Without the support of my professors, friends and family this book would not have been possible. To my professor Tadd Heidgerken. His insight, knowledge and views have introduced myself to an entire new world within Architecture. He has contributed an unmeasurable amount of experience and understanding to the success of this past semester. To my brother Troy and sister Amanda, who will always listen to me whether they want to or not. To my aunt Sharon and uncle Stan who have always showed interest and support in everything I have done. And to my parents, Jeff and Judy, who have given so much to grow our family to where is stands today. With their continued support and unconditional love I will always have the push to continue with all my ambitions.
Introduction......................................2-3 Immeasurable/Measurable.................4-5 Case Study: Study.............................6-9 Site Mapping: Study.......................10-19 Pedestrian Master Plan..................20-31 Corktown Coffer Credit Union.........32-57 Sources.........................................58-59
TABLE OF CONTENTS
a word with such broad interpretation can be broken down and understood through many different media, studies and analysis. This term, the word has been explored in many different forms, from the literal exploration to the figurative reality. Contemplation -noun, thoughtful or long consideration, observation. Contemplation provides many paths for the mind to wander, such paths include tension, removing, and seclusion. These paths define the motions and emotions experienced through the act of contemplating. Removal, whether physically or mentally allows for someone to escape, remove themselves from a physical situation or emotional tangle. They can enjoy the time removed, without being bothered. Seclusion, usually experienced alone, can allow for a clear mind and free thought. Meditative experience is allowed; almost induced. Tension, can be seen and felt from far or near. It can be felt in an attitude or be seen with materiality. Removal can be felt on a raised platform; seclusion in a small outcropping; and tension with structure suspended and pulled away from one another. Contemplation defines space, from a small confined room to a large public terrace made for welcoming observation.
Immeasurable and Measurable The immeasurable is the intangible, it cannot be touched, but instead is observed and studied. Although intangible things cannot be touched, they can still by changed and manipulated by outside factors. Attitudes, thoughts, and feelings and ideas are the immeasurable. The measurable is the tangible, it can be touched, felt, thereby allowing physically manipulation by someone or something. Buildings, material, people, and sound are the measurable contexts. One observation I made was that the immeasurable can not be changed by the measurable, and the measurable can not be changed my the immeasurable; i.e. thinking (immeasurable) about changing the material on the building will do nothing, but speaking (measurable) about it will. Speech is something people can hear and can physically take part in. Shown in the overload of materials and the lack of cohesiveness, tension first became a large part of my exploration into contemplation and what it truly meant to myself. When there is tension between two objects or two people, there is unresolved issues that only multiply, the longer they go unnoticed.
Looking Through a Lens The Long Island Residence by Tod Williams and Billie Tsien Associates was the case study for, looking through a lens. What ways does this particular project represent contemplation. From this study, separation was playing a huge role in the house, from the separation of public and private spaces to the lack of separation between indoor and outdoor space. The building’s functions are essentially split between three pods. One pod being the guests’ living quarters, another being the kitchen and living room, and the final is the owners’ living quarters. Connecting these three separate spaces are glazed walkways that seem disappear except for the solid roof above. The placement of the pods was to insure private spaces set away from the main circulation of the home. Outdoor spaces, especially in the owners’ quarters seemlessly blend with the indoors with an outdoor shower and large amounts of glazing. Removal from the circulation and even private spaces of the home is allowed with the spaces created between each pod on the outdoors. A loft in the main pod is also a place where someone can escape. Whether inside or outside, a person can reflect on their recent experience of the home and landscape through other’s actions. More intimate spaces allow for seclusion. Spaces such as the outdoor shower and a small outdoor patio facing the woods which is hidden from street and neighbors. These spaces allow for the mind to drift and wander freely, whether the person experiencing it is thinking about their current situation or they are enjoying pure relaxation. Long Island Residence Tod Williams Billie Tsien
HORIZONTAL SECTION HIGHLIGHTED PUBLIC SPACES
WIDTH SECTION HIGHLIGHTED PUBLIC SPACE
WIDTH SECTION HIGHLIGHTED PRIVATE SPACE
CASE STUDY: STUDY 7
