we call in a supplier. We just call him.” - Dennis about problem solving 8. “Most of the time it’s just googling. It’s surprising what you can find on for example YouTube. It’s really, constructing walls and all sorts of stuff, you can just see them do it. It’s so good, real production videos.” - Denis about problem solving 9. “On my previous location there were loats more contracters visiting. They really had their papers and did their pre-work, they just said; we need this stuff.” - Dennis about contractors 10. “On this location we have contractors, but also many ZZP’ers and do-it-selvers, so no contractors with papers, and most of the time this is the group you can see searching alot.” - Dennis about different customers 11. “They really need loats of explanation, they didn’t achieved their papers.” - Dennis about different customers
12. “It is like when they use a product, that product is fine, and you have to convince them and really show them. Real firm and faithfull. And you really have to come up with “Arguments like; this is way cheaper or alot faster. And then they really want to know the ‘what’s in it for me’, so yeah, you can convince them.” - Dennis abou the firm behaviour of the customer 13. “We really know our customer, the ones that come over at the service counter, they won’t say like; I don’t know how this works, especially not when there is more people over at the counter. If they feel trusted at the counter they will say it.” - Dennis about the proudness of the customer 14. Do you hear loats of customer stories? Feedback? Like how his work went? “From the clients case itself? Yeah that’s the after-service your supposed to do. Like now, I’m working on a big delivery for tomorrow and it’s supposed to be delivered on different levels. And your regular customer, if he walks in, you ask him how it went or I give him a call and ask how it went. Like when it is a bit challenging like tomorrow than I’m curious how it works. I just call him and ask how it went, and if everything was fine.” - Dennis about the after-service 15. “We say; just try it. And they are pretty trusted with the brand they use. I will give you a proof sample, just try it en let me know. You didn’t lose anything by that. If I don’t know a product, I will hand it to a customer in exchange for that he will give me the explanation. I learn from that.” - Dennis about product samples 16. “I spend a lot of time with that, but the contractor that’s in the back of the line and spend 2000 euro’s everyday, yeah I mean why should I let him wait? He’s having my priority. He knows what he needs.” - Koen about difference between customers 17. By being curious about the products and the way you can use them. For example we have EcoThermen, the newest isolation material, new packaging. I don’t know exactly how or when to use this material. Dennis showed me a video on YouTube but you have to be interested.” - Koen about new products 18. “So everyone is have their own special skill.” - Koen about STIHO Employees 19. “The work at STIHO is much bla bla. It’s a lot of customer maintainence. Having a chat at the coffeemachine. I know on what cases they are working on, but also how many children they have, and in what age category their in, or what motorcycle they ride.” Koen about personal customer bounding.
20. “There is a moment of piece and quiet between 10:00 and 13:00. Than shits it in.” Koen about customer visits 21. “It has to be a party around here.” - Koen about working at STIHO 22. “It might brake soon, and it’s now always that efficient to work with a smart phone. But we have free Wifi around here, so there is a possibility.” - Koen about the usage of smartphones and tablets 23. “Because I’m not that skilled with a PC I sayd: I want to do this but for now on just working with wood, maybe in a later stage I will have to learn it. I don’t work with a smartphone either.” - Fred about not willing to work with PC’s 24. “I started with school, learning from the books. After my 18th birthday I got my carpenter certificate and worked in construction for two years, they teached me the whole thing. They said: forget what you learned in books, we don’t do it that way anymore.” Fred about how he learned his profession 25. “A contractor knows what he wants, he visits you at the service counter, bam, I need this this and that and that visits me in the back of the warehouse, he already knows where he has to be for his materials. The do-it-self-guy, visits the Bouwplein with a case question and asked us for