Page 1

the history of

graphic design


the history of

graphic design


table of contents

chapter one chapter two chapter three chapter four chapter five chapter six references

7 15 22 30 42 54 62


chapter one


early writing systems Cuneiform Cuneiform tablet from Drehem, 2540 BCE

By this time, civilization was beginning to arise in Mesopotamia. Tools and weapons were starting to be made, and agriculture was just beginning. The Sumerian people arrived in Mesopotamia, and with their arrival, the change from “village culture” to “high civilization” started to occur. The Sumerians also had a system of gods, and religion became extremely important to the Mesopotamian civilization. Writing possibly evolved because of the need for religious and economic record keeping. Early records were kept on clay tablets, as clay was abundant in the area. An

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early writing form called Cuneiform evolved from pictographs into abstract signs. As the Mesopotamian culture fell, Egypt became more prominent. Egyptian hieroglyphs were largely made up of pictographs, and at times used these pictographs to depict sounds or consonants. Papyrus scrolls were created out of the papyrus plants that grew along the Nile River, which led


to further evolution of hieroglyphs. Scribes simplified the earlier carefully drawn pictographs into much simpler symbols. Ancient Egyptians were fixated on death and strongly believed in the afterlife, so they produced a lot of illustrate manuscripts, which combined words and pictures to convey a message. Ancient Egyptian culture lasted for over three thousand years. Mesopotamian cuneiform and the hieroglyphs of the Egyptians eventually lead to the development of alphabets in other cultures.

Egyptian Drawing of the Sarcophagus of Aspalta, King of Nubia, c. 593-568 BCE

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alphabets Greek Timotheus, “The Persians,” papyrus manuscript, fourth century BCE

Etruscan

The Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet around 1000 BCE, and over time developed it into what we now call the Greek alphabet. The Greek alphabet was adapted in different regions until around 400 BCE when Athens started using a version that became the standard. A “cultural renaissance” occurred around 700 BCE, and included accom-

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plishments such as Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey, stone architecture, and Athens moving toward a republican government. Athens eventually began to practice democracy, and the alphabet played a huge role in citizens’ voting. The Greek alphabet came to Rome by way of the Etruscans, and like everything else Greek, the Romans changed it to make


Roman Carved inscription from the base of Trajan’s Column, c. 114 CE

(Top) Capitalis quadrata from a manuscript, Vergil, c. 400 CE

Serif

(Bottom) Capitalis rustica from a manuscript, Vergil, c. 400 CE

it conform to Roman society. They added new letters and serifs. Ancient Romans mainly used this alphabet for political campaigns and propaganda, as well as notices and advertising announcements. Rome’s alphabet became the basis for most languages in the Western world.

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asian contribution The Chinese also developed their own writing system, calligraphy, which had nothing to do with the way the language was spoken, unlike the alphabets in the Western world. The Chinese system evolved a lot through the years, until a final development into “chen-shu” style, which has been in continuous use for two thousand years. They originally wrote

on bamboo slats until the invention of paper in 105 CE by Ts’ai Lun. His process for making paper was used until papermaking became mechanized in England in the nineteenth century. The Chinese also invented printing, with rubbings, reliefs, and eventually woodblock printing. In woodblock printing, the wood around each character is cut away. A Chinese alchemist named Pi Sheng developed the concept of movable type. Moveable type never became a widely used technique in Asia, but it was a concept that would later be used by the inventor of the printing press.

Woodblock Printing Pages from the Pen ts’ao, 1249 CE

Paper

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illuminated manuscripts Sacred texts held a lot of meaning for Christians, Jews, and Muslims during this time. Illuminated manuscripts used visuals to help “expand the word” and were made with extreme care. With the invention of parchment and the codex format, there were new possibilities for design and illustration. Parchment was much more durable than its predecessor, papyrus. The codex format was similar to what we know as a book today, so the parchment didn’t have to be rolled and paint could be applied more thickly. Christian religious writings became the main purpose of creating these books, and monks cre-

Spanish Commemorative labyrinth from Pop Gregory’s Moralia in Job, 945 CE

Celtic The Book of Kells, the Chi-Rho page, 794-806 CE

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Islamic Islamic illuminated manuscript, 13th-19th century

Late Medieval Limbourg Brothers, page from Les tres riches heures du duc de Berry, 1413-1416

ated most of them. Other religions eventually made similar books. The creation of illuminated manuscripts lasted over a thousand years, and different styles emerged over that time. By the end of the medieval period, woodblock printing was beginning to appear in Europe. Moveable type appeared in the West not long after, and since it was much easier to print a book than to letter the entire thing by hand, the production of illuminated manuscripts faded away.

