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Annual I/ITSEC Issue December 2016 • Volume 21 • Issue 7

Military training, modeling and simulation solutions with a global perspective

Inside This Issue... Air Force Plans to Reduce Airman Non-primary Mission Training Page 19

Focus on Virtual Page 20

LVC Training Page 24

Center for Information Warfare Training Page 27

Capabilities Drive focus on Cyberspace Page 30

International Vector: Colonel Karyn M. Thompson Commander Training and Doctrine Command New Zealand

Q&A With

Brigadier General William E. Cole Program Executive Officer for Simulation, Training and Instrumentation U.S. Army

Virtual terrain that’s worth your time when you’re training to go live

MetaVRC remotely piloted aircraft 2 cm per pixel aerial imagery collection Ground-level photography Geospecific terrain compilation 3D content modeling Scenario creation Real-time visualization Dynamic craters

See our real-time interactive demonstrations at I/ITSEC Booth #1026 Real-time screen capture is from MetaVR’s visualization system and 3D virtual terrain of the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground, Yuma, AZ, and is unedited except as required for printing. The real-time rendering of the 3D virtual world is generated by MetaVR Virtual Reality Scene Generator™ (VRSG™) at 60 Hz. The terrain was built with 2 cm per-pixel imagery and 2 meter elevation posts. 3D models are from MetaVR’s 3D content libraries. © 2016 MetaVR, Inc. All rights reserved. MetaVR, Virtual Reality Scene Generator, VRSG, the phrase “Geospecific simulation with game quality graphics,” and the MetaVR logo are trademarks of MetaVR, Inc.

Military Training International Features

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december 2016 • Volume 21 Issue 7

Table of Contents Departments

Connecting Training to Mission The U.S. Air Force plans to reduce airman training unrelated to their primary mission and job function. By Technical Sergeant Robert Barnett

Virtual Training Getting Real In their book “The ultimate battleground: fighting and winning in the city” (L’ultime champ de bataille: combattre et vaincre en ville), authors Frédérique Chamaud and Pierre Santoni put significant emphasis on the importance of joint forces combat in a battleground that is fast changing. By Dr. Alix Valenti

Be Real Live, virtual, constructive (LVC) training combines real trainees operating real systems with real trainees operating simulated systems and simulated soldiers operating simulated systems, the constructive C in LVC. The technique is new and still developing, but it offers major possibilities to greatly expand training realism, especially for large groups, affordably and practically. By Henry Canaday

Delivering Training at the Right Time July 2016 saw an important name change for what was the Center for Information Dominance. The command was renamed to the Center for Information Warfare Training, which aligns the command with the U.S. Navy’s updated strategy for maintaining maritime superiority. By Jeff McKaughan

Driving Innovative Thought in Cyber Security and Training Speed of change and the scale of which network systems can be used against themselves pushes to the breaking point the ability to defend cyberspace. The foundation of change is at the education and training level where the cyber warfighters and educators construct the systems that can understand yesterday’s challenges and be ready for tomorrow’s. Military Training International spoke with several leaders in the field for their perspective on the challenges, accomplishments and the paths forward.

Q&A with Brigadier General William E. Cole PEO for Simulation, Training and Instrumentation U.S. Army

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Program Highlights people Resource Center


International Vector

Colonel Karyn M. Thompson Commander Training and Doctrine Command New Zealand

Program Highlights China Shortens Air Force Pilot Training to Five Years On October 30, addressing a conference held prior to the Chinese Zhuhai Air Show, Liu Di, head of the training staff of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Air Force said that China has sped up its pilot training program so that it now takes just five years for a pilot to begin flying active combat jets. He noted that the streamlining was partially a result of granting Chinese colleges access to flying aircraft such as J-7 fighters, H-6 bombers and Y-8 airfreighters. “It used to take graduates an additional two years before they could take combat training shifts. Now, only short-term training is required before soldiers go on duty,” said Di. “Flight training is a fundamental way to train pilots and improve combat capabilities in the air. It is crucial to the long-term development of the whole air force,” said Lieutenant General Zheng Qunliang.

U.S. Ambassador Visits Joint Multinational Training GroupUkraine

“A bilateral relationship is made up of many different parts. There’s obviously the government part, there’s commercial relations, there’s people to people relations. Within the government sphere there’s diplomatic relations, but there’s also mil-tomil (military to military) relations. That, especially right now, I think that’s important, because for us to use that phrase of ‘Europe, whole, free and at peace,’ that is important for us,” Yovanovitch said. “Ukraine is a part of Europe and if we can help them fulfill that dream, I think that’s in our strategic interest and I think it’s in the interest of the trans-Atlantic alliance. The mil to mil part of helping Ukraine build up its security, build up its capabilities is obviously a crucial part of that.” As reported by Captain Scott Kuhn

VR-Engage is a Multi-Role Virtual Simulator On November 7, VT MÄK, (MÄK), a company of Vision Technologies Systems, Inc. (VT Systems), announced a new virtual simulation product called VR-Engage. Developed for use in training simulations or laboratory experimentation, VR-Engage lets users play the role of a first person human character; a ground vehicle driver, gunner or commander; or the pilot of a fixed wing aircraft or helicopter. Built on mature proven technologies, VR-Engage gets its simulation engine from VR-Forces, its game-quality 3D graphics from VR-Vantage and its network interoperability from VR-Link. VR-Engage includes: • •

On October 27, U.S. Ambassador to Ukraine Marie Yovanovitch visited the soldiers of the Joint Multinational Training Group-Ukraine and toured the International Peacekeeping and Security Center at Yavoriv, Ukraine. The Joint Multinational Training Group-Ukraine is made up of U.S. soldiers from the California National Guard and Task Force Mustang from 6th Squadron, 8th Cavalry Regiment, 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 3rd Infantry Division. JMTG-U is partnered with soldiers from Lithuania, Poland and Canada to directly train Ukrainian ground forces while simultaneously developing an enduring and sustainable combat training center in Ukraine. Ambassador Yovanovitch spoke of the importance of our partnership with Ukraine and specifically the significant role that JMTG-U’s mission plays in that relationship. 2 | MTI 21.7

• •

A high-fidelity vehicle physics engine needed for accurate vehicle motion. Ground, rotary and fixed-wing vehicles along with the full library of friendly, hostile and neutral DI-Guy characters. Radio/Voice communications over DIS and HLA. Sensors, weapons, countermeasures and behavior models for air-to-air, air-to-ground, on-the-ground, and person-to-person engagements. Vehicle/person-specific interactions with the environment (open/close, move, destroy, etc.) Terrain agility – like VR-Vantage and VR-Forces, you can use the terrain you have or take advantage of innovative streaming and procedural terrain techniques.

VR-Engage is ready to use out-of-the-box. It can be deployed as a trainee simulator, as a

role player station, an instructor aid, a desktop simulation game, or even as a VR headset experience. As MÄK focuses on the needs of system integrators, MÄK designed VR-Engage to be flexible: It can be customized and extended to meet program-specific requirements, and can be integrated into a diverse range of system configurations. MÄK has a pricing and support model that has proven to be effective with system integrators both before and after they choose MÄK. Natively compliant with DIS & HLA, VR-Engage can be used in multi-player classroom environments, and can interoperate with existing simulation applications and 3rd party SAF/CGFs. When VR-Engage is used in conjunction with VR-Forces and other MAK products, you can reap the additional benefits of a common system architecture: •

The VR-Forces GUI (graphical user interface) can serve as a common instructor interface to manage both the player-controlled entities and computer-generated forces (CGF) entities - including unified laydown, checkpointing, drag/drop and scenario save/load. Users can build terrains, models, and configurations once, and deploy them across VR-Engage player stations, the VR-Forces CGF, and any other applications that use VR-Vantage IG. Role-play multiple entities at a time by switching between manual and CGF control on-the-fly; or act as a gunner or other crew member of a VR-Forces-driven entity. Common representation of the environment across player and CGF stations, including synchronized weather, time-of-day, and dynamic terrain.

“We’re thrilled to add VR-Engage to our lineup of COTS products,” said Dan Schimmel, CEO. “Our global customer base of system integrators in the training and simulation market has been building virtual simulators directly on top of VR-Vantage and VR-Forces for quite some time. By providing an integrated, but extensible, virtual simulator application, we give them the best of both worlds: game-quality immersive simulation combined with open architecture. Customers can reduce their time-to-implementation while still enjoying the flexibility to customize and control key aspects of the system.” “When your semi-automated forces and virtual simulators use different terrain formats, different scenario concepts, and incompatible user interfaces, you spend a lot of your project’s budget on basic integration and duplicative work—and often end up


MEMBERS IN THE INTEROPERABILITY USER COMMUNITY (IUC) The reality of multi-national and coalition operations means that training across international borders will become increasingly common. The IUC-family of countries will soon have the same laser codes for their firing and target simulators, as well as possessing player instrumentation and exercise command and control systems that are built on the same platform. At Saab, we see the need for interoperability between armies becoming more and more important. Our common platforms and interoperable solutions enable joint international training in diverse environments with the opportunity to exchange national tactics, doctrine and best practice in order to deliver operational effectiveness. This presents a unique opportunity to NATO forces, Partnership for Peace and Coalition Partners to train together by combining systems to create a fully instrumented training environment in any configuration, scale and at any given location.

• Instrumentation • Firing / Target Systems • Exercise Control

Program Highlights with a lowest-common-denominator solution, explained Len Granowetter, vice president, products and solutions. By building the VR-Engage player station on the same foundation as our VR-Forces CGF, we can provide a unified simulation environment that is already correlated and coherent. Our customers can move immediately to adding value by applying their unique expertise.”

Common Driver Training The U.S. Army Program Executive Office for Simulation, Training and Instrumentation (PEO STRI), Product Manager for Ground Combat Tactical Trainers (PM GCTT) has a requirement for driver training simulators to support the Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) schools with institutional drivers training and to support operational units with sustainment drivers training. The CDT product line is the Army’s preferred solution for initial and sustainment driver trainer needs. This product line encompasses driver training simulators for military wheeled, tracked and specialty vehicles, to include both tactical and non-tactical vehicles, utilizing a common platform. Each CDT system will be reconfigurable to accommodate the different vehicle variants as defined in the product system specifications. The systems will include the following variants: • • • • • • • • •

Tank variants Tank engineering variants Tactical wheeled variant U.S. Army and USMC mine resistance ambush protected Stryker variant Joint light tactical vehicle High mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle Medium tactical vehicle replacement Capable of incorporating future vehicle variants training systems

• The CDT and the USMC ODS are both virtual driver training simulators that leverage technology to fill a need for wheeled, tracked and specialty vehicle driver training. The CDT common components include the 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) motion platform, instructor/operator station (IOS), after action review (AAR), visual system, and host system. The current ODS training system includes the CDT components plus three DOF facility based and three DOF trailer based platforms. 4 | MTI 21.7

The contractor shall develop a Joint Solution to update, integrate, test and produce the CDT/ ODS based on the current CDT Component Architecture and the Live Training Transformation (LT2) Integrated Development Environment (IDE) as required. The contractor shall be responsible for integrating the Joint solution into the LT2 IDE. The contractor shall include embedding and updating individual component performance and end-to-end system performance. Currently, the Army has procured over 53 CDT systems (13 in the Mobile Training Facility (MTF) configuration) all with various motion base stations and 69 specific variant cabs.

Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center Anniversary The Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center at the Presidio of Monterey, Calif., celebrates its 75th anniversary this year as the provider of culturally-based foreign language education, training and sustainment for the Department of Defense going back to 1941. “Time and time again, the nation’s leadership—military or civilian—must make informed decisions that rely on insight provided by a professional military linguist somewhere in that decision cycle,” said Colonel Phil Deppert, who is the current commandant at the Institute. The Institute’s roots were established on the eve of World War II. Considering the strained relations between Japan and the U.S., a small group of officers with previous tours of duty in Japan recognized the need for an intelligence unit, which would be able to understand the Japanese language. With this intent, 75 years ago in November 1941, this group of officers started a small school in an abandoned airplane hangar at the Presidio of San Francisco. That school would grow over time to become the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center. “Men and women from all corners of the war-torn world answered the call to build a unique language academy in Monterey encompassing all the major languages of the world,” said Dr. James McNaughton, DLIFLC command historian in October 1989, about the buildup of the Institute’s language programs in the postWorld War II years. Through the years the name has changed numerous times. Beginning as the 4th Army Intelligence School, the name changed to the Military Intelligence Service Language School. When the school relocated to Monterey it

became the Army Language School. Finally, it became the Defense Language Institute in 1963. This name change consolidated the Army, Navy and Air Force language programs into a single, integrated system managed by the Army. “On the first day of the ground invasion, our troops entered Iraq unopposed as thousands of Iraqi conscript soldiers simply surrendered. I think we saved countless lives that way,” said Sergeant Major James Southern, provost sergeant major at the Institute. Southern served as an Arabic linguist in the Gulf War and he and other linguists convinced Iraqi conscripts to allow U.S. troops to pass into Iraq. Today, DLIFLC continues to support the joint force worldwide and the greater DoD community with its language needs. Resident instruction is provided in 23 languages at the Presidio of Monterey with the capacity to instruct another 65 languages in Washington, D.C., graduating more than 220,000 linguists since 1941. In addition, multiple language training detachments exists at sites in the U.S., Europe, Hawaii and Korea, spanning all the U.S. geographic combatant commands, in support of the total force. As reported by Patrick Bray

P-8A Training Center Installed at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island

Boeing has installed a new P-8A Poseidon training center at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Wash., as the base begins preparations for the arrival of P-8 aircraft beginning in 2017. “About 70 percent of the training we do for our P-8 crews happens in this building,” said U.S. Navy Rear Admiral Kyle Cozad. “That is going to make that wonderful aircraft last longer and longer. As much as 45 years.” The complete training system uses simulators and classroom-based materials to train pilots and mission crews to operate the aircraft, its sensors, communications and weapons systems without relying on live flights. “Integrated, ground-based training is critical to U.S. Navy operations,” said Tom Shadrach,


VBS IG, from Bohemia Interactive Simulations (BISim), displays immersive out-the-window and sensor scenes, depicting realworld terrain with large numbers of moving entities across multiple channels. It supports industry standards and offers a comprehensive IG capability at highly competitive prices. BISim created VBS IG by optimizing a commercial game engine to deliver traditional image generation capabilities. We’ve introduced VBS IG SDK for developers to fully customize VBS IG. This software development kit massively enhances workflow, extensibility and enables almost any simulator configuration to be developed. VBS IG SDK includes development tools a library of APIs and source code. The tools and APIs form a modular C++ plug-in architecture and workflow that enable developers to integrate third-party technologies effectively and efficiently.

Program Highlights Boeing P-8 program manager, training systems and government services. “This new facility will help to effectively and efficiently train aircrews before they ever leave the ground.” The aircrew training devices installed at Whidbey Island have the same configuration as the aircraft that will be stationed there next year. Boeing is on contract to modify and provide updates to the training devices over the next three years. Boeing also provides P-8A aircrew training devices, electronic classrooms and courseware for the Navy at its Integrated Training Center (ITC) at Naval Air Station Jacksonville, Fla. Aircrews began training in the ITC in early 2012.

Air Force Robotic Surgery Training Course Established

tive and the reason for that is better outcomes for the patients.” It’s the patient that has to deal with most of the outcomes of surgery, and when it comes to robotic surgery there can be a lot of positive benefits. “Smaller incisions, lower risk of hernia, and a lower risk of infection means getting out of the hospital sooner,” Tyler said. “Each additional day in the hospital is $1,600. If we’re having better outcomes and eliminating some of these risks, we’re saving money and doing better by our patients.” InDoRSE is solving that problem for not only Keesler AFB but also Defense Department surgeons by establishing a training program right on base. InDoRSE’s focus has always been on training, graduate medical education, and research and development. For Lieutenant Colonel (Dr.) Thomas Shaak, the 81st Medical

Support Squadron CRL director, creating a program for the da Vinci Xi falls in line with their mission. “With this research robot in the InDoRSE training site, our residents will graduate with fully recognized robot credentials,” said Shaak. “Our surgeons should already be trained in surgeries and with this credential we’re giving them another tool in their toolkit to properly select good candidates for robotic procedures.” According to Shaak, Intuitive Surgical, the manufacturers of the da Vinci Xi surgical system and the usual providers of robotic credentials, have agreed to a unique partnership where they will recognize the training coming from the InDoRSE training site. The site also allows for surgeons from other locations to obtain their credentials in addition to those assigned to Keesler AFB. As reported by J.D. Levite

PEOPLE Laparoscopic surgery, also known as minimally invasive surgery, has been a mainstay of surgeons for a very long time, and as technology continues to improve, robotic surgeries are becoming increasingly common. These procedures require systems that are quite expensive and surgeons to undergo a whole new kind of training. Until recently, any time an Air Force surgeon wanted to perform a robotic surgery they used a system in place at a private hospital as part of an external resource sharing agreement and were trained on the system during a course that required them to be away from their clinic. The Keesler Medical Center recently acquired two da Vinci Xi robotic surgical systems, one for surgeries and the other for training, which is one of the newest systems out there and the first of its kind for the Air Force. Also, Keesler’s Clinical Research Laboratory has set up a training facility, the Institute for Defense Robotic Surgical Education (InDoRSE), for surgeons to obtain official robotic surgery credentials. “Robotics is the standard of care for several surgical procedures, and the market in the private sector is exploding,” said Major (Dr.) Joshua Tyler, the 81st Surgical Operations Squadron robotic surgery director. “If you’re not doing robotics, you’re not going to be competi6 | MTI 21.7

Commander Charles Ardinger relieved Commander Bruce Bronk as commanding officer of the Center for Naval Aviation Technical Training Unit (CNATTU) Norfolk during a November 3 ceremony in the unit’s hangar. The Center for Naval Aviation Technical Training (CNATT) held a change of command ceremony at the National Naval Aviation Museum aboard Naval Air Station Pensacola, Fla., where Captain Terrence E. Hammond turned over responsibilities to Captain Eric J. Simon.

On October 13, Commander Stephen Curry relieved Commander Carvin Brown as commanding officer of the Center for Naval Aviation Technical Training Unit Jacksonville during a change of command ceremony. On October 20, Commander Timothy F. Knapp relieved Commander Kenneth A. Wallace as commanding officer of the Center for Naval Aviation Technical Training Unit (CNATTU) Keesler. British Air Commodore C.J.

Luck MBE will be promoted to air vice-marshal and to be commandant Joint Services Command & Staff College at the Defence Academy, Shrivenham in August 2017 in succession to Major General J.R. Free CBE.

Brigadier General Douglas K. Lamberth, vice superintendent, U.S. Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Colo., to inspector general, Headquarters Air

Mobility Command, Scott Air Force Base, Ill.

Aptima, Inc., recently announced that Janet Spruill has joined the company as vice president. Spruill’s responsibilities include guiding business strategy planning and execution, supporting successful transition of science and technology research programs, and expanding Aptima’s Orlando operations.

Q&A Brigadier General William Cole is the Program Executive Officer for Simulation, Training and Instrumentation (PEO STRI). PEO STRI executes a multi-billion dollar program annually, and is staffed by more than 1,200 military, government civilian, and service support contractors. The organization also manages Foreign Military Sales’ programs which support more than 40 countries. Prior to this assignment, Cole was the Deputy Program Executive Officer, Missiles and Space, Redstone Arsenal, Ala. He was responsible for the development, production, fielding, and life cycle management of the Army’s missile and space related systems. A native of Churchville, Md., he received his commission in 1987 from the United States Military Academy. His initial operational assignments were with the 82nd Airborne Division at Fort Bragg, N.C., where he first served as the fire support officer for Company C, 3rd Battalion, 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment. He later served as battery fire direction officer and DIVARTY counter-fire officer. He served as executive officer of Battery C, 3rd Battalion, 319th Airborne Field Artillery Regiment during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Following his assignment in Germany Cole was the commanding general of the Natick Soldier Systems Center, Natick, Mass., and was dual-hatted as the deputy commanding general of the U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. The general served as the fire support officer for 1st Battalion, 37th Armor Regiment, and then as the DIVARTY fire direction officer for the 3rd Infantry Division. His last operational assignment was as commander, Battery B, 3rd Battalion, 1st Field Artillery Regiment in Bamberg, Germany. The general joined the Acquisition Corps in 1996 and was assigned to the Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center at Picatinny Arsenal, N.J. He later moved to the Joint Program Management Office, Lightweight 155mm Howitzer, where he served as the assistant program manager for the digital fire control system. Following assignments on the TRADOC and Department of the Army staffs, he returned to Picatinny Arsenal in 2004 and served as the product manager for the Excalibur 155mm GPS-guided artillery projectile. Cole then served in the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics, where he was a program analyst and military deputy of the Acquisition Management Office. He served as project manager for Soldier Protection and Individual Equipment from July 2009 to June 2012. He then deployed to Afghanistan for 11 months as the director of forward operations for the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition Logistics and Technology, and also for RDECOM. After redeployment, Cole spent four months as the Chief of Staff at ASA(ALT) before moving to Natick. He has earned a bachelor of science degree in Human Factors Psychology (Ergonomics) from USMA, a master of science degree in Systems Acquisition Management from the Naval Postgraduate School, and a master of science degree in National Resource Strategy from the Industrial College of the Armed Forces. His awards and decorations include the Master Parachutist Badge, the Ranger Tab, the Army Staff Badge, the Office of the Secretary of Defense Identification Badge, the Bronze Star Medal (with oak leaf cluster), the Legion of Merit (with two oak leaf clusters) and the Defense Superior Service Medal. 8 | MTI 21.7

Brigadier General William E. Cole

Program Executive Officer for Simulation, Training and Instrumentation (PEO STRI) U.S. Army Q: You’ve been responsible for the PEO Charter for about six months now. What are your goals and priorities? A: It is certainly a major highlight of my career to be entrusted with leading such a storied organization that helps ensure we have the best trained fighting force in the world. Our goals and priorities at PEO STRI mirror that of the Army Chief of Staff who has stated that “Readiness to fight and win in ground combat is, and will remain, the United States Army’s number one priority and there will be no other number one.” He added that increasing the quality of home-station training and providing much-needed realistic training at combat training centers is crucial in meeting that readiness goal. Moving forward on that commitment, we will continue to work closely with our triad partners, the Training and Doctrine Command’s Combined Arms Center – Training and the Department of the Army Military Operations – Training, part of the Army headquarters staff, to ensure our

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Q&A soldiers have the high-fidelity, realistic training and testing products needed to ensure they are second to none on the battlefield. PEO STRI’s priorities in that objective are to raise Army readiness, optimize soldier performance, sustain and modernize training support systems for the future Army and transforming for the future. Q: What are your thoughts on efforts you can undertake to have an impact on the acquisition process that would benefit the Army and industry in quickly fielding those needed training assets? A: When I first assumed the PEO STRI charter, I shared with industry that In fulfilling our mission to develop, acquire and sustain simulation, training, testing and modeling solutions to achieve Army readiness, I am committed to the following four guiding principles: •

• •

• • • •

(1) Satisfy the Army’s readiness needs in terms of cost, quality and timeliness of the delivered product or service by, for example – (i) Maximizing the use of commercial products and services, (ii) Using contractors who have a track record of successful past performance or who demonstrate a current superior ability to perform and (iii) Promoting competition (2) Minimize administrative operating costs (3) Conduct business with integrity, fairness and openness; and (4) Fulfill public policy objectives.

