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Q&A with BG Ahamed Mohammed Chief of Staff PKO Office of Military Affairs

African Defense

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April 2016

September 2016

Crowd/Riot Control Trucks

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African Defense September 2016


An armored personnel carrier providing protection in Anka, North Darfur, Sudan, during a recent visit UNAMID’s leadership conducted to the area. The mission was aimed at assessing the protection and humanitarian needs of local communities following attacks on their villages. Photo by Hamid Abdulsalam, UNAMID.

What’s Inside

News from Across Africa

African Defense news digest of significant, interesting and thought-provoking insights within the African military and security community.


10 Exclusive Interview with Brigadier General Ahamed Mohammed

Current chief of staff of the UN’s DPKO Office of Military Affairs, the Kenyan general shares his insights and views of Africa and African peacekeepers.


20 Operating and Building Capacity in the


Gray Zone

Exclusive African Defense conversation with Brigadier General Bolduc, US Special Operations Command Africa’s commander.

27 Africa Entering Growth Period with Defense and Security Opportunities

African Defense talked with Thales’ Vice President Africa on the company’s approach and solutions for the continent. The company’s broad-based portfolio covers air, land and sea domains.


29 MRO Options for African Air Forces

Outsourcing of maintenance, repair and overhaul services and training of organic capabilities is important to African air forces. OGMA of Portugal has a long history of serving the African market and looks for strong growth.

31 Crowd and Riot Control Vehicles


Peaceful crowds demonstrating is one thing, but security forces need to walk the thin line that keeps the peace, but retain the ability to control and disperse an unruly mob when necessary. African Defense looks at some of the crowd control truck options.

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News from Across Africa Navy for safe guarding Ghana’s territorial waters and making it the best within the sub region. Ghana’s Chief of Naval Staff, Rear Admiral Peter Kofi Faidoo credited the success to his predecessors on his part and disclosed that over the years, successive Chiefs of the Navy had worked on the existing structure to make it more conducive for work.

Egyptian, NATO Naval Forces in Joint Exercise PRC-2090 Manpack Radios for East African Country Barrett Communications recently signed a significant contract with the national defense force of an East African nation. The first phase of the contract involves the supply of PRC-2090 tactical high frequency radio communications systems, in manpack configurations. The PRC-2090 manpacks will be used for both voice and data, via Barrett’s Clover modems. In country configuration, operator and maintenance training will be provided to enable the customer to be fully self-supporting. Greg O’Neill, Barrett Communications’ managing director commented, “This is a new end user for Barrett Communications and we are pleased that many years of work in this country has resulted in this significant award.”

In mid-August, Egyptian naval forces held a joint military drill with Standing NATO Maritime Group 2 during their multiday visit to Egypt. The aim of the exercise was to ‘exchange training expertise, hone the skills of participating forces in performing the most advanced naval fighting techniques and to coordinate efforts to combat challenges in the Mediterranean region,” a government statement added. Egypt’s naval commander Vice Admiral Osama Rabei held talks with NATO deputy commander Vice Admiral Bruno Paulmier where they discussed military cooperation on issues of mutual interest—specifically on the naval level—and on the new channels of joint exercises as well as the exchange of visits of forces and naval units between both sides.

developments. During the Cairo talks, both sides discussed means to bolster mutual cooperation as well as collaboration between the army and police forces, the ministry said in a statement. Mutondo carried a message to President Abdel-Fattah El-Sisi from President Joseph Kabila on the current situation in Congo and the government’s efforts to hold presidential polls, the statement added.

Eastern Africa Standby Force Conducts Integrated Mission Planning Course The Eastern Africa successfully conducted an Integrated Mission Planning Course from August 1-12, at the International Peace Support Training Centre in Karen, Nairobi. The purpose of the course was to train nominated individuals who had been pledged to the EASF roster by member states as potential staff for an EASF mission headquarters. The course largely covered the context of contemporary African Union peace support operations, the African Union mandating process at strategic level, development of an integrated mission plan and associated tools and techniques. The skills gained during the course would prepare the participants assume their assigned roles with an AU mission headquarters’ construct. The course was financed with the support from the United Kingdom and the Nordic Advisory Coordination Staff.

Ghana Commissions New Naval Headquarters Office Complex On August 11, Ghana’s President, John Dramani Mahama commissioned the Naval Headquarters Office Complex at Burma Camp. This project is one of several underway including a housing block under construction at Tema which should be ready by early 2017. Ghana’s Navy Training Command is also eyeing property along the Volta-Asutware River for a new facility. Since 2012, the command acquired six new ships, and plans were being put in place to acquire two more high endurance offshore patrol vessels to the Navy’s fleet to enhance its surveillance and response capabilities. The president commended the Ghana


Egypt, DRC to Cooperate in Training of Army and Police Representatives of Egypt and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) agreed during talks in Cairo to boost mutual ties and cooperate in military and police training, Egypt’s foreign ministry said. On August 14, Egypt’s Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry and Congo’s intelligence chief Khalev Mutondo held talks in the Egyptian capital during which they discussed mutual ties and recent regional

Algeria to Begin Helicopter Manufacturing An industrial and trade partnership memorandum of understanding on the manufacturing of AugustaWesland helicopters in Ain Arnat (Setif), Algeria, was signed on August 11 by the Ministry of National Defence and the Italian group LeonardoFinmeccanica (SPA-Italy).

African Defense/September 2016


24-26 JANUARY 2017


Protect the development of Africa African Defense/September 2016


News from Across Africa The memorandum “is part of the implementation of the program of economic relaunch, initiated by the government, aimed at boosting the national industry and the interest by the People’s National Army to develop Algerian military manufacturing. The parties to this agreement “agreed this year to create a joint Algerian-Italian company for manufacturing light and medium helicopters at Ain Arnat.” “From the first years and following the construction of plants, the main objective of this company is to manufacture three types of light and medium helicopters for various use including the transport of personnel and cargo, medical evacuation, surveillance and control,” said a government communiqué.

to combat poaching. The poaching problem has increased in magnitude as the poachers have become more sophisticated. Permanent Secretary in the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, Major General Gaudence Milanzi admitted that some of the problems are internal with unethical park rangers. “We’ll forward your request to other high authorities so as to prepare a proper legal framework which will lead to the establishment of a paramilitary unit to be known as the Wild Life Protection Unit,” he said.

Senior Officer Appointments Within the Seychelles People’s Defence Force

Over the last 12 months the Rwanda Aviation Unit (RAU IV) under the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) UNMISS, performed 741 flights, transported 11,933 passengers and airlifted 1,227,000 kilograms of cargo to different places of the entire UNMISS area of responsibility. On August 11, they were decorated for their contribution to the mission’s success. They were presented with the UN Medal by the Special Representative of Secretary General of the UN in South Sudan, H.E Ellen Margrethe Loej, in recognition of their demonstrated professional service under UNMISS. Loej appreciated RAU for having played a significant and critical role in supporting UNMISS’ operations, by enabling troop movements, conducting reconnaissance flights and air patrols, providing medical transportation as well as administrative and logistics flights.

The president of the Seychelles, James Michel, the commander-in chief of the armed forces, recently announced a number of officer appoints within the SPDF as part of a restructuring process. Deputy Chief of Defence Forces Colonel Clifford Roseline Seychelles Coast Guard - Base Commander - Lt. Colonel Francois Antat Seychelles Coast Guard- Fleet Commander - Lt. Colonel Leslie Benoiton Seychelles Coast Guard - AdjutantMajor Antonio Gomme Seychelles Coast Guard - Naval Wing Commander - Major Fernand Laporte The president said the appointments “would create a new dynamic for the defense forces and reinforce capacity within the SPDF.”

Tanzania Changing Protection at Game Parks to Paramilitary Force The Tanzanian Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism has endorsed a request by the Tanzania National Parks Authority to transition from the current civilian to paramilitary system as a permanent solution


Rwandan Aviation Unit on Peacekeeping Mission Honored

Major South African Training Exercises The South African Army’s three-week Exercise Ndlovu 2016 at the Combat Training Centre Lohatla came to a conclusion on 28 July 2016 with participating forces returning to their home units. The theme of the exercise was “We train as we fight, and we fight as we have trained.” The second week of the exercise was a field training exercise (FTX) which was action-packed with platoon commanders

faced with section attacks based on the simulated scenarios. This required quick reaction and decisionmaking while testing the uniqueness of leadership skills of each commander. The chief exercise director’s exercise control team was always on site to evaluate and ensure the proper execution of each evolution as well as give constructive criticism were required. The aim of the FTX was to achieve service-unique, joint and integrated objectives in order to provide combat-ready forces for deployment by the Chief of the South African National Defence Force. At Sea Exercise Red Lion is an annual South African naval force preparation exercise that takes place around the Western Cape area, which is aligned to Exercise Ndlovu. These forces are comprised of all the arms of services with integrated training objectives within the SANDF. The purpose of Ex Red Lion was to test the South African Navy’s capabilities at sea as well as ashore. The skills for the exercise consisted of seamanship evolutions, boarding-exercises, gunnery exercises, ships interoperability and tactical communications, a disaster exercise and local guarding. The sea phase of Ex Red Lion commenced on 15 July 2016. Participating vessels that formed part of the naval task group included SAS Drakensberg under command of Captain Khwaedi Mabula, SAS Spioenkop under command of Captain Charl Maritz, SAS Amatola under command of Captain Johannes Roux, SAS Manthatisi under command of Commander Russel Beattie and SAS Umhloti under command of Commander Zimasa Mabela. The task group was commanded by Captain Mike Boucher. Other elements that formed part of the exercise were the Maritime Reaction Squadron, the SA Air Force Super Lynx and Oryx helicopters and the South African Military Health Services. As reported by Leading Seaman Stacy Africa

New US Air Forces Africa Commander General Tod Wolters took command of U.S. Air Forces in Europe, U.S. Air Forces

African Defense/September 2016

Africa and Allied Air Command from General Frank Gorenc during a ceremony on August 11. As the new commander of USAFEAFAFRICA, Wolters is responsible for a fullspectrum of Air Force war-fighting capabilities in a theater spanning three continents, containing 104 independent states possessing more than one-fifth of the world’s population and more than a quarter of the world’s gross domestic product. “To the warriors of USAFE, NATO and AFAFRICA, our next, best, first step is to add to the incredible momentum that has been achieved by you in the areas of trust and teamwork with our coalition partners,” Wolters said. “We have that trust, we have that teamwork, we have that integration; our adversaries don’t.”

Egyptian MOD Selects Passenger and Cargo Screening Systems Smiths Detection has been awarded contracts worth almost $24.8 million by Falcon Group to provide advanced detection systems for passenger checkpoint, hold baggage and cargo screening to airports across Egypt. The award for X-ray scanners, people screening systems and trace detectors is part of national program to provide an additional layer of security to existing equipment at

African Defense/September 2016

airports. Smiths Detection systems were chosen by the Egyptian Ministry of Defence for their lifetime high performance and quality, as proven by earlier contracts. Falcon Group is the main security supplier for Egypt and is in close relationship to the Military Intelligence branch which is a part of the Egyptian Ministry of Defence. Tony Tielen, regional vice president EMEA, at Smiths Detection, said: “Enhancing aviation security through leading-edge technology is our top priority. With a broad portfolio of detection technologies, an excellent customer-orientated sales team and a strong local partner, ITI, we are proud to be a trusted partner of the Egyptian Ministry of Defence. The range of screening systems included in this contract will help provide world-class detection capabilities to protect against evolving threats.”

