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Mechanical Engineering 110 | UGBA 190T Introduction to Product Development

Albert Lai | Elise Lim | Jay Kong Jega Vigneshwaran | Markus Fromm | Yang Zhao May 13, 2014


Mission Statement

Incorporate Pomo ideas and values in a temperature and insulation measuring platform that communicates data and recommendations to users in order to aid the Pinoleville Pomo Nation’s progress toward a net-zero impact community and empower future generations with the knowledge to make informed decisions that promote a self-sufficient community. The benefit proposition is to incorporate Pomo culture and values into product design, include users (the Pomo community) as co-designers, promote youth empowerment through educational aspects, product design, and product use involvement, integration of the product into daily lives, and to promote Pomo community growth by providing data on Pomo home design effectiveness. The business goals are to create jobs, in the long-term for the Pinoleville Pomo Nation (our primary market), and create a product that can be marketed to other tribal communities, as well as energy-conscious customers who want to learn more about the efficiency of their home.


Customer & User Needs



The formulation of our customer and user needs involved four main steps: background information review, interviews with primary users, external research and interviews, and Consolidation. While our project could be expanded to target a broader customer base of all communities with a desire to understand more about their energy usage, in the beginning we chose to mostly develop a deep understanding of Pinoleville Pomo people because our main focus was to incorporate an energy sensing platform into their homes, lifestyle, and culture. In particular we were interested in understanding the needs of Nathan Richs family, a representative family from the Pomo Nation who will move into the recently constructed sustainable home on the reservation. We also conducted interviews with external experts to better understand broader user needs. Finally, we consolidated the interpreted information to formulate our final user needs. In total, we interviewed: Primary Users Nathan Rich Joi Rich Imani Rich (Age 16) Kenalu Rich (Age 12) Nia Rich (Age 10)

Internal Experts Professor Alice Agogino Cindy Bailey Dr. Yael Perez

External Experts Dr. Barbara Waugh Chris Shockey Kyunam Kim Julien Caubel Srinivas Sukumar

For complete documentation of user research, please refer to Appendix H.


Background Information Review

Background information review consisted of both interviews with people who had experience working with the Pomo people as well as Pomo background research. We first consulted Professor Alice Agogino, Dr. Yael Perez, and Cindy Bailey, all three of whom had worked with the Pomo people on sustainable housing. The objective of the questions prepared for these interviews was mostly to better understand the Pomo people and their lifestyle, but we also developed a better understanding of their community, their physical homes, cultural sensitivity, and the constraints and limitations of the project. After each interview, we discussed as a group the key takeaways from each expert to create the first basis of our user needs: (I) Sustainability is part of an over-arching goal for Pomo community self-sufficiency (II) Respect for the environment is a large part of Pomo culture, a culture that they would like revive (III) Emphasis on co-design; involvement of the Pomo people (especially youth) is very important 1

Research conducted on the Pomo Nation through documents such as the Tribal Compact and a Pomo history brochure highlighted certain aspects of the Pomo culture to keep in mind as we formulated user needs. Some of the main points included the need to preserve history, culture, and traditions, and the need for economic self-sufficiency.


Interview with Primary Users

Midway through the project we were able to visit the Pinoleville Pomo Nation and interview Nathan Rich and his family, as well as observe certain features of their home. Prior to this visit we had limited contact with the Pomo people and only developed high-level user needs, but interviewing a representative of the Pomo community allowed us to develop a more specific understanding of their needs and their home. Data was recorded through interview notes with direct quotations, personal observation, and photos. Moreover, because of the limited opportunities for direct interaction with our primary customer, we shared some initial concepts (infrared thermometer gun and Smart Lighting system) with them and noted their responses. Figure 1 shows a photo from our visit to the reservation.

Figure 1: Team EcoSense, Professor Alice Agogino, Katy Van Lieshout, Nathan Rich & family

Some specific user information we learned from interviewing the family included: (I) Need to be able to communicate home energy use information with others (i.e. Pomo council) (II) Need to test straw bale insulation efficiency (III) Need to understand how comfort levels compare room v. room (IV) Respect for the environment is deeply ingrained in Pomo culture (V) Nathan’s family is tech-connected to a certain degree through smartphones, laptops, and tablets (VI) Nia, Kenalu, and Imani, their children, enjoy creating things, especially through art



External Research & Interviews

Because our initial customer base is extremely focused, we conducted additional interviews with external experts in energy sensing technology and experts with experience working with Native American tribes. Julien Caubel and Kyunam Kim helped us understand the capabilities and limitations of the Smart Lighting system, a potential concept to be incorporated in our sensing platform. Directors from HP additionally provided more information about existing systems and user needs from a broader customer based (low income and minorities). Most information was used to support our conclusions, but some interviews, such as our interview with Barbara Waugh, prompted us to think of the larger picture and how an energy sensing platform could be used to benefit society as a whole.



From the data gathered through observation, research, and interviews, we were able to generate the following five user needs on order of importance: (I) Increase eco-awareness amongst Nathans family and the Pomo community (a) Measure effectiveness of straw bale insulation (b) Measure comfort through ambient air temperature (II) Benefit future generations by involving youth with eco-related science and technology (III) Incorporate Pomo culture and traditions into product design (IV) Intuitive and seamless user interface (V) Low-cost and feasible sensing platform for their sustainable home design


Concept Generation

With the initial user needs determined, we began generating ideas, which incorporated the Pomo culture, to address the problem of monitoring energy usage in the PPN home. The initial concept generation was done individually and produced 60 ideas with some overlap. Some of these early concepts are shown in the Figure 2 below. These were then discussed as a team and organized into different categories such as electricity, water, air quality, and temperature monitoring; energy generation; displays, user interfaces, data storage, and personal electronic devices; and ways to disguise sensors in the home. Areas that needed further development and more ideas were identified and members of the team brainstormed more concepts with these topics in mind. After the second run of individual idea generation, we had a total of about 120 concepts. Prior to visiting the PPN, all concept generation was based on research of the documentation of the house design and construction, interviews of people who had worked on that initial project, videos of interviews with members of the PPN, and historical documents. Once we visited the PPN reservation and interviewed the family that would be living in the home, we were able to further refine our concepts that had gone through initial concept selection prior to the visit. These concepts were refined keeping in mind our new goals for the product. Instead of a very broad and general energy sensing platform we focused on ideas that dealt with temperature and heat sensing as that had been determined as the most important aspect of the home to measure.


