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JEFFREY WHITE PORTFOLIO 2008-2011


COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY GSAPP

MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE YEAR

1

YEAR

2

YEAR

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JEFFREY WHITE PORTFOLIO 2008-2011


EXPLORATIONS CONTENTS SUBSTANTIAL

RESOURCEFUL


PROJECT

1

URBAN LABORATORY

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META- BLOCK

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14

3

ATMOSPHERES

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4

231 BOWERY NYC

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5

THE CHINESE CITY

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6

ORCHARD.HOUSING.GROVE

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7

PERFORATED PANELS

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8

MASS VS. VOID

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9

ARTIST’S STUDIOS

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10

RECONFIGURING LIBERTY ISLAND

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11

HISTORIC FACADES

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UM MANUAL

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12

NECCESSARY PROPAGATION

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13

CIUTAT MERIDIANA

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PROJECT

PROJECT

PROJECT

PROJECT

PROJECT

PROJECT

PROJECT

PROJECT

PROJECT

PROJECT

11.1 PROJECT

PROJECT

PROJECT

A prodigious education or foundation in architecture allows one to dream, design and eventually construct substantial works of the built envrionment. These works can be exemplars and supportive to the engagement of current and past ideals of design, and oftentimes strive for such accolades. However, a common thread throughout my work the past three years at Columbia was not to conform to this known and accepted discourse, instead to see it as resolutely static. Therefore my projects, each in their own manner, are attempts to agitate (through inventive and resourceful approaches) as a way of questioning the current discourse in hopes to make it stronger and more durable in their potential outcomes.

SUPPORTIVE ENGAGEMENT

AGITATION


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1 VIEW FROM MARKET SPACE

urban laboratory

FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION AND POLICY

VIEW FROM MARKET SPACE

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CORE STUDIO 1: PROFESSOR GALIA SOLOMONOFF The Urban Laboratory for Agricultural Research, Production, Distribution and Policy is a mIxed use program that acts as a response to the problem of providing food for rapidly growing urban environments. Currently 60% of the earth’s population lives in an urban environment and this percentage will increase to 80% by 2050. To further distinguish this potential problem, the global population will increase by 3 billion in that same time frame. Urbanization is thus a potential problem as current models, like New York City, lack collaborative production and distribution centers for urban grown produce. Furthermore, the city is without a current model for how to produce large quanities of produce within its urban environment. The design is a response by combining this provocation with the informal urban systems of street vending, a produce market, a restaurant as well as research potentials to act as a spatial experiment. In this manner, it is a parasitic intervention which laches onto the site (physically) as well as the cities infrastructure (West Side Highway, Holland Tunnel, Canal and Spring Streets) to distribute produce as well as knowledge to the general public of New York City.

site possible inclusion of NYU

Union Square Green Market

Produce production occurs through a Hydroponic System which is supplied with water and nutrients via an arterial, siphoned route. The water is collected on the roof, filtered through a central core and deposited in a street level reservoir. This water system does not require energy as the siphon is created by air prressure which is provided by the buildings parasitic connection to the Holland Tunnels exhaust tower.

provide produce to recreational facilities along hudson river provide produce to vendors on West Broadway Market

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AGITATION


8 Hydroponics (From the Greek words hydro, water and ponos, labor)

PLANTING SYSTEM

Rain Water Collecting Roof

Transparent Filtration System Natural Filter Industrial Filter

Reservoir

Siphon Through Planters

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Water Travels Back Through System and Re-deposited in Reservoir Via Siphon

HYDROPONIC

Is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions, in water, without soil. Terrestrial plants may be grown with their roots in the mineral nutrient solution only or in an inert medium, such as perlite, gravel, mineral wool, or coconut husk.

Researchers discovered in the 19th century that plants absorb essential mineral nutrients as inorganic ions in water. In natural conditions, soil acts as a mineral nutrient reservoir but the soil itself is not essential to plant growth. When the mineral nutrients in the soil dissolve in water, plant roots are able to absorb them. When the required mineral nutrients are introduced into a plant's water supply artificially, soil is no longer required for the plant to thrive.


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AGITATION


10

KIDNEY

“dirty” blood waste and excess water

FILTRATION DIAGRAM

“clean” blood

Inform Water Filtration/ Circulation through Hydroponic Siphon System Inform Market Distribution/ Circulation through Program and Site

area of diffusion

WATER excess water back to reservoir

water with nutrients

water with nutrients nutrients absorbed by plants

systematically informed excess water back to reservoir

Laboratory

Laboratory

Laboratory

Market/ Elevated Park Social Space/ Gathering Area

Lobby/ Social Space

Laboratory

Distribution Facility

Water Reservoir

Section A

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Laboratory

Social Space/ Gathering Area

Restaurant Market/ Elevated Park Restaurant Lobby/ Social Space

Laboratory

Distribution Facility

Water Reservoir

Section B

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Research Harvesting/ Maintenance

Program 11,200 sf

Distribution

Lab Gathering Area Public Social

Circulation/ Green Space

Social Space 13,900 sf

SPATIAL

DISTINCTIONS

Lobby

B

A

Level 01

Level 02 Market Ground Level 6000 sf (interior) 7000 sf Market (exterior)

Street Ground Level 6750 sf

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Outdoor Social Space Laboratory Social Space/ Gathering Area

Restauranr

Circulation

Laboratory

Laboratory Social Space/ Gathering Area

Level 03 7000 sf (interior) 1000 sf (exterior)

Level 04 5,350 sf

Laboratory Social Space/ Gathering Area

Roof Plan 7,700 sf for collecting rain

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2

meta-block

PROJECT FILM CHINA LAB

BEIJING SUMMER WORKSHOP 2008 PROJECT WITH JEFFREY JOHNSON, CRESSICA BRAZIER, XU CHEN, EGBERT CHU, CAREN FAYE, STEVEN GARCIA,CHRIS GEE, DANNY KID, SHARON KIM, TAT LAM, DEBBIE LIN, DEBORAH RICHARDS

http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=2777573406212584736&hl=en# The Meta-Block is a de-monumentalization of the mega-scale infrastructure of Beijing. By linking multiple levels and ecological systems, it is an organic, holistic logic that complements the ring roads and towers-in-the-private-park. And it is a balancing act between Big and Small: it does not negate the value of the pragmatic large-scale framework, but rather recalls the historical value of Chinese architecture as a mediator between the larger cosmos and smaller habitats. Mega-block development, in its current trajectory, is unsustainable in all aspects of the word: socially, environmentally, economically,and as a part of the built environment. The transformation into Meta-Blocks reinserts sustainable strategies into the existing city structure: Meta-plane (multi-level and cross-block connectivity and access to open spaces), Meta-transport (reprioritizing pedestrian and bike circulation above the massive vehicular grid), Meta-ecology (localized interaction between inhabitants and constructed nature), Meta-infrastructure (upgrading local telecommunications, water filtration, energy, waste revitalization), and Meta-economy (linking more diverse demographics, including the insertion of low-income housing, to new infrastructure.)

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STILLS FROM VIDEO

MEGA BLOCK TO META-BLOCK


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AGITATION


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COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY GSAPP STUDIO X BEIJING

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18 CONTOURS 1

3

CONTOURS 2

CHASMS

DIRECTIONALITY/ TEXTURE

FRACTURES

CONTOURS 1

BREAK @ 0.00

BREAK @ 2.00

VIEW FROM MARKET SPACE CONTOURS 2

CHASMS

DIRECTIONALITY/ TEXTURE

FRACTURES


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CORE 1: PROFESSOR GALIA SOLOMONOFF

BREAK @ 6.00

BREAK @ 8.00

atmospheres EXPERIMENTS WITH ICE TECTONICS


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3

TEST RUN 1

VIEW FROM MARKET SPACE

TEST RUN 2


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CORE 1: PROFESSOR GALIA SOLOMONOFF

atmospheres EXPERIMENTS WITH ICE TECTONICS


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4

STUDIO THESIS: Core II Studio Description The Museum of Delineation/MOD is a museum for the arts, production and tools of delineation. MOD collects, exhibits, and educates the public on all manner of linear representations both analog and digital. MOD contains both flexible and permanent galleries for works ranging in scale and content from the postage stamp to urban graffiti to digital installations. The site, 231 Bowery, is bordered on the north by the New Museum of Contemporary Art and south by the Bowery Mission. It is a 47,000-square-foot six-story structure occupied by a restaurantsupply company and was acquired by the New Museum of Contemporary Art for future expansion. The New Museum, designed by Sanaa. opened in 2006. These two institutions indicate the shifts in public culture along the Bowery from an infamous 'skid row' to the Bowery as the cusp of contemporary design.