Island Army National Guard hosted Leapfest for the 33rd year. This year’s event brought parachutists to Rhode Island from Bangladesh, Canada, the Czech Republic, Germany, Great Britain, Mexico, Morocco, the Netherlands, South Africa and all reaches of the United States. “Leapfest 2016 was one of our biggest; we had 60 teams; 30 international and 30 from the U.S. that participated,” said Colonel Ellis F. Hopkins III, commander, 56th Troop Command. Each Leapfest team consisted of five participants, four jumpers and one alternate jumper. Jumpers exited from a CH-47 Chinook helicopter at an altitude of 1,500 feet using a MC-6 static line, steerable, parabolic parachute. As reported by Staff Sergeant Pater Ramaglia

Paratroopers from Morocco and South Africa Participate in Leapfest

Liberian Defence Minister Discusses Technology Enhancements, Opportunities for Israel

Leapfest, the largest, longest-running, international static line parachute training event and competition in the world took place on Aug. 6 on the University of Rhode Island’s Kingston Campus and the West Kingston Elementary School field in Rhode Island. The 56th Troop Command of the Rhode

During a meeting between Ami Mehl, Israeli ambassador to Ghana and Liberia, and the Liberian Defense Minister, Brownie J. Samukai, the defense minister assured Liberians that the Ministry of National Defense will continue to seek opportunities for the technological advancement of the Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL) so as to make the force more responsive to the needs of the Liberian people, whom they have sworn to serve. “In our ambition to give a new outlook to the AFL as a ‘force for good,’ we will seek partnership with our counterparts so that the technological capacity, particularly for our engineers and our explosive ordnance device unit, can be boosted,” Samukai said. He also acknowledged the historical role the Israeli government and people played over the years with regards to impacting the development of the Liberian defense sector. On global security concerns, Samukai intimated that the defense sector remains keen about strengthening relations with its regional and global counterparts in the collective spirit aimed at thwarting tragedy of the commons. “There is an open field of cooperation from Israel,” he said.


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African Defense/September 2016


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Exclusive Interview with Brigadier General Ahamed Mohammed

The Chief of Staff of the UN’s Department of Peacekeeping Office, Office of Militay Affairs manages much of the world’s peacekeeping operations.

African Defense: Let’s start with an overview of the Office of Military Affairs within the United Nations’ Department of Peacekeeping. Tell me about the structure, organization and mission in general and then about your responsibilities in specific. Mohammed: The Office of Military Affairs (OMA) works to deploy the most appropriate and effective military capability in United Nations peacekeeping missions. After a Security Council resolution to launch or to adapt a peacekeeping mission, the Office of Military Affairs prepares a military concept of operations and the support plans, identifies the member states that are willing and able to deploy troops and individual officers, and, once the mission is up and running, monitors the implementation of mandated military tasks. In the execution of these tasks we make use of our strategic military assessments and the military doctrine and policies that we have developed over time. OMA works in particular for the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO), the Department of Field Support, but also other parts of the Secretariat and the UN when requested, and of course for member states and military components in the United Nations peacekeeping missions. To implement the core tasks, the office has 100 seconded military officers and 27 civilian professional and support staff from over 50 member states. OMA comprises of the Office of the Military Adviser and three services and two teams, namely the Military Planning Service, Force Generation Service, Current Military Operations Service, Assessment Team and the Policy and Doctrine Team. Our military adviser is Lieutenant General Maqsood Ahmed from Pakistan, with Major General Adrian Foster from the UK as his deputy, while I am the third general officer


as chief of staff. Taking into account the over 90,000 troops deployed in peacekeeping missions, this is a rather small office, with a very limited number of general officers. African Defense: How are positions like yours filled at the UN? Mohammed: This position is filled through a competitive international process. The posting is advertised prior to the end of the term of the incumbent to all member states. Member states are free to submit qualified candidates for the position. Of the offered candidates, UN headquarters shortlists those that have the prerequisite qualifications. Those candidates are then interviewed and at the end of the process, the best person is selected for the position. African Defense: What are the primary roles of the Chief of Staff? Mohammed: The tasks of chief of staff of the Office of Military Affairs include the management and central coordination of the Office of Military Affairs. This entails the prioritization and coordination of staff efforts and overseeing the internal management so as to ensure that the office works in an integrated manner at all levels. In particular, the chief of staff is responsible for all internal issues that include human resource management and budget. I manage, direct and coordinate the work of the office, including budget, management of extra-budgetary resources, personnel recruitment and rotations, performance monitoring and evaluation and other management functions and cross cutting issues. African Defense: What in your background of experience best prepared you for the chief of staff position here? Were there

any surprises when you actual arrived and began working? Mohammed: In my current and previous position, I successfully led and managed multidimensional teams to achieve results. In previous assignments, in Kenya for instance, as Commandant of the Defense Forces Memorial Hospital, and of the International Peace Support Training Centre, I dealt with a great variety of administrative and management issues. In the field, in United Nations peacekeeping missions, such as in the former Yugoslavia, and here in New York when I was the military advisor at the Permanent Mission of Kenya to the United Nations, I gained relevant and important experience that has assisted me significantly in my current post as chief of staff. As Directing Staff (Instructor) at the Command and Staff College in UK (Bracknell and later Shrivenham), I sharpened my skills in dealing with staff at the international level and particularly those from multinational and multicultural backgrounds. In this light there were no big surprises after I assumed my duties here. Actually just a confirmation of what I already encountered in the past. It is amazing how military officers and civilian staff from so many countries around the globe, with different political, social, religious and cultural backgrounds, are able to work together so effectively and in such a harmonious spirit. I also was, and still am, impressed by the talent and commitment of so many in the Office of Military Affairs. African Defense: Does your office have a role in recruiting countries to participate in missions? Mohammed: Yes, the Office of Military Affairs is responsible for the generation,

African Defense/September 2016

rotation and repatriation of military forces required for United Nations peacekeeping missions. This includes the generation/ rotation of individual selected personnel such as military staff officers and UN military observers as well as the generation/ rotation of formed military units (such as infantry battalions). There are many things that come into play in choosing TCCs (troop contributing countries) for every mission. First we have to consider force requirements for each. Once this is established, we address the TCC’s capabilities to meet these needs while also considering the geographical location as sometimes, a neighbor may not be the best troop provider to a peacekeeping mission. We also take note of the level of acceptance by the host nation of each TCC. These are all very important factors in recruiting the right peacekeeping elements. African Defense: What criteria goes into deciding what level of force is to be used? Whether that force should be more military versus more law enforcement? Whether the units should be combat support—like military police, civil affairs or engineers— or should they be more combat arms— infantry, special forces, etc.? Mohammed: At the strategic level, the level of force to be used or planned in a mission is based on the tasks provided in the mandate issued by the United Nations Security Council. After a technical assessment and a comprehensive United Nations system-wide planning process (integrated assessment), including political, security, military, police, humanitarian, human rights and other aspects, we will be able to assess and suggest the capabilities that are needed, whether military and/ or police. Mostly a mixed capability is deployed in order to deal with the different levels of threats in the area of operations. While designing the force requirements (the type and quantity of military units deployed to a mission) the military planning process for peacekeeping operations takes several factors into consideration. Amongst others these concern the mandated tasks, existing threat, available resources in the host nation and the phased approach of the mission. This will inform the capabilities to be deployed. The analysis does not stop at the beginning of a deployment as planning is a continuous process. Our office often conducts military capability studies,

African Defense/September 2016

amongst others with visits on the ground, to verify whether the right military capabilities are still deployed and make necessary adjustments if required. African Defense: When a unit deploys on a peacekeeping mission, it routinely will take its own contingent-owned equipment with it. What kinds of equipment, supplies and support is provided at a UN-level? Mohammed: Yes, that is correct. We expect the unit to deploy with its full contingent-owned equipment to provide the full capability and capacity in line with the requirements of the United Nations. In fact, one of the key considerations in determining if a country can participate in a peacekeeping mission is if it can deploy the required equipment items. The ability of the country to deploy its contingent-owned elements and to provide self-sustenance for an initial period of 90 days is crucial. The equipment includes the major equipment (such as vehicles, specialized equipment depending on the type of unit, heavy weapons, water treatment equipment, medical facilities) and so called selfsustainment equipment, which is required to ensure the living, sustainability and welfare of the units in the field. Self-sustainment includes tents/accommodations, communications and office equipment, kitchen and laundry facilities, tools and observation equipment. The United Nations usually conducts the transport/shipment of all the equipment to the field and is also responsible for the rotation of the personnel after 12 months

service in the field. Once deployed, the UN expects the unit to be self-sufficient for the first three months. After that the UN takes over in key areas of sustainment including rations, water and those basic life support areas. As far as accommodations are concerned, after the first six months, the UN is expected to erect more permanent structures for living quarters and base camp facilities. African Defense: In 2013, the UN Security Council authorized the establishment of a force intervention brigade (FIB) within MONUSCO—which was a first. Does that brigade still exist? In a broader perspective, what were the lessons learned from standing up the brigade and then deploying it. Is this a model that could be duplicated? Mohammed: Yes the brigade still exists and is helping to maintain peace in Eastern DRC. It is composed of units from South Africa, Malawi and Tanzania. Indeed, it was the vital military component in the high-profile and decisive operations that resulted in the defeat of the M23 in 2013 which significantly changed the security landscape in Eastern DRC and created the much needed space for conflict resolution. Since then they have been a very effective deterrence to further conflict. We are now studying how to make the FIB even more effective. Being the first in a number of ways, we have learnt some valuable lessons. From the FIB experience, we now have a better appreciation of the use of force as a peacekeeping concept. While we have always known that most

OMA/TCCs, through a peacekeeping force, strive to bring peace to areas of strife and to suffering populations where governments have failed to protect their own civilians—and in fact are committing some of the atrocities. UN photo.


Brigadier General Ahamed Mohammed Brigadier General Ahamed Mohammed has served in a variety of command and staff appointments in his 35 year career in the Kenya Defence Forces. His specialty is in national security, conflict management and international politics. He served with the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) in the Former Yugoslavia as a Deputy Senior Military Observer. He has also been the Military Assistant to the Chief of the General Staff (Kenya Defence Forces). He has served as Directing Staff at both the Defence Staff College, Karen, Kenya and at the Joint Services Command and Staff College, (JSCSC), Bracknell and later Shrivenham, UK. He was Defence Adviser, Permanent Mission of Kenya to the United Nations, New York, between 2001 to 2004. He returned to Kenya in 2004 and was appointed Chief of Personnel, Kenya Army Headquarters. On completion of War College in 2005, he Commanded the International Peace Support Training Centre, Karen, Kenya from where he supported the initial works towards the establishment of the African Standby Force. Mohammed was brigade commander (Kenya Army Corp of Engineers) from 2008 to 2010. Thereafter, he was reassigned to be Chief of Operations, Training and Plans, Kenya Army Headquarters. He later went on to serve as the Commandant (CEO), Defence Forces Memorial Hospital, Nairobi where he led the Hospital to ISO Certification in 2013. He is a graduate of Kings College, University of London with a Master of Arts (MA) degree in Defense Studies. He is also a graduate of the University of Nairobi with an MA degree in International Studies. He is a member of the Kenya Institute of Management and his awards and national decorations include the Elder of the Order of the Burning Spear (EBS). problems that necessitate peacekeeping require more than a military solution, the FIB brought this to the fore vividly. Operationally, the FIB, despite its very robust mandate, has been able to comply with the dictates of International Humanitarian Law (IHL). In its three years of existence and operations, there has been no report of IHL violation. Utmost regard for protection of civilians have been guiding principles in the use of force by the FIB. Also, the FIB underscored the need not just for a proper understanding of the prevailing threats in a mission area but also how those threats might evolve over time. Equally, we have picked up valuable lessons on how to improve our administrative and support arrangements (for example,

command and control of enabler units like engineers and aviation) to adapt to high tempo operations like those the FIB conducted in 2013. As you know, no two circumstances are exactly the same. While the FIB model is not a silver bullet for every difficult mission, it is one that could be replicated elsewhere on a case-by-case basis. African Defense: Is there an effort to make available more specialized systems that may not be commonly available in some peacekeeping country’s units such as unmanned aerial systems, night vision devices, force protection systems, etc,? Mohammed: Yes, efforts are being made

View of the UN facility in Menaka, Mali. The UN expects TCCs to be prepared to selfsustain for 90 days, After that the UN will install more permanent structures. UN photo.