Concept Selection

Having generated more than 120 concepts for the energy sensing platform, our team then went through a concept screening process in which we eliminated concepts were infeasible or redundant. We then each identified our personal top concepts from the approximately 80 remaining ideas and discussed as a group what aspects of each concept we liked. We settled on ten top concepts that we then scored based on how each


Figure 2: A few sketches from the initial brainstorming sessions.

concept addressed our user needs. This systematic method of applying quantitative values to qualitative aspects of each concept gave us a better idea which concepts better met our user needs. We also concluded that many of our concepts had features that could be combined to produce better concepts. Additionally, we were then able to share our top concepts with the Pomo people, ultimately allowing us to decide on the concept with which we would move forward. For full concept screening and scoring matrices, please refer to the Appendix.


Use of Prototype Feedback

Once we developed a digital prototype of the user interface for a web application that supports both mobile and laptop platforms, we presented it to Nates family for feedback. Nate really liked the prototype, but he mentioned that he prefers viewing bar graphs over pie charts and line graphs. We then replaced all the graphs that used line charts with bold and spaced bar charts. Professor Agogino also liked the sleekness of our prototype, but she commented that we should show more presence of the native culture, especially with the Pomo language and symbols. Also, she suggested we gather drawings from Nates children to replace the images on the application as part of the co-design process. We then contacted Nate regarding the drawings, and he was very excited to have his children participate. Even though we had not received the drawings by the final presentation, we have been working on it and they can be easily incorporated into the application when ready. We then met with Barbara Waugh, who inspired us to use a growing image to display the efficiency of the insulation. A smaller image would represent an inefficient insulation, while a larger image would represent effective insulation. Nate suggested we use an image that was important to the Pomo culture, like an acorn; this image can be changed depending on the user’s desires. Our initial prototypes at the beginning of the semester did not properly reflect the users true needs because we did not have a full understanding of their needs. Figure 3 shows a very low-fidelity prototypes based on what we thought the user needs were; “My Energy Book�, is a low-cost laptop computer that teaches kids


about energy conservation and usage. We also created other low-fidelity prototypes such as water sensors that go around the faucet.

Figure 3: A low-fidelity prototype for our web application.

We brought a few Smart Lighting sensors (a technology developed in Professor Agogino’s BEST Lab that measures humidity and temperature and transmits the information to a central base station), an infrared gun (to measure wall temperatures), and a few sketches of our ideas. We noticed that the IR gun received an overwhelmingly positive response from Nate’s children; we knew immediately that we had to it into our final product. We also decided that we wanted to incorporate a mobile/web application into our product, as the kids were very technology savvy and enjoyed using their computers and tablets. With all of this knowledge, it then became clear as to what our final idea would be: an application backed by a platform that utilizes IR guns to measure the efficacy of the insulation (by finding the difference between the two sides of the walls) and Smart Lighting sensors to measure the humidity and ambient temperature of the home. Next, we turned our focus back to the parents to decide on the details of our final idea.


Design for the Environment

Sustainability was one of the top priorities for this project. We were constantly trying to incoproate one of the top Pomo values Nate told us about: being in harmony with the environment. Thus, the environmental impact of our product was a critical component of our triple bottom line. A life cycle was performed on our product and we achieved our goal of extending product life. Going through the cycle, the materials stage is the least environmentally friendly as some of the electronic components on the circuit board of the Smart Lighting sensors were removed from other existing boards. Other than that, most of our materials are reusable and can be broken down to be used in future products. 5

Although our boards are functional, the other circuit boards are rendered useless. Production and distribution leave small carbon footprints as we are the main source of labor and distribution. Excess balsa wood is generated but can easily be reused on future prototypes. Our software application is also produced by our own team members free of charge and waste. Finally, use and recovery also leave minimal carbon footprints. Along with long battery life, there is also solar energy being generated. During use, the only waste generation are the batteries (which last more than a year). At the recovery stage, our product is highly modular and the casing, no matter the material, can be broken down or melted to be reused (the plastics used, other than the 3D printed plastic, were all biodegradable). The circuit boards and solar panels can be reused.