advice and material choice. People with employees pay more attention on price.” - Fred about the difference between customers 26. “My tasks around here, I started working for STIHO, so basicly wood. And after that I made the choice to work for Giebels to stick around. So I’m the hardware & tool expert. So I kind of do both. - Annemieke about here tasks within the STIHO Bouwplein 27. “Yes I learn by practice. I mean, I don’t know everything, a contractor also doesn’t. If I don’t know it, I search it on the internet.” - Annemieke about knowledge within STIHO 28. “No, ofcourse we know alot around here but we also have product managers that perform plate material purchases or just hardwood. They know it. For specific questions you can inform us.” - Annemieke about where to find information 29. “Making phone calls, that’s my day job, I don’t have extra tasks, I have 1 mayor task that’s making phone calls and arranging vouchers.” - Annemieke about her tasks within the STIHO bouwplein 30. “Everyone has it’s strong points.” - Annemieke about her different tasks withing the
STIHO Bouwplein 31. “No smartphone or tablet, just the computer, I’m a google fan.” - Annemieke about which information sources she uses 32. “We’re only allowed to talk about what’s on the bag description, but with our own experience we can give the customer tips and advice.” - Ton about giving knowledge to the customer 33. “Nowadays more individuals come over. They are not from within this market. Especially in this time” - Ton, service desk employee, about new customers at STIHO 34. “If STIHO purchases company smart phones, I would use them yes, in the shape of a34. tablet. I use my own smart phone for work purposes. I make notes or search information for the customer.” - Ton about the usage of new media. Touchpoint quotes 35. If they need you for the iron, do they do that by phone, or here at the workplace? “Both, all day long” - Martin about touchpoints 36. “Eh, we really know our customers, those who comes at our servicedesk” - Dennis about desk contact 37. And when they order something, do they come to Stiho for that or do they make a call? “Both” - Dennis about placing an order 38. “You see guys that often comes to Stiho. They call us when they need a delivery. People are doing business with people. That guys don’t want to call the sales team, but they know Dennis because they always come here, at Amstel. So they want to call me.” Dennis about customers that do business with familiar faces 39. “So we send them a welcome letter and check all the data and call them. We call them to ask them if they received everything and if everything is clear. Do they need more stuff, or information about the service of Stiho or prices? And from there on we have some actions. We call them immidiatly and after two or three weeks we call them again, just to have the contact. This is really important in the beginning.” - Dennis about the after-service 40. And I see that more and more customers use Whats App. This is really easy, some questions and information in an app and I text them back. But more and more we see people that are coming here at the service desk and have an iPhone with them, even the
but now everyone has their own smart phone, so there is possibly a market for. Whats app is easier then sending an e-mail. I open whatsapp when there are no customers and I can answer the other customers.” - Dennis about using whatsapp 41. “Eh, I think it nice to have those small talks, actually it is really important.” - Koen about talking with customers 42. “We have a lot of face to face contact, but there are a lot of phone calls and e-mails as well.” - Ton about contact with the clients 43. “Today this happens central and because of this we sometimes meet a new supplier. We don’t go to fairs anymore, we don’t have time for that. If we need information we have to call the supplier or search it on the web.” - Ton about gathering new information 44. “Customers can’t pay with cash anymore. They used to pay when the deliverer came at the construction site. Now they have to pay digitally or they have to come here and pay. Because of this we have to make a lot of receipts.” - Annemieke about the payment of the client 45. “Phone calls, that is my day actually. I don’t have a lot of other things because of all the phone calls and making receipts.” - Annemieke about here tasks at Stiho 46. “Yes for sure, if i don’t know the answer we ask the supplier. Every supplier has their own website. Nine out of ten we can find the information