231 BOWERY NYC THE MUSEUM OF DELINEATION

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CORE STUDIO 2: PROFESSOR JOAQUIM MORENO

OPEN FROM ALLEY

SOUTH FACADE

POTENTIALLY BLOCKED BY FUTURE BUILDING BASED OF SITE CONDITIONS/ ZONING REGULATIONS

SOUTH FACADE

NORTH FACADE

CURRENTLY BLOCKED BY BOWERY MISSION

BLOCKED BY NEW MUSEUM

’ 50 ’ 40

HEIGHT OF FIRST BLOCK (NEW MUSEUM) GROUND PLANE

9’ 28’

12’

TOP OF ADJACENT BUILDING

15’

HEIGHT OF SECOND BLOCK (NEW MUSEUM)

13’

HEIGHT OF THIRD BLOCK (NEW MUSEUM)

49’

26’

HEIGHT OF FOURTH BLOCK (NEW MUSEUM)

75’

’ 75

NDITIONS

INITIAL SITE CONDITIONS ANALYSIS

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southern light reflected off The New Museum northern light

CORE I      ICE PROJECT     1

MO R E INTE NS E L IG HT S C AT TE R ING

gallery zone gallery zone administration zone education zone administration zone

LESS INTENSE LIGHT SCATTERING

cafe

reception

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main entrance reservations/ ticket counter/ login

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plaza/ lobby/ reception restrooms

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13

event/ performance space

L6

museum/ book store lounge/ reading rooms cafe

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conference rooms/ offices education zone/ training/ IT

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13

L5

large works galleries small works galleries loading dock

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open to below

10

13

L4

open to below

9

8

13

L3

open to below

open to below

PRIN CE

STAN TO

7

+4’

13

6

L2 BOW ERY ST

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

PORTFOLIO 2008-2011

N ST

ST

1 3

BOWE RY MIS

open to below

5

open to below

SION

13

4

2

L1 1” = 64’ CONTEXTUAL PLAN

   

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26 + 110’ = LIGHT WELL PEAK

LARGE WORKS GALLERY

+ 100’ = ROOF PLANE

SMALL WORKS GALLERY

15’ + 85’ = LEVEL 6

2’ 6”

LARGE WORKS GALLERY

15’ + 62’ = LEVEL 5

   

section cross

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section longitudinal

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4

231 BOWERY NYC THE MUSEUM OF DELINEATION

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CORE STUDIO 2: PROFESSOR JOAQUIM MORENO

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5

the chinese city PUBLICATION CONTRIBUTION (with Deb Lin)


JEFFREY WHITE

CONTEMPORARY CHINESE URBANISM: PROFESSORS JEFFREY JOHNSON

PORTFOLIO 2008-2011

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WATER consumption

70

54

liters of water for one single (100 g)

Apple In average about 700 liters of water are needed to produce one kilogram of apples. The exact amount of water depends on the origin and breed of the apple. One glass of apple juice (200 ml) requires about 190 liters of water.

liters of water for one studio (500 sf)

Res. Unit Person: 2 liters (day) Flush a Toilet: 6 liters (x4 day) Sink: 5 liters (1 sec) Shower: 23 liters (4 min)

50

liters of water for one single (100 g)

Orange In average about 500 liters of water are needed to produce one kilogram of oranges. One glass of orange juice (200 ml) requires about 170 liters of water.

WATER percentage

84

%

62

% percentage of water

percentage of water one single (100 g)

Apple

one person

Res. Unit

85

%

percentage of water one single (100 g)

Orange

TEMPERATURE range

32-85

F

O

SUBSTANTIAL

68-74 Res. Unit 60-85 Orange F

F

O

Apple

O

The American Society of Heating, Refrigertation, and Air- conditioning Engineers (ASHREA), specifies thermal comfort conditions acceptable to 80% or more of the occupants within a space. The standard recommends the following temperatures: 68-74 OF (winter) and 73- 79 OF (summer).

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PORTFOLIO 2008-2011

UNITS total required

1738

total number of trees (on site)

Apple 4800 people x 365 = 1,752,000 a year

1500

1 bushel = 126 (apples) 126 x 8 (bushels/tree) = 1008 (apples/tree)

total number of units (on site)

Res. Unit 60% Affordable Housing Studio Units One Bedroom Units Two Bedroom Units Four Bedroom Units

1914

Orange 4800 people x 365 = 1,752,000 a year 1 boxes = 26,136 (grams of oranges) 26,136/ 100 (one orange) = 216.36 (oranges/box) 1 (tree) = 3.5 (boxes)

1500 x 3.2 (people/unit)= 4,800 people

1008 x 1738 (trees) = 1,752,000 (apples produced a year)

total number of trees (on site)

216.36 x 3.5 = 915 (oranges/tree) 915 x 1914 (trees) = 1,752,000 (oranges produced a year)

SIZE minimum required 20’

25’

10’

30’

25’

15’

500

sf

Apple

500

sf

Res. Unit

150

sf

Orange

evorgGNISUOHdrahcro THREE SEEMINGLY UNRELATED AND ISOLATED OBJECTS (AND THEIR SUPPORT SYSTEMS) CAN AND SHOULD CO-EXIST

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VIEW FROM MARKET SPACE

6

orchardHOUSINGgrove CORE STUDIO 2: LOT-EK STUDIO

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(project with Isabelle Rijnties)


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25’

12.5’ Pruned apple tree 25’x25’25’

Unpruned apple tree 25’x25’25’

New Model of Pruning Potential 12.5’x25’x25’

20’ 10’

1

25’

25’

25’

1 Traditional Orchard Spacing

25’

25’

25’

25’

12.5’

12.5’

2

12.5’ 12.5’

12.5’ 12.5’

12.5’ 12.5’

12.5’ 12.5’

3

2 Densification

3 Potential for Intervention with Residential Units

Placing the orchard on a slope allows for a densification without disrupting each tree’s ability to recieve unobstructed, direct light. The inclusion of orchard and architecture is a symbiotic relationship, allowing for the potential relationships between various building systems/ orchard systems.

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SECTION 5 LOOKING WEST

SECTION 4 LOOKING WEST

SECTION 3 LOOKING WEST

SECTION 2 LOOKING WEST

SECTION 1 LOOKING WEST

Longitudinal Section

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AGITATION


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25.00

UNIT TYPE 1

UNIT TYPE 2

UNIT TYPE 3

Water Management USE AND RE-USE

POTABLE WATER IN

TREATED GREYWATER (UNIT RE-USE)

Kitchen Sink Shower/ Bathroom Sink

Clothes Washing

Trees Toilet Flushing

GREY WATER TREATMENT (PHYTOREMEDIATION)

BLACK WATER OUT

BLACK WATER TREATMENT ONSITE

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SECTION 10 LOOKING NORTH

SECTION 9 LOOKING NORTH

SECTION 8 LOOKING NORTH

SECTION 7 LOOKING NORTH

SECTION 6 LOOKING NORTH

SECTION 5 LOOKING NORTH SECTION 4 LOOKING NORTH SECTION 3 LOOKING NORTH

SECTION 2 LOOKING NORTH

SECTION 1 LOOKING NORTH

SITE PLAN SUPPORTIVE ENGAGEMENT

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ORCHARD/ GROVE

RESIDENTIAL/ RETAIL

SITE CIRCULATION

ORCHARD

ORGANIZATION AND LAYERS LEVEL 20 LEVEL 19 LEVEL 18 LEVEL 17 LEVEL 16 LEVEL 15 LEVEL 14 LEVEL 13 LEVEL 12 LEVEL 11 LEVEL 10 LEVEL 9 LEVEL 8 LEVEL 7 LEVEL 6 LEVEL 5 LEVEL 4 LEVEL 3 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 1

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+

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PHYSICAL MODEL IMAGES

6 SUBSTANTIAL

orchardHOUSINGgrove RESOURCEFUL


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AGITATION


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7

VIEW FROM MARKET SPACE

perforated panels INTERPOLATING CONDITIONS


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VISUAL STUDIES: COMPONENT SYSTEMS

MIDDLE JOINT

END JOINTS

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VIEW FROM MARKET SPACE

perforated panels INTERPOLATING CONDITIONS


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VISUAL STUDIES: COMPONENT SYSTEMS

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7.1 IMAGE 1

GRADIENT PATTERN 1

FLATTENED FOLD PATTERN 1

IMAGE 2

GRADIENT PATTERN 2

FLATTENED FOLD PATTERN 2

IMAGE 3

GRADIENT PATTERN 3

FLATTENED FOLD PATTERN 3

VIEW FROM MARKET SPACE

perforated panels LIGHT FILTRATION/ DIFFUSION

Clo uds a ct as a s c reen that lt er, di us e a nd re fract nat ur a l sunli ght tha t s hin es t hro ug h. T his p ro je ct a ll ow s f o r the po t entia l to t ake t hos e id eas of lig ht lt rat io n a nd t ra nsfo rm t hem t o t he s ca le of t he p erf p anel. T he p a nels b eco me a gra d ient t ha t c a n lter a rt i c ial lig ht in t he sa me ma nner tha t co uds t ra nf o rm nat ura l lig ht.


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VISUAL STUDIES: COMPONENT SYSTEMS

PANEL 1

PANEL 2

PANEL 3

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VIEW FROM MARKET SPACE

perforated panels LIGHT FILTRATION/ DIFFUSION


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TEXTURE SAMPLES: Texture Samples: We tested a variety of concrete mixtures/ formwork materials and decided that curing time and concrete consistency were the most important factors. Other factors included texture of the concrete, color, ease of pouring, how much the concrete would disperse and fill the cast, weight.