Looking Through a Lens Again Now with a better understanding of contemplation, I was challenged to revisit the case study of the Long Island House by Tod Williams and Billie Tsien while looking through contemplation with a more clear lens. The floor plan is broken down into three separate ones for my first iteration of this project. The first one is the entire home it gives context for all of the other space sin the home (top). The second plan highlights the circulation areas of the home. I did this by detailing the hallways, kitchen, and dining rooms. The architect had already did this by using flagstone to mark the circulation and higher activity areas. (middle). The third plan highlights the static spaces in the home. They are more private and there is less movement associated with these areas and that is why I labeled them as static. (bottom)
FLOORPLAN: ACTIVE AREAS
FLOORPLAN: STATIC AREAS
MODEL SHOWING SEPERATION OF PODS
SECOND ITERATION : ACTIVE SPACES
SECOND ITERATION : STATIC SPACES
CASE STUDY: STUDY 9
SITE MAPPING: STUDY
Site Mapping Site Analysis The major urban centers in the late 19th century were the places to be. Jobs, wealth and other opportunities were looking for people; everything was abundant in the city. In the Late 20th century, that urban boom was over for the city of Detroit. The population dropped well below one million residents from its high of 1.8 million just a few decades earlier. Opportunities were no longer abundant, if available at all. Many businesses left the city and moved to the suburbs, or left the state of Michigan completely. Following the businesses, residents began moving from the city. Moving to the suburbs allowed you to have a yard but suburban residents also gained a long commute, and they also contributed to urban sprawl and created mono culture or people with no diversity. Now, with the nation in hard economic times and more specifically metro-Detroit, people are looking for an out. The city is now crawling with opportunities, extremely different than what originally thrived here. Cheap rent, increasing green space, blank canvases, an unimaginable amount of abandonment, all ready for newcomers to take advantage of. Many would look at what I just listed as negatives, but they are all positives that are starting to attract the young crowd back into the city limits. Once again, abundant opportunity is now concentrated in Detroit.
SITE MAPPING: STUDY 13
Pink = residential Green = commercial
Black String = surface streets Black Arrows = population loss
Brown Arrows = population gain Pink String = highways
SITE MAPPING: STUDY 15
This is a stop-motion video that was created to help myself and otherâ€™s understand the rise and fall of Corktown and that opportunities still exist in the city.
SITE MAPPING: STUDY 17
Black = Residential Yellow Pointer = Site Pink Paper = Commercial Pink String = Population and Interest Flow Green = Green Space
Relationships Corktown is the oldest neighborhood in the city of Detroit, Michigan. It is home to the abandoned Michigan Central Station and has a very strong Irish presence. The site for my project was a brand new community parking lot that was built to handle the increased parking demand that was created by newly established bars and restaurants on Michigan Avenue, the main drag through Corktown. My analysis of the site and neighborhood started with many sketches of the surrounding area showing the relationship between commercial and residential development. The question I had was, who depends on who? I quickly thought that the residential parts of the neighborhood relied on the commercial development to survive, but after closer inspection I have determined that whether or not commercial development exists, residential development will always be there. By reviewing the stop-motion photography on the previous pages, it shows that the residential is still there, even when all the commercial development is gone. Population loss is shown with the black arrows that are using the highways to move away from the site, mimicking people moving to the suburbs. It also shows when commercial interests leave, residential also does, but residential does not completely disappear. At the end of the video I started to highlight the spots where the most opportunity exists. Mostly large vacant lots and buildings, but there are smaller lots and buildings available as well.
SITE MAPPING: STUDY 19
PEDESTRIAN MASTER PLAN
Pedestrian Master Plan Back street, lost lane, or back lane, whatever it may be called, an alley is a very interesting place. The two Corktown alleys have been neglected and unused for many years and they have been given the chance to redefine what an alley is and what is does. These alleys will become the hub of commerce and social entertainment in the neighborhood of Corktown Detroit. The alleys will retain the feel of a grungy, narrow lane, but by splitting the ground plane it will be given a new ‘promenade’ allowing the user a chance to oversee all that they have been given to use and to allow additional vendor space. Vendors are given creative freedom to do whatever they dream with their space, since all alleys are rarely cohesive, why should this one? The alleys’ promenade will then fuel additional growth in adjacent blocks, these will be able to grow and expand, increasing desirability of the area and density. Yet while still creating more of an urban context, the vendor owned space will keep that space form a big chain rundown and give these alleys the sense of Place, they have always deserved.