there. If not, we have colleagues that have the answer” - Annemieke about the contact with the supplier 47. “From 7.00 till 09.30 the plasterers are here. They want to finish the day early, so they are here around 6.30 in front of the gate, waiting for us to open. From 9.30 till 10.30 the carpenters come. We also have a lot of phonecalls each day.” - Fred about the contact with the customers 48. “Normally they come with questions about wood and sometimes they come here and don’t know how to saw the wood, but honestly I never help them with those kind of questions because that is not my responsibility. So I will send them to the sales counter.” - Fred about the contact with the customers. 49. “It happens that a company like STIHO comes over with their own employees but also with end-users to follow a training. The fun thing about that is you can really see the bonding between the dealer, in this case STIHO, the end-user, and of course us, Makita, the supplier. The triangle, if I may call it, is very close to each other” Makita account manager, Interview, 5 March 2013
50. “I know I can rely on the person from STIHO. The contact is always close.” Ed, contractor 51. Interviewer: “If you come here, at STIHO bouwplein, do you expect that they give you information if needed? Do you ask them certain questions?“ Respondent: “Sometimes we talk about things that has to do with construction, but I actually never really ask them questions.” - Customer 52. Interviewer: Do you also ask questions about the usage of techniques, or only about products? Respondent: “No, actually not. I ask questions about material and product but not how to work with tools. - Customer 53. Interviewer: “If you are helping customers, what kind of questions do they have?” Respondent: “That can be technical questions, specific questions about different techniques. How should I do this, or what do I need to do this. Technical questions about ‘how to do things’ and innovation in new products.” - STIHO employee 54. Interviewer: “Do you have workshops at STIHO bouwplein?” Respondent: “They say we do, but we actually never see it happen.” - STIHO employee
bouwbox analyse Zit in Eersel boven de Rabobank Bart vd Heijden kijk op de website http://www.bouwbox.nl. Heeft nu een nieuwe directeur en die zal zeker geïnteresseerd zijn om betrokken te raken bij dit project. Videos voor Toolbox meetings Om een bepaald Veiligheid Checklist Aannemers (VCA certificering) certificaat te krijgen door werknemers elke maand scholing te geven op een goede manier. Die trainingen heten toolbox meetings. Gaat over veiligheid, gezondheid milieu, maar ook over constructie. Na het kijken van zo’n video kan iedereen een krabbeltje zetten en is er weer aan de scholingsvoorwaarden voldaan. Heel makkelijke manier om dat te faciliteren. Database van 100 films, van 3-4 min op gebied van gezondheid veiligheid en milieu en instructievideos. Die konden bedrijven huren en per kijkmoment betalen. Daarmee kun je veel gedoe bij grote bedrijven uit handen nemen, Bouwvakkers niet per se heel gemotiveerd om te leren. Hoge faalkosten in de bouw (van onnodig een pen weggooien tot volledig verkeerd bestelde materialen en vertragingen). Idee achter business model In samenwerking met producenten. Doel was om in het verwerken de faalkosten terug te brengen. Nadruk op dingen die fout kunnen gaan. Je hoeft niet uit te leggen hoe een boor werkt, maar wel dat het belangrijk is om de goede diameter gebruiken, goed schoon te maken enz. Dingen die volgens fabrikant vaak fout gaan en die je makkelijk kan voorkomen. Is ons project geënt op de vakman of de projectleider? Bart richtte zich vooral op de verwerker, degene die de producten van bijv stiho verwerkt op de bouwplaats. Fabrikanten van de materialen van de producten moesten betalen voor het maken van de filmpjes. Want: als jouw producten beter verwerkt worden is de klant tevredener over jouw product. We mogen Bart vd Heijden bellen als we meer inhoudelijke vragen hebben. Hij zit al lang in die wereld (wel in Noord-Brabant trouwens). 0622947276