8

VIEW FROM MARKET SPACE

mass vs. void

OBJECTIVE: We began with a set of adjectives related to the dichotomy of mass and void: relation of top and bottom, smooth vs. textured, time and sequence, organic and engineered… We were also influenced by and wanted to re-reinterpret current methods of concrete construction like casting and shotcrete. This led us in the direction of two distinct techniques based under the umbrella ideal that one of the most flexible places for experimentation is creating a lack of orientation. The prescribed dimension (1x1x1) allowed us to set-up a series of experiments that questioned the notion of top and bottom in concrete casting and in turn seeing how far we could push concrete from a stereotomic material to a tectonic material without using it in a manner looses its “concrete-ness”.


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PORTFOLIO 2008-2011

VISUAL STUDIES: CONCRETE OBSESSIONS Professor Keith Kaseman

STEP ONE: FILLING FORMWORKS WITH NEGATIVE SPACE (BALLOONS) To create the balance between positive and negative space in the cast, we chose balloons for the inverse space. Balloons are light, keep relative shape during curing, did not break often, and after curing we could pop them to remove from the cast. We used both air and water balloons- each of which had positive and negative aspects. Water Balloons would not float to the top of the cast due to their weight, and Air Balloons kept the casts relatively light. Furthermore, the latex of the balloon created a smoother texture than the foam-core which allowed for three distinct textures : Smooth, Semi-Smooth and Rough where the concrete broke.

STEP ONE: FORMWORKS IMAGE

STEP TWO: FILLING ORMWORKS IMAGE

STEP T WO: FILLING FORMWORKS WITH POSITIVE SPACE (CONCRETE) We found that it was important to mix the concrete after the balloons were either in place or readily available to be put in place, with attention given to the right ratio of balloons to allow for enough concrete to be poured to be solid, yet not too large of a volume of balloons which would not allow us to cap the formwork. This often meant preparing the cast with the balloons and having a general idea of the amount of concrete we were going to pour in relation to balloons, then removing all but the first layer of balloons. Each cast then had about 3-5 layers of balloons and therefore 3-5 different pours of concrete to be able to control the variables (that balloons do not shift/ concrete evenly fills the space between the balloons). We also found that mixing the concrete in smaller increments (opposed to mixing the amount of concrete that would fill the cast all at once) was beneficial because it allowed us the ability to be more precise with the pour as well as keeping the concrete fresh and fluid at all times. Pouring in layers allowed for much more control of the balloon placement as well as kept them from floating to the top.

STEP THREE: REMOVING FORMWORKS

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9 VIEW FROM MARKET SPACE

the artist studio’s BRONX, NEW YORK

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ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY V Project with Benedict Clouette, Alina Gorokova, Irene Brisson

SOUTH FACADE: BRICK SCREEN

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56 A##-##

SOUTH FACADE: SINGLE FLOOR BRICK AXO

NOT TO SCALE

EXPANSION JOINT LINE

THREADED TENSION ADJUSTMENT BOLTS

EXPANSION JOINT LINE

SKYLIGHT STRUTS

2

DETAIL: COLUMN TO BEAM

STEEL COLUMN W12

STEEL DECKING

CONCRETE FLOOR

BOLTED ANGLE CONNECTION 3

FIREPROOFING

ALUMINUM GRILL CEILING GYPSEUM BOARD FIREPROOFING

STEEL C-CHANNEL

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SOUTH FACADE: SINGLE FLOOR EXPLODED AXO

NOT TO SCALE

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58 2.DETAIL: SKYLIGHT AT BEAM

1.DETAIL: INLINE AT COLUMN

WIRE LADDER @ 24” O.C. (6 courses)

THREADED STEEL TENSION ROD (3/4” Dia.)

DROPPED WATERPROOF CEILING PANEL

EMBEDDED CONNECTION PLATE 4 - 3/4” THREADED BOLT STUDS WEEP FLASHING

ANGLED SKYLIGHT FRAMING

WEEP FLASHING

RAIN GUTTER

5” SHELF ANGLE

EMBED TIE-BACK

RECTANGULAR STEEL HEADER (9x5x0.5)

WELDED TAB CONNECTION W8 BEAM

WELDED STIFFENER PLATES

3"

DETAIL: BRICK LAYOUT PATTERN

8"

4 3/4" 5 1/4"

2 1/2" 6"

2'-10"

3 1/4"

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2'-10"

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19'-2"

A02- 01. BRICK REPEATABLE UNIT PATTERN NOT TO SCALE

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2'-10"

2'-10"


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FLASHING

3.DETAIL: SOFFET AT BEAM

HEAD

GLAZING

TRANSOM

WEEP FLASHING

5” SHELF ANGLE

HALFEN ANCHOR SILL

EXTERIOR SOFFET PANEL COMPRESSIBLE EXPANSION PAD

INSULATED PANEL UNIT

THREADED TIGHTENING BOLT

RIGID INSULATION

CURTAINWALL SYSTEM (KAWNEER 7500)

3.

2.

SLAB ON GRADE W/ CONCRETE SPREAD FOOTING

CROSS SECTION

NORTHERN FACADE: GLASS DETAIL

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STRUCTURAL FRAMING 1

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W14 X 109

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28’ TYPICAL F

W18 X 71 W10 X 30

E

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6X

W1

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PLAN: FLOOR FRAMING 1

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CEILING SUPPLY AIR DIFFUSER F

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AIR HANDLER UNIT D

EXHAUST (TO ROOF) RETURN AIR (TO CHILLER) SUPPLY AIR (FROM OUTSIDE) RETURN AIR GRILLE C

B

A

PLAN: HVAC SYSTEM 1

2

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6" O.C. F

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PLAN: HVAC HEATING

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PLAN: TYPICAL FLOOR

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PLAN: GROUND FLOOR SUPPORTIVE ENGAGEMENT

AGITATION


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38 40 42 52 43 45 24 23 35 54 51 45 40 43 9 15 22 40 22 40 44 34 45 23 12 43 37 51 23 24 23 43 54 53 40 21 39 51 61 45 13 52 43 40 40 37 6 57 24 15 21 47 61 28 2 40 35 42 21 20 55 21 4 55 6 58 28 40 3 3 4 21 62 16 59 22 6 6 22 3 12 41 61 51 15 4 34 41 24 2 150 yards 21 10 22 15 2 53 4 6 SECURITY56 ZONE 6 41 21 5 5 21 4 40 54 32 55 30 39 23 56 32 16 4 5 60 23 18 5 57 53 39 15 5 17 21 2 4 7 18 59 39 56 18 4 4 42 17 14 60 2 4 36 40 56 6 58 19 22 22 44 56 19 51 20 38 21 20 28 41 23 42 47 36 50 30 30 23 46 40 37 12 53 22 18 20 23 45 28 12 46 16 9 20 9 27 35 26 50 20 41 55 29 19 20 12 46 35 36 17 47 53 12 33 21 54 22 34 49 47 47 22 21 15 47 30 22 12 24 47 17 22 54 32 21 45 25 14 28 34 22 55 34 9 34 8 37 24 15 24 47 36 10 7 45 35 7 35 43 37 17 37 35 8 47 7 22 16 12 35 41 64 45 8 24 20 8 49 6 16 19 46 37 45 15 15 22 60 34 36 47 15 17 18 14 38 20 38 16 44 42 23 22 34 35 23 29 46 47 17 30 35 37 26 41 40 29 34 43 47 33 18 26 29 30 35 38 41 46 40 29 44 24 30 45 49 30 40 45 49 35 33 35 47 37 45 46 31 45 41 34 45 41 53 45 39 33 40 46 54 49 37 38 50 41 54 51 40 36 47 49 47 43 54 45 51 36 37 45 40 53 45 37 53 39 51 39 49 27 45 47 21

x

38

3

8

3

33 5

3 3

19 22

24

23

5

39 47

45 52

46

50

47

10

29 15

VIEW FROM MARKET SPACE

reconfiguring liberty island FROM AN ISLAND TO A LAGOON

VIEW FROM MARKET SPACE

SUBSTANTIAL

RESOURCEFUL


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Liberty Island

SURFACE AREA= 71,230 yards 2

CORE STUDIO IV: PROFESSORS MARC TSURUMAKI/ MARC KUSHNER The New Colossus To The New Coal-less

VOLUME= 71,230 yards 2 x 2 (height)

The Statue of Liberty is among the best known monuments in the world. Over four million people visit her annually, and millions more see her image in media of every kind from recreational to political. The image of the Statue, the iconography and monumentality, as a result, has had the power to be more than simply a statue in a park. It is not a coincidence that in 1924 the Statue and Liberty Island were placed under the system of the National Monuments (later National Park Services) administered by the War Department. For the previous decade, she was the face of Liberty Bonds and war bond campaigns that had a big impact in terms of helping pay for the war, while also providing immigrants a symbol of America that promoted nationalalistic identity and pride.

1. The changing meaning of freedom vs. security post 9/11 and the resiliency of New York/ America 2. The Statue’s prominent place in global as well as American pop-culture as an object to deomonstrate change

Security Zone

SURFACE AREA= 70,650 yards 2

The percentage of people visiting Liberty Island is increasingly international, and I am urging in my proposal for The National Park Services to promote Lady Liberty’s Identity and symbolism in a manner that allows for her to be seen not only to the American people, but also globally, as an icon and monument of “freedom”. I think this can be achieved, as written in the 1913 NY Times article and in attempts post-2006, through depicting Liberty Island as a symbol for the future- Liberty Island can become a global symbol for the freedom from fossil fuels and potential for responsible sources of renewable energy to take precedence.