Q: Can you share with our readers some specific areas you are working on to enhance training solutions within the PEO STRI portfolio? A: Absolutely. With the Army faced with both a limited training budget and limited training land at our home stations, enhancing the live, virtual and constructive integrated architecture (LVC-IA) is a major focus. As well, medical simulation and cyber training are major areas of concentration for technology innovations in the complex challenges we face moving forward. Q: What, specifically, are you looking at doing in the future in the area of LVC-IA? A: We are working closely with our Army partners, academia and the modeling and simulation industry to take LVC to the next level to achieve the breakthrough technology to meet future needs. Our desire is to make the training environment more realistic by simulating the environmental attributes in which our Soldiers will be fighting. 10 | MTI 21.7

Q&A We see opportunities for the training environment on the horizon to provide, among others, a potential convergence of virtual, gaming and constructive environments with augmented reality into a single synthetic environment to link with live training. This will increase the realism of live training and reduce dependency on brick-and-mortar training sites. We also envision providing an accessible, low-overhead capability worldwide at home stations, combat training centers and locations where units are deployed, allowing the training to be provided at the point of need. Q: Medical training has always been a very high priority for the Army. What modeling and simulation technology are you looking at in this area? A: One recent advancement in the medical modeling and simulation field is the Tactical Combat Casualty Care-Exportable, called the TC3X, which is a capability soldiers can use at home stations and also deploy with. TC3X combines live and virtual training to prepare soldiers to quickly and correctly treat wounded soldiers. The three-day training will include soldiers practicing applying tourniquets and other life-saving procedures on mannequins that simulate battlefield wounds; training on a video game designed to improve their skills recognizing wounds and treating them in simulated combat conditions to increase the tension soldiers feel on the battlefield; and a field exercise where they will treat soldiers and civilians while maintaining the fight. The TC3X is expected to reach thousands of soldiers each year, with forward deployed units expected to begin training in the first quarter of 2017.

Q: You said another priority is cyber training. What steps are you taking to enhance that training? A: The Army was recently tasked by the Department of Defense to be the lead for the joint services to develop the persistent cyber training environment, or PCTE, and PEO STRI will play a large part in the development of the training program. The PCTE allows cyber mission forces to train in emulated network environments using current cyber tool suites. PCTE will support both individual certification and team training in addition to large-scale exercises and experimentation. In October, a request for information was issued requesting white papers for possible technical solutions, capabilities and critical cost and schedule drivers related to the PCTE. Last month the Association for Enterprise Information (AFEI) hosted a PCTE Industry Day at PEO STRI. It included participation from the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition, Logistics and Technology (ASA(ALT)), Army Cyber Command and Second Army, U.S. Cyber Command and interested industry and academia partners. Q: Any final thoughts? A: Our Army faces a multitude of challenges presented by an ongoing austere fiscal environment coupled with unknown readiness requirements brought about by an ever-changing dangerous and complex world. At PEO STRI, we stand ready with our Army partners, other government agencies, academia and industry to ensure we meet those challenges. At PEO STRI “we work for our soldiers. It’s the best job we’ve ever had!” 

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International Vector An Exclusive Military Training International Q&A with

Colonel Karyn M. Thompson Commander Training and Doctrine Command New Zealand

Q: With just a few months as commander, tell me about the focus and direction you are planning during your tenure here. Have you given the command staff your commander’s guidance, as to your expectations and goals? Thompson: Having been in the role for six weeks, my immediate focus is building on the work done by my predecessors to ensure that Training and Doctrine Command (New Zealand) (TRADOC (NZ)) is positioned to deliver NZ Army 2020 Enhanced Combat Capability initiatives and directives, and is postured to enable the Army’s growth in capability and capacity. It is also of vital importance to me that TRADOC (NZ) units operate from fit-for-purpose infrastructure, delivering relevant, challenging and professional training and education. This will ensure that our force elements, including TRADOC (NZ) personnel, are trained, prepared and certified to deploy and win on operations, and are ready to support domestic outputs. A real focus for me, into the future, is to continue to develop our instructor excellence model. This sees us implementing initiatives to improve, recognize and reward instructor quality. In terms of my commander’s guidance, it is firmly based around three key tenets: Mission First, Safety Always; Instructor Excellence; and the Army’s core values: Courage, Commitment, Comradeship and Integrity (known as C3I). Underpinning all this is the embedding at all levels within TRADOC (NZ), for staff and students alike, of the NZ Army’s binding culture of Ngati Tumatauenga (Tribe of the God of war). This blends the customs and traditions of both our major cultures, the European and the Māori, to create something that is not only unique but is also relevant to future demands, and unites us together by the ethic of service, by military professionalism, and by common values, traditions and purpose. My command staff is fully aware of these and we will work together to ensure that they are delivered. Q: Is TRADOC (NZ) optimally organized to meet the training requirements of New Zealand land forces in today’s evolving battlespace? Thompson: Currently the organization of TRADOC (NZ) is quite well matched to the requirements of the NZ Army and NZDF for training its land forces in 12 | MTI 21.7

terms of the structure and types of training units, along with their outputs. The TRADOC (NZ) purpose is three-fold: to deliver individual warfighter skills and leadership training to the NZ Army; to deliver individual and force element mission preparedness and certification, and to deliver ready and engaged Army Reserve Forces (Territorial Forces) to meet operational and domestic outputs. As such, our organization is based around a headquarters and four training delivery units. Two of these are based here in Waiouru: the Army Command School (ACS) and The Army Depot (TAD); the Land Operations Training Centre (LOTC) and the NZ Collective Training Centre (NZ CTC) are located in Hokowhitu and Linton respectively. All of these units have schools or training wings located across the other major Army camps and bases. Therefore, our biggest challenge is not in fact the number of units or what they deliver, but is the breadth and spread of our units across New Zealand. If you include the three Reserve Force infantry battalions we have representation across the whole of both the North and South Islands, from Whangarei in the north to Invercargill in the far south. This makes administration and command interesting at times. Additionally, as a comparatively small Defence Force, we are also looking at how we can achieve better synergies for training within the joint environment, particularly how we can conduct common training with other services whilst maintaining the necessary land force aspects required within the single service environment. Q: So exactly what individual training do these organizations deliver? Thompson: The Leadership Development Framework (NZDF) is the foundation for all of our training in the NZ Army. The ACS, based in Waiouru, delivers Army officer ab initio training, individual soldier promotional courses and leadership-specific training, and consists of three sub units. First, there is the Officer Cadet School (NZ), which is responsible for the training of selected personnel to develop their leadership, character and education, in order to motivate and prepare them for commissioned service in New Zealand’s Army. This has proven to provide a well-balanced junior leader who is taught and developed within our leadership framework using the section and platoon infantry environment as the mechanism to learn leadership.


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Second, the Non-Commissioned Officer (NCO) Wing: this sub-unit’s role is to impart the knowledge, skills and values required of a Regular or Reserve Force soldier, and to provide individual leadership development. It comprises two and three regional training wings based in Linton and Burnham, the Army Reserve Junior NCO Wing in Linton, the Senior NCO Wing and the Warrant Officer Wing. The NCO School is staffed entirely by SNCOs and WOs as part of a recent initiative that sees soldiers responsible for training soldiers in leadership and command. The final sub-unit is the Army Leadership Centre (ALC) which complements the OCS and the NCO School by conducting residential workshops and experiential leadership development activities, targeting and challenging factors like “leadership techniques” and “resilience” whether mental or physical. The ALC works with OCS and the NCO School in providing “leadership development” techniques and “developmental factors” identified and aligned to rank. Also based in Waiouru, TAD is responsible for the delivery of recruit induction training courses for Regular and Army Reserve Force soldiers. It consists of one Reserve and two Regular Force recruit training companies, which run four Regular Force all arms recruit courses and one Reserve Force recruit course each year. The Army Instructor Excellence Program was launched through TAD and is to be rolled out across all of our units and schools in the next few years. Initial trade specific (Corps) to advanced individual training courses for the NZ Army is delivered by LOTC. Its role is to generate competent and confident personnel, trained in classical and contemporary operation competencies as part of the training continuum in a joint environment in order to generate individual and combined arm force elements for joint interagency multinational operations. It consists of 10 schools that deliver command and control, combat, combat support and combat service support training. There is a mixture of

military and civilian instructors across the schools and they are located in Hokowhitu, Linton and Trentham. NZ CTC, collocated with 1 (NZ) Brigade in Linton, is focused on the delivery of mission specific training (MST) and readiness certification. It comprises of three wings that deliver force protection, conduct after capture and peacekeeping training and accreditation. This training is primarily for NZDF force elements who are to operate in the land environment and is assessed against directed joint mission essential tasks for that theatre of operations. The endstate is an individual or a force element that is trained to the required operational level of capability. Within the next 12 months we will also be establishing our Mission Command Training School (MCTS)—the former Army Simulation Centre, as a standalone unit, also in Linton. It is currently part of the LOTC, and its revised role will be to enable and deliver multi-level simulated mission command training and support as well as contribute to analysis, experimentation and evaluation in order to enhance the operational outputs of the NZ Army in support of the Network Enabled Army program. This will see the NZ Army improve not only in terms of hardware related to the program, but also benefit by improved C2 through more efficient processes and procedures, enhanced situational awareness and ultimately better and more timely decision-making. This will occur during both the introduction into service and once the capabilities reach steady-state. Ideally, digitization of systems such as tactical engagement simulators will allow better after action reviews for tactical training, as well as allow such training to be incorporated simultaneously, or replayed later, as a component of higher level training activities such as command post exercises. With such linkages across multiple simulation systems there is scope for a variety of synergies to be achieved from a single training event. We are also looking to extend and expand the role of the Adaptive Warfighting Centre, which generates and maintains the NZ Army knowledge edge in order to support the development of an adaptive and learning culture in the NZ Army. This may see it integrated into the new MCTS structure. Q: Do you think the training matches what the missions are and how do you see that evolving?

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Thompson: Overall yes, I do see the organizational structure meeting our current and immediate training requirements. TRADOC (NZ) conducts a variety of training across the spectrum from ab initio training of soldiers and officers, through trade/function-specific individual training, and then collective predeployment training of force elements about to deploy on missions. As such, within the ab initio training the focus remains on those essential fundamental skills for all soldiers and officers across the spectrum of tasks. Within the trade/function-specific individual training, the focus again remains necessarily broad, but has evolved in recent years to ensure that there are more contemporary elements included. Within the collective pre-deployment training space the training is understandably focused on the mission, environment and tasks that the deploying force elements are preparing for. To achieve this, TRADOC (NZ) must deliver training outputs now to support Enhanced Combat Capability 2015 – 2020, with an eye on setting conditions for the future state of integrated Defence Force 2020–2035. Therefore, our instructional elements must deliver relevant, challenging and professional training and education that supports current and future land warfare within the Joint environment. Our philosophy therefore is quite simple: • We teach doctrine not unit best practice • We “Train In”, not “Select Out” • When in doubt, we focus on foundation warfighting skills: move, shoot, communicate, medicate, trade and lead • We mentor, coach, lead, instruct our comrades


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As such we are constantly reviewing our individual training delivery options, against both our sister services and allies, to identify improvement options and we are currently key stakeholders in a number of training review projects being undertaken by the NZDF. This will ensure that force elements trained by TRADOC (NZ) are prepared and certified ready to deploy and win on operations. Q: We understand that TRADOC (NZ) runs a “resilience” training program for soldiers. Can you provide some more details around this? Thompson: Yes, TAD runs a program called Aumangea. Aumangea is a Māori word that describes the qualities of bravery, determination and resilience. The philosophy of Aumangea is very simple. It provides an environment that enables volunteers to push themselves beyond anything that they may have experienced before and is open to volunteers from all three services and also to international students. The program delivers two 33-day courses. The first is a baseline course that is designed to extend the students’ imagination, innovativeness and resourcefulness by forcing them to achieve what they thought were impossible goals, and to survive. The second course is only open to personnel who have attended and passed the baseline course. It takes those principles and pushes the environmental challenges even further. In short, it is designed to inculcate the spirit and belief in an individual that they will win regardless of the environment. Q: How do you interact with your other service counterparts (Air Force and Navy) for collaborative training opportunities? Do you think you could work more closely together to find ways to improve training and reduce the cost of training? Thompson: In the individual training environment, the main engagement forum across the three services in relation to individual training is the Training and Education Leadership Team (TELT). This consists of myself, my Navy and Air Force counterparts and the commandant of the New Zealand Defence College (NZDC). The focus of the TELT is upon the strategic direction of NZDF train-

ing and education and the evolution of the Professional Military Framework. It acts as the executive committee to arbitrate on unresolved training and education matters for subordinate forums, such as the Army Training Review Board. As already mentioned, we are all part of a number of training review projects being undertaken by the NZDF; one of which is focused on individual training and education system improvement through partnering and learning consolidation across the three services. At a formation and unit level, as well as through the NZDC, we are continuing to look at ways that common training can be achieved; for example, through joint officer induction courses or—within TRADOC (NZ)—the Trade Training School at LOTC providing training to RNZN or RNZAF armorers as the subject matter experts in common small arms weapon systems. Additionally, if joint capabilities are required, such as the use of aircraft for aerial dispatch training, delivery is coordinated between the training establishment and the capability holder to try to achieve best effect training benefits for all participants. Wider collaborative collective training is usually coordinated through HQ Joint Forces New Zealand. Q: Similarly, how would you characterize the level of cooperation and collaboration with land forces training elements of regional and global allies? Thompson: We have a very strong regional and global training relationship. Currently we have a number of international students attending courses at the ACS, both ab initio officer training with students from Australia, Timor Leste, Fiji, Tonga, Singapore and Papua New Guinea, and on the promotion and leadership courses. We also have our own officer cadets attending the Australian and Singaporean Officer Cadet academies. We regularly send training teams to the Pacific nations and also to Papua New Guinea and Timor Leste. There are also a number of instructor exchange programs that we run across all our units. In terms of international co-operation and collaboration, we have a number of NZ Army students attending courses in Australia, the UK, Canada and the U.S. We see this cross-pollination of ideas, both from students and staff, as an important aspect of the ongoing development of training and wider New