plan stakeholder workshop Purpose: Het doel van deze meeting is om met de verschillende partijen die betrokken zijn bij onze opdracht te kijken wat belangrijke toepassingen zijn binnen ons concept en welke niet. We willen dit doen door met jullie een aantal opdrachten te gaan doen en op deze manier nieuwe inzichten en ideeën te verkrijgen. Product: De uitkomst van deze workshop is niet zozeer een vast product maar geeft ons meer grip op wat jullie behoeftes zijn en hoe jullie het product graag zouden willen zien. People: Aan deze tafel bevinden zich aannemers, leveranciersol en werknemers van STIHO. We hebben vandaag dus de complete ‘driehoek’ compleet. Iedereen even voorstellen. BRAINSTORM Wat gebruiken jullie op de werkvloer? Wat wordt er aangeboden door leveranciers? Hoe komt STIHO aan de informatie? - Hoe zouden aannemers en bouwvakkers kennis willen ontvangen? Op welke manier? Via welke media? Via welke personen? (10min) - Welke kanalen staan er in de top 3 en waarom? scenario: - Een ZZP’er is een klus aan het voorbereiden en is niet zeker over bepaalde zaken binnen de klus waar hij mee aan de slag gaat. 1. Hoe zou de ZZP’er kennis absoluut niet willen ontvangen? 2. Hoe zou de ZZP’er op een ideale manier deze informatie kunnen krijgen? - Per post-it een negatief aspect en een positief aspect 3. Hoe zou de leverancier willen dat zijn kennis bij de ZZP’er komt? - Gebeurt dit ook echt in praktijk? heeft de aannemer hier andere ideeën over? COFFEE BREAK - 10 min - Clusters maken (15min) positieve dingen en negatieve dingen opschrijven per cluster Probeer verschillende ideeën te combineren om tot een ideaal hulpmiddel te komen. STORYBOARDING
- Schets een ideale situatie van kennis overdracht door gebruik te maken van de vorige ideeën. (15min) - Verander de huidige situatie naar de meest optimale situatie, alles is hierin mogelijk. (15min) “CONCLUSION” - Welke toepassingen moeten er sowieso in? - Wat zou het leuker maken waardoor je het vaker zou gebruiken? Fun-factor. PLAN B: Het voorstellen van de concepten die we eventueel hebben. - Welke concepten vinden jullie goed etc.? TO DO: - Flipboard images maken vragen + visual - Post It’s pakken - iets te eten meebrengen - voorbereidende mail sturen naar alle deelnemers
stakeholder & touchpoint map
storyboard - interactive bill 2.1 Interactive bill
For our first concept we came up with the idea of making a digital bill which allows the customer to sear ch for m ore information about t he p roduct s that t hey pur chased. The b ill is provided with a QR code. W hen t he Q R code is scanned with a smart phone it will convert t he b ill into a d igital bill and the customer has to possibility to search for more i nformation about a particular p roduct that he or she bought. This information consists of video, text and pictur es.
The customer purchased materials and product s at the STIHO Bouwplei n
The customer scans t he Q R-code t hat i s displayed on the footer of the bill .
The customer g ets a digital v ersion o f the bill. Per product y ou c an a cces i nformation a bout the pr oduct .
The STIHO Employee hands over the bill with the customers pur chases . The customer c licks o n a product a nd gets a detailed information page about that pr oduct.
storyboard - walky talky As an i nspiration w e looked a t Voxer an d Whatsapp for o ur s econd concept. I t is r eall y easy and fast t o communicate with these a pps and besides that, our some m embers o f our target group uses similar alr eady . Voxer is an app that u se s peech to c ommunicate l ike a w alki e talkie. Whatsapp is a n app that u se m ainly text to communicate. With this in mind we thought of a concept that the construction workers c ould use in the context of their work .
Wi thin this group he asks the question by speech .
A construction worker does n ot k now how to work with a particular tool .
He g oes to t he g roup â€˜Drillsâ€™ t o ask a question about the drill he is been usin g
Someone else i n the g roup s ees t he m essage and r eplies on it with a pictur e and speech .
storyboard - walky talky
The man that asked the question now is satisfie d with this answer and is going to save it .
storyboard - webshop Our concept of the webshop is a combination of a webshop and a digitized invoice. When doing a purchase online, the digital invoice can be adde d to the account of the custome r. This account can contain multiple projects. The p rojects includ e information on whe re the customer w orks a nd what t he j ob entails. In this w ay t he c ustome r can stor e information about all the materials that he needs for a particular j ob. T his information can be added t o this d igital project space and contains information about the tools or material. By clicking o n the object the u ser can get more information. In addition t o this function ther e is also the possibility t o add o ther p eople working on t he j ob t o the project s o they h ave the sam e overview a s the one who created the digita l project space.