SUPPORTIVE ENGAGEMENT

USE THE CURRENT ABOVE HIGH TIDE LINE LAND AND INFILL THE VOID

Today, The National Park Services and the State of New York have re-thought the Statue; however, they are old meanings in a new context. The 21st Century Liberty Island has taken on two (new) prominent images:

AGITATION


64

tidal lagoon

CONVERTING THE ENERGY OF TIDES TO ELECTRICAL ENERGY

- Tidal energy is one of the oldest forms of energy used by humans - Tidal Power is non-polluting, reliable, and predictable - Tidal turbines are located beneath the ocean surface and cannot be seen or heard - Water is 830 times more dense than air meaning that, for a given electricity output, tidal turbines can be much smaller than equivalent wind turbines

high tide line

5 ft

low tide line hard substrate

OUTERMOST PROCESSION SECTION (WITH TURBINES) open

high tide line

5 ft

low tide line hard substrate

OUTERMOST PROCESSION SECTION (WITH TURBINES) closed

HIGH TIDE +5’

SUBSTANTIAL

1 HOUR ATFER HIGH TIDE +4’

RESOURCEFUL

2 HOURS, +3’


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RENDER: 3 HOURS, +2’

3 HOURS, +2’

4 HOURS, +1’

LOW TIDE +0’

SUPPORTIVE ENGAGEMENT

AGITATION


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HIGH TIDE (Interior)/ HIGH TIDE (exterior) high tide line

UNPLANTED

CATTAIL

BULRUSH

ALGAE

1’ ROCK WEED

Wetlands Distribution 15 acres SUBSTANTIAL

RESOURCEFUL

OYSTER BEDS

MUD FLATS

low tide line


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MID TIDE 4 HOURS +1’ (Interior)/ LOW (exterior)

SUPPORTIVE ENGAGEMENT

AGITATION


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LOBBY/ PUBLIC VIEWIN

BOUNDARY PROCESSION

FERRY DOCK/ INITIAL SEQUENCE CAFE/ GIFT SHOP STEPS TO INNER PROCESSION

MECHANICAL/ TURBINE MECHANICS

LONGITUDINAL SECTION (THROUGH BUILDING) 1/8”

5 ft

1/8 “ LONGITUDINAL SECTION

SUBSTANTIAL

RESOURCEFUL

10 ft

20 ft

30 ft

30 ft


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PORTFOLIO 2008-2011

EWING AREA

13 ft

water line contour

5 ft

EXTEND

ED SEC

URITY

SECURITY ZONE

QUEUE

12 ft

4 ft

30 ft

30 ft

30 ft

30 ft

30 ft

30 ft

20 ft

10 ft

10 ft

4 ft

355 ft

3 ft

10 ft

34 ft

5 ft

INTERTIDAL ZONE

INNER PROCESSION (+4’) PUBLIC VIEWING AREA CAFE

12 ft

ACCESS TO SITE 4 ft

LONGITUDINAL SECTION (THROUGH BUILDING) 1/8”

3 ft

10 ft

34 ft

5 ft

INTERTIDAL ZONE

INNER PROCESSION (+4’) PUBLIC VIEWING AREA CAFE

12 ft

ACCESS TO SITE 4 ft

LONGITUDINAL SECTION (THROUGH BUILDING) 1/8”

SUPPORTIVE ENGAGEMENT

AGITATION

34 ft


70

BUILDING AXO SUBSTANTIAL

RESOURCEFUL


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LIBERTY ISLAND WELCOME CENTER PLAN (CUT THROUGH +3FT)

LIBERTY ISLAND WELCOME CENTER PLAN (CUT THROUGH -15FT)

SUPPORTIVE ENGAGEMENT

AGITATION


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11

historic facades do not tell the whole story

Uniqueness, character and history are disappearing from the neighborhoods of Rio de Janeiro. In the past, neighborhoods like Gamboa had flavor and individuality; they continue to this day to be overrun by ordinary, mindnumbing buildings that are being built and found throughout the city and country. (even globally) Design originality, contextualization, and heritage are no longer as important as maximizing profit and space. The result of this development is the loss of historic layers, which used to rekindle memories of stories and events that took place in these older neighborhoods long ago. The distinctiveness and inimitable icons of the diverse neighborhoods created an aggregate urbanism. A sense of ownership was created. These iconic neighborhoods, special in their own ways, came together like a puzzle to create the aggregate we know as Rio de

Janeiro. Unfortunately, the aggregation of the neighborhoods and city have slowly dissolved to neighborhoods of the have and have not’s, the formal and the spontaneous. The formal—development without thought of history and character has won out.

PORTO MARAVILHA

Formal development in Rio has and continues to be a pursuit of destructive founding—land use that ignores ecological and social significance of the environment/ existing built environment. Founding or alteration is a necessity in order for humans to adapt and to live, work, and feel at home, but we must also preserve what we have founded. Rem Koolhass, in the 2010 Venice Biennale, presented the two conflicting ideologies that continue to fracture preservation, the ideologies of Ruskin (Authentic) and Viollet-le-Duc (Restored). Each side poses a dilemma. Desires and impact on the individuals and communities connected to the place. This brings to mind the questions of what, why and for whom are we preserving? What pieces of the environment should we attempt to reconstruct or preserve, and what are the warrants for historical treatment? Are we looking for evidence of the climactic moments or for any manifestation of tradition we can find, or are we judging and evaluating the past, choosing the more significant over the less, retaining what we think of as the best? Should things be saved because they were associated with important persons or events?


JEFFREY WHITE

Because they are unique or nearly so or, quite the contrary, because they were most typical of the time? Because of their importance as a group symbol? Because of their intrinsic qualities in the present? Because of their special usefulness as sources of intellectual information about the past? Or should we simply (as we most often do) let chance select for us and preserve for a second century everything that has happened to survive the first? If we have been reasonably successful at junking environment in those most active central areas of our cities, where the intensity of new activity can support the cost of piecemeal removal, and also in the low-density fringes, where disposal is cheap-elsewhere in cities we have been much less successful, wherever the wanted change is more than a gradual improvement for an unchanging activity. Under the banner of historical preservation, we have saved many isolated buildings of doubtful significance or present quality, which are out of context with their surroundings and without a means of supporting their use or maintenance or of communicating their means to the public. At the same time, in urban renewal, we wipe out substantial areas of used environment at great psychological and social cost, to be replaced by new settings that lack man desirable features of the old. Having suffered the pangs of uprooting and saddened by the inhuman quality of much of the new urban development, many of us conclude that it is time to stop growth and change, or at least to leave the older areas alone and concentrate growth in the “empty” fringes.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRESERVATION OF THE REMOTE AND IMMEDIATE PAST. Might it also be possible to use environment to teach change instead of permanence—how the world constantly shifts in the context of the immediate past; which changes have been valuable, which not; how change can be externally effected; how change might occur in the future? Saving the past can be a way of learning for the future, just as people change themselves by learning something now that they might employ later. Public responsibility and the importance of intertwined communication and social space are important characteristics moving forward and Tupi can serve as a marker or beacon of the transformation of these attributes over time. From a dictatorship—to a capitalist democracy to…

PORTFOLIO 2008-2011

Ruined structures, in the process of going back to the earth, are enjoyed everywhere for the emotional sensations they convey. This pleasurable melancholy may be coupled with the observer’s satisfaction at having survived or be tinged with righteous triumph, esthetic delight, or intellectual enjoyment. The base of this emotional pleasure is a heightened sense of the flow of time. Clever restoration, reuse, etc…, obscures the essential quality of impermanent remains. A pleasantly ruinous environment demands some inefficiency, a relaxed acceptance of time, the esthetic ability to take dramatic advantage of entropy and destruction. A landscape acquires emotional depth as it accumulates these scars. Certain materials and forms age well. They develop an interesting patina, a rich texture, an attractive outline. The loss of information increases as the rate of development rises, particularly as our technology now encourages us to make massive alterations of the earth’s surface for rural as well as for urban uses. There is a pleasure in seeing receding, half-veiled space or in detecting the various layers of successive occupation as they fade into the past—and then finding a few fragments whose origins are remote and inscrutable, whose meanings lurk beneath beneath their shapes, like dim fish in deep water. We do not wish to preserve our childhood intact, with all its personalities, circumstances, and emotions. We want to simplify and to pattern it, to make vivid its important moments, to skip over its empty stretches, sense its mysterious beginnings, soften its painful feelings—that is, to change it into a dramatic recital. “At the heart of architectural theory is a paradox: buildings are designed to last, and therefore they outlast the insubstantial pageants that made them. Then, liberated from the shackles of immediate utility and the intentions of their masters, they are free to do as they will. Buildings long outlive the purposes for which they were built, the technologies by which they were constructed, and the aesthetics that determined their form; they suffer numberless subtractions, additions, divisions, and multiplications; and soon enough their form and their function have little to do with one another.” -Robert Smithson

73


74

11.1 ummanual PARA TER A CIDADE DE VOLTA

STUDIO THESIS: Can a new model of urban transformation and regeneration be conceived that is not dependent upon the "newness” value? Is it possible to give new life to a city without following the Bilbao paradigm? Today we speak about "globalizing” the historic centers, which usually means devising ways to attract global capital.