PEDESTRIAN MASTER PLAN PEDESTRIAN MASTER PLAN: SCHEME TWO
ILLUSTRATION: REMOVAL FROM t PARK
Developing the Promenade
Welles Activity Center KieranTimberlake
CIRCULATION DIAGRAM: SECLUSION
The exploration of contemplation really took off at this point in the project.. Tension, removal, and seclusion became the driving factors in design for the pedestrian master plan. Creating tension came with the addition of the Urban Promenade to the alleys. By splitting the ground plane into two separate entities, it created addition vendor space but also gave the pedestrian a choice of up, or down. The chance for removal became apparent along with the Urban Promenade scheme. Roosevelt Park is slated to become a popular urban park for the city of Detroit, with an amphitheater, skate park and much more. While there is so much activity all around the site, there is no where to escape and really observe what is going on. This is where removal and the idea of the Urban Promenade merge. While using the promenade the pedestrian can really take everything in that the park has to offer by the simple act of observing from a risen platform away from the park. This platform is not only a lookout point, it is much more. It is an urban walkway that can and will link many areas of the neighborhood and possibly beyond. Seclusion came into the picture after removal and tension because with these two occurring simultaneously the pedestrian may simply need to get away from all the action and center themselves to really understand and have clear thought. Contemplation is the process of thinking and understanding the environment and oneâ€™s decisions.
PEDESTRIAN MASTER PLAN 25
Corktown Master Plan The pedestrian master plan began as a basic assessment of the two alleys. One that runs parallel to Michigan Avenue and one that runs perpendicular to Michigan Avenue. Originally, I imagined this neighborhood block became a sort of destination for suburbanites and other city residents. It would offer public markets during the weekends, and some permanent food venues to allow the pedestrian alleyway to stay alive throughout the week. This idea seemed like the most logical way or including these alleys into the fabric of Corktown, but the more I realized what these alleys were doing, what they could do, and what the city really needs, I realized that a destination was not what was needed, but more of a permanent space for residents of Corktown to enjoy on a daily basis. I manipulated my original concept and idea into a more master plan of the entire neighborhood of Corktown and not just this one block. I began to see this urban promenade as a catalyst for growth in the community. The promenade would connect each block, and create a large network of interconnected mini communities within the larger context of the Corktown neighborhood.
PEDESTRIAN MASTER PLAN
The Urban Promenade After revisiting the project, Pedestrian Master Plan, I believe that the promenade and a redistribution of commercial and residential spaces can help to foster a more urban community. A mixed use plan where each block becomes a mini community, and each block is linked by the promenade, and finally the network of these communities will create the overall urban identity. This promenade will allow residents to actually walk to many commercial spaces, such as a supermarket, hair salon and other necessities that the most dense spots of the city are missing. The American Urban Planner, Kevin A. Lynch proposed that the urban condition is made of up five elements. The first element is path, the streets, sidewalks, trails and other footpaths that pedestrians take. Second elements is an edge, which are perceived boundaries such as walls, buildings, major roads and shorelines. Third element is the district, a relatively large section of the city, distinguished by some identity and character. Fourth element is the node, a node is a focal point, intersections, or well known point of interest. Finally, the fifth element is the landmark, which are readily identifiable objects which serve as external reference points. The majority of the five elements already exist in the Corktown neighborhood, but with this master plan, the rest will either have to be created or be found under the many layers that make up Detroit.
PEDESTRIAN MASTER PLAN 29
PEDESTRIAN MASTER PLAN
CORKTOWN COFFER CREDIT UNION
Corktown Coffer Credit Union The final installment of my Corktown exploration was the Corktown Coffer Credit Union, more commonly known as the CCCU. The CCCU is a community credit union, founded and ran by Corktown residents and business owners. The credit union was founded on the basis that it will be completely owned and operated by the community. It would also foster commercial, as well as residential interest in the neighborhood and allow Corktown to grow and become a stronger community. Not only would the CCCU become a community credit union, but it would also be home to community leaders and a community design fellow. These residences should allow for interaction between pedestrians and the tenants, but also to allow the tenants the privacy to work and conduct business. The community credit union would be the ideal financial institution for the Corktown neighborhood. The CCCU would have use the modern tactics of larger financial buildings. Many of these tactics are seen as overpowering and intimidating, so the CCCU would also have to be a place where residents and business owners would feel welcomed, but also comfortable about leaving their money at the CCCU. Contemplation had to be used in a very strategic way. The act of borrowing, investing and saving money, especially large sums of it, is an emotional experience and the owner should be able to leave, knowing his savings are
CORKTOWN COFFER CREDIT UNION
DIAGRAM: MASS AND VOID, PLACES TO REMOVE ONESELF FROM THE STREET
The Detroit Trust Company Building was my pre-1950 precedent. The building was originally only the stone, but was remodeled and the black glass was added. Before the addition of the addition of the glass the building had a very imposing feel by taking up the city block, tall columns and being capped with a type of pediment. What I found interesting about this institution is that it did not lose any of this appeal with the addition of the glass. The glass is extremely dark and can not be seen through even when you are standing right next to it. So pre1950 and beyond, this building keeps to its original roots and will continue to keep its contents safe.