About Colonel Karyn Marie Thompson... Colonel Karyn Marie Thompson grew up on a farm near Palmerston North in the Manawatu region and was educated at Palmerston North Girls’ High School, where she was Head Prefect in her final year. Thompson enlisted into the New Zealand Army in January 1989 and underwent officer training at the Officer Cadet School, Waiouru. She graduated in December 1989 into the Royal New Zealand Corps of Signals as a second lieutenant. After graduation she received junior officer regimental training. In 1991 she was posted to 1st Brigade Headquarters Signal Squadron, Papakura, as the radio troop commander. She was promoted to lieutenant in December 1991 and in December 1992 she was posted to the Force Support Group Signal Squadron, Linton Camp, as the radio troop commander. In June 1993, 2 Signal Squadron was established and Thompson assumed the appoint16 | MTI 21.7

ment of troop commander communications and information systems (CIS) troop. She also held the appointment of administration officer. In 1994 Thompson was posted to the Army Combat Centre, Waiouru, as the adjutant. She deployed on her first operational tour, with the New Zealand Contingent Multinational Force and Observers in Sinai as staff officer operations for seven months from October 1994. On her return to New Zealand she was appointed accounting officer, The Army Depot, and was then posted as adjutant of Headquarters Military Studies Institute, Waiouru. She was promoted to Captain in December 1995. In September 1996 she returned to Linton Camp as operations officer and then acting officer commanding 2 Signal Squadron during 1998. In 1999 Colonel Thompson was posted to Headquarters 2nd Land Force Group as the intelligence officer (S2). During this posting she took part in Exercise Long Look 1999 and deployed to

SFOR in the former Yugoslavia as an intelligence officer. She then deployed to East Timor in October 1999 for eight months. She was employed initially in the Coalition Intelligence Branch, HQ International Force East Timor, then as the S2 in Headquarters Dili Command. When the mission transitioned to the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor Thompson was employed as the Staff Officer Military Information Cell, Headquarters Sector West, Suai. Thompson was promoted to major in December 2000. For the first four months of 2001, she was employed as both the S2 and the public relations officer in Headquarters 2nd Land Force Group, Linton Camp. In May 2001 she also served as acting officer commanding 2 Signal Squadron. In December 2001 Thompson was posted as the officer commanding 2 Signal Squadron, an appointment she held until December 2003. In 2004 Thompson attended New Zealand Defence Force Command and Staff College,

Zealand relationships. Again, similar to wider collaborative collective training amongst the services, such training with allies is usually coordinated through HQ Joint Forces New Zealand; TRADOC (NZ) personnel are often involved in these activities in a variety of roles. Q: What are the training obligations and standards for the Army Reserve? Thompson: The basic level of capability requirements for all the Army Reserve are to be completed within a one- or two-year training cycle and are directed by land component commander recommendation. Reserves are deemed to be “effective” if they meet the compliance and training requirements set by their COs for the training year. Effectiveness is certified by an individual’s CO. In broad terms, effectiveness is achieved by qualifying on the annual weapons qualification and passing the required fitness level test. They must also be classed as having delivered efficient service, which is a minimum of 20 days’ service per training year. Specific trade competency requirements for specialist personnel are directed by the Regular Force parent unit they are attached to. Q: In looking over the New Zealand Ministry of Defence major acquisition programs, there were none that relate directly to Army training. Is TRADOC (NZ) currently managing any significant acquisition programs? Are there any requirements you have for training systems or devices, including new or upgrades, which you are advocating for? Thompson: You are quite correct in the fact that there are currently no major acquisition programs that directly focus on Army individual training. However, we are heavily involved in all aspects of land, and in some instances maritime and air capability acquisition and introduction into service. This is because individual training requirements cut across all of the NZDF’s fundamental inputs to capability: personnel, research and development, infrastructure and organization, concepts, doctrine and col-

and graduated as Dux of the course. She was then posted to Headquarters Joint Forces New Zealand where she was employed as the CIS operations officer (J63), the CIS land plans officer (J65L) and the CIS plans officer (J65). In September 2006, on promotion to lieutenant colonel, she assumed the role as Staff Officer Grade One Command and Control, Communications, Computers and Electronic Warfare Capability Management Cell, Army General Staff, and also became regimental colonel of the Royal New Zealand Corps of Signals. In December 2008, Thompson was appointed commandant Officer Cadet School (NZ), Waiouru. In December 2010, she was posted to Army General Staff, Trentham as the staff officer grade one Military Career Management. In July 2012, she was posted to Headquarters NZDF as the program principal for the newly established Institute for Leader Development. In November 2012 she was appointed as the director of the

lective training, information and equipment, logistics and resources. For example, with the introduction of medium and heavy operational vehicles we have procured vehicle fault simulators that allow our mechanics to be trained in fault diagnosis across a variety of scenarios without having to take an operational vehicle offline, and we can rapidly change between scenarios.

Institute for Leader Development, reporting to the New Zealand Defence College. In December 2013, Thompson was promoted to her present rank and posted into the role of Manager Human Resource Strategic Programmes, Defence Personnel Executive, which included the appointment of Chief Human Resource Officer (Army). She chaired the NZ Defence Force Women’s Development Steering Group and was a member of the Expert Advisory Group for the Ministry of Defence Review into Maximising Opportunities for Military Women in the NZDF in 2013. Colonel Thompson took up her appointment as commander TRADOC (NZ) on 19 September 2016. In November 2015 Thompson won the Diversity category of the New Zealand Women of Influence Awards for her work as one of the most senior military women in the NZDF, consistently advocating for diversity and inspiring women to enter a career in the military. The judges recognised that in such a male dominated

environment, her work has been instrumental in breaking down barriers and creating positive change for women. She was also a finalist in the Board and Management category. Thompson holds a Bachelor of Arts (History) from the University of New England (1999) and in 2005 she was awarded a Postgraduate Diploma in Arts (Defence and Strategic Studies) with a Distinguished Pass from Massey University. She was awarded a Master of Management (Management) from Massey University in November 2011. She has been a member of the Institute of Directors in New Zealand and is an Executive Member of the Army Leadership Board and the New Zealand Veterans Advisory Board. In June 1994, Colonel Thompson was awarded the Chief of General Staff’s Commendation for resuscitating a drowned child. In the post of commander TRADOC she is the first female commander of a formation in the New Zealand Army. MTI 21.7 | 17

We are looking to further upgrades of our infrastructure to support training; in terms of matching new capabilities, growing the Army and our overall reinvestment in the defense estate. This will see both specialist infrastructure—such as fit-for-purpose workshop or range facilities—as well as general infrastructure, for example, new, expanded or upgraded multi-use training venues. Where possible the NZDF is trying to ensure that appropriate resources for training are incorporated into capability projects. Therefore we must be part of the acquisition process at the earliest possible stage to ensure that we provide both subject matter input into these requirements and are also preparing ourselves to deliver the training to support their introduction and through life service. In regards to requirements for system upgrades, currently we are looking principally at areas around weapon training systems within the sim environment. Our current focus is on sniper/support weapons trainer upgrades using VBS3-based products. Q: To what extent are you, or planning to, make use of live, virtual, constructive training capabilities? Thompson: Traditionally, much of the training within the NZDF was conducted through live-training capabilities, with limited virtual or constructive capabilities. During recent years, and as virtual and constructive systems have improved, there has been an increase in their uptake across training in the NZDF. MCTS makes extensive use of live, virtual and constructive simulation technologies to enable command and control procedural training across the whole Army, in both the collective and individual training space, for a wide range of ranks, specialties and functional areas. Central to this effort is the use of Masa’s Sword constructive simulation to stimulate the central piece of the

Army’s battle management system: Systematic’s SitaWareHQ. MCTS also supports small-team tactics, techniques and procedures training using Bohemia Interactive Simulations’ VBS3 virtual simulation products. MCTS will be the unit for the delivery of Army’s replacement Saab Tactical Engagement Simulation system from next year. Delivering this has also required us to cultivate a diverse range of skills not only in technology, but in adult learning and teaching, e-learning, and m-learning; training governance; and geospatial support. In the current live space we are looking towards a tactical engagement simulators fleet upgrade in June 2017, with 450 soldier sets being purchased, along with individual weapon, support weapons, grenades, improvised explosive devices and rocket propelled grenades, B vehicles and bunker protection, which will open up new areas in which to train. The new equipment will also interact with the current SART fleet of targets. In the virtual domain we have a 12-lane weapon training simulation system (WTS) at Waiouru and two mobile systems (MWTS), one at each of our main land operational camps: Linton in the North Island and Burnham in the South Island. We also have JTAC/FOT trainers, a sniper/support weapon trainer, including the upgrade of the Waiouru WTS and the building of WTS facilities in Linton and Burnham. We are also investigating the use of VBS software, where possible, to allow the capabilities to be linked. As for our future intentions, we are looking at augmented reality (AR) options as part of our future sim strategy. As part of these assessments, we have concluded that the current refresh of WMTF and the purchase of the LMC and BMC WTS will probably be the last time we invest in expensive hardware, as within 10 years AR technology will have matured enough so that AR is available and built into user’s ballistic glasses. This will allow the introduction of virtual targets to be displayed within the user’s eye wear, enabling training to occur anywhere and at minimal cost. 

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The U.S. Air Force plans to reduce airman training unrelated to their primary mission and job function.