TUPI- CURRENT CONDITION

SUBSTANTIAL

RESOURCEFUL

Can a new preservation oriented architectural theory of the "center” help us envision a different sort of global city?


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PORTFOLIO 2008-2011

75

ADVANCED STUDIO 1: PROFESSORS KONYK/ OTERO-PAILOS

NEW PRESERVATION PARADIGM Instead of adding new pageant after new pageant which over time will again become insubstatial in some manner, why not allow the building to take on a dialectics of entropy. This “project” examines, defines and counteracts past and current methods/ preconceived notions of what preservation means and how we define “heritage”. SITE: Radio Tupi Building (1949 by Oscar Neimeyer) Rio De Janeiro

TUPI- EXAMPLES USING “TYPICAL” PRESERVATION MODELS....

TUPI- BUILD ON

TUPI- EXTEND TYPOLOGY

TUPI- FACADISM

TUPI- FACADISM V.2

TUPI- GEO DOME

TUPI- ADAPTIVE REUSE

SUPPORTIVE ENGAGEMENT

AGITATION


76 A MANUAL TO TAKE BACK THE CITY: PRESERVATION WITH THE PEOPLE NOT FOR THE PEOPLE

COVER Um Manual para ter a cidade de volta Preservação com o Povo, não para o Povo

Surface: the connective tissue of our malleable city

HISTORIC FACADES DO NOT TELL THE WHOLE STORY

Breanne Gearheart Uniqueness, character and history are disappearing from the neighborhoods of Rio de Janeiro. In the

past, neighborhoods like Gamboa had flavor and individuality; they continue to this day to be overrun by

The surface is being remade.

ordinary, mind-numbing buildings that are being built and found throughout the city and country. (even

The city is in the midst of itself.

globally) Design originality, contextualization, and heritage are no longer as important as maximizing

profit and space. The result of this development is the loss of historic layers, which used to rekindle

It is a reinvention and an unbiased creation.

memories of stories and events that took place in these older neighborhoods long ago. The distinctiveness

It is a record, an accumulation.

and inimitable icons of the diverse neighborhoods created an aggregate urbanism. A sense of ownership

Impressions made by a living city, pressed into its body by the pressure of time.

was created. These iconic neighborhoods, special in their own ways, came together like a puzzle to

create the aggregate we know as Rio de Janeiro. Unfortunately, the aggregation of the neighborhoods

It is no one’s fault and no one’s genius.

and city have slowly dissolved to neighborhoods of the have and have not’s, the formal and the

spontaneous. The formal—development without thought of history and character has won out.

It is because of us and in spite of us. Concrete is poured, smooth walls are pieced together, metal is shaped and embedded in the ground, asphalt is scorched into place. These physical undertakings create the body of our cities. We often conceive of the urban environment as entirely designed. Decisions were made. Architects, city planners, landscape architects, neighborhood organizations, graffiti artists, and shop owners are seen as the creators of our urban surroundings. Yet, a quieter design is adding depth and richness to our cities. Built forms are physically scarred, rubbed smooth, or momentarily altered by passing phenomenon. Physical form is activated by accidental interventions. The city becomes a physical record of intangible temporal occurrences. Time passes, people move about, rain falls, wind blows. The city is an expression of the processes that occur within it. Through observing the changes on its surface, we can come to see the built environment as a malleable expression of the life of the city. Multiple narratives are unified and expressed in the flexible form of the city.

SUBSTANTIAL

RESOURCEFUL

"To survive, the spectacle must have social control. It can recuperate a potentially threatening situation by shifting ground, creating dazzling alternatives or by embracing the threat, making it safe and then selling it back to us.” - Larry Law, The Spectacle: The Skeleton Keys

FIRST F O L D


77

PORTFOLIO 2008-2011

Tupi PORTO MARAVILHA Formal development in Rio has and continues to be a purs¬uit of destructive founding—land use that ignores ecological and social significance of the environment/ existing built environment. Founding or

alteration is a necessity in order for humans to adapt and to live, work, and feel at home, but we must also preserve what we have founded. Rem Koolhass, in the 2010 Venice Biennale, presented the two

conflicting ideologies that continue to fracture preservation, the ideologies of Ruskin (Authentic) and

FORMAL DEVELOPMENT: 1972

Viollet-le-Duc (Restored). Each side poses a dilemma.

If we have been reasonably successful at junking environment in those most active central areas of our cities, where the intensity of new activity can support the cost of piecemeal removal, and also in the low-density fringes, where disposal is cheap-elsewhere in cities we have been much less successful, wherever the wanted change is more than a gradual improvement for an unchanging activity. Under the banner of historical preservation, we have saved many isolated buildings of doubtful significance or present quality, which are out of context with their surroundings and without a means of supporting their use or maintenance or of communicating their means to the public. At the same time, in urban renewal, we wipe out substantial areas of used environment at great psychological and social cost, to be replaced by new settings that lack man desirable features of the old. Having suffered the pangs of uprooting and saddened by the inhuman quality of much of the new urban development, many of us conclude that it is time to stop growth and change, or at least to leave the older areas alone and concentrate growth in the “empty” fringes. - Kevin Lynch, What Time is this Place

FORMAL DEVELOPMENT: 1930

The loss of information and communication increases as the rate of development rises, particularly as our technology now encourages us to make massive alterations of the earth’s surface for rural as well as for urban uses.

EN T

Tupi lies on the threshold between the formal and spontaneous. It belongs with the spontaneous as it is and has been a symbol for the people. Spontaneous urbanization (here the favela) tend to grow organically, consuming and occupying space based on necessity. Contextually Tupi will be overgrown by the favela and therefore it becomes part of the favela or spontaneous city.

L

VE SP ONTANE OUUSS D E OPM NT SP O ANE

O

SECOND F O L D

FORMAL DEVELOPMENT: 2016

JEFFREY WHITE

There is a pleasure in seeing receding, half-veiled space or in detecting the various layers of successive occupation as they fade into the past—and then finding a few fragments whose origins are remote and inscrutable, whose meanings lurk beneath their shapes, like dim fish in deep water. We do not wish to preserve our childhood intact, with all its personalities, circumstances, and emotions. We want to simplify and to pattern it, to make vivid its important moments, to skip over its empty stretches, sense its mysterious beginnings, soften its painful feelings—that is, to change it into a dramatic recital. At the heart of architectural theory is a paradox: buildings are designed to last, and therefore they outlast the insubstantial pageants that made them. Then, liberated from the shackles of immediate utility and the intentions of their masters, they are free to do as they will. Buildings long outlive the purposes for which they were built, the technologies by which they were constructed, and the aesthetics that determined their form; they suffer numberless subtractions, additions, divisions, and multiplications; and soon enough their form and their function have little to do with one another. Instead of adding new pageant after new pageant which over time will again become insubstantial, why not allow the building to take on a dialectics of entropy.

SUPPORTIVE ENGAGEMENT

AGITATION


78 A MANUAL TO TAKE BACK THE CITY: PRESERVATION WITH THE PEOPLE NOT FOR THE PEOPLE

COVER Um Manual para ter a cidade de volta Preservação com o Povo, não para o Povo

Surface: the connective tissue of our malleable city

HISTORIC FACADES DO NOT TELL THE WHOLE STORY

Breanne Gearheart Uniqueness, character and history are disappearing from the neighborhoods of Rio de Janeiro. In the

past, neighborhoods like Gamboa had flavor and individuality; they continue to this day to be overrun by

The surface is being remade.

ordinary, mind-numbing buildings that are being built and found throughout the city and country. (even

The city is in the midst of itself.

globally) Design originality, contextualization, and heritage are no longer as important as maximizing

profit and space. The result of this development is the loss of historic layers, which used to rekindle

It is a reinvention and an unbiased creation.

memories of stories and events that took place in these older neighborhoods long ago. The distinctiveness

It is a record, an accumulation.

and inimitable icons of the diverse neighborhoods created an aggregate urbanism. A sense of ownership

Impressions made by a living city, pressed into its body by the pressure of time.

was created. These iconic neighborhoods, special in their own ways, came together like a puzzle to

create the aggregate we know as Rio de Janeiro. Unfortunately, the aggregation of the neighborhoods

It is no one’s fault and no one’s genius.

and city have slowly dissolved to neighborhoods of the have and have not’s, the formal and the

spontaneous. The formal—development without thought of history and character has won out.

It is because of us and in spite of us. Concrete is poured, smooth walls are pieced together, metal is shaped and embedded in the ground, asphalt is scorched into place. These physical undertakings create the body of our cities. We often conceive of the urban environment as entirely designed. Decisions were made. Architects, city planners, landscape architects, neighborhood organizations, graffiti artists, and shop owners are seen as the creators of our urban surroundings. Yet, a quieter design is adding depth and richness to our cities. Built forms are physically scarred, rubbed smooth, or momentarily altered by passing phenomenon. Physical form is activated by accidental interventions. The city becomes a physical record of intangible temporal occurrences. Time passes, people move about, rain falls, wind blows. The city is an expression of the processes that occur within it. Through observing the changes on its surface, we can come to see the built environment as a malleable expression of the life of the city. Multiple narratives are unified and expressed in the flexible form of the city.