Business Analysis

Although this project was designed to develop a solution exclusively for the Pinoleville Pomo Nation, the product we developed can be modularized and sold on the mass market as well. EcoSense has three components: a mobile application, a set of Smart Lighting sensors modified to measure temperature and humidity, and an infrared temperature gun. The Smart Lighting sensors designed for the final tradeshow were very specialized for the PPNs culture and needs; they wanted a product that was culturally appropriate, environmentally-friendly, and would look appealing in their home. The Smart Lighting sensors designed for the final tradeshow were customized heavily to meet the PPNs cultural needs. However, we are cognizant not all our customers have needs similar to that of the PPN. For the mass market, we plan on modularizing our product to allow for customization. One of the main takeaways of our visit to the PPN was that each member of the family wanted a different case; due to time constraints, we were unable to design one for each member. Thus, we were inspired to design a kit that allows users to build on the standard Smart Lighting case. It will come with different materials like biodegradable plastics, balsa wood, coloring tools, and other creative materials. For users who were not interested in personalizing their case, they could simply use the default case that comes along with the sensors to protect the electronics. This would allow not only different members of the PPN, but also other Native American tribes or energy-conscious consumers to personalize their cases. The total cost of the system is approximately $800. A small, energy-efficient computer will cost about $30, while each sensor casing will cost approximately $20 with the electronics inside costing approximately $80. The IR gun used to measure the temperature of the walls costs $20. The primary revenue source will be the California Energy Commission, which is covering the prototyping costs for the project; similarly the labor and transportation costs will vary depending on grant funding. Although the product is expensive, it is part of a greater initiative to assist tribal efforts to promote self-sufficiency and sustainable living. As part of our Triple Bottom Line, we also want to ensure that we promote an interest in STEM fields in the PPN youth and involve the tribe members as co-designers in our product. As the production volume increases, we will shift to an injection molded casing which will cost a fraction of the 3D printed case. Another major area for cost reduction is the circuit board. During the interviews, we learned that certain components for the circuit board were obtained by purchasing other circuit boards with the aforementioned components already attached. The desired components were then removed from the circuit boards, while the remainder of the circuit board was discarded. This massive waste can be avoided by purchasing these circuit components directly from the manufacturer.


Final Prototype

We communicated with the parents to learn more about the details they wanted to see in the final product: a temperature and humidity sensing system that was visualized on a mobile application. Joi expressed her love for turtles, while the kids showed interest in building and drawing. Nate preferred that we use natural 6

materials. We created several final prototypes based on this feedback. Figure 4 depicts a turtle shell that was designed in SolidWorks and 3D printed; we wanted to include turtles, while also showing the kids that it is possible to design and print their own sensor casings. We also created different casings for the sensors out of biodegradable plastic, clay, and balsa wood. We tried to incorporate Pomo designs, as shown in Figures 5, that we observed at the Grace Hudson Museum into our designs as much as possible, while ensuring that the sensors would receive sufficient airflow to measure the ambient temperature and humidity (note the designs on the balsa wood casing). We also painted the prototypes earthly colors so they would fit in with the paint in the prototype home we visited.

Figure 4: Joi expressed an interest in a turtle shaped casing for the sensor for her room; 3D printing allows users to design their own casings for the Smart Lighting sensors.

In order to complement the sensing system, we also developed a mobile application to display the data, which can be viewed at Figure 6 shows the different sections of the application. Since the family members all had a variety of devices, we developed a responsive web application that was well supported for both mobile screens and bigger screens (like laptops and tablets). We also wanted to prioritize the mobile uses of our application as it is much easier to input the data from the IR gun into a mobile device that’s almost always with the user.

Figure 5: The final sensor casing was made from balsa wood, with cutouts on the sides of the case to allow airflow over the temperature and humidity sensors. The cavity on the top of the case is for the solar panel.


Figure 6: The GUI for our mobile application; note the different rooms for which the temperature, humidity, and insulation effectiveness can be viewed.

The application starts with a simple page of location selection, where users may choose from three different bedrooms, the living room, garage, and kitchen. Each choice is a big button combined with text and image representation. After selecting the location, users may go ahead and choose between ambient temperature and efficiency of insulation. The ambient temperature displays dynamically updated temperature in the selected room, streamed from the sensors. The application visualizes the information by a graph of moving column bars. The bars moves every 30 seconds, when the computer picks up a new piece of temperature data from the corresponding sensor. In our previous prototype, we had different types of graphs so that users might switch between line chart, pie chart, bar chart, and etc, but in the final prototype, we narrowed down to bar chart only since it was the most preferred option. We learned this from the prototype feedback. In the future we want to add the feature that users may drag to select the time interval. For efficiency of insulation, users are expected to scan the interior wall temperature, exterior wall temperature, and outside temperature by the IR gun. For the sake of a better user experience especially on mobile device, we engineered to hide the English keyboard, and instead, the numerical keyboard will be brought up. Then, once they input the three values, the application will calculate the R value, which quantifies the effectiveness, along with an image of acorn in the middle of the screen. Bigger acorns represent higher insulation efficiency. Finally we hope to help people manage the temperature and insulation well based on the results. On either visualization page, there is a View Recommendations button that brings up a list of simple recommendations. Each one is just two to three sentences. The application also comes with a Quick Start Guide, which explains to users how to use the application and take care of the sensors. We also wanted to include an explanation of the science of how to keep homes warm, so that the children could understand the science and importance of keeping their homes warm. Nate and Joi expressed a strong interest in exposing their kids to science, so we targeted the guide for them.



Self Reflection

As our project draws to a close, there were many valuable lessons we learned throughout the process. One of the best aspects of this project was working on a multidisciplinary teamour project was a success because we had team members from a variety of backgrounds who were able to spearhead different parts of our project; its because we had Computer Science majors in our team that we were even able to develop a fully functional mobile application. We also developed an appreciation for the importance of cultural sensitivity. When discussing our project with Professor Agogino and her team, we learned that we needed to carefully phrase our questions in order to avoid inadvertently offending or appearing ignorant of the customers cultural values. We realized during our visit to the PPN that they lead very similar lifestyles with similar interests compared to us; having never actually worked with Native American tribes before, it was important that we went into the process without any preset stereotypes or biases. Throughout the product development process this semester, our team developed several low and high fidelity prototypes. Prototyping allows us to test our ideas and concepts, as well as visualize and physically assess how our ideas could come to life. Even a very low-fidelity prototype, like our mock up Energy Book made using binders, pipe cleaners, and foam, can communicate our ideas to the customer effectively. As the semester progressed, we developed higher fidelity prototypes using actual circuit boards and created a fully functional mobile application. The low-fidelity prototypes were useful to get feedback on major aspects of our product, while the high-fidelity prototypes were used to iterate through the minutiae of the product.