By Technical Sergeant Robert Barnett

was right, but as the lists of requirements increased, our airmen spent On October 31, the Air Force announced plans to reduce training not more time away from their core duties.” related to airmen’s primary jobs in order to address concerns that excesReducing ancillary training, according to Air Force leadership, is not sive and non-mission related demands are impacting airmen’s ability to intended to reduce emphasis on the need to have wellfocus on and accomplish their core duties. trained and educated airmen. Instead, the effort is specifiAs part of ongoing efforts to take care of airmen cally designed to give the Air Force greater flexibility in and revitalize squadrons, Air Force leadership recently how it meets and implements these requirements. directed the “Airmen’s Time” task force to review 42 ancil“Our airmen are certainly busy, and that dynamic will lary training courses (i.e., training outside of an airman’s likely not decrease in the foreseeable future. We undercore job). Functional training requirements were not part stand that dynamic, and we’re willing to accept some of this review. risk where we can to better balance our airmen’s time,” According to the official memorandum, of those 42 said Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force James A. Cody. courses, the Air Force will eliminate 15 stand-alone train“Computer-based training impacts our airmen’s time, so ing courses and streamline 16 courses reducing associwe’re looking at what we can eliminate, consolidate or ated training time. substantially relax to cut the demand.” In a recent survey, airmen identified 10 courses as the Air Force Chief of Staff The Air Force believes the initiative will benefit the most burdensome. The service will eliminate or signifiGeneral David L. Goldfein total force by not only allowing active-duty airmen more cantly reduce nine of them as part of this initiative. Air Force leaders emphasized that while this is another positive step following the recent announcement eliminating some additional duties, more work remains. “We’ve taken some modest steps to ensure we use our airmen’s time in the smartest way, but this is a journey,” said Air Force Chief of Staff General David L. Goldfein. “We’ll continue to be deliberate about what we cut or streamline, but more is required as we continue to focus our efforts on the business of warfighting, respecting our airmen’s time, and still meeting the necessary requirements to take care of our mission and our force.” The courses reviewed include total force awareness training, which is required of all airmen on an annual basis; selected force training, which is targeted to specific groups, including commanders, civilians and supervisors; event-driven training, which is triggered by some event, such as moving to a new assignment or duty station; and basic airman readiness training, which is expeditionaryfocused training required of all airmen every three years. While each of these training modules provide important information, the review found that many of the requirements duplicated information already provided in other trainings. These reductions will, in many cases, eliminate redundant requirements across the service. “This initiative represents the next step in giving time back to our airmen,” said Air Force Secretary Deborah Lee James. “All these training requirements were created to provide valuable information to our airmen. The intent

Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force James A. Cody

Air Force Secretary Deborah Lee James

time to focus on their core mission but also giving Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve airmen more time to focus on honing their core skill sets during drill, unit training assembly and annual tour periods. The initiative builds upon a similar effort from the Guard in 2015. “Our airmen have repeatedly stepped up to increased deployment tempos and manpower shortages,” Goldfein said. “Reducing the number of hours our airmen spend on non-critical training requirements goes directly to the heart of secretary James’s priority of taking care of airmen and our efforts to revitalize the squadron and is another small step in the right direction. Squadrons are the engines of innovation and esprit de corps and the warfighting core of our Air Force, and today, we are giving back time so our airmen can better focus on their core mission.” Changes will be implemented between January and April 2017; however, airmen are no longer required to complete the courses set for elimination. To ensure the revisions are implemented in a timely manner, all applicable Air Force instructions will be updated to reflect these changes no later than January 1, 2017, and the Advanced Distributed Learning Service will be updated no later than April 1, 2017. Headquarters Air Force will also establish a screening process to review new policies in order to identify areas that create additional duties or training requirements for airmen in units. The goal is to prevent unchecked growth of these functions in the future.  MTI 21.7 | 19

By Dr. Alix Valenti

In their book “The ultimate battleground: fighting and winning in the city” (L’ultime champ de bataille: combattre et vaincre en ville), authors Frédérique Chamaud and Pierre Santoni put significant emphasis on the importance of joint forces combat in a battleground that is fast changing. No longer confined to vast spaces, the 21st century main battleground is the city, which complex fabric has turned distinguishing friend from foe, civilian from combatant, into a particularly challenging task. In this context, joint forces combat not only facilitates coordination between forces on the ground and air support, but also contributes to limiting casualties. The preparation required for this new battleground therefore demands that the forces train in an environment that reproduces these complexities in a way that is as close to the reality as possible. However, “conducting live training is expensive,” said W. Garth Smith, President and co-founder of MetaVR, thus putting significant pressure on companies developing desktop training (DTT) solutions to offer products that allow to cut costs without losing training quality.

Perfect Blend “As budgets tightened and the need for more close air support/joint fires simulated training continues to grow, the need for near replication of a real-world close air support training environment also increases such that the transition from the virtual environment to real world training range or theatre/area of conflict is not jarring and disorienting,” Smith continued. To this end, the companies that provide armed forces with their training equipment work closely with their customers to provide DTT solutions that carefully balance hardware and software. For James Ohlman, technical program manager at Pinnacle Solutions, a company delivering training products on aviation mission equipment, “that means that we involve our customers at every possible opportunity to demonstrate progress and get feedback on the product [because] if a student becomes quickly frustrated when using a training system then their focus becomes that frustration, rather than the learning objectives of the system,” said Ohlman. Pinnacle Solutions offers a wide range of products to the armed forces, from a traditional interactive multimedia instruction (IMI)-based desktop training to a hybrid hardware/software solution that allows students to both manipulate physical components, in order to familiarize themselves with the tools, and perform maintenance tasks in a virtual environment. This also includes integrating 20 | MTI 21.7

Air Combat Environment (MACE) software, on the touchscreens to the system, which have become other hand, allows the instructor to control all highly popular for their low cost and high interacconstructive entities (including attacking aircraft tion ratio. and artillery) as well as ground entities and MetaVR has also been working with its threats. “MetaVR also provides a Combined Arms customers since 2009, when it started developVirtual Environment (CAVE) training dome and ing a Virtual Reality Scene Generator (VRSG) to desktop systems for the simulation portion of complement the U.S Air National Guard JTACs’ the JTAC qualification course at the Naval Strike own desktop-based close air support training. and Air Warfare Center,” Smith continued. This was then further developed, in collaboration In order to bridge the gap between the with Battlespace Simulations (BSI), to provide a training environment and the real world training JTAC simulation system for the Air Force Special range or theatre of conflict, “military hardware Operations Command, Air Combat Command and and battle management systems that are used Air Support Operation Squadron. “The features in the field during battles can of the subsequent MetaVR/Batbe simulated with both live and tlespace Simulations’ (BSI) JTAC virtual data,” said Pete Morrison, desktop simulator are based on Bohemia Interactive Simulations numerous interviews with JTAC (BISim) co-CEO. This is what trainers,” Smith said. BISim achieved by, for instance, In terms of hardware, integrating the Advanced Field MetaVR/BSI JTAC desktop Artillery Tactical Data System simulators include an instruc(AFATDS) for the U.S Marine tor operator station, a pilot/role Corps to the company’s Virtual player station, and JTAC trainee Battlespace 3 (VBS3): “equipstations, which are all equipped ment used in the field for real with two software. MetaVR’s conflicts can be connected to VRSG provides the out-thePete Morrison virtual training systems that window views, views from a enable trainees to practice on monocular/binocular used for actual equipment in a simulated battle exercise,” later range finding as well as target designation Morrison continued. complete with a simulated laser range finder, VBS3 functions as a game engine, with and a full motion video ROVER-type sensor feed desktop computers running the latest gamefor external targeting information. BSI’s Modern

based software that facilitates tactical training and mission rehearsal. Using VBS Gateway, VBS3 can connect multiple simulation clients together via its HLA/DIS/CIGI connectivity, as well as offer trainees live loading, user-friendly configuration capabilities, a real-time user interface and performance enhancement. The VBS radio, on the other hand, enables radio and direct voice communications between users in VBS3 training exercises. Amongst its key features, VBS radio includes a wide range of channels, 3D directional voice capability, automatic access to vehicle intercom systems and squad radio net, and the use of an audio tone played when users transmit on channels.

Virtual Reality “Close air support simulation training exercises require vast geospecific terrain with a high degree of realism at both very high altitude down to the ground level, and the ability for the IG to handle terrain and present it accurately from air to ground, with believable detailed ground level activity,� said Smith. Indeed, as armed forces prepare for missions that take place in increasingly complex environments, there is a need to ensure that DTT solutions offer not only the highest qual-

The preparation required for new battlegrounds demand that the forces train in an environment that reproduces the complexities in a way that is as close to the reality as possible. MetaVR photo

ity in terms of image generation (IG), but also that the images and scenarios available in the training package come as close to the reality as possible. The VRSG running on the MetaVR/BSI desktop JTAC simulator provides real-time 60 Hz visuals for scenes displayed on desktop monitors or project-

ed on large wall-mounted screens or immersive domes, HD streaming video of simulated sensor feed from a UAV or other air asset, and simulated military equipment, such as laser range finder and target designator devices. A significant amount of work goes into the development of the scenes,

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in particular, because “a credible JTAC simulation includes both manned aircraft and UAVs, operating at distances and altitudes where earth curvature is a factor in accurate line-of-sight calculations,” according to Smith. As such, MetaVR’s model library currently includes over 6,600 models of high-resolution, round-earth 3D geospecific terrain and 3D models. BISim’s VBS3 has a database of terrains stretching for thousands of kilometers in size, which can be used as a basis for developers and trainers to develop situations for training troops for larger maneuvers. The collection of high-fidelity environments is developed by TerraSim, a BISim company, using a variety of input cartographic data and imagery, and is offered as a TerraTools 5 package, which includes destructible buildings, bridges and tunnels. Additionally, VBS3 was also conceived to reduce memory consumption, often one of the main reasons behind slow running software, through the use of on-the-fly procedural generation for the generation of its scenes’ biotopes, which include elements such as grouping of trees, rocks and bodies of water. “Terrain features are created by the engine as they are needed rather than storing billions of objects with other terrain data,” according to the company.

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Large equipment and terrain databases allows the fast creation of operationally specific simulation. Bohemia Interactive Simulations’ photo

Pinnacle Solutions uses the Unity3D engine for the development of its virtual environments. Unity3D engine works with a revenue sharing model much more appropriate to the unique customer-driven development of Pinnacle Solutions’ DTTs, in that it is easy to learn and therefore facilitates the task of finding developers that can work with it. The content of the virtual training tools has continued to improve and evolve over the last few years, not only because it can render increasingly higher-fidelity content, but also because Pinnacle Solutions spends “a lot of time on the modeling and animation of aircraft components to be sure that the virtual environment is accurate and immersive for the students,” said Ohlman.

Interoperability “As the networking services expand and become more modular, the demands of the simulation may exceed the computing resources that are available locally,” Morrison indicated, thus “the logical next step is scaling past those limitations and take advantage of cloud computing infrastructure.” Networking is not only key in facilitating storage and, therefore, training at a distance if needed; it is also an increasingly fundamental tool for facilitating training amongst different entities based in different places. For instance, the VBS Gateway for VBS3, which allows HLA/DIS and CIGI connectivity, automatically connects to other VBS Gateway clients out of the box with no configuration changes. It also allows customer freedom to move between DIS/HLA and to join different exercises and federations while in the middle of a scenario and without having to leave the mission. “VBS3 can

now be deployed in a cloud environment using virtual desktops with NVIDIA GRID, and all of the new technology being developed by BISim is cloud-enabled,” Morrison concluded. Similarly, MetaVR’s VRSG uses the DIS protocol to enable the customer to run exercises with up to 100,000 entities while maintaining real-time performance. “It is interoperable with commonly used semi-automated forces (SAF) and other DIS-compliant applications by rendering entities three-dimensionally and providing positional feedback information and user control visually on the 2D display” the company said. Pinnacle Solutions, on the other hand, has so far not developed cloud-based versions of its DTT solutions for the armed forces. “Our Department of Defense customers still want to host all their content locally,” said Ohlman, although he expects this mentality “to change over the next few years as cloud-based computing continues to be adopted by the government.”