SUBSTANTIAL

RESOURCEFUL

"To survive, the spectacle must have social control. It can recuperate a potentially threatening situation by shifting ground, creating dazzling alternatives or by embracing the threat, making it safe and then selling it back to us.” - Larry Law, The Spectacle: The Skeleton Keys

FIRST F O L D


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PORTFOLIO 2008-2011

What pieces of the environment should we attempt to reconstruct or preserve, and what are the warrants for historical treatment? - More than homes and churches of the rural elite, works of master builders, monuments of formality, aesthetically pleasing material objects, and sites for potential economic commodification.

THIRD F O L D

Are we looking for evidence of the climactic moments or for any manifestation of tradition we can find, or are we judging and evaluating the past, choosing the more significant over the less, retaining what we think of as the best? - The use of the past to construct ideas of individual and group identities is part of the human condition, and that throughout human history people have actively managed and treasured material aspects of the past for this purpose.

Should things be saved because they were associated with important persons or events? - Tupi is a Niemeyer building, but that is not enough in this case...

Because they are unique or nearly so or, quite the contrary, because they were most typical of the time? - Costa would make an argument for both the unique and the vernacular, depending upon “the time”.

Because of their importance as a group symbol? Because of their intrinsic qualities in the future? - FOR NOW, NOT THE FUTURE. Preservation for “future generations” is a rhetoric that undermines the ability of the present, unless under the professional, institutionalized guidance of preservation groups, to alter or change the meaning and value of heritage sites or places.

Because of their special usefulness as intellectual information about the past?

sources

of

- In effect, the past is valued and understood differently by different peoples, groups, or communities and how that past is understood validates a sense or not a sense of place. In particular contexts this can be disabling for those groups or communities whose sense of history and place exist outside of the dominant heritage message or discourse.

Or should we simply (as we most often do) let chance select for us and preserve for a second century everything that has happened to survive the first? “...well, it’s very hard to predict anything; all predictions tend to be wrong. I mean even planning. I mean planning and chance almost seem to be the same thing...” -Robert Smithson

Might it also be possible to use environment to teach change instead of permanence—how the world constantly shifts in the context of the immediate past; which changes have been valuable, which not; how change can be externally effected; how change might occur in the future? Saving the past can be a way of learning for the future, just as people change themselves by learning something now that they might employ later. Public responsibility and the importance of intertwined communication and social space are important characteristics moving forward and Tupi can serve as a marker or beacon of the transformation of these attributes over time. From a dictatorship—to a capitalist democracy to… - The important point here is that terms like “the past”, when used to discuss and define preservation, disengage us from the very real emotion and cultural work that the past does as heritage for individuals and communities. The past is not abstract; it has material reality as heritage, which in turn has material consequences for community, identity and belonging. Preservation has the power to legitimize someones sense of place and thus their social and cultural experiences and memories.

SUPPORTIVE ENGAGEMENT

AGITATION


80 "THE TUPI IS THE PEOPLE, THE PEOPLE IS TUPI!” - Averages 300,000 listeners/ minute - Over 2.2 million listeners/ day

TUPI- CURRENT CONDITION

Demographics: 43% male / 57% women 24% Class A/B 53% Class C 23% Class D *Class Class Class Class

A= B= C= D=

Upper Class Middle Class Lower Class (Favela’s in or near city) Lower Class (Fringe Favela’s)

"Much of development communication programs in the post- WWII period was theoretically and ideologically informed by the modernization paradigm, which tried to resolve third world problems by facilitating the transformation-- through information transmission in mass media-- of pre-modern and 'backward’ attitudes and practices of 'traditional’ societies into modern, rational and western ways of life.” - Mowlana, 1990. UNESCO: Reports and Papers on Mass Communication

The truth of globalization and market- driven, formal urbanization: the construction of new walls safeguarding and preserving prosperous locales from the spontaneous flood. "One is tempted to resuscitate here the old Marxist 'humanist’ opposition of 'rekations between things' and 'relations between persons': in the much celebrated free curculation opened up by global capitalism, it is things (commodities) which freely circulate, while the circulation of 'persons’ is more and more controlled.” - Slavoj Zizek, Violence

FAVELISTA’S WANT TO BE AND ARE A PART OF BRAZILIAN HERITAGE, BUT ARE NOT FULLY RECOGNIZED AS SUCH.

SUBSTANTIAL

RESOURCEFUL


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PORTFOLIO 2008-2011

81

TUPI TUPI- PHYSICAL BRIDGE MADE FROM INFILL

CURRENT CONDITION

PROPOSED CONDITION

SUPPORTIVE ENGAGEMENT

AGITATION


82

SUBSTANTIAL

RESOURCEFUL


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PORTFOLIO 2008-2011

83

THE PHYSICAL BRIDGE THAT CONNECTS TUPI WITH THE FAVELA IS IN CONSTANT FLUX, DUE TO SETTLING. THEREFORE THE INTERACTION AND HOW TUPI IS PCCUPIED VARIES WITH TIME AND TIME BECOMES THE CONSTANT IN THE EQUATION OF PRESERVATION FOR TUPI’S FUTURE.

SUPPORTIVE ENGAGEMENT

AGITATION


84

12

necessary propagation THE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURAL THEORY PROFESSOR: MARK WIGLEY

Brazil has been and continues to be a place in which things deemed impossible elsewhere are invariably possible, and where “normal” rules and conventions can and should be questioned. Perhaps it is because of this reality that Brazil, beginning in the late 1930’s, became an exemplar of the modern movement. Brazilian modernity did not begin in 1937 with Lucio Costa’s “Documentação Necessária” first published in Revista do Serviço do Patrimonio Historico e Artistico Nacional (SPHAN); however, it was this essay that both justified modernist architecture in Brazil and provided a platform for modernist architects to synthesize local tradition and Brazilian roots with the modern spirit, thus allowing modernism to become a symbol for the country and its theoretical, preservative and physical growth. Lucio Costa was born in Toulon, France in 1902 and was educated at the Royal Grammer School in Newcastle England as well as Montreaux before graduating in 1924 from the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes in Rio de Janeiro.

Costa practiced in the eclectic order, the predominant order of then current architectural design in Brazil defined largely by the styles or orders from other locales including but not limited to the beaux arts, from graduation until 1929, when by all accounts he adopted modernist principals. It is worth stating that 1929 is also the year in which Le Corbusier made his first of two trips to Brazil. It is with little doubt that the ideals of Le Corbusier’s played a large role in shaping Costa’s theory which he later presents in Necessary Documentation; however, at this point Corbusier’s influence might have been marginal as Costa even states he had dropped in on one of Corbusier’s first lectures only to leave shortly thereafter having not really paid much attention. This could be due to the fact that Corbusier only spoke French and most likely did not have a translator at these lectures. More likely to be a larger influence to Costa in his early adoption of modernism was Russian born, Italian educated Gregori Warchavchik, who moved to Brazil in 1923. Warchavchik wrote two important “manifesto’s” on modern architecture (Manifesto of

Modern Architecture and Futurismo), the first of which was published in a Rio de Janeiro Newspaper in 1925. . Furthermore in 1928 he completed his personal home “Casa Modernista” which is considered the first Modernist Building in Brazil. Warchavchik’s influence on Costa is undeniable as Costa, after becoming director of the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes, invites Warchavchik to teach at the university as part of his reform of the architecture department. Even though both their tenures are short lived at the university, they continued their association and between 1931 and 1933, and carried out such important projects as the Housing Estate and the Alfredo Gamboa Schwartz Housing. Costa was able to gain a wealth of knowledge and understanding from the likes of Corbusier and Warchavchik and in many regards can be seen as someone whom embraced and adopted the international modern principals as Corbusier prescribes in Towards a New Architecture; with one main distinction- modern architecture for Costa did not represent a rejection of Brazilian history. Modern Architecture and Futurismo), the first of which was published in a Rio de Janeiro Newspaper in 1925. . Furthermore in 1928 he completed his personal home “Casa Modernista” which is considered the first Modernist Building in Brazil. Warchavchik’s influence on Costa is undeniable as Costa, after becoming director of the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes, invites Warchavchik to teach at the university as part of his reform of the architecture department. Even though both their tenures are short lived at the university, they continued their association and between 1931 and 1933, and carried out such important projects as the Housing Estate and the Alfredo Gamboa Schwartz Housing. Costa was able to gain a wealth of knowledge and understanding from the likes of Corbusier and

Warchavchik and in many regards can be seen as someone whom embraced and adopted the international modern principals as Corbusier prescribes in Towards a New Architecture; with one main distinctionmodern architecture for Costa did not represent a rejection of Brazilian history. In writing Necessary Documentation, Costa first wanted to assert his assessment that Brazilian vernacular architecture was as historically significant as refined works of architecture. Secondly, Necessary Documentation is Costa’s first step in outlining his strategy to show the direct relationship or lineage from historic Brazilian vernacular to modern architecture, and that a Brazilian modernism should emerge as the national vernacular moving forward. Corbusier defined modernism not as a style but a philosophy based on the rational use of modern materials, the principals of functionalist planning, and the rejection of historical precedent and ornamentation. In Towards a New Architecture he states, “If we set ourselves against the past, we are forced to the conclusion that the old architectural code, with its mass of rules and regulations evolved during four thousand years, is no longer of any interest; it no longer concerns us: all the values have been revised; there has been revolution in the conception of what Architecture is.” Necessary Documentation can be seen as an argument in which Costa labels historical Brazilian vernacular as an asterisk in world architecture. He states that as a result of particular conditions, including the need for environmental adaptation, material and labor difficulties, simpler customs and colonial life’s greater largesse, Brazilian colonial architecture differs from that which it derived.“ Our houses thus appear almost always unadorned and poor compared to the opulence of Italian palazzi