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chapter two


rise of printing in europe

Broadsides Lucas Cranach the Younger, broadside, 1551

Johann Gutenberg, page from the Gutenberg Bible, 1450-55

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By the 1400s in Europe, the demand for books was high. Paper was now being produced, and block printing had made its way to Europe and was now in common practice. The concept of movable type came around, but the type was made out of wood and therefore didn’t last very long. Johann Gutenberg introduced movable type created from metal and his printing press around 1450. With the introduction of this new technology, mass communication became much easier. By 1500, 1.9 million books and religious tracts had been produced, leading directly to the Christian Reformation and the Protestant


Aldine Press Aldus Manutius, Printer’s Trademark, c. 1500

Copperplate Engraving The Master of the Playing Cards, “The Three Birds,” c. 1450

German Illustrated Book Anton Koberger, page from the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493

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French Printing Geoffroy Tory, from Champ Fleury, 1529

Claude Garamond, Garamond typeface

Design Centers

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movement. Nearly all of this early moveable type was still in a Textura style, imitating the handwriting of the earlier Illuminated Manuscripts. As the Renaissance progressed, a more Roman style type began to appear, including those by Claude Garamond and Geoffroy Tory. During this time, copperplate engraving also replaced woodcut printing as the major technique to create illustrations.


typography in the 18th century France Louis Simonneua, Master alphabets for the Romain du Roi, c. 1700

Rococo Pierre Simon Fournier le Jeune. pages from Manuel Typographique,� 1764

William Caslon, broadside type specimen, 1734.

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Information Graphics William Playfair, Chart no. 1 from A Letter on Our Agricultural Distresses, 1822

John Baskerville, title page for John Milton’s Paradise Lost, 1760

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At this time in France, the wealthy were “unaware” of the general public who lived in poverty. King Louis XIV was interested in printing, and had the Romain du Roi created to be used for official royal printing. Many other typefaces were used during this time as well, but there was no universal sizing for them yet. Pierre Simon Fournier le Jeune began to try to standardize type sizes when he published his Table of Proportions, measured in “pouce,” which is a little bit longer than an inch. In England, there was a civil


Giambattista Bodoni. pages from Manuale Tipografico, 1818

war happening, along with religious persecution and government control of printing. Still, English typefaces appeared, including Caslon, Baskerville, and Bodoni, all of which are still commonly used today. Information graphics also started to appear during this time, thanks to RenĂŠ Descartes who used algebra to solve geometry and invented the Cartesian grid. William Playfair used this grid to make statistical data into symbolic graphs.

Pierre Didot, title page for Vergil’s Bucolica, Georgica, et Aeneis, 1798

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chapter three


typographic explosion

Egyptian Vincent Figgins, Two lines pica, Antique, c. 1815

Tuscan Vincent Figgins, Tuscanstyle letters, 1815

3-D Vincent Figgins, In Shade, 1815

Fat-Face Robert Thorne, fat-face types, 1821

During the Industrial Revolution, there were many social and economic changes, along with changes in technology. The steam engine was introduced, along with electricity and gas powered engines. Factories became a common workplace and assembly lines started. The standard of liv-

Reversed William Thorowgood, Reversed Egyptian Italic, 1828

3-D Vincent Figgins, In Shade, 1815

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industrial revolution ing increased, though most people were overworked. This was a period when humans showed their domination over nature. Handicrafts almost disappeared during this time. There was more public education and literacy available to people now, which led to a high demand for mass communication. Type design was developed massively over the course of the Industrial Revolution. Many new kinds of typefaces were introduced, including Fat-Face, Egyptian (also known as Antique or Slab-serif), Tuscan, 3-D, Reversed, and the very first sansserif. New printing methods were also introduced. William

Linotype Machine

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Photography Louis Jacques Daguerre, “Paris Boulevard,” 1839