Military added value Already in 2008, a paper published for the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC), ‘Games – Just how serious are they?’ presented some strong evidence that serious game technology, on which much of the graphic technology used for the virtual reality of DTTs is based, “is an effective means to meet a wide variety of tactical training requirements.” While there were some initial concerns that DTTs and their continuously improved virtual reality would eventually come to replace live training, the research indicated that, “[game technology needs] to be included as part of blended training solutions that can

effectively meet the psycho-motor and affective training requirements as well.” The Naval Education and Training Command (NETC), for instance, has fully embraced this new technology. Training is delivered through the Virtual Training System (VTS), a system which combines classic methodologies of individual, cooperative and collaborative learning with virtual reality to provide students with “a multitude of experiences or interactive immersive learning/ training modules on a variety of devices, such as desktops, tablets and smart phones,” said Lieutenant Commander Kate Meadows, NETC public affairs officer. The NETC also developed a Virtual Desktop Initiative (VDI), which facilitates the reconfiguration of classroom computers, and the Virtual School House (VSH), which includes a virtual classroom and a virtual laboratory. Cloud-based and desktop puts simulation training down much closer to the end user than ever before. Pinnacle A significant part of the appeal of the new Solutions photo generation of DTT solutions, is that is has evolved together with a new generation of service men and women who have grown up using this type of technology and, for the Virtual reality will remain key to armed forces training because, as latest generations entering the force, have also grown up using computers Meadows pointed out, initiatives such as the VSH have the ability to as a learning tool in the classroom. As such, it responds to a generational bring together “distributed students, instructors and training systems in change, as noted in “The U.S Army Learning Concept for 2015,” a U.S Army a shared virtual campus that simulates a physical campus, in terms of Training and Doctrine Command document published in January 2011 outlinusers’ freedom to interact with one another, while also having access to ing the doctrine the U.S Army will apply to train and educate its soldiers and a diversity of training methods.”  leaders: “The Army must challenge and inspire learners who have grown up in a digital world, are adept at using technology, demand relevance, and require feedback and support from peers and mentors.” For Pinnacle Solutions this is a key component of product development as they work to design virtual products “to use practices common in video games to leverage this familiarity with games and gaming to make [their] products relatable to the end-user,” said Ohlman. The new generation of DTT solutions also “allows for much more flexibility than a traditional classroom,” Ohlman continued. “Being able to instruct and then demonstrate or have students practice concepts can take learning from a theoretical exercise to practical instruction, which will promote positive habit transfer and lead to a better training outcome,” he concluded.

Looking Forward As the technology behind virtual reality continues to improve, the industry expects that some of the major developments regarding DTTs will focus on providing training solutions that accurately reflect the type of complexities of today’s battlefield. MetaVR, for instance, as if to echo the findings of Frédérique Chamaud and Pierre Santoniin in their book on war in the city space, has worked to develop high fidelity 3D virtual representations of a number of cities in Africa (Djibouti City, Nairobi, Kismayo, Cairo and Cape Town), Asia (Afghanistan and Baghdad) and Europe (such as Kiev, Sarajevo, Moscow and Amsterdam). To accompany these virtual realities, and continue to reduce cost while improving training, it will also become key to improve the hardware associated with the software. As Morrison indicated, “where today’s high-end simulators rely on large and expensive display environments using domes and collimated displays, emerging training systems will benefit from off-the-shelf head mounted displays (HMD) that are not only several orders of magnitude less expensive than current displays but also provide higher resolution, a smaller training footprint and high portability.”

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Making more realistic training more possible. By Henry Canaday, MTI Correspondent Live, virtual, constructive (LVC) training combines real trainees operating real systems with real trainees operating simulated systems and simulated soldiers operating simulated systems, the constructive C in LVC. The technique is new and still developing, but it offers major possibilities to greatly expand training realism, especially for large groups, affordably and practically. The Army’s Integrated Training Environment (ITE) can combine all or just elements of LVC to create realistic training in combined arms operations with the complexity of a combat training center event, said Colonel Jay Bullock, capability manager for ITE in Training and Doctrine Command. Connecting different LVC environments, ITE can conduct training repetitions in less time than live training. Multiple echelons can train simultaneously, achieving more proficiency before live training or deployment. Integrating combined arms and mission command into LVC enables more flexible, larger and robust training with less resources. The goal is cost-effective training. Brigade and division simulation officers help use mission training resources to ensure effective training. Constructive training focuses on battalion and above mission-command training. Simulated, constructive threats train soldiers for complex threats unavailable in live training. Although LVC will never completely replace live training, it yields more proficiency before live training. An upgraded version of the Army’s LVC Integrated Architecture (LVC-IA) is being delivered to home stations now. It will connect LVC-IA to Mission Command Information Systems on tactical networks, increasing the realism of LVC. Bullock said distributed training remains a challenge. “A more robust capability would allow geographically separated brigades or task forces to train together.” Cloud-based software should help reach that goal. Long term, the services want to develop a synthetic training environment that uses common data sources for a rapidly accessible training. STE architecture will comply with the military’s common operating environment, greatly reducing the need for an integration architecture for LVC. And it will increase training scope, for example in joint combined arms maneuver. STE will also provide greater realism, combining live and synthetic training. 24 | MTI 21.7

Bullock said using the cloud for LVC can deliver training at the point of need faster and easier. “In the future, STE will provide cloud-based training less reliant on physical facilities and devices to train at home stations, a combat training center or deployed.” The Air Force trains in three environments: live, synthetic with virtual and constructive environments and a blend of live and synthetic environments. Most operational training has been done live, but that is changing, especially for fifth-generation aircraft and future weapons so advanced that live training is not realistic, relevant or challenging. LVC is thus useful for air, space, cyberspace and nuclear training, said Air Force spokesperson Erika Yepsen. “Synthetic training enables greater repetition in a more robust environment that better approximates the full spectrum of combat environments, particularly contested environments.” Major exercises also benefit from blending live and synthetic training, which can meet coalition requirements to emulate realistic situations.

A 25th Infantry Division helicopter pilot files a simulated CH-47 at the Virtual Battlespace 3 Mission Training Complex at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii. U.S. Army photo

The Air Force is working to better integrate space and cyberspace routinely and securely. The service seeks to train command, control, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance airmen to required proficiency. It wants to provide training that replicates complex, multi-domain operations these airmen will encounter. Air Force commands develop training requirements, and trainers determine the best mix of live and synthetic environments, interchanges between weapons and investment priorities. Many Air Force training capabilities are classified at levels preventing full training with coalition partners. Rules like the International Traffic in Arms Regulations also hinder training with allies. LVC can create a scale of forces that could not otherwise be deployed. It can represent resources too complex or Migrating LVC training to the cloud would expensive to field for training. LVC also allows the consequences of actions or inactions to be simulated in ways not yield on-demand service, broad access, quick possible in purely live training. Cubic Corporation photo expansion, measured service and reduced cost and staff. The Air Force is migrating to the Joint present concepts, but is delivering a tactically deployable, expeditionary Information Environment and more cloud capabilities. solution, in the Micro SCOPIC program, to the British Army. VT MÄK offers a suite of commercial-off-the-shelf LVC training products Welde emphasized that Cubic LVC evolves from decades of air used by system integrators, experimental labs and military units, explained combat training experience in air combat maneuvering instrumentaMarketing Vice President Dan Brockway. “We focus on first-person virtual tion, including fifth-generation ACMI on the F-35 Lightning II, the P5 simulation, constructive, computer-generated forces simulation, simulation Internal Subsystem. “Cubic has excelled in integrating live players, range visualization and simulation networking interoperability,” Brockway said. infrastructures and datalinks,” Welde said. It is now working to inject VT MÄK’s primary customers are in aerospace and defense. synthetic elements in defense’s live environments to deliver LVC to VT MÄK focuses on the needs of system integrators, building flexibilwarfighters. ity into its products so they can be integrated into many configurations, One Cubic LVC capability is Synthetic Wrap, which uses game-based minimizing costs and enabling state-of-art technology for each program. technology and expeditionary Long-Term Evolution (LTE) networks to enBrockway said his firm’s pricing and support has proven effective for sure that individuals and teams can get especially difficult and complex system integrators. training. Synthetic Wrap can also train several levels of command at the VT MÄK takes a standards-based approach to advancing technolscales expected in operations. ogy. A couple years ago it added streaming terrain-server capability by Cubic is now under contract as system integrator with Air Force using commercial standards for on-line delivery of geospatial data. And Research Lab to demonstrate LVC for air combat, called SLATE ATD for it extended LVC simulation to web browsers not with a proprietary soluSecure LVC Advanced Training Environment Advanced Technology Demontion but by beginning the WebLVC standard process with the Simulation stration. SLATE ATD will use fourth-generation aircraft with ACMI modified Interoperability Standards Association. for multi-level encrypted LVC, for both tethered and untethered training. In October 2016, VT MÄK announced a new product, VR-Engage. This is a SLATE ATD aims to prove feasibility, operability and production multi-role virtual simulator that lets users play military roles such as vehicle capability for LVC subsystems. Cubic will demonstrate its LVC system at drivers, gunners or commanders or pilots of fixed- or rotary-wing aircraft. Technology Readiness Level 7 and evaluate it for training on the F-35. Brockway said LVC brings many advantages, for example using live Gales cited several LVC benefits. LVC can create a scale of forces vehicles on test ranges networked to simulators supported by constructhat could not otherwise be deployed. It can represent resources too tive simulations to fill in battlefields. “LVC lets trainers deliver training complex or expensive to field for training. LVC also allows the conseexperiences that would be too costly or too dangerous to conduct on a quences of actions or inactions to be simulated in ways not possible in routine basis. LVC allows more personnel to be trained for less cost.” purely live training. Welde said LVC ensures airborne warfighters have VT MÄK understands that many customers do not have access to the experience and confidence with live weapons in realistic scenarios. “LVC internet. It thus develops solutions, such as the VR-TheWorld streaming bolsters combat readiness and proficiency.” terrain server and WebLVC Suite, for closed or secure network environWelde said airborne LVC must do three things. It must link many ments. different entities into a synthetic environment for whole-force trainCubic Global Defense offers LVC for joint training in ground and air ing. It must be coherent across platforms to ensure proper actions and maneuver, explained Training Development Manager Andrew Gales. This inreactions so all training objectives can be achieved. And LVC must collect cludes joint fire, joint terminal air control, electronic warfare, ground-based training data, apply proficiency metrics and feed results into a training air defense, weapon- locating radar and airborne intelligence, surveillance system for each user. and reconnaissance. Gales argued Cubic technology is ready to do all this. “The real chalFor air specifically, Cubic offers LVC for air combat training. Senior lenge is educating customers on what LVC can deliver.” Data is the heart Business Development manager Tim Welde said Cubic LVC can be used for of Cubic’s cloud-based learning, assessment, management and exploitaindividual, team or collective air combat training. tion solution. This tool stores LVC data in an Army Knowledge Exchange Gales stressed that Cubic can provide its own stand-alone LVC or application for data mining to support doctrines and tactics. work with legacy simulation systems. Distinctively, Cubic does not just

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LVC means different things to different people, noted Lenny Genna, president of L-3 Link Simulation & Training. It can mean true integration of live, virtual and constructive capabilities or just the simple connection of one live, virtual or constructive capability to another. L-3 Link uses the first definition, true integration of all three capabilities to conduct comprehensive, interoperable training. This kind of LVC increases trainees’ performance, develops adaptable decision-making skills and provides enduring experiences of realistic tactical interactions with many participants seeking common objective as a team or team of teams. L-3 Link thus offers cost-effective, scalable and customized LVC Total Training Solutions (TTSs). Costs are controlled by using existing infrastructure and best-of-breed capabilities to achieve realism, given funds available. TTSs are scalable up to large-force exercises and customized to ensure training requirements are addressed. L-3 LVC can also support experiments with different tactics, techniques and procedures. Genna said most LVC providers focus on technical connections of different entities. L-3’s TTSs also focus on maximizing learning with LVC. L-3 offers enterprise tools, services and models to maximize learning, advance performance and decision-making skills and increases readiness. The company is now working on innovative uses of existing infrastructure and developing open architectures that are both mature and flexible. Genna said the major benefit of LVC is cost-effective training. It achieves this by overcoming limits on physical and electromagneticspectrum space, platform availability and funding. The major challenges for LVC continue to be multi-level security and true integration of mobile live elements. As much as cybersecurity allows, L-3 LVC will exploit customers’ clouds, thus providing immediate access to LVC. SAIC provides training solutions for the U.S. Army, Navy and Air Force as well as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Federal Aviation Administration, according to Bob Kleinhample, vice president of simulation and training systems. Solutions include LVC-gaming (LVCG) integration, exercise design and support, mission rehearsal scenarios, trainers and observers, certification training and role players. SAIC supports LVC training for both individual and collective tasks, such as training commanders and staffs, training otherwise restricted by cost or geography. The company also supports training and simulation centers and distributed simulation operations. It can develop data, scenarios and models and support simulation research. Kleinhample emphasized that SAIC is a one-stop shop for LVCG. It can develop multi-platform games, and augmented reality and visualization products. SAIC specializes in integrating best-of-breed capabilities. SAIC’s “serious games studio, Big Timber Games, is the leading edge of virtual and augmented reality simulation.”