Interview with Cindy Bailey

Attending: Elise, Markus Date: February 21, 2014 We could potentially focus on a kid/youth focused interface for the product, at least present it in a way that kids could easily understand the info. Seems like it would be desirable for what we make to be usable by the entire family really. There really doesnt seem to be a worry about what tech we use. Computers, tablets, and smart phones would all be doable from an acceptance standpoint. Money would be the deciding factor in that not any cultural pushback against tech. That said, incorporating more traditional looks into casing for the platform wouldnt hurt. Stay away from sleek modern looks with sharp angles. Seek feedback from the tribe in the design process. Kitchen might be a good place to focus monitoring, seems like it would be a high usage area for the PPN. Also since it is a more communal area it might be easier for them to accept monitoring there, than more private locations in the house. Notes • Started on project in E10 during freshman year, 4 person team, similar process to 110, first team on project. Stayed on project through senior year through undergraduate research • Tribe initially approached Agogino; Conducted user needs workshop to come up with initial low fidelity prototype of home • Low-cost and feasible sensing platform for their sustainable home design; project looked at incorporating energy sources such as wind turbines.An architect group ended up changing home design • Straw bale was great construction material because it allowed the community to take part in construction and is good for insulation. Used to have hut houses that were very angular. Not what they were used to and tribe was unhappy. Traditional housing is an yurt, much more round. Jobs are very different, land is very different as well • Net zero has become newer goal, to prove how sustainable the house is; Ryan Shelby headed research for 6 years. Werent looking into technology at the time • Thought needs would be specific to age so they broke up nation into groups for the workshop. Felt like it would be easier for the children to voice themselves away from the adults and elders • 6 cardinal directions. North, South, East, West, Earth, and Sky. Family size for Pomo seemed to be a lot larger than average US. Once elders can no longer take care of themselves the move in with their children. Cooking is a big social aspect, reason for large open space in original design • As far as privacy need, youth meant they wanted isolation privacy within the house and elders wanted community privacy from outsiders. Lives are pretty similar to ours • Pomo known for basket making, 7 different tribes a part of the Pomo • Thinks there is a lot of technology there, just maybe not as expensive as what we are used to • Not a lot of youth go to college, they want to inspire them to go • Wouldnt ask a lot of the questions we are asking to the tribe directly • Wasnt involved in funding; currently home has solar hot water heating • Maybe go with a concept directed towards youth to get them involved 10

• Lot of tension at the beginning of the project due to views of UC Berkeley. Lot of artifacts that belong to Native American tribes in UCB museums; dont know why project seems to have slowed down. Maybe getting tired over each year project has gone on • Problem with reservations are that people are placed on less desirable land; general struggle for water but PPN do have a well; they wanted to buy some more land to build more houses • Everyone is really important, family is really important, and adults want to empower youth. PPN might be better off than other tribes. Tribal council are elected positions. Youth director selected for first home, had 3 kids, and house was designed to be able to hold youth group meetings • Community got to take part in construction • Selected family was interested in changing their lifestyle in order to meet the needs of any systems in the home, like changing soap to accommodate for a grey water system.


Interview with Professor Agogino & Yael Perez

Attending: Albert, Jay, Jega, Markus, Yang Date: February 24, 2014 • Poor Community: → lots of broken objects; saucepans in bathtub because there was no hot water heating so they boiled water and poured it over themselves with the saucepans. Triple-bottom line → priority. • Want to be autonomous and off the grid from power suppliers, water suppliers etc. No electric bills. When working with them, they are in control. Level the playing ground and approach as if we know nothing. • PPN embrace technology and want to create jobs. Not too internet savvy but has desire to learn. No internet access in buildings yet. • Children preschool in a kickstart program on the reservation (open to public so expect random kids) and then disperse to different public/private schools afterwards. Most dont return to tribe • Xenophobic → About 100 years ago, people were paid $10 for every native American they killed. Tribe is now at 300 people total. 15 live on the reservation as of today • Background → nomads, moved into reservation on a nice elevated area, tricked into selling land and moved into valley next to toxic dump, bought back the nice area recently, and would like to move back. • Environment → still live in the valley, river is clean but toxic residue is still there Do NOT mention toxic dump to them. Ever. • They stopped teaching their language for a period of time, but started to teach it again recently to bring back culture. Wants to be acculturated. Want to create jobs and retain members. Long term goal bring people back • Yes they have smart phones; houses are meant for low-income tribe members who cant afford other places; dont have to comply with California gambling and gray water laws. Goal: energy independent. Lack of trust in big companies and corporations



Interview with Julien Caubel

Attending: Elise, Jega Date: February 25, 2014 • The idea with the smart light sensor is that you get a bunch of these sensors and put them around the building and theyre easy to deploy • Product does not have to be wired into the building • Autonomous: they power themselves. Once you set them up, dont have to touch them again for a year. Only collect luminance data, but they can eventually detect humidity and temperature • Imagine an office space like this minus the windows. Put one on your window and one on your desk, and itll figure out whats the intensity by your window, and whats the intensity at your desk. Itll come up with a way to optimize your workspace lighting to for best illumination. • Take the data collected by the system and automate lights to optimize light levels keeps workspace lit at the minimum desired level, but not over-lit. When theres a lot of natural light, artificial light will dim to keep lights at a certain level. • What is the cost of the process? No idea. • Lighting is 40% of total energy used in a building, so these sensors have potential to conserve a lot of energy. • Most of it is user-friendly. Once a sensor breaks, we can just send another one out. There is a black box that contains a lot of hardware. The black box contains smart lighting ballasts — youd probably need someone to come out to fix this if it breaks. The whole system should still be automated as long as the black box works fine. We have data about costs and production that will be published March 1, so cannot really say anything about that yet. • If the people on the reservation arent comfortable with advanced technology, this product only requires basic computer skills. Just go online and download all the system hardware. You can unplug the PCG and stick it into your computer and you can see all the collected data. • If the people on the reservation arent comfortable with advanced technology, this product only requires basic computer skills. Just go online and download all the system hardware. You can unplug the PCG and stick it into your computer and you can see all the collected data. • Whats the lifespan? The solar panel powers it. 200 watts is when it stops working. By OSHA standards you maintain office lights at 320 lux, so usually it will run just off the solar panel. Battery should only have to be used for 2-4 hours tops in a dark office. There is usually enough light to get started up. • As long as the PCB lasts, the product is ok. The only thing that destroys the PCB is heat. Itll last a long time, but as long as its not positioned on the roof, this heat should not be a problem.