Cowper patented a new kind of press, using curved plates wrapped around a cylinder, which could produce 2400 impressions per hour. In 1827, Cowper and his partner Ambrose Applegrath were commissioned to create a fourcylinder steam-powered press. This press could print 4000 sheets per hour, double-sided. A paper making machine was introduced in Frogmore, England, which poured a suspension of fiber and water onto a vibrating wire-mesh conveyor belt, producing an unending sheet of paper. Ottmar Mergenthaler introduced his automatic typesetting machine, the Linotype, in 1886. Photography was developed during this time as well. Joseph Niépce figured out a way to

transfer images onto a printing plate using light sensitive materials, which was further refined by Louis Jacques Daguerre with his daguerreotypes. In 1871, John Calvin Moss introduced a photoengraving method for making line artwork into metal letterpress plates, which eventually evolved into halftone printing. Another new printing method called lithography was introduced. Lithography is based on the principle that oil and water don’t mix. This process further developed into chromolithography, which gave the ability to print in full color for the first time.

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victorian era

Morris Pére et Fils (letterpress printers) and Emile Levy (lithographer), “Cirque d’hiver” poster, 1871

The Victorian Era began in 1837 and lasted around 2/3 of the 19th century. The people during this time had strong moral and religious beliefs and were extremely optimistic. Queen Victoria’s husband, Prince Albert came up with an idea of a large exhibition with exhibitors from all industrial nations. This idea led to the Great Exhibition of 1851, where 6 million visitors saw 13,000 exhibitors and their advancements in technology. In design, there was a love of complex ornament. Since chromolithography now existed, it became the norm to print in color with lots of de-

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Richard G. Tietze, Harper’s Magazine, 1883


tail. Chromolithography gave designers absolute freedom. This was also the era of pictorial magazines. Harper and Brothers, a publishing firm in New York, published the first pictorial magazine, Harper’s Magazine, which contained serialized fiction and woodcut illustrations, in 1850. This launched the golden age of American illustration. During this time, the amount of magazines published grew from 800 to 5000 nationwide.

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arts and crafts movement Arthur H. Mackmurdo, title page for Wren’s City Churches, 1883

William Morris, title page spread from The Works of Percy Bysshe Shelley, 1895

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Selwyn Image, title page to the Century Guild Hobby Horse, 1884

During the end of the nineteenth century in England, the quality of the design and production of books became worse and worse. Some people started to view the mass-produced goods of the Victorian era as “cheap and nasty.” The Arts and Crafts Movement appeared as a reaction to this. Writer and artist John Ruskin believed that art and labor could be united in service to society. This heavily influenced William Morris, who started a art-decorating firm with six of his friends. Morris became a pattern designer for wallpapers, textiles, carpets, and tapestries. Arthur H.

Frederic W. Goudy, page 45 from American Type Founders’ Specimen Book and Catalogue, 1923

Mackmurdo was inspired by Morris’s ideas when they met. Mackmurdo formed a group called the Century Guild in 1882, whose goal was to elevate design arts’ reputation to the same level as paintings and sculptures. They published a magazine called the Century Guild Hobby Horse, which contained the work of guild members, and was the first magazine to ever be dedicated solely to visual arts. The Hobby Horse was used to spread the Arts and Crafts Movement around Europe. The Century Guild disbanded in 1888, but it influenced the Private Press Movement and Art Nouveau.

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chapter four


art nouveau

Ukiyo-e Kitagawa Utamaro, portrait of a courtesan, late 1700s

Art Nouveau Alphonse Mucha, poster for Job cigarette papers, 1898

Ando Hiroshige, “Evening Squall at Great Bridge near Atake,� 1856-59

During the late 19th century, trade and communication between the Eastern and Western world became more influential to each other due to an increase in trade and communication. When Japanese art, Ukiyo-e, made its way to the West, Europeans became obsessed with the style. Europeans came to be obsessed with its flat colors and abstractions, and the style came to be known as Japonisme. In 1881, a law was passed in Paris that

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Aubrey Beardsley, illustrations for Salome by Oscar Wilde, 1894

allowed posters to be hung anywhere in the city other than at churches, polls, and sites designated for official notices. Many thought that applied arts were equal to traditional arts, due to the Arts and Crafts movement of the recent past, and so the streets became an art gallery. Japonisme also highly influenced these posters, which used organic lines, flat colors, and different subject matter than traditional art. This style became known as Art Nouveau. Art Nouveau artists, including Alphonse Mucha, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri van de Velde, and Peter Behrens, attempted to make art a part of everyday life. They no longer looked to the past for inspiration, making Art Nouveau the beginning of the modern movement. Art Nouveau soon spread around the world, including Germany, where it was called Jugendstil, after the new magazine Jugend which was published there starting in 1896.