Pre-1950 Financial institutions have constantly evolved with the changing economy, technology and ways money is traded and used. There are many different types of institutions, from commercial banks all the way to community credit unions. I examined different financial institutions that were pre-1950 and post-1950 to found out that not only the looks of the buildings changed but the feelings they evoked were very different. Starting with the pre-1950 institutions I noticed that many of them were built like fortresses, built and designed to keep the money in and everything else out. The currency that was in use was of physical, tangible form. Gold, paper bills and coin were used in everyday transactions and deposits, therefore they were deposited directly into the bank and vault. To protect the gold and currency banks needed to be made of strong materials and give off the effect that they could not be brought to their knees. So large columns that were used in Roman architecture were used to give the bank strength, stone was used to weigh the building down and anchor it to the site, and finally large steel doors were used on the vault to protect the customers investments. Banking was also more personal pre-1950, more often than not, customers interacted face to face with tellers and bank employees. Investments, deposits, and withdraws were usually handled by a banker the customer knew by name. This is all a very different from how banking is conducted today.
Bank Precedent: Study 37
Post-1990 Moving on to the post-1990 banks I was observing that these institutions appear to be more welcoming and involved with the surrounding area. Also these institutions appear to be smaller but they do appear to hold as much prestige as the older buildings. The banking industry has changed so much from the early 1900s, so much so that financial institutions no longer require the massive stone and roman columns to give their customers the sense of security that they once did. Glass has become one of the most important materials for newer financial institutions. Also different types of banks have become more popular among different areas of the country and different classes of people. The community credit union has become a very popular choice where people choose to keep their money. A credit union is a cooperative financial institution that is owned and controlled by its members. The credit union is founded by a group of people who have similar interests such as religion, occupation, race, etc. Credit union buildings are generally larger than a commercial bank branch, mainly because there is usually only one location. These buildings are also usually kept to one or two stories and are kept relatively simple, design wise. While credit unions are kept small, other post-1990 financial institutions are more impressive structures, both in scale and in materiality
DIAGRAM: THE GLASS STRUCTURE CREATES A HOLE IN THE VIEW
One Kennedy Square is a prime example of what financial institutions are leaning toward with building design. With the advancements in technology currency is being exchanged using computers more each and every passing day. In response to that, financial institutions can now give the impression of being more welcoming by the use of large class windows and a more intimate personal encounter with the tellers and other bank employees. The bank or other institution no longer has to build a fortress to protect the investments and savings of their customers. In todayâ€™s world a few carefully chosen passwords and security cameras are just as efficient.
The Guardian Building in Downtown Detroit is an example of an adaptation to the technology of the finance industry. Upon completion the building was commonly referred to as the Cathedral of Finance. A portion of the lobby has been renovated to accommodate a Bank of American branch with many banking services and tellers that customers interact with face to face.
Bank Precedent: Study 39
A couple of preliminary design schemes started to tackle the integration with the public realm but at the same time provide the privacy for the residents. Also how to address Michigan Avenue and the alley, trying not to ignore either but giving a different feel on each front.