through a wider and more cooperative engagement with the member states. We have established the Strategic Force Generation Capability Planning Cell to facilitate the engagement with member states and to define trends in UN peacekeeping, to articulate the UN requirements and to determine what capability could be provided by the respective member states. We are going to assess the capabilities and will establish an overview on capabilities and shortfalls of member states and see if we can encourage TCCs to provide the required capabilities. We are also looking into technological developments and capabilities to be provided by member states, such as UAVs, camp protection and environmental friendly capabilities. Member states are willing to provide such capabilities and we have to evaluate how to effectively and efficiently deploy such capabilities. African Defense: Has the UN set basic pre-deployment training standards so that all troops arriving in-country will have common training and standards? Mohammed: From our past experiences we have seen the need to emphasize training and well-prepared troops. It is in this regard that we require pre-deployment training. Pre-deployment training standards are well defined and the Integrated Training Service (ITS) provides the guidelines and material for the conduct of the training, the Core PreDeployment Training Modules (CPTMs). ITS is also available to conduct train-the–trainer courses at national or regional training centers to help and assist the member states in the training preparations. As part of the deployment process we are following up with the member states to determine if the training was conducted (as per UN standards) and also ask the TCCs to provide a certification prior to any deployment/rotation that, besides operational/personnel selection requirements, certifies that the training was successfully conducted for all personnel to be deployed. We are currently working on a guideline document to help TCCs and future TCCs to prepare their units prior to a deployment. This document defines prerequisite skills at individual and collective level and offers a progressive training cycle. This document is under development and completes the Operational Readiness

African Defense/September 2016

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Assurance and Performance Improvement policy promulgated in December 2015. African Defense: There have been some unacceptable, perhaps even criminal actions by a few peacekeepers on sanctioned missions over the years? What is your office’s responsibility to make sure that each participating country is aware of the expected code of conduct and to ensure that it is understood not only at a senior command level but that it is known and understood down to and at individual peacekeeper level? Is there a watchdog office within the Peacekeeping Department that keeps an eye on morale and peacekeeper interaction with local populations? Mohammed: Sexual exploitation and abuse in peacekeeping is unacceptable. The UN maintains a zero tolerance policy for sexual abuse. This is a problem and we are committed to addressing at all levels. This is a shared responsibility with troop contributing countries, and we depend on a strong partnership with member states to do so. Working together, we must ensure accountability and transparency. We have strengthened our vetting process for military contingents. In April 2016, the Secretariat began vetting all individuals being deployed as members of military contingents or police units for prior misconduct, including sexual exploitation and abuse, while in the service of the UN. In terms of oversight, the Secretariat has asked member states to appoint national investigation officers (NIOs) within five days of receiving an allegation of sexual exploitation and abuse, rather than the 10day period normally required by the MOU. Some member states have started deploying NIOs as part of their contingents, or have a team of national investigation officers, with the capacity to deploy to a peacekeeping mission within three days. In addition, there are military police units in all peacekeeping missions where troops are deployed. The force commanders also implement a non-fraternization policy on the ground, especially in areas where our military installations are in close proximity to urban and civilian populations. I should mention also that there are conduct and discipline teams in peacekeeping missions. These teams implement the mission strategy on training, prevention, enforcement and


remedial action, and advise the heads of mission, force and contingent commanders on related issues. Several measures aim to prevent sexual abuse and exploitation in peacekeeping missions, from awareness-raising campaigns in local communities to training. In terms of training, the UN provides pre-deployment materials to all troop- and policecontributing countries. Member states are responsible for training their personnel prior to their deployment in peacekeeping operations. OMA is interacting with TCCs to address the need for proper training before and during deployment. TCCs must certify that all unit members deploying to UN peacekeeping missions have undergone the required pre-deployment training in conduct and discipline, including on sexual exploitation and abuse, which are delivered in accordance with UN standards. Upon arrival in the mission area, uniformed personnel receive further training on sexual exploitation and abuse, and, more widely, conduct and discipline training, which builds upon the pre-deployment training provided by member states. Finally, the UN is also launching a new mandatory e-learning program to strengthen training on the standards of conduct, as well as the expectations of accountability and individual responsibility in matters of conduct and discipline, with a special focus on sexual exploitation and abuse. African Defense: What is the level of communication and sharing of experiences between the UN/OMA and the similar offices within the African Union or regional standby force organizations? Mohammed: Coming from Africa, African issues are very important to me. As a starting point, I will take you back to when I was the military adviser to the Kenyan Permanent Mission to the UN. Based on what we saw of peacekeeping efforts in Africa, a few of us came together and developed a paper that would ultimately become the foundation of the African standby system. As the concept evolved, we sent a team to the African Union with five regional African standby forces emerging from those discussions. It also led to the creation of the African Standby Force logistical hub in Douala, Cameroon. Indeed there has been extensive communication and partnership between

the UN/DPKO/OMA and the African Union at various levels, particularly following the conceptualization of the African Standby Force (ASF) in 2002. The ASF has been, within the overall African Peace and Security Architecture, a standby arrangement formed through pledges from the African Union (AU) member states and the regional economic communities and regional mechanisms to provide the AU with capabilities to respond rapidly to emergency situations. There are five regional standby multidisciplinary contingents provided by each region in Africa (East, West, North, Central and South), with civilian, police and military components. From the outset, the UN provided full support to the ASF continental framework. Security Council resolution 2033 (2013) and General Assembly resolution A/RES/67/302 (2013) both requested the UN to assist in the operationalization of the ASF. In addition, in line with the Ten-Year Capacity Building Program, DPKO/OMA has been assisting the AU in the development of the ASF and in building its long-term institutional capacity to plan, deploy and manage complex multidimensional peacekeeping operations. In addition, OMA generates military planners who are deployed as part of the United Nations Office to the African Union (UNOAU) in Addis Ababa and who serve as interlocutors with the AU. Recent coordination efforts include the conduct of lessons learned and review in close cooperation with the AU, on the transition from AU led to UN peacekeeping operations in both Mali and CAR. DPKO/OMA coordinated with the AU and provided specialist advice on military planning, preparation of support, and establishment of an integrated facility to carry out joint operational assessments and analysis in support of the transition in CAR. Another good example was embedding UN personnel in the headquarters of the regional force prior to the transition (Addis Ababa and Bangui levels). We fully support the operationalization of ASF as this could serve as a bridging mechanism for the UN in which regional capacities are used for active combat or peace enforcement requiring early action or to complement a peacekeeping operation. This mechanism includes preventive deployment, in extremis (surge capacity), while UN engagement is used for sustained multi-functional support to the entire

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peace building process in the medium to long term, such as in Somalia and Mali to name just a few. This requires sustainable communication and partnership with the African Union. It is in view of this the UN has a number of times deployed assessment missions to the AU. The objective of these missions were to evaluate the progress made in the operationalization of the African Standby Force; in particular, identify gaps and assess the requirements to enhance the effectiveness of the ASF to meet its most critical needs, discuss options to facilitate joint planning and finally seek elaborate innovative approaches and opportunities for strategic and operational support toward the operationalization of the ASF. In conclusion, the ASF has the potential to be a beneficial tool for both the AU and UN to enhance options of standby or rapid response capabilities building on regional capacities, especially in Africa where over 80 percent of UN uniformed peacekeeping personnel are currently serving. African Defense: What are some success stories on peacekeeping in Africa?

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Mohammed: There are numerous past success stories on peacekeeping in Africa which provide hope to the ongoing efforts on the continent. One of the best, and early, UN peacekeeping success stories was in Namibia. This mission was successful because the country was committed to the cause, the internal parties were committed to the cause and the TCCs came very well prepared. The mission was able to start and conclude operations as desired and on schedule. After independence, some members of the TCCs stayed behind and helped Namibia build its armed forces and other institutions. Those countries as still held in high regard by Namibia today. Mozambique was another great example of a UN peacekeeping success story. While the situation looked hopeless initially, the UN was able to intervene and bring peace to this country. Equally, Angola was a success story for the United Nations. Another mission I should mention is Sierra Leone, where there were difficult challenges in its early days but a clear example of where the UN stayed the course despite those challenges. In fact, in 2000 UN peacekeepers suffered the worst attack in its history. And not only the UN but the

African peacekeepers themselves did not abandon the mission. The African force commander was very committed to seeing the mission through to fruition. Neighbors to Sierra Leone, both Côte d’Ivoire and Liberia, can also be counted among UN success operations with the end of both missions expected next year. Côte d’Ivoire is another example of where the government and the UN work in unison to ensure the delivery of peace and stability to the country. Their combined strength made it virtually impossible for other factions to cause disruptions to the process. Liberia has gone through a very difficult period and we are happy that again the UN stayed the course. A unique element in Liberia was that after overseeing independence, the UN stayed to provide support both to the political process and institutional building to ensure that the country took off well. Many of the issues in that region, Sierra Leone, Côte d’Ivoire and Liberia, are cross border and affect all countries—not just one—and those issues need to be addressed in their totality, not individually. The lesson that needs to be taken for the future is that where there is a


Africa is a first responder to conflicts in Africa. Out of 90,000 peacekeepers overall, more than 40,000 troops from almost 40 (out of a total of 54) African countries are deployed in UN missions, mainly in Africa but also in the Middle East. UN photo.

commitment from the national government and the UN, peace can be achieved and normalcy can be restored. Overall, the UN has significantly contributed to an Africa that is much better off and at peace with itself than two decades ago. African Defense: Leadership and professionalism have been areas of personal interest to you. What is your message to African militaries about building a professional officer corps—and to young officers looking to the military as a career? Mohammed: Thank you for this question as this is a subject very dear to me. I have been associated with the professional development of military officers. Indeed, I taught at the Staff Colleges in Kenya and the UK and have always enjoyed doing this. I need not over emphasize that professionalism and good leadership are key to the success of any military entity. In this respect nurturing these two elements early in the career of officers, and developing it as the officer grows in the profession is very important. Officers must be trained to be good field commanders and also remain good managers where they take responsibility and make decisions while also retaining accountability for all their actions. I should also emphasis that being a good professional officer does not only entail working very hard and continuous learning, but also being on the moral high ground. This implies full respect for International Humanitarian Law, Human Rights and impeccable conduct and discipline both from the officer and those under his or her command. In general, service in the African militaries is a career and many officers have taken this line very seriously. Most officers are self-motivated and look forward to providing their best service. The system should take advantage of and work to further build the leadership qualities of


these officers through the various training institutions. As a starting point to improve this at mid–career level, we need to ensure that our command and staff colleges are open to other countries in the region. As some countries may lack strong and effective institutional leadership educational facilities, it is important that neighboring countries share these capabilities. We stress this very strongly with all of our TCCs when they look to build internal capacity. I would also urge African countries to seize the opportunity and send their good officers to renowned defence colleges worldwide as this broadens the perspective of the officer to the benefit of the individual and the country. USA, UK, France, India and Pakistan come to mind in this regard. With a strong educational and institutional background, it is critical we encourage young officers to work hard so they can rise to the top and not only lead national troops on international assignments, but also command multinational forces on those same missions. It can be done, it has been done and we need to continue growing in this area. African Defense: Any closing thoughts? Mohammed: I very much appreciate the opportunity to serve in this office for the last three years. Overall I would say that the Office of Military Affairs is doing a wonderful job in terms of setting conditions for the provision of peace within areas of conflict. The work of the office and our partner TCCs is very noble. OMA/TCCs, through a peacekeeping force, strives to bring peace to areas of strife and to suffering populations where governments have failed to protect their own civilians—and in fact are committing some of the atrocities. It is very disheartening when there is

a need and desire to send in blue helmet peacekeepers and the host government says no. A perfect example is South Sudan. From 2013 to today, while their people continue to suffer, the government refuses the full support that could help end the oppression and suffering. It is important to have good government structures in place, however, there still needs to be a willingness to act. In Africa we have the early warning mechanisms in place but there must be a commitment to act sooner rather than later. Africa must take advantage of the mechanisms it already has in place and be more committed to providing peace and security to their people. Africans must act together to see its house in order. We talk a lot about building capacity but I think, in some cases, we are beyond the point of building capacity and expertise. It is more about commitment. We have seen instances where an African Force commander leading African Union peacekeeping force is experiencing challenges in managing the mission yet when the same mission is re-hatted to a UN mission and he assumes command of the forces, the mission delivers the expected results. This was indeed the case in MINUSCA on re-hatting in 2014. This reaffirms that it is about commitment by the African member states. I must also recognize that out of 90,000 overall, more than 40,000 troops from almost 40 (out of a total of 54) African countries are deployed in UN missions, mainly in Africa but also in the Middle East. We have seen a great number of African force and sector commanders, performing in an excellent way under very challenging circumstances. In addition, over 22.000 brave African soldiers are helping to restore peace and stability in Somalia under the flag of the African Union. Furthermore I must give credit to Africa for being a first responder to conflicts in Africa. Gallant African soldiers were deployed to Mali and again in CAR. This is a very commendable act. It, however, needs the commitment and resources to stay the course and see the challenge through to the end. We need to build on this and see how we can deploy well trained, well prepared, well equipped soldiers. This is the only way we can play our rightful role in maintaining peace and security in Africa. By doing this, we will bring order and help to maintain peace and stability.