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, “La Goulue au Moulin Rouge,� 1891

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Peter Behrens, “The Kiss,� 1898

Henri van de Velde, poster for Tropon food concentrate, 1899

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modernism America Frank Lloyd Wright, “Fallingwater,� 1935

Many things began to influence design in the early twentieth century. It was a time of a lot of turmoil, with both World Wars and the Great Depression happening in the first half of the century. There were a lot of developments technologically including the introduction of automobiles, airplanes, and new forms of communication. Frank Lloyd Wright became an inspiration for designers due to his rectilinear approach to architecture after the curvilinear approach of Art Nouveau. He believed that the form of any design should support its function. Many important ideas that affected graphic design were

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Scotland Margaret McDonald, bookplate design, 1896


Vienna Secession Peter Behrens, AEG trademark and colatteral, 1907-1908

Vienna Secession Kolomon Moser, cover for Ver Sacrum, 1899

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Influence of Modern Art Marcel Duchamp, “The Fountain,” 1917

Pictorial Modernism E. McKnight Kauffer, poster for The Daily Herald, 1918

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De Stijl Piet Mondrian, Composition with Red, Yellow, and Blue, 1922

introduced during this time, including the grid system and consistent visual identity, both championed by Peter Behrens. There were many art movements during this time that highly influenced graphic design, including Cubism, Futurism, Dada, and Surrealism. With these movements, artists were no longer looking to the past for inspiration, an idea which led to Modernism in graphic design. All of these things had a profound influence on graphic design.

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bauhaus

Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, typophoto poster for tires, 1923

The Bauhaus opened in Weimer, Germany, on April 12, 1919. World War I had recently ended and Germany was still in a time of conflict. The school wanted to unite art and technology and to form a new world order. They believed there was no difference between applied arts and visual arts. The German government disliked the Bauhaus and demanded that they have an exhibition to showcase their accomplishments in 1923, which led to the school being acclaimed internationally. The Bauhaus published a magazine and a series of fourteen books, which helped

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Herbert Bayer, Bauhaus brochure cover, 1929

to spread their ideas about art and its application to architecture and design. Due to tension with the government, the Bauhaus moved to Dessau in 1924, where the Nazis eventually forced it to close. A brief attempt was made to move the school to Berlin, but the Nazis once again made it close, this time for good. Most of the faculty left the country. Many of them came to the United States, including Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, who formed the New Bauhaus in Chicago, known today as The Institute of Design at the Illinois Institute of Technology.


the new typography

Jan Tschichold, cover for Elementare Typographie insert, 1925

Jan Tschichold applied new approaches developed in the modern art movements and at the Bauhaus to everyday design. He designed an insert for the magazine Typographische Mitteilungen called “Elementare Typographie” that explained asymmetrical typography to printers, typesetters, and designers. He published his book Die neue Typographie (The New Typography) in 1928. In it, he claimed that all typographic work should aim

Eric Gill. “Gill Sans type family.” 1828-30

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to deliver the message in the shortest, most efficient way possible. He was an advocate for sans-serif typefaces. Many others became passionate about The New Typography, and many new typefaces were introduced, including Gill Sans, Futura, and Times New Roman.

Paul Renner, Futura typefaces, 1927-1930

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Rudolf Koch, Kabel Light, c. 1928

Stanley Morison, The London Times, 1932

Gerd Arntz and Otto Neurath, “Gesellschaftsgliederung in Wien,” 1930

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chapter five


american modernism The modern movement didn’t really happen in the United States until the 1930s, unlike in Europe where it began much earlier in 1913. When “Elementare Typographie” made its way to America, many designers began grabbed onto Tschichold’s ideas, including Lester Beall. Many immigrants also came to America during this time. 4 Russian-born, French educated immigrants-- Erté, Dr. Mehemed Fehmy Agha, Alexey Brodovitch, and Alexander Liberman-- brought European modernism with them to America when they started de-

Erte, ´ cover for Harper’s Bazaar, 1933

Lester Beall, poster for Rural Electrification Administration, c. 1937

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Alexey Brodovitch, cover for Harper’s Bazaar, 1940