JEFFREY WHITE and ville, castles of France or English ‘mansions’ of the same period; or to the rich and vain appearance of many HispanoAmerican manor houses; or even to the palatial and coquettish aspect of certain noble Portuguese residences. However, to state that it does not have value as a work of architecture is a declaration that in no way corresponds to reality.” The language (opulence, rich and vain) suggests that he agrees with Corbusier’s proclamation that the rules, regulations and values of architecture have changed, but the unadorned, “poor” Brazilian vernacular is more in tune to the revolution of what Architecture is than elsewhere in the world. Documentation of this architecture will not only provide more knowledge of it, international understanding of Brazil and its culture, but also so to “ensure that we modern architects take advantage of the lessons of over three hundred years of experience, so as not to reproduce an aspect already dead.” One must not forget that Necessary Documentation was first published in SPHAN and therefore is as much about a preservation of the past as it is a projection of the future. On this, Fares el-Dahdah said, “For Costa, the aesthetic evolution found in Brazilian houses, furniture, and churches belonged to a continuum that was meant to somehow be recuperated in modern architecture rather than be ‘falsified’ by the academicist tendencies of a neo-colonial architecture that he resisted from 1930 onward. Seen as a way to rescue historic and artistic monuments, modern architecture would thereby legitimate a modern Brazilian state in its ability to project and aesthetic tradition into an industrialized future.” The essay is riddled with comparisons and connections between the historic and modern, as a justification for both. . In some cases it is in defense of the heritage, and in others it is using the heritage as

a vehicle to justify the modern. Costa states, “An examination undertaken in less haste would lead to intriguing observations that counter current beliefs and support the practice of modern architecture, observations that would indeed show how the latter can be viewed as the continuation of a normal evolution.” Documentation of the past therefore becomes the citation for the future. With regards to the lineage of the Brazilian wall, “What we witness, therefore, is a tendency to open the wall more and more. With this climate of ours, it makes sense that this should have happened, however: despite much talk about the blinding brightness of our sky, about the excessive clarity of our days, etc., the fact remains that when well oriented, verandas are the best places in our houses to sit; after all, what is a veranda if not a completely open room? And yet when we modern architects suggest leaving one side of a room open: aqui del rey!” This statement suggests the audience of the essay, both the political and architectural realms, as well as the larger audience- the public- see modernism as a tertiary practice at this point. Costa connects common, and well liked aspects of the vernacular with modernist principals, and by linking modernity to an idea of an old yet retrievable Brazilian architecture, he is able to create both a justification for preservation as well as a validation that modernism, or their version of modernism, can be seen as inherently Brazilian. Documentation was also important for his argument because, as he states, full and proper documentation will show how the natural progression of Brazilian architecture directly coincided with the culture. Also worthy of study is the relation between window openings and the wall. In the older houses, presumably from the late sixteenth century and throughout the seventeenth

century, the solid wall prevailed, and soon we understand why: as life became easier and streets better policed, the number of windows kept increasing. By the eighteenth century, voids and solids balanced each other, and by the beginning of the nineteenth century, openings clearly dominated; from 1950 onward, window frames almost touched each other until the façade, after 1900, was for all practical purposes entirely open, having in many cases a common frame. Along with the complimentary images, Costa is explicitly citing a direct Brazilian lineage to modernism. The cultural references yet again embed modernism into not only the next step in proper Brazilian vernacular but also Brazilian culture. To be Brazilian in 1937, for Costa, meant to be modern and Necessary Documentation was his was of proving this to others. In writing Necessary Documentation, Costa was attempting to shift the balance of power and ideology from the eclectics to his modernists. Linking traditional, historic Brazil with the international modernist movement was not only a stance to show Brazil’s rise to international power and prominence, but also an attempt to dethrone those who opposed him. Costa and other modernists like Warchavchik were only employed at Escola Nacional de Belas Artes for a brief stint because of this opposition. In order to overcome this opposition, Costa understood that he needed to adequately display modernism as a Brazilian identity, and an authentic one at that. Because of this, Brazil’s cultural heritage was just as important as designing monuments of the countries future as without the vernacular tradition displayed as the natural foundation, modernists would not be the group in charge of the potential future. To this, he defines the traditionalists, mainly neo-colonial and beaux-arts designers,

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as unauthentic to Brazil and its heritage. That was when, with the best intentions, the so-called traditionalist movement appeared, of which we were also a part. We did not grasp that the true tradition lay right there, two steps away, with our contemporaneous master builders; instead, through a contrived process of adaptation – completely removed from actual customs that were every day more present and that the master builders had been adapting with simplicity and good sense – we searched out lifeless elements from colonial times: if we are faking for the sake of faking, we should at least fake something of our own. And the farce would have continued – were it not for what eventually happened. In 1937, Brazil and Rio de Janeiro was largely a place making itself in the image of the Second Empire Paris. Costa directly confronts this stylistic approach head on as he proclaims it is both fake or faux, and unnatural to Brazilian heritage. To strengthen his case, Costa even admits that he too was a part of this misguided approach and that he now sees modernism for its values, and for its ability to connect to Brazil’s past while also enhancing its future. Costa strongly disliked the notion of a new architecture that “blends in” with its historical context and he went as far calling it dishonest design. He argued that a contextual intervention would at best be a good imitation, which would have the unfortunate effect of blurring the limits of what is historic and what is not; or it would, most probably, be no more than a bad adaptation, which would be worse. These false interventions would also compete with the historically significant buildings because tourists would not be able to distinguish the significant works from those that are imitating them. Costa systematically broke down the then contemporary design approach and practices and placed modernism on the


86 platform as the honest, in tune with the true spirit of old Brazilian constructions, non-competing form of design. Necessary Documentation was made possible because of the newly formed government agency SPHAN. The minister of culture Gustavo Capanema created SPHAN because he was concerned that the history of Brazil’s built environment was being watered down and lost. Necessary Documentation was a part of SPHAN’s first publication, which in 1937, was published as a prelude to the MES building. In that sense, Necessary Documentation can be seen as the abstract or disclaimer for SPHAN’s intentions. Its publication along with the “radical” new building which will house the organization were to be seen as a one-two combination for the new era of nationalism and modernization. Costa states, “The New World is not on the left or on the right, but above us, we must lift the spirit to achieve it, it is no longer a question of space but of time, evolution and maturity. The New World is now the New Era and the intelligence should assume command.” In addition to the documentations purpose of establishing a connection between Brazilian history and modernism as a justification that modernism is the next logical step in the progression, the documentation is just as important in justifying use of traditional Brazilian materials in otherwise modernist buildings. It can be seen in the use of azulejos (traditional Portuguese tile) in the MES building as well as in later works. This further confirms that Costa believed his modernism, or Brazilian modernism, could slightly differ in definition than that of that from its predecessors like Corbusiermodernism does not have to be a rejection of the past.

Traditional and in some cases ornamental materials/ elements can be used as long as they are used in tune with the values and principals of the modern era. The importance of this is the fact that it creates a distinction between Brazilian modern architecture from the work done anywhere else in the world. Even though Brazilian modernism borrowed elements from its traditional predecessors, and that Costa posed a legitimate and thorough defense for his argument that modernism is indeed a successor of sorts to the traditional vernacular; modernism, Costa, and Necessary Documentation can also be seen as providing the platform for which Brazilian cities, Rio in particular, begin to lose their unique identity. To date, much of the uniqueness, character and history that Costa adamantly wanted to preserve as heritage have vanished from the cities. Even in neighborhoods that have retained a small percentage of heritage, the majority of the context is and has been overrun by mind-numbing slab and column buildings. Although there are numerous reasons for this occurrence, it can be traced back to Costa and Necessary Documentation. Necessary Documentation outlines preservation as an act that is not an obstacle to the modernization of the country and the production of new architecture. As Jose Pessoa states, Costa believed and wrote the preservation of traces of the colonial past complemented modern architecture in forging a new national identity. This was a shift from and response to what had occurred in the first part of the twentieth century, when the Brazilian neoclassical style was the established architectural answer to the demand for a national style. The title of Pessoa’s essay is aptly titled ‘The Telephone on the EighteenthCentury Table’ which is was taken from a letter Costa wrote in 1939.