LVC lets trainers deliver training experiences that would be too costly or too dangerous to conduct on a routine basis. LVC allows more personnel to be trained for less cost. VT MÄK photo

The SAIC exec said his company’s human performance training and holistic approach to fitness and readiness have been successfully demonstrated in Army Comprehensive Soldier and Family Fitness training and with senior Army leadership. The SAIC Integrated Training Edge (SITE) platform combines training experts, processes, tools and technologies for immersive and engaging training. SITE uses the cloud to provide training on demand, while simulation as a service deliver LVCG to point of need, with or without high-performance computers. Customized, realistic, graphics-intensive training can use SAIC’s high-fidelity cloud network on government-grade computers or mobile devices. A key element of SAIC training is the shift away from classrooms to gaming solutions. Kleinhample said LVC reduces costs and risks by early immersion learning. LVCG generates data that can modify both doctrines and future training. And LVC enables large-scale training that geography may make impossible for live training. Dangers are also reduced. “For example, users who clear a building can interact with virtual actors and simulated weapons before conducting live operations.” One LVC challenge is the absence of a consolidated architecture across services. Simulations that rely on many integration architectures increase the time and risks associated with LVCG. Specific issues include fair fights, one-world terrain, voice simulation, emulation of real entities, coordination of live and constructive command and control and coordination of live ranges. Data collection and after action review tools are also critical. 

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“It’s an investment by the Navy July 2016 saw an important name change for what was the Center for into the concepts of information as a Information Dominance. The command was renamed to the Center for Inforwarfare area, and it allows us to bring mation Warfare Training (CIWT), which aligns the command with the U.S. Navy’s part of that culture from the greater updated strategy for maintaining maritime superiority. Navy move into the training environment,” said Lintz. The center, headquartered in Pensacola, Fla., is the nexus for the Navy’s From a budgetary standpoint, the center has been fortunate in that its training efforts related to information warfare, and it has operated for quite funding has been relatively stable. Last year they had an overall operating budsome time under the Naval Education and Training Command. The name get of about $80 million with additional funding for facilities and maintenance. Center for Information Dominance actually predates the larger Navy use of the On any given day the center hosts around 3,900 students on board all term information dominance from when the Navy merged together two learntraining locations, with about 22,000 graduates each year. That number has ing centers almost 12 years ago for ongoing information technology (IT) training grown over the past 10 years and will, most likely in terms of Navy investand cryptologic training. Then, about five years ago, an additional merger with ment, continue to grow. the Center for Navy Intelligence resulted in the mission set aligned with CIWT It is important to note that this supports Navy initiatives and the other today. services as well. “At that point, still under the Center for Information Dominance banner, the “We do have courses where we are the joint training representative or Navy had training work being done at the organization across IT, cryptology the joint training service provider for Army, Air Force, Marine Corps and Coast and general intelligence,” explained Captain Bill Lintz, commanding officer of Guard students,” said Lintz. CIWT. “With the recent name change, the Navy hasn’t added additional skill The training domain itself includes four major schoolhouses, each now sets to that portfolio. Instead, when the Navy made a more broad change to called an Information Warfare Training Command, with one emphasize ‘information warfare’ as a critical mission similar co-located with the center at Naval Air Station Pensacola’s to surface warfare or aviation, we are orienting to leverage Corry Station and two at major Navy fleet concentration against that change in operational framework. areas in San Diego, Calif., and Virginia Beach, Va. There is also “For the Navy, that includes the ability for us to assure a schoolhouse in Monterey, Calif., co-located with the Army’s command and control, create intelligence to understand our Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center. operational environment and challenges, as well as manage “In addition to the larger schoolhouses, we have smaller the mission to create battlespace effects against our adverdetachments or sites at other Navy, Air Force and Army sary,” Lintz continued. “It is the job of the training organizainstallations. This totals to 18 locations—all in the continental tions under CIWT to assure the Navy is prepared with the United States, plus Hawaii, as well as Japan,” said Lintz. proper fundamentals to execute these tasks.” “There are also times when we send mobile training teams to From a center standpoint the new name did not change other places based on operational need.” their mission to train what is now called the information The center does this with a workforce of roughly 1,200 warfare community, but it does update and acknowledge that Capt. Bill Lintz personnel comprised of military, civilian and contractor staff. the Navy is more broadly moving in that direction.

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The center also manages two Navy-wide programs, Navy Credentialing Opportunities On-line (COOL), which helps sailors and now civilians with certifications and licenses related to their jobs, and the Center for Language, Regional Expertise, and Culture, which provides support to over 80,000 personnel every year on foreign culture. “We are also looking at potentially increasing training requirements in the future based on continued growth in the nation’s cyber warfighting capability and requirements for individual services to ensure we have the highest quality cyber operators,” Lintz noted. “A number of those cyber training venues are already hosted under CIWT. Additional cyber training requirements are coming online, and we are expecting to be part of that solution.”

Having the Right Tools When talking about training systems, CIWT is inside of the greater Navy training continuum, which means there is a very well-developed process on how to bring new and updated training on board and how to ensure that CIWT makes available the training that meets the requirements of the fleet or that of the requirement agent. “As new technologies are brought to bear inside of the operational Navy, we benefit from the mature process to bring these technologies into the Navy and training solutions that accompany them to the schoolhouse and the students. As these technologies are introduced, CIWT has insight into them and works with the associated Navy systems command to create associated training solutions for us to implement,” said Lintz. “The systems command is the lead on how the initial front-end analysis and training solution will look, but once that training is transferred to us for execution, we have the leeway to alter or change in order to meet fleet requirements or update based on requirements within the obvious constraint of budget and available resources.” Staying relevant is a concern of all training establishments, however, perhaps none as much as with information and cyber. The cycle of change and the introduction of new technologies happen rapidly at the warfighter end, so it can be a challenge to make sure that the training stays in step. “We do need to keep up with significant challenges with the pace of technology to maintain training this workforce,” said Lintz. “The lead concern for keeping pace is tracking the overarching requirement. It’s where we spend a lot of time working with the operational force to ensure we know exactly what skill sets we must provide the students who walk through our doors. The majority of students who are coming to schoolhouses are new accessions coming straight from boot camp. Many of them only a short number of months prior were most likely in high school or working in a civilian job and are really trying to get a grasp of what the Navy looks like let alone adding a technical skill. We need to focus on the fundamentals, approach them in a way that is digestible based on their experience, and assure it meets what the fleet requires.” When dealing with the skill sets of personnel just entering the Navy, most training really is focused around what would be referred to as long-term or fundamental skills. Training submarine-bound IT sailors, for example, means ensuring they understand IT basics, the overarching concepts and skills, and the how’s and why’s of the way things work that will allow them to take steps forward. The end result is that overarching systems are going to change. For someone like a systems administrator, they are going to see changes from Windows 7 to Windows 10 or inside a version of a Linux operating system. Some of this fundamental training is very similar to what is needed to operate in the information technology field of the civilian sector, but much of it is providing specific skill sets for military and Navy-specific implementation. “We as a service need to make certain those folks who are coming in have the ability to not only operate the version they are taught but the 28 | MTI 21.7

additional ability to teach themselves as new items come on board,” said Lintz. “Providing them fundamental skills as well as tools to teach themselves, as opposed to just giving them the manual, is the focus.” CIWT also has more advanced training geared for personnel who have been in the service longer. “For our more advanced skill requirements, those skill sets do tend to be a little bit harder for us to keep pace, because advanced tactics and techniques change often and tend to be technology dependent,” he added. “In order to do that, we have to be a little bit more flexible inside of our implementation of curriculum.”

Sailor 2025 Within the Navy’s Sailor 2025 initiative, the training portion refers to “modernizing training and Ready, Relevant Learning.” Central to the initiative is the goal to “modernize delivery methods, transitioning them, as appropriate, from traditional brick-and-mortar schoolhouses to mobile, multi-media, multi-platform delivery solutions that leverage science and technology to accelerate the dissemination of critical warfighting knowledge.” But in real world terms what does that really mean? “For us, it means that you’re trying to get the right training, to the right sailor, at the right time in their career,” explained Lintz. “For most of our accession-level students, we certainly could teach them specifics on buttonology for the system in front of them today and every function available to them up front, but then we’d have to retrain them every time a version or a system changes. It would get very complex very quickly. Further, we need to be mindful that many of the capabilities of systems will not be available to these sailors until later in their career, when they are in a supervisory or journeyman role. “For Ready, Relevant Learning, instead of trying to teach everything to that sailor all at once, instead of trying to push as much training into the front of that sailor’s career, it is a question of evaluating that sailor for the entirety of the career,” Lintz continued, “and then providing them those skills and those training topics timed most appropriate to their career.” The extent of responsibility for sailors who have come out of boot camp, go to school with CIWT and then arrive in the fleet as an E-3 or an E-4 depends somewhat on the amount of training and how they understood that training. It also depends on experience, and without a lot of hands-on experience, they are not necessarily going to be given a lot of those responsibilities right away. “As they continue to gain experience and promote, they’re going to have more responsibility aligned to them,” said Lintz. “It would be a shame if that takes three to five years and promotion to E-5 or E-6 to use a skill taught to them in their first year in the Navy. Ready, Relevant Learning is about making certain there’s a training venue for them throughout their career, not just when they walk in the door, but also down the line when they’re going to potentially need some refresher or new skills due to new responsibilities. This training may be delivered in a variety of methods from traditional schoolhouse solutions to online services, depending on the needs of the sailors and the fleet.” While not going as far as saying there could be an overall reduction in training costs, Lintz was clear that this is a more efficient way to ensure that the costs that are spent toward sailors and their training is most effectively used inside of their career. With that as the goal, how does CIWT go about measuring success? How do they know if what they are training today meets the needs of the fleet tomorrow? Part of the answer is that CIWT is under the overarching Navy education construct, which as Lintz explained earlier, is a very mature system that provides some of those large policy and guidance pieces. Then it turns into a

question of being able to make those into tactical solutions allowing CIWT to meet the requirements of the fleet. “We need to know the needs of the customer who’s asking us for graduates to show up trained and ready for operations, as well as understanding the needs of individual students,” explained Lintz. “The process of building our training is based in some of those core policy provisos from Navy which allows us to tie back to the fleet. We use front-end analysis to determine how to conduct training based on the requirement. In the end what we’re really looking for is feedback from students and the fleet. That comes through monitoring and managing how they are doing inside of the classroom. It also fairly obviously comes from getting student feedback through mid- and end-ofcourse assessments and from the students in their fleet jobs, as well as from their supervisors. “The items that we measure are primarily based against the major knowledge and learning objectives identified,” said Lintz. “Trying to gain information in relation to ‘training objectives’ can sometimes prove difficult because operational forces are not always attuned to the training mindset. However, they do know what they expect their personnel arriving from training to accomplish. It does take a lot of work to turn some of that data into a usable resource for us. It’s something that we continue to strive to improve.”