A.M. Cassandre, Advertisement for CCA, Late 1930s

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signing for fashion magazines such as Harper’s Bazaar. After the Great Depression hit in 1929, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt created the New Deal to help make new jobs for Americans, which in turn created the Works Progress Administration (WPA), giving designers a huge opportunity. The WPA Federal Art Project began in 1935 and enabled actors, musicians, visual artists, and writers to continue their careers. A poster project was one of the many projects brought about. Over two mil-

lion copies of around thirtyfive thousand posters designs were produced between 1935 and 1939. In 1926, Walter P. Paepke founded the Container Corporation of America (CCA), which manufactured paperboard containers. In 1936, CCA’s department of design started, creating ads that were extremely different and much simpler than typical ads of the time period. This included the earliest advertising campaigns, such as Paperboard Goes to War and Great Ideas of Western Man.

Herbert Matter, Advertisements for CCA, 1940s

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international typographic style During the 1950s, the International Typographic Style, also known as Swiss style, emerged. It was based on the idea that the solution for a design problem should emerge from its content. Elements of the designs in this style are always on a grid system, with sans-serif typography and an overall harmony. Sans-serif typefaces began to become more readily available, as many were being designed. This included Adrian Frutiger’s Univers in 1954 and Edouard Hoffman and Max Miedinger’s Neue Haas

Adrian Frutiger, schematic drawing of the 21 Univers typefaces, 1954

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Edouard Hoffman and Max Miedinger, Helvetica typeface, 1961

Hermann Zapf, typefaces, Palatino, 1950; Melior, 1952; Optima, 1958

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Grotesk in 1957, later known as Helvetica. Helvetica became one of the most used fonts ever, especially in corporate America. The International Typographic style was a huge force for over twenty years, and it’s still a huge influence on design today.

Josef Müller-Brockman, “Musica Viva” concert poster, 1959

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Armin Hoffman, poster for the Basel theatre production of Giselle, 1959

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new york school & advertising Paul Rand, Cover for Sparkle and Spin, 1957

Paul Rand, advertisement for The Architectural Forum, 1945

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Paul Rand, Westinghouse logo, 1960

Modern design came to the United States in the 1930s, but it really evolved with the New York School. One of the major players in the New York School was Paul Rand. His ideas and designs helped to bring European Modernism into the American media landscape. He had a direct influence on the Creative Revolution in advertising, including Big Idea thinking, putting the art director and copywriter together as a team, the soft sell, and branding. Other members of the New York School included Alvin Lustig, Bradbury Thompson, Saul Bass, Otto Storch, and Herb Lubalin.

Saul Bass, logo for The Man with the Golden Arm, 1955

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Doyle Dane Bernbach, Volkswagen advertisments, 1954

Herb Lubalin, pages from Eros, 1962

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Alvin Lustig, cover for Arthur Rimbaud’s A Season in Hell, 1945

Otto Storch (art director) and Allen Arbus (photographer), pages from McCall’s, 1959

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chapter six


postmodernism

Jamie Reid, single cover for the Sex Pistols’ “God Save the Queen,” 1977

Postmodernism began in the late twentieth century. Some of the first postmodern graphic design was associated with punk music in the late 1970s, specifically with Jamie Reid’s single cover for “God Save the Queen” by the Sex Pistols, which many consider to be the beginning of postmodern design. Postmodernism is a reaction against the Modernist movement. Whereas Modernists believe that there is an overall universal truth and rational order, Postmodernists believe that there is no absolutely truth, and that each individual and group has their own truths. With postmodern-

April Greiman, Design Quarterly #133 magazine poster, 1986

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ism came fragmentation and indeterminacy, recycling of earlier forms, and multiple points of access. This in particular lets postmodern design be as open as possible to interpretation. “New� was no longer a goal. Postmodernism puts trashiness on the same level as high culture. Main qualities of postmodern design include deconstruction, appropriation, and the use of technology. There was much opposition to postmodernism from Modernist designers, but postmodernism continued for over two decades. Some people say that we are still in the postmodern era today.