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Africa Security Forum 5-6 October 2016 | Addis Ababa

Africa Security Forum 5-6 October 2016, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia The first of its kind, in agreement with the African Union Commission (AUC), this high-level two-day event will welcome Government officials from Africa’s 54 member states alongside U.S., UN and international agencies and best-of-breed security and peacekeeping operators and technology specialists for an exhibition, plenary discussion, networking and peer-topeer matchmaking meetings. The Africa Security Forum will present new projects, propose new solutions, share best practices and create lasting collaborations to aid ongoing regional and international cooperation efforts.

Further details: Enquiries to: or +44 (0)20 3640 8222 places strictly limited African Defense/September 2016



Underwater Strike Russia’s special exporter Rosoboronexport is a leading player in the naval equipment market in the world. The navies successfully operate Russian ships and submarines. At the same time demand is getting higher for systems and weapons compatible with ships built in countries other than Russia. Particularly it is true for a wide range of underwater weapons, including anti-submarine missiles, rocketpropelled depth charges, torpedoes and sea mines. The following ship-based underwater weapons possess great export potential: the 533mm DTA-53 twin torpedoes tubes, RPK-8 anti-submarine warfare (ASW) missile system launching 212mm homing underwater gravitational projectiles and MG-94ME hydro-acoustic jamming shells providing protection from torpedoes, RBU-6000 antisubmarine rocket launcher firing RGB-60 depth charge bombs or carrying 90R underwater gravitational projectiles. The Purga-11661 system is offered for export to operate ASW weapons. Those are time-tested and well-known in the market equipment meeting modern requirements. Some advanced systems also attract increasing attention. Among them is the 91RTE ASW missile of the surface ships fired by the Club-N system and Paket-E/ NK small ASW torpedo launcher. The 91RTE missile will kill all types of submarines at any depth they can go (up to 800m) and range of 5km to 40km. It flies with a ballistic trajectory to the estimated area of operation of the target 18

and parachutes to the water. As soon as the homing system is trigged it will not take the missile long to destroy the target. The 91RE1 missile is compatible with the submarine-based Club-S. The fact that Russian submarines including the Project 636 and Amur-1650 carry it is a key to their superiority over foreign counterparts. Another advanced system—the Paket-E/NK—provides effective antisubmarine defense at a range of up to 10km and torpedo protection at 100m to 800m. It features a control system, launchers, special sonar, and armaments fitted with 324mm small thermal torpedoes or countermeasure anti-torpedoes. Being one of the cutting-edge systems in the international market, the Paket-E/NK alone can make torpedo protection of the carrier ship 3-3.5 times stronger. Speaking of submarine-borne underwater weapons, apart from the Club-S that Rosoboronexport offers, there are

also 533mm TE-2 all-purpose electric, remotely controlled torpedoes and UGST multipurpose deep-water homing torpedoes. The TE-2 can destroy submarines at a range of up to 25km and depth of 450m. Its ability to operate in heavy ECCM environment, powerful propulsion unit, built-in test system, long service life, and cheap operation are distinctive characteristics of the weapon. The UGST can also hit ships and stationary targets, as well as submarines at a range of up to 50km and depth up to 500m. Once launched it either can home on the target or be guided to it through its remotely controlled system. Its modular design makes easier a task to reconfigure the missile according to the requirements of the Customer. It is applicable to the whole range of operations form reprogramming baseline equipment to replacing engine and storage tanks. There are several warheads for the weapon


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varying in composition and quantity of explosive. Another area where Russia also dominates is the mine market. Here Rosoboronexport offers the MDM-1 (packed with 1,100kg of explosive) and MDM-2 (1,030kg) bottom mines to create a mine threat and destroy surface ships and submarines. There is also the MDM-3 (300kg) mine that is destructive to ships with a small displacement and landing craft. All mines are protected from attempts to retrieve them, even using non-contact assets, and detect by sonars and underwater mine hunters. Extremely effective is also the MShM (packed with up to 380kg of explosive) rocket propelled, moored rising shelf mine designed to destroy surface ships and submarines at a depth of 60m to 600m. As soon as the mine picks noise generated by a target it will launch a rocket. Its high speed and little time required to fire it—up to 25sec—make any evasive maneuver futile. Rosoboronexport offers underwater weapons that are deployed in Russia’s Navy and navies of many other countries.



African Defense/September 2016


Operating and Building Capacity in the Gray Zone

African Defense interviews Brigadier General Donald C. Bolduc, commander of US Special Operations Command Africa on the challenges and opportunities facing the continent.

Q: Before we start, tell us a little about Special Operations Command Africa. What’s keeping your team busy at the moment? Bolduc: Sure — thanks for the opportunity to talk to you today. Special Operations Command Africa is the special operations forces (SOF) component of USAFRICOM. In this role we’re the theater special operations command responsible for SOF integration in Africa. With a SOF network of between 1,500 to 1,700 operators, analysts and support personnel forward deployed across the African continent at any given moment, SOCAFRICA is leveraged to support operations driven towards the protection of US persons and interests in Africa, assist African partners in providing for their own defense and counter the spread of violent extremist organizations (VEOs) on the continent. Our command has three forward elements: SOCFWD-East Africa, SOCFWDCentral Africa and SOCFWD-North and West Africa…..but don’t let the geographic names get in the way—I often say our teams are “threat-focused” and will tend to move with their African partners to enable regional solutions and go where the threat is at the moment. In addition, our Joint Special Operations Air Component manages aircraft assets, air support and coordination across Africa. SOCAFRICA integrates SOF capabilities from every branch of the US military and works closely with partners in more than 20 countries. In addition to the threats emanating from areas of instability in Africa, VEO threats with the capability to reach beyond the African continent are a problem set the


SOCAFRICA component is keenly focused on at the moment. In fact, USAFRICOM has designated SOCAFRICA as the lead component to execute the geographic combatant command’s counter-VEO operations. Recent attacks in Mali, Burkina Faso, Tunisia, Somalia, Turkey and several countries in Europe have really underscored the fact that these groups are transnational, unpredictable….and dangerous. Q: Explain your view….or rather, the SOCAFRICA component’s view of the Gray Zone in Africa. Bolduc: The Gray Zone, or the spectrum of conflict between war and peace, is where we operate every day in Africa. This environment is volatile, uncertain and complex—it’s an immense challenge for government, military, law enforcement and development efforts. In this complex environment is where extremism thrives…. an ambiguous place violent organizations are able to find a safe haven. These threats facing our African partners are typically non-state actors, operating in a transregional and trans-national, decentralized and dispersed construct, seeking to dominate vulnerable populations who have lost hope due to ineffective governance. Our operating environment is the very definition of the Gray Zone….we are not at war in Africa—but our African partners certainly are. With this mindset, we approach our mission in Africa as ‘one SOF team’ enabling African partner nations in a supporting role. We’re supporting African military professionalization and capability-building efforts, we’re supporting

development and governance via civil affairs and military information support operations teams, and we’re supporting civil administration by providing time and space for these vital institutions to expand governance into remote areas. We are careful not to replace our partners will with our capability or capacity. We want them to own the problem, fight or solution. In Africa, we are not the kinetic solution. If required, our partner should conduct those types of actions. We do, however, build this capability, share information, provide advice, assistance, accompany and support with enablers. SOCAFRICA operations in the Gray Zone are not unilateral….we’re working in support of our partners. Most importantly, our entire command recognizes SOF in Africa operate in an environment where diplomacy is key to attaining US policy objectives; the country teams’ integrated country strategy must drive a synchronized, comprehensive approach across the regions. Working in the Gray Zone takes a change of mindset for staffs and the flexibility to try new approaches to complement other US government stability efforts. For SOCAFRICA, and SOF in general, we understand our efforts are part of the solution, but not the solution. Q: What are the challenges to operating in a transregional threat environment, when everything you do is organized around recognizing boundaries on a map and understood norms of action? Bolduc: I’m glad you asked—because terrorists, criminals and non-state actors aren’t bound by arbitrary borders.

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Especially in Africa where borders exist on maps, but in reality there’s no ‘line in the sand,’ little or no border security in remote areas and centuries-old smuggling routes supported by nomadic populations. Threat groups are able to move relatively freely to areas of instability to exploit a lack governance and recruit from underserved populations. Terror groups use the Internet and sophisticated propaganda efforts to push their message easily across borders to find receptive, sympathetic audiences. These organizations endanger the safety and security of all African states as violence disrupts and spreads from areas of instability to stronger nations. Countering these threats—creating a more stable and prosperous continent—is in the common interest of the United States and African partner nations. That said, everything we do is not organized around recognizing traditional borders. In fact, our whole command philosophy is about enabling cross-border solutions, implementing multi-national, collective actions and empowering African partner nations to work across borders to solve problems using a regional approach. Our partners and SOCFWD commands recognize the arbitrary nature of borders and understand the only way to combat modern-day threats like ISIS, AQIM, Boko Haram and myriad others, is to leverage the capabilities of SOF professionals working in concert. And that’s not only African partners working together, but it’s important to note the vital role European SOF have in disrupting terror networks. Borders may be notional and don’t protect a country from the spread of violent extremism….but neither do oceans, mountains….or distance. Some examples of this approach are the African Union Regional Task Force in Central Africa, the four-nation effort to stop the Lord’s Resistance Army (a task force that has been incredibly successful, I’d add), the Multi-National Joint Task Force in the Lake Chad Basin combatting Boko Haram and the African Union operations in Somalia. We’ve also greatly expanded the Flintlock exercise series; last year more than 20 countries participated in this SOF-focused, capacity building event. In 2017, we expect Flintlock to continue to grow to include SOF from more countries, more interagency partners and provide, I believe, more value to participants and host nations. I can’t stress enough how important a trusting, relationship-based approach

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is to solving these problems. Just to illustrate how serious our command is about this approach — here are the topline themes from one of my last engagements: African-led, Cooperation, Collaboration, Relationships, Learning and Sharing, Collective Solutions to Collective Challenges. Clearly, we’re about working across borders to create a more stable and secure Africa….these goals are in all of our countries’ interests. Q: Capacity building is the name of the game these days. What is the process to determine what capacity should be addressed? Do you wait for requests from a host country for a particular skill or is there an identification of gaps and then approaching the partnership country with a suggestion of options? Bolduc: A bit of both. Everything we do is nested in the USAFRICOM Theater Campaign Plan (TCP). Under the geographic combatant command’s plan (which is available publicly and briefed to Congress every year), activities and objectives are clearly outlined to guide subordinate units in their engagement with African partner nations. Under the TCP’s five lines of effort, each component aligns and synchronizes its activities to ensure we’re building towards common goals. Necessarily, the capacitybuilding programs the SOF component is responsible for are rooted in one or more of these TCP lines of effort. In addition, each country team and US ambassador has

their own, more tailored objectives for each respective country. Through our SOF liaison officers, the Ambassadors’ and Office of Security Cooperation intentions shape and guide proposals for the coming year. These US embassy chiefs of mission play a critical role in strengthening military-to-military relationships and guide our operations as they’re the US government’s most enduring presence in country. In addition to aligning our efforts under the USAFRICOM TCP and the country team’s goals as articulated in each integrated country plan, SOCAFRICA’s capacity-building actions must always be in line with larger USSOCOM and DoD objectives—and most importantly, shaped by our relationships with African counterparts. For example, on a recent trip to Burkina Faso the Chief of Defense discussed the need for the country to expand SOF response capabilities. After the hotel attacks in the region, countries recognize the need to expand the use of specialized, highlytrained counter-terror units. Burkina Faso already has a regiment with the requisite skills, so a joint combined exchange training (JCET) to expand and diversify these capabilities was quickly planned. In nearby Senegal, our relationship with the SF company led to a deeper connection between military SOF and the gendarmerie, a new intelligence-operations fusion capability and more emphasis on first responders who could react to terrorrelated events. Our relationships inform

US Army Special Forces train Senegalese soldiers for range techniques in Thies, Senegal. Photo by Andrea K. Serhan, US Army.