The “modern” telephone that at the time had already been integrated on the antiquated table was used as an analogy for what how Costa viewed the future of modernist buildings in the Brazilian context. Looking back, however, modernist buildings never represented the phone in reality and the antiquated context never equaled the desk in the analogy. Because of the rapid influx of capital based development, and the fact that most of the larger Brazilian cities had already been remade and only vestiges of what Costa intended to preserve actually remained, the majority of buildings in Brazilian cities were post nineteenth century new construction. Costa and his team of modernists built incredible, thoughtful buildings, but those works only accounted for a fraction of the new construction. Costa’s actions and legislation as stated in Necessary Documentation allowed and even promoted to removal of most post-colonial architecture, which allowed for the market-driven development to take its place and dominate urban development. Brazilian cities became modernized, “global” cities that mostly lacked originality, contextually and heritage. Heritage became small, isolated islands in a sea of modernity. Brazilian cities therefore can be described in relation to what Larry Law and The Situationist International group illustrated as “space is [now] occupied by the enemy. We are living under a permanent curfew. Not just the cops— the geometry.” The same people and typology of buildings that intended to remove from Brazilian cities as they were deemed unauthentic, were replaced, with his aid, by more, larger and even less Brazilian contemporary architecture. Costa was successful in preserving not only the icons of Brazilian heritage but also those buildings, which most likely would have been deemed unimportant and demolished at

some point. He did, however, overlook an important aspect of heritage and why we define such as heritage. Costa defined heritage as mostly pre-nineteenth century works and the modern works which are intrinsically linked to their far past predecessors. Even though he attempts to state otherwise, the majority of what Costa and SPHAN preserved were the grand and good works, buildings that were chosen to remind the public about the values and sensibilities that should be saved or preserved as representatives of patriotic Brazilian national identities. Examples like Arcos do Lapa and the many small churches that were part of the first wave of preserved works can be seen as such. Even when speaking of the “bad” or insignificant works that he still justified as preserving, like the small colonist’s minimal house which line the streets leaving the city and continue to be ‘alive’ throughout the country despite having so fragile an aspect , its value in being preserved is not because of its unpleasantness or reflective nature on the inequality of Brazilian heritage but simply because it is “Brazilian”. Costa’s perspective of preservation was one based on monumentality— drawing on a sense of the inevitability and desirability of inheritance, of grand scale and aesthetic taste— and derived largely from his upper class experience. Laurajane Smith when speaking of the discourse of heritage and monumentality states, “That these ideals came to dominate was not simply a function of the degree to which the upper classes were involved in early preservation and conservation movements. It was also the degree to which their own experiences and understanding of the importance of material culture in demonstrating lineage, cultural and social achievement and power became embedded in these movements and the conceptual framework in use today.


JEFFREY WHITE This was also facilitated by a certain desire to maintain legitimacy of those experiences on the social and cultural register.” Necessary Documentation was written by (a person who saw himself as a select, educated member of) the upper class, for the upper class, describing the obligation and trusteeship of expert authority over the material fabric in cities. These “experts” not only have the ability but also the responsibility for identifying and arguing for the value and meaning for anything deemed as heritage. The important part here is that terms like “past”, when used to discuss and define heritage, disengage us from the very real emotion and cultural work that the past does as heritage for individuals and communities. The past is not abstract; it has material reality as heritage, which in turn has material consequences for community, identity and belonging. In some ways Necessary Documentation undermines the ability of Brazilian’s to define, alter and change the meaning and value of heritage sites. It strips the “ordinary”, “typical”, Brazilian of the ability to define his or her heritage and instead places it in the hands of a “professional”. Necessary Documentation does not present the fact that the past is valued and understood differently by different peoples, groups, or communities and how that past is understood validates or not a sense of place. In particular contexts this can be disabling or not for those groups or communities whose sense of history and place exist outside the dominant heritage message or discourse. . There are periods in Brazilian history in which the vernacular can be seen as taken from other cultures, like the creation of Rio Branco and Avenida Vargas, and anything created in the Agache Plan, however, it can also be said that these works have been adopted into the Brazilian culture and heritage. Did not take in account

the difference between preservation of the remote and immediate pasts. Just as late nineteenth and early twentieth century architecture can trace its roots to somewhere other than Brazil, the pre-nineteenth century architecture that he argued for preserving because of its Brazilian heritage to can trace its roots to elsewhere— Portugal. Necessary Documentation presents and emphasizes the architecture of the Portuguese colonial period as the one true historical architecture. It defends architecture that has largely been overlooked in Brazilian history, and it gives justification for preserving these works. It is successful in presenting this idea and Costa is convincing in his attempt to legitimize even the most mundane buildings. Even more convincing are his elaborate visual and written descriptions of the evolution of Brazilian architecture towards modernism. It can be said that Necessary Documentation was written to give political weight to radical changes in both policy and design in Brazil. It does have the rhetoric to not only justify Costa’s agenda in 1937, but also to be used today with regards to preservation standards. The preservation arguments made in Necessary Documentation are profound for today’s standards, and it is a provocation that still poses important questions. Designing new buildings in a historical context is a difficult affair, and Necessary Documentation provides a direction that should at least be considered as a viable reality. Documentation is not an end in itself but rather the first step in the process of defining a new identity.

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Endnotes: Wikipedia.org/Lucio_Costa A Nobre et Al., eds, Lucio Costa: Um Modo de Ser Moderno (Sao Paulo, 2004). Future Anterior, Volume VI, Number 2, Winter 2009, p 49 Lucio Costa, Necessary Documentation, p 3 ibid, pg 3 Fares el-Dahdah, Lucio Costa Preservationist, p 59 Lucio Costa, Necessary Documentation, p 5 ibid, p 5 ibid, p 5 Fares el-Dahdah, Lucio Costa Preservationist, p 59 Lucio Costa, Necessary Documentation, p 5 Lucio Costa,“Revista Módulo n.93, artigo de Arnaldo Carrilho” in Costa, Registro de uma Vivência. 379. Pessao, Jose, ‘The Telephone on the Eighteenth-Century Table’. Future Anterior, Volume VI, Number 2, Winter 2009, p 33 Law, Larry, The Spectacle: The Skeleton Keys Lucio Costa, Necessary Documentation, p 4 Smith, Laurajane, Uses of Heritage, p 23 ibid, p 32


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ADVANCEDSTUDIO II: PROFESSOR JUAN HERREROS SITE PROPOSAL 1910

A New Model of Communal Connectivity Too often a city’s periphery is the bedroom, workshop, garden, kitchen, storeroom, boiler or sewer, but only one thing at a time. This mono-functionality is the source of its failure and what keeps it in a deep crisis. The questions that we want to ask are: -How is it possible to justify cities growing like wildfire destroying everything in their path and leaving behind a contemptible urban geography? -How can the culture of architectural and urban recycling connect with currents sensitivities and build on what has already been built as a major asset for the immediate future? -How can the introduction of a creative sustainability, the naturalisation of a sterilised support and the conquest of diversity in every field feed what we call "urban culture"? -How does the equation of energy fit into this panorama, filling the future with possibilities and new elements? All major western cities show the same panorama. Peripheral residential districts force their inhabitants to travel every day for work or at weekends to travel to the centre in search of leisure options or shopping centres to supply their houses and to fill their free time. The project which we propose is the redistribution of both, enriching their programme until they become the basis for hybrid activities: residence, production, leisure, retailing, services etc, all together in the same environment.

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Far from the substitution of industrial districts for other tertiary districts or the conversion of residential areas into ghettos woven into the fabric of the city, what we are putting forward is a true recycling operation in the literal sense of returning an obsolete structure to its life cycle. Also far from the myth of self-sufficiency, we want to propose projects for these districts which are seen as complete city fragments which are suitable for 1000 people through which to infiltrate a diverse programme which can be the source of a new form of urban life. What interests us is that it seems that the city in these districts is defined and architecture has not been not invited. What is lacking is its metabolism as a result of the independence and/or atrophy of its layers, incapable of working together in a coordinated manner. That is what we will require from our proposals: architectural decisions such as programme, construction, energy, organisation or the presence of nature will be supplemented by others from different disciplines such as production, mobility, community, knowledge etc.

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BARCELONA IS THIRSTY... 2.6 Billion litres

(22 MILLION EURO)

SHIPPED FROM : TARRAGONA/ ALMERIA, SPAIN AND MARSEILLE, FRANCE A MONTH

6%

WATER USE

200 Million litres

% OF POPULATION SERVED WITH PUBLIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT

PRODUCED A DAY (100 liters salinated produces 45 litres drinking)

250 MILLION EURO FACILITY

24% WATER USE

bcn WATER

160 litres/ day 380 litres/ day 50% World Uses < 95 litres/ day

1 Spaniard Uses

USE

DENMARK

20% BIOLOGICAL 80% ADVANCED

SPAIN FORFEITS TEN’S OF MILLIONS OF EUROS EACH YEAR BECAUSE OF LACK OF COMPLIANCE TO E.U. WATER TREATMENT STANDARDS MECHANICAL = PRIMARY TREATMENT BIOLOGICAL = SECONDARY TREATMENT ADVANCED = TERTIARY TREATMENT (nitrogen/ phosphorus)

SUPPLY

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SPAIN

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61% Domestic Consumption 23% Industrial Activities 16% Agriculture

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10% MECHANICAL 25% BIOLOGICAL 20% ADVANCED 45% NONE

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WATER AS THERMAL MASS WATER AS EXHIBITION SPACE WATER AS CHANDELIER WATER AS CEILING CONDITION WATER AS RADIANT HEATING/ SOLAR SHADING RESIDENTIAL

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Jeffrey White Portfolio 2008-2011  

Columbia University GSAPP Portfolio 2008-2011

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