The Civilian World As would be expected, the civilian cyber community is unquestionably a very valuable resource for CIWT. Lintz explained that in simple terms, they are talking about training skill sets and a workforce capable of producing similar results to that of the civilian cyber community—except within the Navy construct. “For some training, we’ve looked at civilian offerings and either brought it in directly, imported it and used Navy trainers to instruct directly, or had to modify the training slightly for Navy purposes,” Lintz said. “We’ve even sent folks outside of our individual training construct and used civilian training venues directly so that our sailors could get the same benefits available in the civilian community. “We are able to provide the best curriculum possible for the personnel who go through our center’s training, and we absolutely tap into the civilian community to do so,” he continued. “We also bring back returnees from the fleet, which could be service members from any of the services. We hire Department of the Navy civilians, as well as use civilian contractors to ensure our instructor staff has the most recent and relevant backgrounds possible. We’re interested in what skill sets and talents they can bring as instructors, as well as their perspectives that help broaden the knowledge base our students gain.” CIWT is also exploring and incorporating new and effective ways to deliver training, with and without commercial solutions, including virtual environment technology, hands-on web-based tools, and artificial intelligence-based tutoring options. “It actually connects very well to Ready, Relevant Learning,” explained Lintz. “When you take the perspective of, you don’t want to train a sailor once and then have that training grow stale over the course of their career, you’re really looking for a career full of development. Career development must include a variety of training options, including the idea that there are certainly topics best approached inside a classroom with other students and with the opportunity for an instructor or expert to discuss, to demonstrate and to provide hands-on experience. “There are other topics more relevant or better taught providing that information to students without the instructor there,” he continued. “Opportunities exist inside of some skill sets to provide simple information forward to a student in a way that’s easy for them to quickly grasp, maintain and then

experiment for themselves. Everything, from having an opportunity for classroom training to ensure fundamentals all the way to specifics that might be used inside of a cyber or information warfare event, is on the table. As the operator on the far end, it may be best for you to have a YouTube video or an app that allows you to experiment and do some hands-on self-training at a pace that makes sense for your operation. “As we move along the Ready, Relevant Learning path and are able to modernize our training sets, we will identify training that is currently in that front end of a student’s training model and instead determine not only where it best fits in his or her career but also how it is best presented to the student.” When talking about training students over the course of their career, those careers are happening within the advancement cycle of threats and technologies, so it is critical that the training be adaptive and pliable in the face of those changes. Lintz explained that his schoolhouses, where the execution-level training takes place, are required to ensure that they cover the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities mandated through their type commander, Naval Information Forces. They also have been empowered to ensure they are able to keep up with trends and make certain that those trends are covered for students going through training right now. “We have processes in place that allow updates to occur and inform our entire training community, so that each new topic is signed out with a lead schoolhouse that owns that topic and then makes certain that the other schoolhouses are able to gain from that knowledge and further improve it,” said Lintz. “That starts with expert instructors. Our instructors are given the requirement to keep pace, as well as the necessary leeway, to allow them to meet fleet goals. So long as they stay inside the overarching knowledge, skills and abilities that are required for us to train based on the input from our requirement sponsors, the implementation and updates are within their reach.” One of the ways they accomplish that is by having the program and training managers who have that requirement assigned to them maintain direct points of contact into the operational command and control centers that would manage cyber or information warfare types of events. This allows them to have a close understanding of what is required and what could potentially be useful for a student when matching up real-world occurrences with training curriculum. Lintz is proud of the men, women and mission of CIWT. They all clearly understand the importance of ensuring that any sailor, airman, Marine, soldier, Coast Guardsman, or government civilian who walks through CIWT’s doors walks out with a skill set that allows them to be ready for warfare in the information age. For the military instructors, each person trained may in fact end up next to them in combat in the future. CIWT is training information warriors to be prepared to wage battle, and they are assuring the nation’s success in this burgeoning warfare arena.  MTI 21.7 | 29

Mark A. Parsons Senior Instructional Systems Specialist Engility

In the ever-changing landscape of today’s cybersecurity threats, defending networks requires tactics as swift, adaptable and agile as those used by enemy attackers. The industry organizations responsible for preparing those who will protect our cyber systems must be adept in their skill and strategy—knowing how to strike a balance of being sensible and superior, of gaining intel and never losing integrity, and of mastering threat anticipation and excelling at threat analysis. To achieve this advantage, our operators must proactively learn the tactics of realistic cyberwarfare during training, enabling them to persistently prevent and protect against threats. Our simulated training environments must be built with a combination of operational knowledge, technical expertise and in-depth understanding of the rapidly changing learning behaviors and delivery mechanisms that are best suited for the current and future generations of the cyber workforce. Industry is uniquely positioned to achieve this with its ability to: • Think creatively – Industry must marry a scientific approach/background with a savvy mindset to apply a fresh perspective to every challenge. What best practices, techniques and technologies are working in the commercial world that can carry over to our defense practices? How are consumers collecting and communicating information that impact how we could/should be teaching and training our servicemen and women? • Think collaboratively – Industry has the unique ability to research, develop and provide effective solutions through partnerships with other organizations, academia and information technology labs. We must also

Speed of change and the scale of which network systems can be used against themselves pushes to the breaking point the ability to defend cyberspace. The foundation of change is at the education and training level where the cyber warfighters and educators construct the systems that can understand yesterday’s challenges and be ready for tomorrow’s. Military Training International spoke with several leaders in the field for their perspective on the challenges, accomplishments and the paths forward.

accept the fact that as the cyber world continues to expand and extend its reach into more and more of the critical infrastructure functions of our nation, and globally, it is requiring our military services and national defense leaders to work closely together—more so than they’ve ever needed to before. With an enormous need for common platforms and distributed training environments, cyberspace is a terrain that we all must work together to secure. • Think cost-effectively – Industry can automate processes and repurpose technologies to have multiple applications or support various functions. This enables a multiplier factor and can have a tremendous impact on efficient spending and ROI. • Think constantly – Industry training solutions must establish a means of facilitating rapid content updates, threat profiles and simulations to mirror threats encountered. We garner a better chance of quickly recognizing and addressing offensive threats as they occur if training and assessments are ongoing, consistently updated and always available. Ultimately, keeping up with the changing space of cybersecurity requires a respect for traditional and agile tactics—such as training and deploying mobile cyber protection teams and cyber mission forces to harden systems and ensure system reliability—and a desire to defend with innovative new training technologies. Developing and implementing these technologies requires creative, collaborative, cost-effective and adept thinking—an approach that makes industry uniquely suited to serve.

Patrick Lardieri

Fellow for Cyber Solutions Lockheed Martin At Lockheed Martin, our advanced tools and unique cyber testing and training methods are providing realistic, live practice environ30 | MTI 21.7

ments. These methods are tailored to specific organizations and users from elite cyber mission forces to system operators. Using our unique capabilities, Lockheed Martin has conducted more than one hundred cyber testing

and training events for the Department of Defense. During such events, we have experienced and overcome two significant challenges to effective cyber training: • Developing cost effective evolution of training environments to keep a pace with system changes and evolving threats • Exposing and educating system operators to cyber threat indicators and warnings Training configurations for stable systems, such as aircraft, can remain relevant for many years. However, cyber trainers have to adjust constantly to keep pace with substantial changes in systems and networks. For example, there are hundreds of legitimate variations for a typical server when considering the operating system, application services, and security tools. Each instance in a given network can change at different paces. Some users may receive email client upgrades with enhanced phishing detection weeks before others. The constant operational environment evolution requires rapid generation of training environments tailored to each organization’s specific needs in a few days to a few weeks. Lockheed Martin developed an automated tool chain that enables us to deploy and reconfigure complex cyber environments in hours or days. Previously, in only five days, we tested and configured a complex, encrypted network of more than 10,000 nodes consisting of real OSes, network devices and network protocols in 25 configurations. Each

configuration represented a possible operational deployment of different scale and security properties. Our ability to reconfigure the network topology and protocols automatically enabled us to cover the full set of possible cyber cases in a week. More traditional trainer approaches may take multiple weeks to months to shift between such highly varied configurations. Lockheed Martin provides environments for cyber mission forces training. However, though important, they make up a small percentage of the service personnel who require cyber training. We also offer opportunities for live defender training during cyber testing events where we encourage programs testing on the range to provide operators and cyber defenders the opportunity to observe our cyber security evaluation teams conducting live attacks against the systems. This provides great exposure and education to attackers’ methods and the impacts they create. It also offers opportunities for operators to use their skills and defensive tools to develop indicators and warnings for various attacks. We push the operators to look beyond standard security logs and analyze aspects of their system’s behavior and performance under various attack scenarios. For example, in one test participants noted how specific instrumentation we developed would provide clear indicators of various denial of service attacks. Lockheed Martin’s processes, capabilities, and expertise are enabling the military services and the Department of Defense to scale-up cyber training and testing services to meet the rapidly expanding demand for cyber warriors and resilient mission operators.

Dr. Rajin Koonjbearry

Senior Faculty in Cyber Security Grantham University Data breaches, system hacks and service interruptions are running rampant in our nation. These potentially serious security risks continue to increase, demanding a greater need for cybersecurity experts. University and colleges are struggling to develop an appropriate and successful curriculum in an ever-changing cybersecurity landscape. In a recent article in Cloud Passage, Mitch Bishop, Cloud Passage’s chief marketing officer, argued that most United States universities are scoring an “F” on cybersecurity education. The poor scores are attributed to the lack of clear definition of cybersecurity, inadequate curriculum and educational approach regarding cyber defense education. In recent years, many universities have started offering cybersecurity programs using combinations of exiting courses from other programs. This approach was inadequate, as graduating students were ill-prepared for cybersecurity jobs. As a result of the lack of trained faculty in cybersecurity fields, attempts to develop new courses moved slowly. There are only a handful of universities in the United States which offer a terminal degree in cybersecurity and the graduation rates in cybersecurity has been extremely low. According to Secretary of Commerce, Penny Pritzer, this shortage is expected to last into the next decade. The demand for cybersecurity experts is expected to reach over 210,000 unfilled openings. Recently, the United States government has become more involved in cybersecurity training. In 2015, during a visit to Norfolk University, Vice

President Biden announced the infusion of $25 million by the federal government into cybersecurity training. This investment is a positive step toward developing adequate cybersecurity training. Due to the significant increase in data breaches and state sponsored cyber-attacks, the demand for cybersecurity experts is growing faster than originally expected. One way to address the cyber security expert shortages would be to partner with United States Department of Defense, and other law enforcement organizations. These agencies have been on the forefront of the cybersecurity defenses and are intimate with protocols and tools used to defend and launch cyber security attacks. Many military and National Security Agency employees have in-depth knowledge of cybersecurity defenses; however, they do not have formal educational degrees or certifications and, therefore, are often overlooked by employers.  Grantham University has a dynamic and cutting edge cybersecurity program that can benefit ex-servicemen, military retirees and other employees from government agencies. The program, taught by instructors with doctorates in cybersecurity and with extensive military-related cybersecurity experience, uses the latest tools and technologies to allow students to “hit the ground running,” particularly for students with a military background. Such a partnership can help to fill many of the cybersecurity positions that have remained vacant due to lack of qualified personnel. 

MTI 21.7 | 31

Resource Center AdVertisers Index Adacel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TOC AEgis Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Human-Centered Engineering

See Page 6

Aero Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Aptima. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Bohemia Interactive Simulations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 CAE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C4 David Clark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 DiSTI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 DSET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 ITEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C3 L-3 Link Simulation & Training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Leonardo Helicopters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 MetaVR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C2 Milsim Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Saab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 SAIC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 TerraSim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 VT MÄK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Associate Publisher Holly Foster Correspondents PETER BUXBAUM • HENRY CANADAY • PATRICK CLARKE • ANDREW DRWIEGA • Hank Hogan • KAREN THUERMER Publication Design Jennifer Owers • James Scott Cassidy

32 | MTI 21.7

Aptima welcomes Janet Spruill, Vice President Boston ▪ DC ▪ Dayton ▪ Orlando |

Calendar November 28-December 2, 2016 I/ITSEC Orlando, Fla. December 6-8, 2016 Military Flight Training Eastern Europe Plovdiv, Bulgaria January 17-18, 2017 MilSim Asia Singapore January 24-26, 2017 ShieldAfrica Abidjan, Cote d’ Ivoire February 13-14, 2017 Land Forces Simulation & Training London, UK uk/conference/Land-ForcesSimulation-and-Training February 19-23, 2017 IDEX Abu Dhabi, UAE

Subscription Information ISSN 1097-0975 Military Training International is published seven times a year by Defense House Publishing. All Rights Reserved. Reproduction without permission is strictly forbidden. © Copyright 2016. Military Training International is free to qualified members of the U.S. military, employees of the U.S. government and non-U.S. foreign service based in the United States All others: $80 per year. Foreign: $120 per year.

March 13-15, 2017 Global Force Symposium Huntsville, Ala. global-force-symposium-andexposition-2017 March 28-29, 2017 Military Flight Training London, UK April 3-5, 2017 Sea, Air Space National Harbor, Md. April 25-27, 2017 MODSIM World Virginia Beach, Va. April 22-29, 2017 Army Aviation Missions Solutions Summit Nashville, Tenn. May 16-18, 2017 ITEC Rotterdam, Netherlands

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Military Training International December 2016  

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