Brigadier General Donald C. Bolduc Commander US Special Operations Command Africa Brigadier General Donald C. Bolduc is the commander, Special Operations Command Africa, headquartered at Kelley Barracks near Stuttgart, Germany. In this role, he is responsible for the full spectrum of special operations activities across the African continent and the more than 1,700 US military, interagency and international military personnel operating in 27 countries throughout Africa and Europe. SOCAFRICA is designated as US Africa Command’s lead counter-terror operations component. Prior to this assignment, Bolduc served as the deputy director for operations, United States Africa Command. Bolduc earned his ROTC commission in 1989, graduating from Salem State College, Mass. Throughout his distinguished career, Bolduc has commanded at multiple levels, including: Combined Forces Special Operations Component Command, Afghanistan; Combined Joint Special Operation Task Force – Afghanistan; 1st Battalion, 3rd Special Forces Group, Afghanistan; C Company, 2nd Battalion, 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne); and HHC, 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne). His Army and joint experience includes: assistant deputy director for special operations, J-37, Joint Staff, Pentagon; deputy acquisition officer, United States Army Special Operations Command; Executive officer to the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low Intensity Conflict, Office of the Secretary of Defense; aide-de-camp, Secretary of the Army; joint policy officer, US Total Army Personnel Command; assistant operations officer, 3rd Battalion, 10th Special Forces Command; and chemical officer, 6th Battalion, 37th Field Artillery, 2nd Infantry Division. Bolduc’s combat experience is extensive and includes six deployments to Afghanistan for Operation Enduring Freedom between 2001 and 2013; two deployments to Kuwait for Operation Desert Spring and Vigilant Warrior in 2002 and 1995; and one deployment to Iraq for Operation Desert Storm in 1991. our planning, but the threat also shapes our way ahead—we have to be flexible and think of the requirements of each partner individually while balancing the need to create regional, cooperative solutions. Q: How are these capacity building missions measured for success? It seems that there is a strong case to be made for a more persistent engagement so that the newly learned capacity becomes normal for the parent nation. Bolduc: Capacity building takes time— there’s no shortcuts. A lot of planning, literally years of planning, and coordination has to take place for these types of efforts to actually be value-added for the African partner military force and the host nation. There’s really three levels of consideration when you start to measure capacity building efforts for success…. and by success I mean does the capacity building effort lead to a permanent change


in tactics, techniques and procedures?… does the capacity building effort lead to a change in behavior, processes and approach? and does the capacity building effort stand up to a true test or crisis? These are some of the hard questions you have to ask to really measure whether these programs are worthwhile. The tactical aspects of training are relatively immediate and easy to measure. During a JCET, exercise or training event, a special forces unit might train a partner force in a particular tactical skill and can quickly ascertain if the training audience has adopted the capability. Trainers can objectively measure competency, then exercise, exercise, exercise that particular skill until it becomes a routine. Next is the operational level of capacity. How well does the partner force execute in a real-world situation? What are the actual effects on the battlefield? Often, this is where we’ll be able to identify deficiencies that aren’t as readily apparent

initially. For example, if a unit is able to act on a target with proficiency, but is unable to move to the objective because they’re waiting on an order to leave the base, or don’t have the logistical support to get to the target and back—then there’s a larger problem. Reoccurring SOF engagements where a unit has a habitual relationship with a partner force can help to identify these types of operational-level gaps. Lastly is the strategic end-state—a much more long-term and harder goal to accomplish. When you study these types of objectives you have to question whether the partner force is achieving generational success and moving towards an integrated strategy. Is the military working in concert with law enforcement, civil administration and civilian authorities while respecting human rights and the rule of law? Measuring this type of capacity requires the insights of the entire country team, as well as the special operations liaison officer. It’s incredibly challenging for any military force to plan, collaborate and execute longterm operations with proficiency at the strategic level. I’m also glad you used the word persistent. While we don’t have permanent bases in Africa like we do in Europe or other continents, we do have regionally-aligned SOF units who have a persistent, longterm relationships with a particular region. They’re singularly focused on learning appropriate languages (and local dialects), deploying to particular areas repeatedly and building enduring relationships with their SOF counterparts in the region. For Africa, the 3rd Special Forces Group based in, Fort Bragg, N.C., is the Special Forces unit aligned with the African continent. The unit is also the force provider and command element for SOCFWDNorth and West Africa. The rotational, but persistent presence 3rd SF Group has with African partners enables soldiers to develop true friendships and rapport with their counterparts at all levels—to truly understand the needs of their partners. Naval Special Warfare Unit 10 primarily supports SOCFWD-East Africa (and a variety of other training missions across Africa), while 20th Special Forces Group provides additional Reserve manpower to the counter-Lord’s Resistance Army mission in Central Africa. In addition, Marine Raiders (MARSOC) act as SOF liaison elements at some of our US embassies, execute training programs in several countries and partner

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with African military forces to counter current threats. Each of these regionallyaligned groups is doing great work in moving forward with African partners…. together. Speaking of needs, one of the biggest needs we’ve identified is the development of a professional NCO corps. The NCO ranks are the backbone of the force, the technical experts and the people we trust to execute the most critical tasks. In Africa, many of these military units are dependent on topdown guidance where every decision and every task is managed by a senior person. This leads to inefficient operations and a long lead time to move out on an objective. We’re constantly working with our African partners to develop a professional, trusted and capable cadre of African NCOs who are able to manage their teams and train their own staff in the vital skills they’ll need for today’s fight. Q: Is there a skill or mission set most requested by the African partners? Bolduc: As I mentioned earlier, while our nation may not be at war in Africa, the African partner nations we support are. The threat of organizations such as Al Shabaab, Boko Haram, AQIM and ISIL is present within their own borders, across the region and in a growing number of urban areas— as evidenced by the deadly hotel attacks late last year and earlier this year. The SOF capabilities SOCAFRICA is able to provide under training, logistics, intelligence sharing and advise-and-assist authorities are unfortunately in high-demand as threat groups look to move their brand of terrorism from traditional smuggling routes and under-governed spaces to urban population centers and vulnerable targets in the capitals of these African states. African partners are most often requesting the types of skill sets that will enable them to combat these types of asymmetric threats using the limited resources they have. It doesn’t help if you bring in a gold-plated solution; the capabilities we’re seeking to build must be sustainable, durable and affordable. For example, in Mauritania our civil affairs (CA) teams helped the country to stand-up its own civil affairs capability. Mauritania identified a need to extend government presence and services into remote border areas as AQIM attempts to spread its influence into under-governed

African Defense/September 2016

spaces. While the US might periodically provide additional tailored training to the Mauritanian CA unit, they’re now able to conduct operations without the need for additional support. In other countries, our teams have been asked to increase the partner nation’s ability to action intelligence or stand up a more robust cyber or social media monitoring capability. This type of training is key to understanding terror or criminal networks as these illicit groups tend to rely on technology to spread their ideology, communicate and plan for future attacks. So there’s no single skill or mission set most in demand—each region presents its own unique challenges based on the maturity of the partner force, the capabilities and sustainment capacity of the host nation, and the threats operating in the area. Speaking more thematically, SOCAFRICA training operations are threat-focused, regionally aligned and aimed at supporting African partner nations across the spectrum of peace and conflict—from rule of law training and the professionalization of partner nation non-commissioned officers to assisting African regional task forces in their efforts to target key threat groups such as ISIL, Boko Haram or the Lord’s Resistance Army. The SOF network helps create specific tailored training for partner nations to empower military and law enforcement to conduct operations against our mutual threats, build response capabilities and strengthen cooperation between African states. We act as the SOF integrator for the full spectrum of capabilities and capacity-building efforts USAFRICOM is providing in Africa. By enhancing our multi-national SOF network and growing these types of capabilities in African partners, we believe the United States can have the most impact on the spread of violent extremism in Africa.

intelligence, and operational-level planning. Past iterations have been held in Niger, Chad, Senegal and Mauritania (among others). Flintlock has grown over the years to more than 2,200 participants and now includes FBI and other interagency partners to shift the event from solely a SOF-focused event to more of a comprehensive response to threat of VEOs. The focus is on threats in North and West Africa, but media, liaison officers and observers come from all over the world to see how the combined team is training together at the remote outstations to prepare for cooperative missions anywhere SOF may need to work together. Silent Warrior is another event our command hosts in various locations. This exercise is traditionally a US and African partner nation exercise where teams will plan a contingency response effort and work through the logistical, command and control and coordinating functions required to execute an operation. It’s similar to Epic Guardian, another contingency responseexercise, except with Epic Guardian our team actually deploys crisis response forces in support of a US embassy evacuation

Q: Are there enough SOF-centric exercises in Africa? Are the African partners, SOCAFRICA and the other participants squeezing all of the opportunities from those events? Bolduc: There are quite a few. We’re especially proud of the Flintlock series of exercises, our biggest event of the year. The Flintlock exercise brings together SOF from more than 20 North American, European and African countries to train in counterterror operations, human rights, tactical field care, civil affairs, communications and

Brigadier General Donald Bolduc speaks to a US Army Special Forces team in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Bolduc and senior enlisted leader visited troops supporting Operation Observant Compass, the multinational effort to counter the Lord’s Resistance Army in Central Africa. Photo by Sergeant 1st Class Christopher Klutts.


or force augmentation. I hope Special Operations International can join us for one of these exercises—we’d welcome the chance for you to talk with our African partners or witness the training in action. Q: Do you hold an annual special operations commanders conference? Are there mechanisms in place that allow a somewhat regular, if not constant, level of communication with your African contemporaries? Bolduc: There are a number of conferences and events we host to ensure communication and synchronization between our staff, African partner nations, US embassy and country teams and interagency organizations is maintained. There’s an annual commander’s conference in Germany where attendees from across Africa share ideas and perspectives— that’s a key event for us, but not the only engagement we have together. We also host senior leader symposiums to engage with civil administration, law enforcement and local voices to gain a deeper understanding of the problem sets our team is tasked to tackle. With these periodic events we’re able to engage with high-level leaders, general officers and key decision makers. Day-to-day communication with African counterparts is the responsibility of our special operations forces liaison officers

stationed in US embassies, SOCFWD staffs and teams on the ground. With all of these points of contact dedicated to the task, our African partners have a direct line to our team. And like old friends, we talk with one another a lot. I’m on the phone with my African counterparts, on the continent in one-on-one meetings and at larger events nearly every day—by being available and receptive, our team is always working the “useful and necessary” projects they identify. That’s the test I’ve outlined for my staff: all programs must be useful to the partner nation (not the foreign agenda) and necessary to advance the partner nations capabilities. If they don’t pass this simple test….we need to focus on programs that do meet the African partner nation’s needs. Q: Can you talk about any special operations assistance to Nigeria in specific in the hunt for the Chibok Girls and in the Boko Haram fight in general? Bolduc: At the request of the government of Nigeria, SOCAFRICA’s SOF teams are playing a central role in the counter Boko Haram fight. It’s not only Nigeria, but the entire Lake Chad Basin is working together to contain, degrade and eliminate the Boko Haram threat; everything we do on the continent is connected by our partners and threat. SOF are primarily serving as trainers and advisors to our partner nation armies.

Through JCET iterations, SOF are bolstering partner nation armies by providing instruction on combat skills from the basic fundamentals of operating weapon systems to the strategy and coordination of waging large-scale operations. Upon completion of each JCET, partner nation units are certified as proficient to deploy to combat Boko Haram militants. The training does not stop after partner nation military’s have completed the JCET. USSOF personnel conduct bilateral missions alongside partner nation military units to advise commanders throughout the engagements and to validate the unit’s performance. USSOF are also advising senior leaders of our partner nations in intelligence fusion centers. These centers operate as focal points for the receipt, analysis, gathering and sharing of threat-related information across the battlefield. Also in the realm of intelligence gathering, USSOF are providing our partner nation military’s intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance capabilities necessary to combat the Boko Haram threat. Finally, USSOF are working hand in hand with the embassies in our partner nations, the US Department of State and the ambassadors to ensure for coordination amongst our country teams and to promote embassy objectives. Q: Africa’s overall population is expected to grown by about 60 percent by 2030, with much of the population driving towards urban areas and will be heavily young.

Senegalese soldiers practice basic marsksmanship skills from a prone position at a range in Podor, Senegal, while being coached by Italian Special Forces during Operation Flintlock. Photo courtesy of SOCAFRICA.