Paula Scher and Terry Koppel, Great Beginnings self-promotional book spread, 1984

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Tibor Kalman, M&Co, print advertisement for Restaurant Florent, 1987


Stefan Sagmeister, AIGA Poster, 1999

Eliott Earls, Dysphasia typeface family poster, 1995

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Art Chantry, The Night Gallery poster, 1991

Jake Tilson, Breakfast Special No. 2 – La Carte Propre, 1989

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David Carson, “Do Not Be Satisfied,” 2001

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post-postmodernism

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“Linotype machine.” Web. 4 Mar 2014. <http://pomo.cca. edu/~bazevedo/phototypesetting/images/How-The-Type-In This-Book-Was-Set-1.jpg> Louis Jacques Daguerre. “Paris Boulevard.” 1839. Web. 4 Mar 2013. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d3/Bou levard_du_Temple_by_Daguerre.jpg> Morris Pére et Fils (letterpress printers) and Emile Levy (lithographer).

“Cirque d’hiver poster.” 1871. Web. 4 Mar 2014. <http://3.

bp.blogspot.com/-O40b4ult1hg/T3yzXzfqVSI/AAAAAAAAAFg/ rhpasrqsKOo/s400/circus057.jpg> Richard G. Tietze. “Harper’s Magazine.” 1883. Web. 4 Mar 2014. <http:// ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/51aeWK5TCjL._SY1000_. jpg> Currier Lithograph Co. “Lithographic Poster.” 1899. Web. 4 Mar 2014. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/23/Buf falo_bill_wild_west_show_c1899.jpg> Arthur H. Mackmurdo. “Title page for Wren’s City Churches.” 1883.

Web. 4 Mar 2014. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/

en/2/28/MackmurdoWren1883.gif> William Morris. “Title page spread from The Works of Percy Bysshe Shelley.” 1895. Web. 4 Mar 2014. <http://www.baumanrare books.com/BookImages/86300a.jpg> Selwyn Image. “Title page to the Century Guild Hobby Horse.” 1884.

Web. 4 Mar 2014. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/

en/0/05/TheHobbyHorse.jpg> Frederic W. Goudy. “Page 45 from American Type Founders’ Specimen

Book and Catalogue.” 1923. Web. 4 Mar 2014. <http://o.quizlet.

com/K3SMoHjxXDeM42gWDOifsA.jpg>

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Kitagawa Utamaro. “Portrait of a courtesan.” Late 1700s. Web. 13 Apr

2014. <http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-V4Jbrg-IMAc/T94q8k9utZI/

AAAAAAAAAOM/aDli8-sXFkg/s640/11-3+Kitagawa+Utamaro% 252C+portrait+of+a+courtesan%252C+late+1700s.jpg> Ando Hiroshige. “Evening Squall at Great Bridge near Atake.”

1856-59. Web. 13 Apr 2014. <http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_

HJW1mwBVzOU/TMSu-1w0o9I/AAAAAAAAESg/-4SGAoVb c3Q/s1600/Hiroshige,+Night+Rain+on+Bridge.jpg> Alphonse Mucha. “Poster for Job cigarette papers.” 1898. Web. 13 Apr

2014. <http://coachhall.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/job-

1896.jpg> Aubrey Beardsley. “Illustrations for Salome by Oscar Wilde.” 1894.

Web. 13 Apr 2014. <http://www.victorianweb.org/art/illustra

tion/beardsley/11.jpg> Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. “La Goulue au Moulin Rouge.” 1891. Web.

13 Apr 2014.<http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com

mons/3/37/Henri_de_Toulouse-Lautrec_049.jpg> Henri van de Velde. “Poster for Tropon food concentrate.” 1899. Web.

13 Apr 2014. <http://media.web.britannica.com/eb-

media/08/73208-004-97D73862.jpg> Peter Behrens. “The Kiss.” 1898. Web. 13 Apr 2014. <http://upload. wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/12/Peter_Behrens_-_ Two_Faces_Kissing_cph.3b49745.jpg> Frank Lloyd Wright. “Fallingwater.” 1935. Web. 13 Apr 2014. <http:// www.fallingwater.org/img/home_assets/new_first.jpg> Margaret Macdonald. “Bookplate design.” 1896. Web. 13 Apr 2014. <http://www.huntsearch.gla.ac.uk/artimages/crm/53023.jpg>

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Kolomon Moser. “Cover for Ver Sacrum.” 1899. Web. 13 Apr 2014. <http://vienayyo.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/ver-sacrum koloman-moser.jpg> Peter Behrens. “AEG trademark and colatteral.” 1907-1908. Web.