Corktown Coffer Credit Union
CCCU: SCHEME 2
CCCU: SCHEME 1
The Corktown Coffer Credit Union (CCCU) is a mixed use structure in the Detroit neighborhood of Corktown. The site is located directly on Michigan Avenue between Mercury Bar and Duncanâ€™s Speedometers at 14th Street. The CCCU had to accommodate a community credit union and also had to include four or five dwelling units for employees and community leaders. One unit is for Annette, the project cofounder and will be managing accounts as the COO. The studio unit she is requesting will first be used for a visiting design fellow for the project and neighborhood with a one year term. The second unit is for Clement, as the CEO of the CCCU he is requesting a view of the alley and the urban promenade from his bedroom. The third unit is for Ada and Ludo, who will be running a shop in the alley. They are requesting a larger unit for the two of them that can accommodate their hobbies. The other unit(s) will be used for expansion of the CCCU in the future. Being that this building is a community credit union and quite possibly the future node of the neighborhood The emphasis on community access was important as was the total integration into the pedestrian and Corktown master plan of the site. On the other hand, with private residences also integrated into the design the issue between private, semi-public and public space was a big one to satisfy all parties.
CCCU: SCHEME 3
CORKTOWN COFFER CREDIT UNION 41
Structure in Tension Structure the most basic necessity of a building can also become the most integral part of the design. With the exploration of tension I was challenged to decide what tension is and how it can be expressed with structure. Beginning with the master plan and the addition of the Urban Promenade I was exploring the tension that existed between the new ground plane and the existing one. The existence of a pulling motion even though it is not happening, almost as though something wants to be pulled down but there is enough resistance for it not to. This is where I decided to cantilever the two story section of the CCCU over Duncanâ€™s Speedometers. The CCCU appears to be setting right on top but in reality it is hovering above the roof. The grid plan of the structure began with one of the first iterations of the project. I had separated the vacant lot into three even spaces to allow a vestibule to extend from Michigan Avenue, through the building and exiting into the alley. This idea was moved over into the existing building but the even fourteen foot sections stayed. This was then brought into an elevation which then created a fourteen by fourteen by fourteen cube, which became the modular building block for final CCCU. These cubes are what defined each apartment and allow them to intertwine between each other. They also allowed for each resident to get views and access of the alley and Michigan Avenue and views in every direction.
DIAGRAM: INTERACTION AND INTER CONNECTIVITY OF THE LIVING UNITS
Another exploration of tension came with the suspension of masonry panels above the sidewalk. They would give the impression that they were falling but instead are permanently suspended are the one position.
DIAGRAM: STRUCTURAL MEMBERS DEFINE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SPACE
DIAGRAM: STRUCTURAL MEMBERS DEFINE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SPACE
CORKTOWN COFFER CREDIT UNION 43
Seclusion | Removal | Tension Along with tension, removal and seclusion became important terms that I used to explore and understand contemplation. Removal was an important action that the residents and pedestrians using the promenade and the CCCU to experience. By physically removing the user from their environment, they are able to look back upon their experience through this space by observing the actions of others. For instance, Clement, who now drives a single speed bicycle instead of an automobile. From his apartment he can view the freeway and can think back to the time he had to drive and be thankful that he no longer commutes using that dreaded automobile. The average pedestrian that is walking down the street or experiencing the park can now take themselves out of the equation and look back upon other users and truly understand where they came from. This is allowed by the entrance to the Urban Promenade and the new public green space on the roof of a new building attached to the CCCU. Along with removal, seclusion plays an important part in the ability for people to reflect on their actions and lives. This is achieved by the use folding masonry panels that create small crevices within the building to allow the user to be alone and to separate themselves from the world to clear the mind. The research of meditative spaces has influenced this design as well.
This space (above) is the most simple space of all. The artist simply â€˜framedâ€™ space with wooded beams. This was also another inspirational precedent for the project and the use of cubes. The most empty spaces are the most successful in clearing the mind. The root of meditation is the act of contemplation.
Poly Prep Country Day School KieranTimberlake
The precedent above it the current use of masonry panels as a finishing material. Brick masonry is using considered structural or it can only be built in a vertical condition. With the use of panels (above) we can take them and tilt them like I have done in the CCCU (right).
CORKTOWN COFFER CREDIT UNION 45
Mass | Void | Stacking The first floor of the CCCU has to be the most accessible for its customers but also to allow access to the alleys behind the building. By using the existing building to the left of the vacant property I was able to form a solid mass and a void mass. I accomplished this by leaving the existing masonry walls of the existing speedometer shop and using a large bay door to frame the indoor walkway to the alley. By encasing the entire vacant in all glass, with the exception of the vault I was able to maintain the view to the back of the site. In addition to encasing the vacant lot with glass, I also did this with the sidewalk on the Michigan Avenue frontage. This will give pedestrians a chance to look into the basement workroom but also give them a sense of fear by them walking on the glass sidewalk and having the masonry panels hanging over them from above. The building behind the CCCU is an existing building from the pedestrian master plan. This building is the residential and pedestrian access to the second floor where there is green space for pedestrians and residents to enjoy together.