Interview with Srinivas Sukumar

Attending: Jay, Jega, Yang Date: April 8, 2014 • Worked at HP; HP has grant for tribes, asked tribe to write proposal on what they would do with technology • One tribe won due to their proposal of what they would do with the technology. Mr. Sukumar was assigned as an executive to oversee and provide guidance. Initially, he was not accepted. 12

• He tried to get people to provide up him updates and gave them ideas. However, the people did not respond or were very reluctant to follow his ideas. • He later discovered he was an ”outsider” to the tribe. It took him around a year of connecting with them, seeing them, living there before they trusted and did what he said • He said it was hard, but you really have to work to understand them and develop trust. Bond building was very important to develop trust. Working together is crucial to develop trust


Visit to Pinoleville Pomo Nation

Attending: Elise, Jay, Jega, Markus, Yang, Professor Agogino, Katy Date: March 29, 2014 • Why pursue a net-zero community? Why do you want to understand your energy usage more? For me, I think being a native person, it is important to be aware of your carbon footprint and how you affect the natural environment. It’s important to understand that the things we consider resources are relatives and we need to have respect for them on a certain level. It’s important to gain understanding and awareness of how each thing we do affects natural environment, and that our children grow up with that knowledge. It should become second nature, not something we think about. I left Hawaii to come here because its a really good opportunity to be connected to this type of information. • What types of energy need to be monitored most? I’m a water guy. Theres a drought now. Respect for water and not just wasting it the way were so accustomed to doing. Right now theyre trucking in water so its not hard to measure. Water is currently being trucked in. Plan is to have 2 to 3 thousand tanks to harvest water. Right now we have a 5 thousand tank for trucking. Harvesting = rainwater harvesting. Yes, water is currently being harvested. I just came from water conservation workshop. Well have solar panels on the roof...the water will just shoot off the panels, so surface wont be lost. People really underestimate the amount of water that can be collected from rainwater. When we got 3 inches of rain, the tanks were full. Just need more tanks. Would be definitely interested in water usage. Harvested water is normally used for landscaping and vegetable gardens. • What methods do you employ to conserve energy? Being who I am I have a healthy respect for water. Also being more aware. Kids are getting on their cases. Kids are very aware. They collect water in the backyard in the buckets. They have 5 gallon buckets they can use for showers. Theory is to get them to understand the importance level of conserving water. • How do you currently track your energy usage? There is not currently a system. Would be cool to find a way to measure showers and toilets and laundry so we can see This is how much our five-person family uses. It wont be a standard pie chart. Raising awareness is the biggest issue. For a lot of people, this isnt the first priority because people are thinking about a lot of other things. Creative ways to get that information to them in a respectful way. He can take this information to council. Would support idea of spending a little more money to conserve a certain amount of energy. • How do you feel about sharing your energy and water consumption with us? What level of detail are you comfortable with? Definitely would like the ability to share data and information with council to provide support information for future eco developments. • What are some problems you encounter regarding energy consumption? My son went through a period where he was afraid of the dark, but he doesnt do that anymore. Used to have to go through the house and shut off the lights. Unplug certain electronics when were not using them. • What would you like to know about your home? Create a better understanding of each appliance. Unplug things were not using – talked about “Vampire Mode” [Prof. Agogino]. Where is the electricity coming from during certain times of the day? Coal, hydro? Can I say “Hey, it’s 8 oclock so you should turn on your computer because its clean energy” 13