Flow chart 1
PAPER PROTOTYPE SKETCHES
concept user test 1 Concept uitleg De app laat bouwvakkers met elkaar in contact komen via spraakoproepen, tekst, video’s en foto’s. De app biedt een gestructureerd systeem waarin gebruikers vragen aan elkaar kunnen stellen en gemakkelijk en snel op elkaar kunnen reageren. Iedere vraag heeft zijn eigen kleur code zodat je binnen een gesprek duidelijk hebt wat voor vragen er gesteld zijn. Het biedt een helder overzicht in het archief waarin gebruikers voorafgaande vragen kunnen terug zoeken in het archief. Dit archief is doorzoek baar via categorieen maar ook via een zoekfunctie. Buiten dat biedt de app ook een contactlijst waarop je kunt zoeken op een bepaalde expertise of beroep om zo gemakkelijk in contact te komen met iemand die je kan helpen. Heb je bijvoorbeeld hulp nodig bij steigerbouw? Dan helpt de app je aan de juiste persoon. Paper prototype uitleg Paper prototyping is een manier om een bepaald concept over te brengen op je eindgebruiker. Het prototype is echter nog een eerste versie van het concept waar nog een heleboel aan veranderd kan worden. Via paper prototyping kunnen we gemakkelijk en snel de functies van het concept overbrengen en een heleboel input vergaren van jullie, de eindgebruikers. Doel van de user test We willen deze test met jullie afleggen om feedback te ontvangen over het concept dat we hebben bedacht. Is het bruikbaar voor jullie? Welke functies vinden jullie van toepassing? Wat zou beter, of anders kunnen/moeten? 1. Je wilt meer weten over een bepaalde houtworm. Je gaat op zoek naar een antwoord in het archief. Hoe zou je dit doen? 2. Je bent bezig met een badkamer en je hebt vragen over een bepaalde toepassing. Start een nieuwe vraag binnen de STIHO Amstel groep. 3. “Ik had begrepen dat je laatst met Pieter Hoogveld hebt gewerkt als loodgieter voor een klus. Kun je me meer vertellen over je ervaring met hem?” Je geeft antwoord op een vraag van iemand uit je contactlijst. 4. Je hebt een vraag over steigerbouw. Je wilt er met iemand over praten maar je hebt niemand in je eigen contactlijst staan die je hiermee kan helpen. Wat doe je? Vragen 1. Wat is je eerste indruk van het concept? 2. Zou je het gebruiken? Waarom wel/niet? 2.1. Zo ja, op welke momenten zie je jezelf dit gebruiken? 3. Wat is duidelijk?
4. Wat is onduidelijk? 5. Wat vind je er prettig aan? 6. Wat vind je er onprettig aan? We willen feedback op: - Binnen de chats kun je zoeken naar onderwerpen waar je al eens over gepraat hebt, is dit logisch? Zou je dit vaak gebruiken? - Je kunt informatie zoeken binnen het archief maar je kunt ook informatie krijgen binnen een chat. Wat zou je het eerste kiezen, en waarom? - Als je binnen je eigen contacten niemand hebt die je op dat moment zou kunnen helpen, zou je dan met een expert willen praten die je niet kent? Archief Binnen het archief kun je zoeken naar opgeslagen gesprekken. Hierin staat informatie over bepaalde onderwerpen. - Zou je zelf snel zoeken binnen het archief naar informatie? - Zou je zelf gesprekken die je gevoerd hebt binnen de app op willen slaan zodat anderen ook bij deze informatie zouden kunnen? - Zou je graag in het archief gesprekken willen lezen? Of zou je er liever naar willen kijken/ luisteren door middel van spraak en fotoâ€™s? Of een combinatie hiervan? Contacten Binnen contacten kun je zoeken in je eigen contactlijst maar ook in de contactlijst die bestaat uit gebruikers van de app. Deze gebruikers zijn onder gedeeld in categorieen gebaseerd op hun beroep en skills. - Als je binnen je eigen contacten niemand hebt die je met een bepaalde opdracht zou kunnen helpen, of niet snel genoeg reageerd, zou je dan zoeken binnen de gebruikers (experts over bepaalde onderwerpen) van de app. Ook al ken je hen niet? Profiel Binnen je profiel kun je er voor kiezen om extra informatie toe te voegen als beroep, bedrijf waarvoor je werkt en je ervaringen/skills. Ook kun je je eigen profiel op zichtbaar of prive zetten. - Zou je deze informatie willen delen? - Zou je zichtbaar willen zijn voor anderen zodat zij met vragen naar jou kunnen komen? Groepen Groepen kun je gebruiken om discussies te starten, makkelijk afspraken te maken of vragen te stellen aan meerdere mensen tegelijk. - Als je zelf nog niet genoeg contacten hebt maar je wilt toch deelnemen aan een
bepaalde (bestaande) groep. Zou je dit doen? - Waar zou een groep uit bestaan als het aan jou lag? (voorbeelden: mensen met dezelfde achtergrond? mensen die je al kent? mensen van je bedrijf?) Vragen stellen en clusteren Binnen deze app kun je vragen stellen aan mensen uit je contactlijst maar ook aan andere experts. Deze vragen kun je ook binnen een groep aan meerdere mensen tegelijk vragen. Binnen een groep is het belangrijk dat je de vraag gaat clusteren om het overzicht te bewaren. Om ze meteen op een juiste manier te clusteren is het belangrijk dat je de vraag tags geeft. - Zou je dit meteen willen doen en hoe zou je de tags willen geven? Zoek in chats Binnen de chats kun je zoeken. Dit zoeken bestaat uit het zoeken op groep-naam (als je al veel groepen hebt) of op onderwerpen waar je het over hebt gehad zodat je meteen naar het gesprek gaat waar je het een keer over gehad hebt. - Zou je dit meteen willen zien, of zou je dit willen zien als een extra optie? Nieuwe groep aanmaken - Je kunt een nieuwe groep maken om zo een discussie te starten met meerdere mensen, maar je kunt ook contact zoeken met een bepaald persoon. Wat zou je eerder doen? Hoe zie je deze app binnen je huidige werkomgeving functioneren? Wat zijn de functies die je het meest zal gebruiken? Waarom?