African Defense/September 2016

Disenfranchised youth are susceptible to radicalization, especially in less than governed areas. Does SOCAFRICA, as part of the larger USAFRICOM strategy, have a role to help partners develop solutions and counteract the radical rhetoric? Bolduc: Most certainly. First, it’s important to note there are several issues compounding to make countering radical rhetoric a wickedly complex problem set. For much of modern history, violent extremism and insurgencies found a receptive ear outside urban areas, radicalizing the disenfranchised and recruiting from lower socio-economic populations. Increasingly, we’re now seeing extremists shift from rural insurgencies to more urban movements, with direct access to a more diverse pool of recruits from all backgrounds and the ability to rapidly spread their message via social media and communications technologies. And the message is becoming more sophisticated, extending to all classes, economic, ethnic and social strata. There’s no doubt, by 2030 Africa’s population will grow substantially and become increasingly urban. The current trend of impoverished youth traveling to cities in order to seek employment and opportunities will undoubtedly continue. As a result, Africa will be home to six mega-cities by 2030 (in addition there will be 12 large cities with populations of approximately 10 million). As these cities become crowded, with employment and resource challenges, extremist narratives will have greater access to recruits and the ability to spread via electronic means. Within a particular area, extremist rhetoric seeks influence to control and influence the population and external messaging attempts influence to support and inspire. The concern is the speed of dissemination and the reach of extremist rhetoric will grow beyond our partner’s ability to set the conditions for stability, monitor extremist networks, assess and react to these threats. Furthermore, attacks directly attributed to a particular organization are a challenge, but the inspired-by attacks presents an even more complex problem as the message itself become the means for the VEO to operationalize their rhetoric. Our current mission seeks to address these conditions where the VEO rhetoric might take hold. Operations are focused on three phases: protect the populace,

African Defense/September 2016

provide time and space for development, and lastly, set the conditions for civil administration, local governance and policing. We partner with SOF forces to react to threats, our intelligence team assists in cyber capabilities to monitor VEO networks and intelligence fusion centers help to coordinate information flow between neighboring countries. The military is not the answer—a comprehensive approach will require investments in a broad range of governance, economic and development initiatives. What we can do is help African states to provide security for citizens, allowing local government the time and space to extend their reach into under-served areas. SOCAFRICA SOF teams are continually working to link African military forces to civil administration and police forces—solutions that de-emphasize a military response and look to bolster development of effective governance, civilian control of the military and the successful integration of all aspects of the civil administration. Moving forward, SOCAFRICA and our partners will need to develop increased capability for social media monitoring in order to identify terror network nodes, determine potential threats and enable partners to disrupt these organization’s recruiting efforts. Much of what we’re talking about won’t look like a military solution, it’ll be a combination of civil administration, technological innovation and development efforts. There’s no simple answer—it’s a complex problem requiring a comprehensive approach. Q: Can you provide some detail on your civil affairs and MISO capabilities? Bolduc: Sure—civil affairs and military information support operations are two of our most robust, and in-demand, capabilities on the African continent. As I’ve said before, we’re not at war in Africa, but our African partners are. That statement makes the point for all our planners—our SOF mission is largely one of enabling, assisting and helping to communicate with the local population how their government is providing security, serving citizens’ needs and enhancing the state’s ability to provide services to remote populations. That’s where CA and MISO really punch above their weight. With fewer than 10 teams deployed across Africa at any given time, these teams are able to have a dramatic impact for a

relatively small investment in personnel and equipment. CA and MISO working with SOCAFRICA are critical as they bridge the gap between governance and security. Whether it’s building infrastructure or messaging access to local government healthcare, everything is centered on increasing the legitimacy of the African partner state. We’re not working to create recognition for US efforts. The goal is to increase the ability for African partner nations to project governance. SOF can assist militaries in building their capacity to provide security….but governance is a much more complex problem set requiring a comprehensive approach. The comprehensive approach means it’s hugely important to always coordinate and synchronize CA/MISO missions with US embassy development and assistance efforts. We view our role as complementary, and often in support of, USAID, NGOs and other developmental organizations. We’ve even embedded MISO teams in various Embassies to augment African partner nations messaging efforts, train host nation communicators and develop campaigns regarding local government services. These teams also assist African partners to bring together traditional, local, and regional leaders during Tribal Leader engagements. Unlike one-way messaging campaigns, Tribal Leader engagements are an opportunity to listen, something most militaries don’t do enough. For African security forces and law enforcement to hear directly from the civilian population about community needs, concerns and grievances, the government is better able to address issues with real impact. When military and law enforcement truly listen to citizens, teams are better able to identify critical vulnerabilities that serve as drivers of conflict, instability or contribute to support for violent extremist organizations. Despite the small footprint of CA and MISO teams in Africa, they’re a big part of our cooperative mission. Q: You’ve mentioned quite a few African ‘partner nations’ you and your team work with on the continent — how might you expand your mission into other African countries to change the US relationship in the future? Bolduc: We’re always looking for willing and capable partners; no one organization,


country or military can counter these threats effectively by working alone. USAFRICOM, through the SOCAFRICA TSOC, looks to provide significant longterm SOF investments in countries with stable governments and growing economies with the capacity to build strong defense institutions, the ability to export security throughout their respective regions, and the ability to synchronize regional security efforts. Many of the nations in Africa are still developing civil institutions, military and law enforcement apparatuses, as well as, the ability to project rule-of-law beyond urban centers to rural areas where the state has traditionally been absent. That’s one of our greatest challenges—enabling African partner nations to increase governance and provide services to vulnerable populations to counter the violent extremist narrative. The US relationship with African partners is as diverse as the continent itself. I’d emphasize the valuable contributions of Air Forces Africa, US Army Africa, Navy and Marine Forces Africa—the other components under USAFRICOM. The capabilities each of these organizations brings to the overall capacity-building effort absolutely provides the foundation for our SOF capability and capacitybuilding efforts. Each of the USAFRICOM components brings a unique perspective to the mission and gives our partners much more capabilities than any single solution could provide. A SOF solution is only one aspect of a comprehensive approach to engagement on the continent. That’s why I believe it’s important for the TSOC to work closely with other components, interagency partners, Justice, State Department, civil society and NGOs across the spectrum of conflict to assist African partner states. So when we talk about SOF engagement in Africa, it’s not only about training or advise-andassist missions….we take our cues from the country team and work with all of the stakeholders in country to ensure our objectives are nested in the overall strategy for the area. That said, within our area of expertise, we would be looking to bolster SOF support to countries who have demonstrated the resiliency to overcome the challenges of the VEO threat, the willingness to address human rights and rule-of-law concerns, and the military capacity to integrate the training provided by SOF teams. Some examples are Kenya, Uganda, South Africa,


Nigeria, Senegal, Niger, Morocco and Tunisia—each one has unique challenges and characteristics but all possess the desire to forge a long-term partnerships with the United States. SOF is a limited resource, so we’ll look to leverage these small teams where they’ll have the most profound impact. By working with countries who have the potential to export security, we can most directly address the regional challenges of our African partners and directly, positively influence multi-national counter VEO missions. Q: Is SOCAFRICA as big as it should be from an organizational and personnel perspective? To execute all of the missions requested of the command, are you as big as you need to be? Bolduc: Current plans call for SOCAFRICA staff to grow by about 100 people from our current level of approximately 275 over the next couple of years. That’s not a lot people in relation to the size of the African continent—an area approximately 3.5 times the size of the United States—and the number of missions SOF are tasked against on the continent. In addition, there are approximately 1,700 SOF and enablers deployed to our three SOCFWD elements at any given time. This team is active in 20 nations in support of seven major named operations. Asking any commander if they could use more personnel or resources is like asking a person if they could use more money—the answer will almost always be yes. There’s never a lack of good ideas, but being a lean organization tends to focus our efforts on what’s truly value-added and important to the mission. So I think our team is nearly right sized to accomplish the mission and enable our African partners. We have to keep to the SOF Truths and stay flexible—that becomes harder and harder for an organization as it gets bigger. In today’s resource-constrained environment, no military organization will ever have all they desire….but I’m certain we have all the talented, dedicated and motivated professionals we need to accomplish our mission. Accomplishing our mission isn’t about the size of the TSOC or the number of staff around leadership; we succeed by enabling Africans to address African security challenges. Where our partnership is welcomed and desired, we’ve got sharp

men and women ready to work alongside African military members to build the capability of partner nation forces to solve the problems facing the region. Headcount doesn’t guide our mission….the will of our partners and the objectives outlined in the USAFRICOM TCP do. Q: As you look forward over the next few years, what do you assess will be the biggest challenge for SOCAFRICA and your SOF teams in Africa? Bolduc: There’s no single challenge…. there are a number of inextricably linked challenges facing the Africa, the SOCAFRICA team and international SOF assistance on the continent. And I can’t stress enough how SOF is not the only answer to these problems. I’m an advocate for our capability and partnership, but these are generational efforts requiring military, civil administration, development, civil society and non-governmental organizations. This type of comprehensive approach and strategic coordination over the long-term is the first of many challenges I foresee for US assistance in Africa. This effort is in all our interests and it’s not impossible….we’ll just have to manage limited resources, manpower and time wisely to continue to make progress. Also, it’s been widely cited in academia and the media that Sub-Saharan Africa has the largest number of water stressed countries in the world….there’s approximately 300 million people already living in water-stressed environments. That’s a fact today—it only gets worse for subsequent, growing generations of impoverished peoples. The problem of resource scarcity can easily bring fragile states into conflict and turn neighbors into competitors. I believe it’s not a question of if water wars will occur, it’s a question of when and where. The “triple threat” facing Africa— population growth, resource scarcity and continued instability—is producing vulnerable populations primed for extremist recruiting while creating opportunities for exploitation from China, Russia, Iran and North Korea. How the United States balances its national interests, development, strategic relationships, counter terror operations and the intervention of foreign states will challenge special operations forces and interagency staffs in Africa for much of the next century.

African Defense/September 2016

Africa Entering Growth Period with Defense and Security Opportunities

African Defense talked with Thales’ Vice President Africa on the company’s approach and solutions for the continent. The company’s broad-based portfolio covers air, land and sea domains. Christophe Farnaud joined Thales in 2012 as vice president of international relations and became Vice President Africa in 2014. African Defense had the chance to talk with him in the time after the Marrakech Air Show and before Africa Aerospace and Defence.

African Defense There are certainly differences in many areas between northern Africa, central and southern. Can you explain how Thales understands those differences and how it approaches the different areas and Africa in general from a business development perspective? Farnaud: There isn’t one Africa. There are different countries with different needs. Each region has its own assets and challenges and Thales takes this into account when addressing the local markets. In Africa or elsewhere in the world, we always adapt our solutions and products and make sure they are custom-fit to the demands and specificities of our customers and partners. There are nonetheless some common topics and challenges faced by most African countries, such as the need for security and the demand for solutions to match the growth in mobility of people and freight both on land, sea, and air. Thales brings its expertise to these domains, facilitating regional cooperation. In air traffic management for instance, Thales’ systems are used to monitor around 80 percent of Africa’s skies, allowing for safer and more efficient regional air traffic. Thales is the supplier of choice across around 30 countries, including the 17 countries that make up the ASECNA cooperative civil aviation agency.

African Defense/September 2016

sectors in Africa in developing new customers and clients?