• What are some unique features of your home? Heating is mostly electric. There are hydrothermal heat pump systems which is pretty cool. Something that people could be really interested in is its energy retention. Insulation. There are 18 inch wallswow. Its an obvious question to peopletwo sticks of wood. Is that ok? How effective is insulation? Heat and coolness? From their experience, the home “breathes.” It stays really cool when its hot. At the grand opening, it was so hot outside but it was very cool. Close to 30 degree difference without anything being on (nothing heating or cooling). • How would you like children to be involved in the energy monitoring process? I would like to see if theres a way for science for kids. Because Ryan (Shelby) can talk about marvel comics and star wars and then break down the house with my son. Incorporate monitor systems that kids can be involved in. Imani (16 son), Kenalu (12 son), Nia (10 daughter) • What technologies does Nathans family have and how do they use it? Nia has a galaxy tablet. Two sons both have laptop computers. Kenalu and Imano play a lot of games on their laptop: Civilization and team porches. Kenalu and Nia also like Minecraft, especially Kenalu. Kenalu really likes to build things. Before Minecraft it was legos and blocks. Nia also plays Survival Craft and Minecraft on Galaxy tablet. • What do you like to do? Kids really like getting things down on paper. Imani is really into anime and graphic design. Daughter loves Harry Potter. Kenalu likes to wrestle. On a team starting in middle school. Maybe a wrestling scholarship? Imani wants to be a comic book artist what are you favorite comic books? Hell read just about any comic book he reads web comics a lot. Imani is also a writer and guitar playing. Thinking about art school parents want to convince him that college is good. Explore the things that you like. Kenalu interested in 3D modeling, coding. And Minecraft. Loves Minecraft • How do you interact/use with your phone daily? Other technologies? Yes, they have internet. Wife recently got an iPhone for her birthday. iPad, laptop, tablets, Samsung Galaxy. Kids don’t have cellphones, but they have everything else. Thinking of getting iPod things for text messages. • After you come back from school, what do you like doing? Youtube and Minecraft. Haven’t been watching TV. Only watch TV at night time. Barely ever nowadays. Don’t watch TV much anymore. Don’t like commercials. • Are any of you into dancing? Nope. Haven’t gotten into the Pomo dancing. In Oklahoma they have danced back in Nathan’s ceremonial grounds. • What apps do you use? Pogo, game app, Facebook, Instagram, Skype, Netflix, Youtube • Would you feel disrupted by an app? An app would be pretty cool. Really neat if it was on an app. Keep track of what we use today. Or website open up an energy usage website? It would be pretty interestinga website that can tell them what they want to know. Would be great if they could co-create it Kenalu can code a virus. They would be interested in co-creation. Would be great if could incorporate artwork. Create some type of character with bad energy hell grow when we use energy poorly. The other guy would be like a superhero guy. Nathan has being trying to get his son involved in conservation. Want to see “this time this year we used this much, and last year we used another thin.” Could put a code in the shower so they can see who takes the most efficient shower. • How do the kids best learn? Imani better with hands-on learning. Imani is in the 8th grade. He doesnt know yet. Nia is in GATE program • What does your typical day look like? Work, work, work. Get up at the crack of dawn 5:30 AM or 6 AM. 5:45 AM we get up in the morning, Nathan gets in the shower. Take kids to school. Nia takes off to school across the street. Him and I take off to work. Come home, figure out practice, guitar, come home for dinner. He goes to the gym. Until recently Nathans wife was in schoolnow she can catch up on the laundry and makes all the food. Have two dogs and two cats and 7 fish. Live pretty simple, and they like it like that. Didn’t have cell phones or computers because never learned how to use laptop until went back to school. Just got an iPhone for my birthday. Use it for taking pictures and grocery list and texting. 14


Interview with Chris Shockey

Attending: Albert, Elise, Markus Date: April 8, 2014 • 2008-2009 worked as RD company for green housing company that only lasted 2 years For monitoring the company was working on patents for a building material called ICS (concrete foam?) Patents on different external moldings. We were looking at government installations was ics block or structural insulated panels, rigid panels with foam insulation in the middle. • Ics block gives you R40/R50, heat takes about 12 hours to pass through the block so the homeowner knows heat or cold is coming 12 hours before it happens. Working on putting sensors in the block to monitor the energy usage in the house. Lot of aftermarket things, couplers that go around the input line with a console inside the house (designed for rich people in a really large home). Tells you crude numbers coming in. Went on working on plans with government on Navajo reservation to building home in scotsdale that was 6000 sq ft. owner was really interested in air quality for allergy purposes. Hepa filters to monitor, display with data on air quality. Lighting have similar thing, sound and internet have their own system as well. Consoles for everything. From home builders perspective create central console with open source software to consolidate data tying all information together. Really tough time selling that to different groups to bring it together. All groups wanted to be separate. Put sensors between appliance and wall and can typically go back to central unit/ipad. • Ended up chasing down the increasing complexity level and bring it back down to homeowner level. Made it look like browser, different tabs, logging history, controls, etc. different tabs for separate systems as well like geothermal, water catchment, lighting, ambient temperature. If they choose temp. they could see different things in the rooms. Make it so that kids could easily use it and just want to play with it, make the monitoring cool enough to turn it into a game. Was linux server that communicated (really funky specs for sensors, funky data transfer layers) with all the sensors and pull data together and have browser interface pull data to tablet/computer. For res keep simple baseline, rich people bring pretty things. Popping between different groups so had to add more than initially thought. Look at what partners to bring in to be able to keep it simple for the reservation. Finding partners to keep it simple can be tough. • Did a retrofit (super hot in summertime, golf weather in winter), did a couple experiments, 1)used tinting on the windows especially on southern and west facing windows. Do measurements on inside and outside of window and 3 feet on the inside. 2) reflective paint, had poly fibers embedded in paint, would go on stacco. Biggest issue is thermal penetration, for most straw bale the thermal penetration is pretty good, still have a heat sync. Did biospray insulation in the attics, it knocked down temp in attic by about 20 degrees in hot part of the day and holds it in the evening instead of bleeding through roofing material. Put heat sensors in attic space (outside, inside, outside) measure heat in attics and on the roof. May recommend a simple biobased spray insulation on underneath side of the roof. Look at post-venting system. Catch all heat in attic in winter, vent attic in summer to let all heat out. Get reading on differential temperature between outside and inside wall on all 4 sides. Get info on heat on outside wall and inside wall. Once sun starts heating up wall no real interior solution to it. Inside solution didnt really work because heat in walls just went around things, found way in to heat up inside of home. • Before pouring floor they ran piping and hooked it up to super efficient on-demand water heater. Would be for next house obviously, easy enough to put line in first to be able to heat up floor. In summer it works fine as just a heat sink due to nature of concrete floor. Measure floor temperature to tell what that is doing in terms of floor temperature. Inside outside and floor most important not really middle of house.