concept test outcome On Wednesday, the 17th of april we conducted a concept test in Haarlem with Rik and Jasper, two contractors who had earlier helped us out at the co-creation workshop. We started by explaining our concept via Protosketch. Linda explained all the features involved in the app and we gave them some time to reflect on it. Some refreshing thoughts from the discussion that we should take in account: - Consider implementing a commercial goal via the contact list. - Implement location in the contact list so you can see if anyone is in a nearby location - Stop focussing on plumbing and such professions. Only focus on STIHO and their field of expertise. - It’s interesting to let all the STIHO customers be part of the contact list. If this works you get a ‘jew based model’. Keep all the work within the STIHO community - Consider rating people on their expertise - In doubt whether the users would really use the archive or if they’d use different channels (like Google or catalogues for this kind of stuff) - Might be interesting to create a group within the app for each project your working on so you have all your under-contractors in one list. - The app has got a major recommendation function A second part of the concept test involved card sorting. With card sorting we tried to get a better grip on how construction workers will search through the archive and what kind of catagories we should make. Some of things we should to take in account are: - Take a look at STABU when creating categories for the archive - Contractors will use different terms than DIY’ers or big companies like BAM. Both Rik and Jasper were really helpful and gave us great new energy and insights to finalize our concept. They were really enthusiastic about our ideas and they could imagine using this app. Also they thought it had a commercial advantage for STIHO.
Flow chart 2
user test 2 Concept uitleg - contact zoeken met je eigen contacten die ook de app gebruiken en medewerkers van Stiho - chat met je contacten en maak groepen aan - maak vragen clusters aan binnen een groep zodat als je vraag beantwoord wordt je hier meteen een melding van krijgt - sla de vragen clusters op als je vraag beantwoord is zodat anderen het terug kunnen zoeken in het archief - het archief bestaat uit vragenclusters en FAQ’s die door Stiho zijn opgeslagen What do we want to know? Opdrachten: >> Neem een minuutje om even te browsen << >> dan opdrachten << 1. Login met een gebruikersnaam (zelf te kiezen). Ga naar een bestaand gesprek en spreek een vraag in. Nadat je de vraag ingesproken hebt voeg je een foto toe aan de vraag om het compleet te maken. >> zeg iets in het gesprek >> zeg iets binnen een vraagcluster (in antwoord op een openstaande vraag) >> stel zelf een vraag/maak nieuwe vraagcluster >> kies categorie badkamer (draaiwiel) >> en vul de volgende tags in : condens en afzuiging >> markeer de vraagcluster als opgelost >> speel het hele gesprek af 2. Zoek in het archief binnen “toilet”. >> zet een cluster dat je in het archief hebt gevonden in een openstaand gesprek (check met brian) 3. Zoek een specialist van STIHO voor hout >> ga naar contacten >> zoek in de stiho contacten een houtspecialist en stuur hem een bericht Goals - Is het ‘stellen van een vraag’ duidelijk? Verschil tussen vraag/nietvraag - Hoe zoekt iemand in een archief (zijn de categorieen duidelijk, moet hier nog iets aan toegevoegd worden?) - Is het logisch en duidelijk waarom je iets zou opslaan in het archief (de knop “opgelost”)
en op welke manier? - Hoe zoeken zij in contacten? - Is het duidelijk waar de contactenlijst uit bestaat? 4. Ga naar de instellingen tab >> lees de disclaimer >>> Eventueel nieuwe opdrachten aan hand van laatste prototype