13 Apr 2014. <http://designhistoryresearch.files.wordpress.

com/2010/11/538225674_cfad436fa0.jpg> Marcel Duchamp. “The Fountain.” 1917. Web. 13 Apr 2014. <http:// www.invisiblebooks.com/fountain.jpg> E. McKnight Kauffer. “Poster for The Daily Herald.” 1918. Web. 13 Apr

2014. <http://www.printeresting.org/wp-content/up

loads/2011/10/Edward-McKnight-Kauffer1.jpg> Piet Mondrian. “Composition with Red, Yellow, and Blue.” 1922. Web.

13 Apr 2014. < http://uploads7.wikipaintings.org/images/piet-

mondrian/composition-c-no-iii-with-red-yellow-and

blue-1935.jpg >

Laszlo Moholy-Nagy. “Typophoto poster for tires.” 1923. Web. 13 Apr

2014. <http://uploads3.wikipaintings.org/images/laszlo-mo

holy-nagy/pneumatik-1924.jpg> Herbert Bayer. “Bauhaus brochure cover.” 1929. Web. 13 Apr 2014. <http://dgi-indonesia.com/wp-content/ uloads/2007/12/1233907822_c8add582222.jpg> Jan Tschichold. “Cover for Elementare Typographie insert.” 1925.

Web. 13 Apr 2014. <http://www.oswego.edu/~coughlin/

NC_417/NC_417_project1/images/image9.gif> Eric Gill. “Gill Sans type family.” 1828-30. Web. 13 Apr 2014. <http:// www.organicmechanic.org/scratch/gillsanssample.jpg> Paul Renner. “Futura typefaces.” 1927-30. Web. 13 Apr 2014. <http://2. bp.blogspot.com/_YfA9RDwoQd4/S-0KAT4dQoI/ AAAAAAAAAKU/mnalGFCAKT4/s1600/FUTURA.jpg>

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Rudolf Koch. “Kabel Light.” c. 1928. Web. 13 Apr 2014. <http://www. nikkiarnell.net/uploads/4/1/3/8/4138035/newtyp_amermod ern.pdf> Stanley Morison. “The London Times.” 3 October 1932. Web. 13 Apr

2014. <http://www.nuevaescuela.net/imagenes-articulos/

times-1932b.jpg> Gerd Arntz and Otto Neurath. “Gesellschaftsgliederung in Wien.”

1930. Web. 13 Apr 2014. <http://www.designboom.com/cms/

images/fiona02/otto_neurath009.jpg> Lester Beall. “Posters for Rural Electrification Administraction.” c.

1937. Web. 29 Apr 2014. <http://www.juxtapoz.com/images_

old/stories/2012/Sept2012/Sept07/lester_beall.jpg> Erté. “Cover for Harper’s Bazaar.” 1933. Web. 29 Apr 2014. <http:// www.furinsider.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/340625585 0_48e0526940.jpg> Alexey Brodovich. “Cover for Harper’s Bazaar.” 1940. Web. 29 Apr 2014. <http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-QkYMYWVXMH8/TWbdmR_EmFI/ AAAAAAAAIiE/b67cSWf2QTw/s1600/1071485853_84654cc14b_ o.jpg> A.M. Cassandre. “Advertisement for CCA.” Late 1930s. Web. 29 Apr

2014. <http://www.rare-posters.com/p590.jpg>

Herbert Matter. “Advertisements for CCA.” 1940s. Web. 29 Apr 2014. <http://thinkingform.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/her bert_matter_ad1.jpg> Adrian Frutiger. “Schematic drawing of the 21 Univers typefaces.”

1954. Web. 29 Apr 2014. <http://www.martinmajoor.com/im

ages/philosophy_10_univers_small.gif>

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Edouard Hoffman and Max Miedinger. “Helvetica typeface.” 1961.

Web. 29 Apr 2014. <http://www.gplus.gr/blog/images/helveti

ca.png> Hermann Zapf. “Typefaces.” Palatino, 1950. Melior, 1952. Optima, 1958.

Web. 29 Apr 2014.<http://www.maxmidgett.com/HGD_2/wp-

content/flagallery/final-exam-study-guide/Meggs_Histo ry-18-17.jpg> Josef Müller-Brockman, “‘Musica Viva’ concert poster.” 1959. Web.