Interview with Barbara Waugh

Attending: Albert, Elise, Jega, Yang, Markus Date: April 15, 2014 Can you share your experiences about some of the things we talked about earlier for the team? I’ll start way back, and then I can email you an article form the first chapter of a book called speak the truth and point to hope. It’s a really good book. She wanted me to talk about myself as a hero and a journey but not, thats not at all what its ever been about. It’s aboutwhen I was younger and your age, I kind of just I studied really, really hard and made C’s, and I didn’t know why I couldn’t do better than that. Then I went to Europe and toured around and worked in different countries, came back, and made all A’s. It had to do with where I was standing. When I was in it trying to do it, I couldn’t do better than a C. But after having been in a different place, it was all so much easier. Before I thought being a hero means that you are born that way, that you are brilliant or something is different about you. But not, what makes you a hero is to have a dream that is worth your life. It really doesn’t matter what it is and it doesn’t matter if you believe it all the time, but you will attract people around you that will believe it with you. The one thing I want you to take away is to have a dream. I was very much into following MLK. What makes you great is your dream. You have a dream, then you become great, not the other way around. I was a hippie, I did that whole thing and did everything hippie’s do. It was great because I grew up in a very fundamentalist rigid background. But you do have to make a living, so it wasnt too great for that. I got work, did some teaching, got more degrees. Did theology at the University of Chicago. She worked with one of the first women under Title 7. It was really bad in those years. Every instructor at Cal has to take the diversity training and sexual harassment training. To me, it was just...oh gosh, kept putting it off. Finally I take it and sit down for this two hour thing. In the 60’s when I was in school they didn’t have the phrase sexual harassment. There was no language for it. There was a thing where you would sit with your minister and they would lock the door and heavy breathing. The solution was to sit in the back and not say anything. I became an equal rights investigator after that. No woman had ever graduated from her program. She had filed a suit, and she was remember 7 years later. Then joined a street theater. They were giving money to things like the Police athletic league for new uniformswhat? There are kids in East Palo Alto who can’t hear. I want to get into a corporation to see how they get their money and how they give it out. I was reading spy novels trying to figure out what to do. I just got more and more into it. There was so much you can do. It’s a different languageto speak their language and look like them. In a corporation, the way to get anything done that’s radical or different is to call it a “pilot.” I was doing a lot of pilots that scaled, one of which was about diversity hiring. Positive deviance. Read the story about Chaunder Patel. He’s a really cool that would be very fun to come talk to some class or other. His story is really good too, and I could get him here to talk. In the company, I just kept doing more and more stuff and I was only going to stay for a year. Rather than leave or quit, Ill just let them fire me because I get too outrageous, but it never happened. I was in camouflage, speaking the language. “The Structure of Scientific Revolution” and incredible book that goes through the history of innovation and science and demonstrates that the one who change the game aren’t the real investors. They aren’t the real out of the box wackos but rather the ones who change the game are the ones who an camouflage the wacko in the garb of the next evolutionary step. After diversity we organized all the people who cared about sustainable, and we pulled them from all over the company, and from that grew the sustainability network, journal, and applications for sustainability that won them all types of things. “Give us Credit” written about Eunice. By the time I was reading about it, I started thinking why arent we doing anything like working with the poorest of the poor? We ended up signing an MOU to provide computing services in the villages. A couple ideas to run by you: Smart Lighting. Wireless boxes that measure lighting, humidity, temperature. Communicates to a central base station that visualizes data. How do we appeal to different age groups? Right now were looking at bar graphs for adults and feathers for kids. We’re designing culturally sensitive casings and having an interface where they can log in and learn more about recommendations. When we spoke with Sukumar, we ran some of those ideas why him. He wasn’t involved so much in the culturally awarenesstribes designed their own accessories with the technology HP provided. Co-inventors? Co-designers? We provided engineering, tribe provides cultural aspect. I wonder if there’s


anybody in their system who could be a representative voice. Maybe there’s a Native American science teacher at the high school. That kind of person would be ideal. How do you pick off who in their community can talk to you with that voice and give you that feedback as you go. One thing that would be important to check would be if they want that many options. Maybe they can’t afford the time to try those types of things. But if you’re in a tribe living in a reservation, you might not want all those degrees of freedom. We saw that with HP. We would give people all these options, and it would just sit there if you didn’t deliver the final working thing. With the time you only have three weeks. On the other hand, depending on how alien the whole thing is in the first place, it might be perfect to have preschoolers designing the box to make it friendly and nonthreatening. Let them decorate. My grandkids aren’t artists, but I have their art all over the house and I love it. It makes me happy. I remember when computers were first being used and they were alien. He commissioned a picture of a woman sitting in her study looking like a model with long hair and dress, and here’s this computer with a cat sitting on top of it. The scene was supposed to show the domestication of the computer breaks down the barrier. Maybe you should partner with the preschool just to have someone you can partner with quickly. If we made this box out of some plastic clay that hardens and shrinks, and say the kids design the box that the thing fit inside of. You’re able to domesticate the product. Say to the kids we want to thank father sun and help mother earth. What are you going to put on your box? You’ve got your finger in terms of something like the adoption factor. One of the other struggles: one of the main goals is to get youth excited about science and math and technology. We want to incorporate a science game into the application, so what do you think is a good idea to incentivize youth without making it seem artificially placed. Why dont you have a contest where you will give them something for the best game using the box? Something they care about, like the new iPad. Get kids involved will get parents involved. Ask them about how we incorporate culture. It’s all about context. If we look like outsiders coming in and doing a Native American trip versus their own kid coming home with earthen plaster. Be hand in glove with them and make sure it lights them up. Allow them to customize and provide them with the technology and let them customize it. It’s also about the casing and the app and the design features. It’s about the aesthetic of the thing too. The other things is that, one of the things I found is that you have to do the thing itself, but you can enroll people in participation by framing it one step out for its potential for the tribe. The potential for this tribe to be a leader of other tribes. Frame it differently so they can see how this object will scale in importance and impact. What’s really good is that you’re asking these questions and you’re stumped, but the thing is to listen to what the preschooler or middle school-er or father says, see what they have to say, and see what really lights the up.