African Defense: I understand (perhaps based on old information) that Thales has operations in South Africa, Algeria, Cameroon, Morocco and Nigeria and has services in more than 30 more. First, when describing, “has operations” in a country, what does that exactly mean, versus having services in a country? Farnaud: Simply put, Thales has offices, production and maintenance sites or development facilities across a number of African countries. Thales’ teams located in these countries also provide services to a wider region comprising neighboring countries. That ensures that our presence throughout Africa, both in defense and civilian activities, spans over 30 countries. Talking about activities, we made the strategic choice to develop an industrial footprint in several countries of Africa, for instance in South Africa or Morocco. And we want to go further. African Defense: Second, is there a developed roadmap on how Thales is approaching the military, government and security

Farnaud: Due to the current geopolitical context, security and defense are key priorities everywhere, including in Africa. Africa is a strategic region for Thales and we hope to develop our presence there, in defense and security, as well as in transportation, aerospace and space. These are all strategic domains that call for mutual trust and a durable presence in the region. Thales seeks to build longterm partnerships and invest in local skills development through training. The group is partnering with local actors, such as the Université internationale de Rabat, where Thales fosters two master courses in cyber security and aerospace. On top of that, in South Africa, Thales has pro-actively taken decisive steps regarding its shareholdings structure to endorse the Black Economic Empowerment program and fosters several projects designed to promote education and women empowerment. African Defense: Border and maritime security are huge issues in Africa. Tell me about Thales solutions for giving African nations more control over their border areas and over the vast expanses of littoral waters. Farnaud: Maritime security definitely is a key priority, from the Eastern Coast area to the Gulf of Guinea. Fighting piracy, protecting national coasts, safeguarding oil and gas facilities but also fishery resources: in all these fields, Thales expertise is recognized. Our solutions have been deployed in Asia, in Europe and in Latin America, and


we can definitely do more in Africa. African Defense: Earlier this year, what was the focus from your stand at the Marrakech Air Show? Farnaud: Thales displayed a significant array of its capabilities in various domains, with a focus on air defense. In particular, we showcased the functions of the tactical and multirole Ground Master GM200 radar along with the capacities of the C2 (command-and-control) SkyView system. The Marrakech Air Show also gave us the opportunity to highlight our intention to invest locally, using local know-how and expertise. Thales has launched the construction of an additive layer manufacturing (3D printing) unit in Morocco. Construction work has begun. It integrates specific factory of the future concepts. This industrial center will begin to produce prototypes next year. African Defense: What technologies and services will Thales focus on from its stand at Africa Aerospace & Defence (AAD) this year? Farnaud: At AAD, Thales will lay the emphasis on its expertise in both aerospace and defense domains, thus reflecting our large portfolio of products and solutions. In air defense, we will present several of our cutting-edge products. For instance, our digital joint reconnaissance pod (DJRP) will be shown. This wide area tactical reconnaissance pod with proven pedigree on numerous aircraft including Jaguar, Tornado, Harrier and Hawk, has also been selected by the South African Air Force for its Gripen aircraft. Our GM200 and GM400 air defense radars that guarantee a high level of air surveillance, will be showcased as well as our SkyView Air C4I solution, a state-of-theart, open-architecture command and control solution. Regarding land defense, we will insist on our products made in Africa, such as the Scorpion solution—an automated mortar and rocket fire control system. Other Thales’ solutions in naval defence, cyber security, soldier communications and urban systems will also be displayed. African Defense: What are your specific goals for growth in Africa?


Farnaud: Thales believes that Africa has entered a long-term era of growth and development. Apart from the traditional need for sovereign defense, this growth will foster new opportunities in key markets such as security and transportation. Thales plans to support its African partners in all these areas. In the security domains, areas of development include blue and green border security, security of critical infrastructure and urban security. As you know, we provided the most advanced urban security system in the world to Mexico City and are looking to use that experience everywhere in the world. Thales expertise also includes systems to produce and control identification documents and is the provider of control systems for such documents for several African countries Regarding transportation, the expected growth of air, sea and ground transportation in Africa will be a long-lasting phenomenon which is at the same time a cause and a consequence of Africa’s development. Both Thales’ air traffic management systems and our security solutions for air-

ports can be provided to African customers willing to develop their activities. We also provide avionics equipment and in-flight entertainment to enhance customer experience. On the ground, Thales provides systems to boost the development of railways thanks to signaling, communication, information and ticketing systems. The group is already present in many African countries (examples include Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa) and we plan to develop these activities all across the continent. Thales will also continue to enhance the defense capabilities of African countries in a shifting environment. Above all, the first asset of Thales Group is the intelligence of its people. In order to keep inventing the solutions of tomorrow, we have to work with the best talents everywhere in the world, including in Africa. Thales is also part of the communities it serves. The Thales Foundation finances sciences educational projects through associations that we support in Burkina Faso, Liberia, Mali and Togo. As you can see, Thales believes in Africa!

African Defense/September 2016

MRO Options for African Air Forces

From basic maintenance tho major D checks, African air forces are searching for affordable maintenance, repair and overhaul solutions, and partners. African Defense recently sat down with OGMA (Portugal) President Rodrigo Rosa and talked about the MRO requirements of African air forces. African Defense: Can you explain OGMA’s general approach to Africa? How important is Africa to the company and how long have you had an established history in Africa? Rosa: In 2016, OGMA is celebrating it 98th year in business. Our relationship with Africa has been decades in the making going back to the network we had established with the Portuguese Army and then, as it became of separate force in the 1950s, with the Portuguese Air Force. As the Portuguese colonies began establishing their own air forces and acquiring their own aircraft, they turned to OGMA. We worked with them with a variety of support and service contracts and other provisioning as they needed. Even after privatization we maintained these contracts, many rooted and built on the relationships that were very important to us and our customers. These countries had a relationship with OGMA from the very early days of their growing air forces and used our experience to maintain their aircraft. They’re confident in the experience of OGMA, especially, for example, with their C-130s. African Defense: How many African customers do you have right now? Rosa: We are currently working with five countries in Africa. Over our history we have done business with 12 African nations. African Defense: OGMA has recently talked about its goals to increase business and look for new customers. How are you going about doing that—finding new customers in Africa? Do you work through

African Defense/September 2016

the Portuguese Air Force or can you work directly company-to-government? Rosa: We do not work through the government or through the Portuguese Air Forces, not any more. We have our own dedicated commercial team which identifies opportunities in the defense and civil markets. Once potential clients have been identified we like to visit the client in person, deliver our presentation, show them our experience. We really want to understand what they need then we can best deliver a solution that meets their needs and is within their budget. We also come with great references— both military and civilian and with range of aircraft that we are capable of working on. We have invested a great deal to make sure that we are a full service provider and can fulfill any requirement they have. African Defense: While touring your aircraft maintenance hangars there was a variety of both military transport and fighter aircraft as well as commercial airliners. However, it was surprising at how many C-130s were being worked on and from how many different countries. Tell me about the kinds of C-130 work OGMA can perform. Rosa: It’s a mix. Some of our clients are looking for basic upgrades and modernization while others are in need of deep maintenance and overhaul of the entire aircraft. Since most of our customers represent repeat business for us, there is already a deep level of trust and understanding

between the customer and OGMA. When we provide them with a proposal it takes into account what their operational needs will be and what their realistic budget is. We will build solutions to satisfy everything for them. We are capable of doing A, B, C and D checks in-house. We have the internal engineering capacity to virtually rebuild an aircraft from the ground up. In fact we recently had one C-130 that had to come to us by boat it was in such tough condition. When we’re done with it, it will fly home to Africa. African Defense: You currently have a contract with the Cameroon Air Force. What can you tell me about that arrangement? Rosa: Currently we have contracts with several African countries, many of them have some internal capability and can manage part of the work on their own but would turn to us for work as needed. For example, several countries come to us looking for full fleet service and we are able to come to agreeable terms that provides them with a complete package that covers all major areas of the C-130. In some cases we send teams there for project work, for example if they have an AOG (aircraft on the ground) but in most instances, the aircraft come here to Portugal. African Defense: Another interesting project touching on Africa is the work you are doing for the French Air Force on their Puma helicopters stationed in Djibouti. Rosa: As you said, this is a French Air Force program for their Djibouti-based Pumas. Pumas, like many other aircraft types, are not new to us. We have done work on that helicopter type many times at our facilities. This requirement is for the work to be performed in-country so we send out small teams of specialists that travel to Djibouti


to perform the work on-site and then return home. Most of the time, these trips are relatively short and do not require the team to be gone for long periods of time. The French are also using Pumas in French Guyana. We have a similar contract

Rodrigo Rosa Rodrigo Rosa graduated in Law from Mackenzie University in São Paulo - Brazil, specialized in Tax Law bythe Brazilian Institute of Tax Studies (IBET) in São Paulo - Brazil. He has a postgraduate degree in Business Administration from the School of Business Administration of the Getulio Vargas Foundation (CEAG) in São Paulo – Brazil, and an MBA from the Getulio Vargas Foundation in São Paulo and Cranfield University in the UK. He joined Embraer, SA, in 1999 and has held several executive positions in finance and business. He was also a member of the Board and the Supervisory Board of several companies controlled by Embraer in countries like China, USA, Ireland, Netherland, UK and Spain. In July 2012 he was appointed Executive Director and CFO of OGMA - Indústria Aeronáutica de Portugal, SA, responsible for Finance and Control, Human Resources, Shared Services, Information Technology and Legal Department. In November 2013 he was appointed as Chairman of the Board of Directors and CEO of OGMA.


arrangement for the aircraft stationed there. African Defense: What are the particular challenges in doing business in Africa? Is financing a critical issue? Rosa: Financing is one of the most important challenges. Many times there are very unstable budgets. Sometimes you will have a customer that has some of the funding available from their own budgets and some additional funding is coming from other sources, such as military fundings. African Defense: Do you see opportunity to increase OGMA’s business in Africa? Do you see your footprint in Africa grow? Rosa: For sure there are opportunities in

Africa—both with military air forces and with commercial aviation as well. For example, there are several F-16 operators which we are taking a look at. We are very experienced with the aircraft. Another great opportunity is with the Embraer Super Tucano. One of the demonstrator aircraft is currently based here with us and we are quickly embracing that work. As more and more African countries acquire the aircraft, it certainly opens up more opportunity for us to work with those air forces. This is a very important part of our future strategy. Something else not to be overlooked is our strategic location. African countries have turned to us for a long time so it is very common and natural for them to come to Portugal, to come to OGMA for their maintenance, repair and overhaul needs.

African Defense/September 2016

Crowd and Riot Control Vehicles

Monitoring crowds is a delicate balance between an expression of freedom and a violent clash. Properly equipped trucks offer non-lethal options. Peaceful gatherings of locals demonstrating—for or against—a public policy or decision is a healthy form of venting pent up pressure. The protest, depending on its size, intensity and duration can be a real measure of public sentiment and can help a government or institution guide and shape its future decisions. The challenge can come when the “intensity” become physical with violence and confrontation becoming inevitable. A heavy handed show of force by military troops and combat-type vehicles and equipment will sometimes escalate a situation simply by being seen by the protestors. When bullets are sometimes the only tools that a response force has at its disposal, it may seem like the only decision is to fire—with disastrous results in some cases. Crowd control vehicles have become part of an overall approach that gives law enforcement more tools to disarm a situation and breakup gatherings if they reach a point where control is in jeopardy. The have the physical size to intimidate when necessary, plus they bring a variety of non-lethal dispersants that can be brought to bear to distract crowds from moving forward in an organized way. The protection that the trucks offer also allows the crews the time and security to make decisions while under protection and not in danger of immediate harm. Better decisions can be made under those conditions than when under extreme duress and danger. There are a number of companies that fill the gap in crowed/riot control vehicle production. Each vehicle shares some similarities with the others, but each company also brings unique design features and capabilities to the table.

in Africa for its crowd/riot control vehicles counting among its 17 clients the governments of Chad, Ethiopia and Kenya. “We divide our vehicle size by water tank capacity,” explained company spokesperson Luke Seo. “Normally, we produce trucks with 6,500 liters/9,000 liters/12,000 liters capacity, but we can modify the water tank size by customer request.” It is always important to know and understand what the customer wants and what is their best solution. “We are proud that we can use the chassis that the customer wants to use,” said Seo. “For example, if a customer is familiar with Mercedes Benz, we will use Mercedes Benz chassis. If other customer wants a Man chassis, we will do so. We have a great deal of experience in using various truck and chassis types successfully including, as I mentioned Mercedes Benz, Hino from Japan or Tata Daewoo from Korea Jino uses state-of-the-art 3D simulation programs to design each truck meaning basically each customer is getting their custom-designed riot control vehicles from

experts in the field. “Of course, we always listen for customer feedback to make sure each vehicle is designed with their operational needs in mind,” said Seo. Before Jino begins production of a design, they go through a series of mechanical tests and simulations to make sure that all of the systems will function as required which includes the chassis, pump(s), auxiliary engine, nozzles, electronics, and the driving and automotive controls. Jino is also very proud of its safety controls—one being to control the water pressure to make sure that it is not too strong. The obvious reasons for using a riot/crowd control vehicle is to hopefully deescalate a situation and water pressure that harms or even kills would do just the opposite. They are diligent to ensure that the water pressure is at the appropriate strength and always under the control of the operator. The normal dispersant is water, however, they can include up to three tanks (100 liter and two 50 liter) for foam, tear gas and paint—again driven by customer expectations. After the initial sale and delivery,

zxxxx Jino Motors Jino Motors from the Republic of Korea (South Korea) has a strong relationship