29 Apr 2014. < http://users.design.ucla.edu/~cariesta/design

history/sixty/sixty/MusicaViva.jpg> Armin Hoffman. “Poster for the Basel theatre production of Giselle.”

1959. Web. 29 Apr 2014. <http://www.aiga.org/uploadedIm

ages/AIGA/Content/Inspiration/aiga_medalist/AH_Giselle. jpg> Paul Rand. “Advertisement for The Architectural Forum.” 1945. Web.

29 Apr 2014. <http://www.paul-rand.com/assets/gallery/ads/

forum03.jpg> Paul Rand. “Cover for Sparkle and Spin.” 1957. Web. 29 Apr 2014. <http://www.paul-rand.com/assets/gallery/books/sparkles pin_large.jpg> Paul Rand. “Westinghouse logo.” 1960. Web. 29 Apr 2014. <http://so phiethielemans.files.wordpress.com/2014/03/westinghouse logo.gif> Saul Bass. “Logo for The Man with the Golden Arm.” 1955. Web. 29 Apr

2014. <https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/iG9HinTeqpQRT

TGvJoo_5wToAzmSz2cV0kdb27bJq2eUCRt58hJrXERuGCXrvR DK9d0x5i9QVvF6rBXf7rUKrg90m6CGLBlTvFA3Oudye 8WiVJ2GzRo>

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Herb Lubalin. “Pages from Eros.” 1962. Web. 29 Apr 2014. < http:// www.codex99.com/design/images/ginzburg/mm_2_lg.jpg> Doyle Dane Bernbach. “Volkswagen advertisments.” 1954. Web. 29 Apr

2014. < http://smollin.com/design/articles/VWSlrg.jpg>

Alvin Lustig. “Cover for Arthur Rimbaud’s A Season in Hell.” 1945.

Web. 29 Apr 2014. <http://31.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_

lnag8tqN5F1qgt1mmo1_r1_500.jpg> Otto Storch (art director) and Allen Arbus (photographer). “Pages from

McCall’s.” 1959. Web. 29 Apr 2014. <http://www.proprofs.com/

flashcards/upload/q1023206.jpg> Jamie Reid. “Single cover for ‘God Save The Queen’ by the Sex Pistols.”

1977. Web. 3 May 2014. <http://rymimg.com/lk/f/l/91f1e38cb6c

ab3aa417cae63982e80d5/1728199.jpg> April Greiman. “Design Quarterly #133 magazine poster.” 1986. Web.

3 May 2014. <http://idsgn.org/images/design-discussions-

april-greiman-on-technology/design_quarterly__full.jpg> Paula Scher and Terry Koppel. “Great Beginnings self-promotional

book spread.” 1984. Web. 3 May 2014. <http://2.bp.blogspot.

com/-e54ARqX4jI0/UJpHvwCLGSI/AAAAAAAAAhE/K9MZd MaIqKE/s1600/scher+and+koppal.jpg> Tibor Kalman, M&Co. “Print advertisement for Restaurant Florent.”

1987. Web. 3 May 2014. <http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.

com/104/flashcards/746104/png/screen_shot_2011-11-15_ at_1.12.26_pm1321384735077.png> Stefan Sagmeister. “AIGA Poster.” 1999. Web. 3 May 2014. <http://de signeducator.info/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/AIGA-Detroit Poster.jpg>

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Eliott Earls. “Dysphasia typeface family poster.” 1995. Web. 3 May 2014. <http://www.nurulrahman.com/blog/wp-content/up loads/2008/04/picture-2.png> Art Chantry. “The Night Gallery poster.” 1991. Web. 3 May 2014. <http://www.pictureboxinc.com/blogs/pbox-world/files/tum blr_l9qfyh8qP41qdwp72.jpg> Jake Tilson. “Breakfast Special No. 2 – La Carte Propre.” 1989. Web. 3

May 2014. <http://www.designweek.co.uk/Pictures/web/f/b/u/

Tilson_BreakfastSpecial2_Page13_482.jpg> David Carson. “Do Not Be Satisfied.” 2001. Web. 3 May 2014. <http://1. bp.blogspot.com/-b_Vs3J7dlDg/UcBdBhsvwUI/AAAAAAA AAEA/MeZUdd4KXYY/s1600/carson+man+in+chair.jpg>

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Jeffrey Balch


The History of Graphic Design  

A brief look at the history of graphic design

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