Background Research Documents – Pinoleville Pomo Nation History Brochure – Pinoleville Pomo Nation Tribal Compact – Video Interviews for Past Pomo Sustainable Project – Grace Hudson: Artist of the Pomo Indians – Partnering with the Pinoleville Pomo Nation Case Study – Previous Engineering 10 Projects – Passive Solar House literature – Pomo Native Plants brochure – Visit to Pomo cultural museum



Concept Selection Matrices

Figure 7: Concept scoring matrix.

Figure 8: Concept screening matrix.



Life Cycle Chart

Figure 9: Life cycle chart for EcoSense.



Business Model




Business Model

Figure 10: This was a medium-fidelity prototype for the sensor casing made our of biodegradable plastic. The holes in the side of the case are designed to increase airflow through the case.

Figure 11: The Pomo highly value rounded objects; their homes are rounded and they tend to dislike sharply angled objects. Thus, we made a prototype of a circular sensor casing for their home out of clay. The high temperature of the oven burned the thinner portion of the prototype, hence the black patches.


M M.1

Quick Start Guide Energy Monitoring Mobile & Web Application

The energy monitoring mobile & web application can be used to measure the ambient temperature at different locations within the home as well as to measure the effectiveness of the insulation. To view the ambient temperature: • Open up the application on your mobile device. • The first screen displays all the locations where temperature and humidity data is being collected. Please select a location. • Please select the first option: View ambient temperature. • The temperature is displayed as a function of time. In order to view temperature data for an earlier time, please press the “back” arrow below the graph. To view the effectiveness of the insulation: • Open up the application on your mobile device. • The first screen displays all the locations where the temperature and humidity data is being collected. Please select a location. • Please select the second option: View insulation effectiveness. • Please use the infrared temperature radar gun provided with the kit to measure the inside wall temperature at the locations noted on the map. Make sure to aim the gun at the same location for each measurement to ensure the consistency of the results • Please measure the outside wall temperature using the infrared gun. • Please measure the outside temperature (the outside ambient temperature). • Please enter the inside wall temperature, outside wall temperature, and outside ambient temperature in the appropriate boxes in the app. • Once you have entered the temperature information, please press “Calculate”. • The application will display an “R-value” for the insulation at the time the measurements were taken. To learn more about R-values and the science behind the insulation in your home, please read the “R-Values & Heat Transfer: The Science of Keeping your Home Warm” document in this guide. The app will store the information so you can monitor the performance of the insulation over a period of time.


Dos and Don’ts: Smart Lighting Sensors

Do: • Place your sensor in an area where you want to measure the temperature and/or humidity. • Clean the circuit board gently with compressed air if it becomes too dusty. • Keep the sensor in an easily accessible location. Don’t: • Touch any of the circuitry inside the sensor without discharging yourself of static electricity. You can discharge the static electricity on your body by touching a grounded metal object (like a doorknob or sink). • Drop the sensor. • Expose the sensor with any liquid, including water. 23


R-Values & Heat Transfer: The Science of Keeping your Home Warm

The R-value displayed on your app is a measure of thermal insulation in a house. Each of your walls, ceilings, and floors has a certain amount of insulation and a corresponding R-value. The higher the R-value, the better the insulation, and the less heat you lose through that surface. If you know how the wall or ceiling is constructed, you can calculate its R-value from its component material R-values. You can look up the R-values of common building materials on the Internet, and the R-values add when they are layered in the direction of heat flow. For example, rigid foam insulation is R-10, and fiberglass is R-13. Putting the foam and then fiberglass gives a total of R-23. Instead of calculating the theoretical, optimal R-value of a given wall, you can calculate the actual, empirical R-value by measuring some temperatures. This can be done with a hand-held infrared thermometer. The best way to use an infrared thermometer is to hold it as close to the surface as possible, and avoid shiny surfaces. Here’s a table that will give you an estimate of wall R-values based on outside temperature and the temperature of inside surface of an exterior wall:

The table above assumes your interior wall temperature is 70F, but you can still use it even if your indoor temperature is a little different; the R-value will be less accurate if indoor temperature deviates from 70F. To use the table, calculate the temperature difference between interior wall temperature and the inside temperature of the exterior wall that you want to know the R-value of. Look at the first column and choose the row that corresponds to the outside air temperature, look for the temperature difference closest to your measurement, then look up on top row for the estimated wall R-value. Now, if you want to be more precise, calculate the R-value directly with the formula,   TH − TC + 0.68 (1) R = 0.68 TA − TH where TH is the interior temperature of an exterior wall, TC is the outside ambient air temperature, and TA is the indoor ambient temperature. The indoor temperature can be measured on an interior wall or door or 24

an object that should be in thermal equilibrium with indoor air; in other words, the object should be at the same temperature as the indoor air. Outside air temperature can be measured on an outside object thats in thermal equilibrium (same temperature) with outside air, such as a trashcan or a deck. When using an infrared thermometer, avoid using it in daylight or measuring shiny objects. Also avoid measuring objects on or near the ground because the ground is often at a different temperature than air. Note that all this discussion assumes no air leakage, no convection (circulating air that transfers heat to different parts of the room), no radiation (waves from the sun or another heat source that transmit heat), and no condensation (process through which a gas becomes a liquid). Only thermal conduction (transfer of heat through the wall) is considered here. Typically, air leakage or significant air movement would dominate heat loss so much that conduction becomes meaningless and usually the best thing to do is to eliminate air movement first. After the air movement is stopped, the measurement values can be considered more accurate. Source: Our Energy Independence Community–Calculate and Measure R-Values


EcoSense: Enabling Sustainable Living