African Defense/September 2016

Jino Motors 31

Jino makes sure that the customer is able to support and sustain their trucks. “We have experienced many customers with different request over 300 vehicles and 20 countries, said Seo. “By that I mean we have accumulated experience through field operations and are keenly aware of how best to maintain our trucks and make sure the customer can rely on the trucks being ready when called on.” “For maintenance and parts we have a plan called Just in Time A/S meaning if a situation is important and there is a major problem, we will dispatch our engineers to fix the problem within 72 hours, explained Seo. “We also provide out customers with three years of the recommended service parts. This gives the customer some control over their program but builds on our knowledge and background. While not overly complex, proper operation and employment of a crowd/riot control truck does take training. Jino Motors divides its supplier-provided training into two sections. The first takes place before delivery and, as the company describes it, covers everything from A to Z on the operation and maintenance of the vehicles. The second phase of the training takes place once the vehicle has been accepted by the customer. This phase is done by company engineers at the customer’s location and is “very intense.”

are usually dictated by the customer. We can build on any suitable chassis. Our most recent vehicles were built on Mercedes chassis.” One of the obvious advantages of this is that for maintenance and spare parts on the automotive components can be harmonized with trucks that are more common locally. “Unlike a firefighting vehicle, when the vehicle commander wants the water turned on, it needs to come on immediately,” said Stutzmann. “The same goes when he wants it off it needs to turn off immediately. When operating in a crowd, timing is everything.” Over the years, Soframe has refined its designs to meet the demands of many customers including the French and Swiss police over the past 20 years. In addition to water, all three VID vehicles can also carry foam, paint and gas deterrents such as tear gas and pepper spray. The VID12000 series each operate with a crew of three and are equipped with two water cannons with a range of about 60 meters. The armored cab provide crew protection as well as important areas of the vehicle itself. Each truck is equipped with a self-protection system against incendiary devices. The two smaller vehicles in the line are still crewed by three, but each has just one water cannon with the same 60 meter range.

zxxxx Soframe

zxxxx ISBI

Soframe of France recently displayed their VID12000S intervention and dispersion vehicle at Eurosatory. There are four vehicles in the product line with two versions of the VID12000 (a European version and an export version) being the largest, followed by the VID7000 and then the VID5000. The number in each vehicle’s name denotes the amount of water carried (in liters). “We build our trucks based on customer requirements,” explained Patrick Stutzmann, Soframe’s commercial director. “The automotive chassis and components

ISBI makes one type of truck in two sizes, each replaces the original truck body with one made from Swedish-made armor plating. “The advantage of the hard skin is that it does not get damaged with stones,” said John Murphy with ISBI. “It will take years of punishment.” Riot control vehicles are typically measured by the size of the water tank. ISBI’s first truck holds 7,500 liters with a larger vehicle holding 11,500 liters. “For the first we use a two axle truck and for the second a three axle truck,” explained Murphy. “I recommend the 11,500 liter because it holds a lot more water. The more water the better. And it does not cost that much more because both use the same pump, monitors, armor, etc.” Range of the water is about 50 meters, with US-made pumps and controls. ISBI likes using Kenworth or International chassis for the foundation of their vehicles, in part because each has a




Soframe strong front axle. The company also likes them because they are engine-forward trucks which creates additional distance between the crowd and the crew—with those trucks that represents about three meters. “Our vehicle is unique because it looks big and mean,” said Murphy. “For crowd control you need to create fear. Riot control trucks made in Korea and China are small and look flimsy. People do not see them as a threat. In this business you want to deter. It is best to avoid confrontation. If you see a huge truck coming at you, you run. If you see a small truck you wait and try to turn it over.” ISBI describes its trucks as easy to use. Although they can carry a squad of soldiers or police, it is crewed by just two. Their trucks also only dispense water. “Water is plentiful and it is free,” Murphy noted. Agents sound great but they are not very practical. Tear gas (liquid) is effective but also very corrosive. Within a year the pump, lines and the whole body starts to rust. Paint is even worse. You have to flush it after every use. If not it dries in the lines and in the pump. Ask any painter what happens if they do not wash the paint gun with thinner after every use. Another big problem with paint is that if you do not use completely, it starts to dry in the tank. We made our system very simple to use and maintain. If you have a powerful pump like ours you need nothing more than water.” zxxxx Katmerciler Just passing its 30th anniversary, Katmerciler of Turkey has established itself as a provider of a large variety of commercial, construction and public service vehicles, firefighting trucks, and military and law enforcement vehicles— including crowd control vehicles. With such a strong background in truck modification, Katmerciler is able to build crowd control vehicles based completely on a customer’s requirement taking into account what trucks are common in that particular country. This will certainly reduce

African Defense/September 2016

the sustainment footprint, especially for the major automotive components. “There are hundreds of varieties of riot control vehicles that we can create according to customer demands and requirements,” said company executive Furkan Katmerci. “Typically, we build trucks with a tank capacity between 1,500 and 10,000 liters.” As for dispersants, it again is driven by customer needs. Most liquid and gas agents holding tanks can pump systems can be built into the trucks. In many cases both the pumps and monitoring systems are also made by Katmerciler. “Some of our most prominent design elements are that our vehicles move quite fast, the high maneuverability of our water cannon and its action pace, the fact that our superstructure control software belongs completely to Katmerciler which gives us the ability to modify designs in a short time

Katmerciler upon customers’ request,” said Katmerci “In the light of our experiences, we have created an effective training plan for our anti-riot unit users,” explained Katmerci. “We take a two-step approach in our training application. The first step is theoretical in approach followed by a practical, handson training course in the use of the specific vehicles.” The training courses include understanding the chassis and automotive components, periodic maintenance requirements, operation and maintenance of the water pumps and auxiliary engine before moving to driver training, and operational use of the anti-riot devices and systems on each particular vehicles. The company also offers a mobile, vehicle-mounted crowd control shield that can help protect law enforcement officers while creating a solid barrier that can be pushed towards a crowd strongly suggesting that they give ground. The company is also no stranger to Africa. Although not specifically for crowd control vehicles, Katmerciler has delivered

African Defense/September 2016

firefighting, recovery and other trucks to Algeria, Angola, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Morocco, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan, Tanzania and Tunisia.


zxxxx Streit For riot control situations, Streit Group offers the armored troop carrier; riot control vehicle; front barricade riot control vehicle; side barricade riot control vehicle; and lighting tower vehicle. “With the safety of the operating personnel being paramount, it means that crowd control personnel and their equipment must incorporate protection of all sorts, primarily to protect vehicles from hand-propelled objects like rocks and Molotov cocktails,” explained Guerman Goutorov, Streit Group chairman. “We employ a wide range of leading, high-mobility chassis types across our range of vehicles. Our truck chassis types are Ford, Mercedes and Renault,” said Goutorov. “Our vehicles are subject to four categories of quality inspections from the time of chassis delivery to the completed vehicle.” He further said that all of their riot control vehicles have a strong emphasis on non-lethal control methods in order to disperse protestors in as safe a manner as possible, including remotely-operated water cannons, tear gas duct systems, and foldable barriers to hold back crowds where necessary. Integrated surveillance cameras, night vision capabilities and roof monitors also increase visibility, allowing for safe maneuverability and better reactive capabilities for situations as they develop. The safety of vehicle occupants is also paramount, with features such as a fire suppression system helping to ensure impeccable survival rates. The riot control vehicle is especially designed to provide a range of non-lethal options to disperse protestors in situations of civil unrest and violent protest. The vehicle is equipped with Akron roof-mounted cannons, a front cannon mounted on the cab and two lateral cannons for almost 360 degree protection, as well as full firefighting and anti-tamper piping both on top and under the unit. It is controlled completely digitally from the cabin and provides the user with access to water, foam, tear gas and paint at the touch of a screen. Units can also be fitted with a plough to allow blockades to be driven through. The unit is equipped with a movable hydraulic front barricade which

can be used pre-emptively and tactically to block streets or can be linked with its sister side barricade unit to provide a greater width of protection and a movable door to allow troops to deploy through. The company also has several other crowd control vehicle options. The front barricade riot control vehicle is specifically designed for effective obstruction of public passages and for crowd control, and is equipped with a state-of-the-art command control system that boasts surveillance cameras, night vision capabilities, roof monitors as well as a fire suppression system. The side barricade riot control vehicle is fitted with a fold out hydraulic deployable side barricade, extending past the ends of the unit, allowing it to be linked with both the front unit and other side barricade units. Canadian Safety Solutions (CSS), a subsidiary of Streit Group, has constructed a state-of-the-art training facility in Ras Al Khaimah, UAE. CSS’s defense and emergency training courses—more than 120 available—are designed to enhance the skill sets of agencies, including police, military units, special forces, private security, diplomatic missions and corporate clients. “We believes that there are big opportunities for expansion in the African market, including airport security, air traffic control and much more,” said Goutorov. zxxxx Inkas Armored Vehicle Manufacturing Doing business since 1996, Inkas produces a varied range of armored vehicles including luxury sedans and SUVs, cash intransit trucks, military vehicles and crowd/ riot control vehicles. “Africa is one of the largest business directions for our company, explained David Khazanski, company CEO. “To ensure the highest level of aftersales support for our customers, our offices are located in Ghana and Nigeria. Furthermore, we invested a lot


in local infrastructure and training staff development as well as growing of our stock of armored vehicles and spare details.” “We offer a wide variety of riot control vehicles depending on the requirements of the customer,” Khazanski continued.

Inkas “By implementing innovative technologies Inkas Armored Vehicle Manufacturing is able to design and customize any type or size of riot control vehicle depending on the client’s needs and specific requests. For example, among others we offer a custom engineered Freightliner M2106 RVC riot control vehicle that demonstrates both super maneuverable and fully armored capacity. Based on the Cummins diesel engine 295 horsepower and a whopping 1,000 foot-pounds of torque, this fully armored riot control vehicle is a world-class crowd dispersal tool.” While describing the Freightliner-based vehicle, he also pointed out that they work on other chassis based on customer requirements. The Inkas armored riot control vehicle is equipped with high pressure water pumps with regulated nozzle pressure, chemical additive tanks, a fire extinguishing system, adjustable-height ram-bumper to clear heavier obstacles and surveillance equipment with recording capability, makes this riot control vehicle very versatile. Providing protection for the crew, Inkas has fully armored this vehicle to withstand multiple high velocity rounds as well as shrapnel from detonations. A wide variety of agents can be dispersed, including water, foam, paint, tear gas, etc. The technical specifications for the exact vehicle depend on the customer’s requirements. “We possess the resources to offer a high level of post-sale services for our clients, said Khazanski. “We believe that it is our duty to educate our customers on the proper and the most effective usage of their armored vehicles in order to use them to


their full potential and maximize the added value.“ zxxxx Other Options Beit-Alfa Technologies—BAT—of Israel has been building special purpose vehicles since 1966 and currently manufactures a range of crowd control trucks utilizing automotive components from a number of manufacturers. Their trucks feature their computer-controlled jet pulse system for accurate firing in either short or long pulse or as a continuous stream. Their trucks can also be fitted with acoustic devices and tube-launched non-lethal munitions.


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Alpine Armoring, Chantilly, Va., is a manufacturer of armored vehicles ranging from sedans, SUVs, up to riot control trucks and is a contractor to the US Department of Defense. They produce a range of riot control trucks in the RCT series (1, 2, 3, and 4). The company’s website lists Ford and International as base chassis for their trucks. Each truck is equipped with protection systems for the truck and its occupants and systems to assist in controlling and moving crowds with various dispersant systems. A variant of their ZFB05 armored vehicle, China’s Shanxi Baoji Special Vehicles Manufacturing offers the CQF08 riot dispersal vehicle. One of the smaller riot control trucks it offers dual dispersant cannons mounted on the roof of the fully armored vehicle. It also has tube launchers for crowd control grenades.

Shanxi Baoji Special Vehicles Manufacturing

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African Defense/September 2016

AFRICAN DEFENSE September 2016  

African Defense is the most widely read defense publication focused on the African military and security community.

AFRICAN DEFENSE September 2016  

African Defense is the most widely read defense publication focused on the African military and security community.