ALLEY RETAIL AND ENTRANCE TO RESIDENCES AND RAISED PUBLIC GATHERING SPACE
CREDIT UNION WITH VESTIBULE TO ALLEY
CORKTOWN COFFER CREDIT UNION 47
DIAGRAM: CIRCULATION , FLOOR BY FLOOR BREAKDOWN OF APARTMENTS
FINAL STRUCTURAL DESIGN
VOLUMETRIC SPACE AND INTEGRATION OF PROGRAMMING
EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION OF SPACE USING VARIED CEILING HEIGHTS
CORKTOWN COFFER CREDIT UNION 49
MICHIGAN AVENUE PERSPECTIVE
Corktown Coffer Credit Union: Final Thesis Contemplation offers many paths for the mind to follow. The ones I chose to focus on were seclusion, removal and tension. Each path presented itself in a variety of ways. Through my exploration of contemplation I have explored how it and tension are related and how that can be expressed in structure. I did this by allowing the main massing of the structure to hold up the two floor extension over the existing masonry building. With folding masonry panels, tension between ground and sky is challenged. Removal has been an everlasting theme since the master plan. The physical removal allowed by stepped terraces and folding planes, allows both resident and pedestrian, a shared experience. This allows both, to observe and reflect on their own experience through othersâ€™ actions. Third, seclusion inspired by my research of meditative spaces. Different from removal, seclusion is generally done by oneself, this can allow for opportunities to clear the mind. Each unit will allow the resident to escape and enjoy the space as it is simple but defined. Pedestrians can also take part in seclusion from everyday life, nestled within the master plan for such observation.
CORKTOWN COFFER CREDIT UNION 51
CCCU FINAL PRESENTATION 53
The humble credit union has slowly made its mark on todayâ€™s society by creating a safe place for its members to secure their savings and actually get paid back for simply being a member. The appeal for a credit has grown because as a group with a common goal, tasks do get accomplished and success can be seen firsthand. The Corktown Coffer Credit Union is a cooperative establishment that will help fuel commercial development in the Corktown neighborhood of Detroit, Michigan. The CCCU is not only a credit union, but a community public space to help engage pedestrians, and also involve residents and non-residents with community revitalization and growth. The particular Corktown block is adjacent to Roosevelt Park, borders Michigan Avenue and sits in the shadows of the Michigan Central Depot. The CCCU structure brings together a public credit union, a neighborhood gallery and workroom, apartments and a raised public gathering space. The apartments will first be occupied by the founder and co-founder of the CCCU, a design fellow and two shop owners whose shop is located in the pedestrian alley master plan. The CCCU is not only an economical asset to the neighborhood and city as a whole, but has the opportunity to become an incubator for commercial and residential interest in Corktown and can be a model for future use in the city and abroad. For once, members can see their money at work and it is truly a part of the community they live in, and something they can use every day.
CCCU FINAL PRESENTATION
Jeffrey Maniaci Professor Tadd Heidgerken Arch 1300-02 Architectural Design Fall 2010 University of Detroit Mercy: School of Architecture
Jurors Anthony Martinico Mick McCulloch Elijia Kafer Olek Novak-Zemplinski Charlie Oâ€™Green Lars Graebner Christina Hansen Car Martin F. Philip Barash
Sources Freeman, Michael. Meditative Spaces. New York, NY: Universe Publishing, 2005. Gregory, Rob. Key Contemporary Buildings: Plans, Sections, and Elevations. New York, NY: W. W. Norton, 2008. Lennard, Suzanne H. Crowhurst, and Henry Lennard. Genius of the European Square. Woodstock, NY: Gondolier Press, 2008. KieranTimberlake. Work. 11 Jan 2011. < http://kierantimberlake.com/home/ index.html> Sullivan, Louis H. The Banks. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1987. Williams, Todd and Billie Tsien. Works. 20 Sept 2010. < http://www.twbta. com/>