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Design Portfolio

Jeffrey A Carney, AIA, AICP Director | LSU Coastal Sustainability Studio Associate Professor | School of Architecture Louisiana State University

LSU Coastal Sustainability Studio

CSS Leadership and Staff Administration Director Jeffrey Carney - Architecture Assistant Director Mary Bergeron Executive Committee Jori Erdman - Architecture Elizabeth Mossop - Landscape Architecture Robert Twilley - Sea Grant John White - Coastal Science Clint Willson - Civil Engineering Research Fellows Jacob Mitchell - Landscape Architecture Shelby Doyle - Architecture Leanna Heffner - Systems Ecology Traci Birch - City Planning Sarah Shramm - Landscape Architecture Karen May - Landscape Architecture Affiliated Faculty (2015) Tim Slack - Sociology Troy Blanchard - Sociology Mathew Lee - Sociology Michael Pasquier - History and Religion Forbes Lipschitz - Landscape Architecture Jim Wilkins - Sea Grant Legal Kenny Rose - Oceanography Rex Caffey - Agriculture Economics Stephen Barnes - Business Ursula Emery McClure - Architecture Robert Holton - Architecture Michele Barbato - Engineering Jim Sullivan - Interior design Matt Dunn - Interior design John Day - Oceonography Sam Bentley- Geography Vince Wilson - Environmental Science Randy Duran - Office of Research Kehui Xu - Oceanography John V Westra - Ag Center

The challenge of sustaining the ecological, settlement, and economic framework of the coast is one of the Gulf South’s most pressing issues. The mission of the LSU Coastal Sustainability Studio (CSS), founded in 2009, is to address this challenge. At CSS, scientists, engineers, and designers come together to intensively study and respond to issues of settlement, coastal restoration, flood protection, and the economy. We bring together disciplines that normally work separately so that we can respond to critical coastal issues in a comprehensive way. CSS was conceived as a laboratory to develop new strategies that reduce risk to social, economic, and natural resources. The results of this design experimentation provide a sound basis for major policy decisions for adaptation through more sustainable land-use planning, protection, and education. The CSS approach centers on supporting resilient human communities in the dynamic Gulf of Mexico environment. These communities face tremendous challenges, many of which are not being solved because the various disciplines alone cannot cope with the complexity and enormity of the problems. CSS was created as a trans-disciplinary institute for this reason. We work to envision and design sustainable systems that reduce vulnerability to increased storm strength, coastal hazards, habitat degradation, and global environmental change. The Louisiana coast, a working coast home to 2 million residents, faces tremendous risks including climate change, sea level rise, land subsidence, habitat degradation, marsh collapse, threat of inundation, wetlands loss, and change in rainfall patterns, to name just a few. A number of communities are already at, or below, sea level. Increased number of storms, and of storm surge strength, have particularly affected our coast with 4 of the most destructive hurricanes in history hitting Louisiana within the last 8 years. Our wetlands, a natural storm barrier, are lost at a rate of 25,000 acres per year, the equivalent of 1 football field per hour. This loss is one of the nation’s most serious environmental crises. The environmental and societal issues in coastal Louisiana also mirror similar concerns in major river delta regions worldwide. At the same time, the specific problems facing our delta are unique. Through our innovative, trans-disciplinary approach, we aim to serve as a national and worldwide model for addressing coastal sustainability.

design outreach for greater community resilience

DesignResearch and Scholarship

Louisiana Resiliency Assistance Program (LRAP)

Sponsor Louisiana Office of Community Development Disaster Recovery Unit (HUD) $600,000 Contract 2011-2013 Project Team Primary Investigators Jeffrey Carney - Architecture Patrick Michaels - Landscape Architecture Emily Powell - Geography Katrina Durbak - City Planning Lynne Carter - Climatology Additional Investigators Lynne Carter - Geography Jori Erdman - Architecture Elizabeth Mossop - Landscape Architecture Robert Twilley - Sea Grant John White - Coastal Science Clint Willson - Civil Engineering Graduate Students: Lydia Gikas Elliot Manuel Kelli Cunningham Will Reinhardt Ben Hartman Lauren Sullivan Prentiss Darden Elizabeth Dyer Ian Miller Valeria Perez Audrey Crop Kayla Bosarge Brett Davis Jui Lu Karl Schmidt Silvia Cox

“The LRAP was developed to collect, develop, house, and disseminate current planning efforts, resources, and local best practices to promote, assist, and build networks around resiliency planning in Louisiana.� We live in an era of increased environmental impacts and risks from natural disasters and climate change that threaten the paradigm of stability much of our civilization is built upon. This emergent instability threatens core elements of our everyday lives - from the value of our homes and the dependability of our streets to the economic and social viability of our communities and regions. The future of our state depends upon resilient communities able to adapt to the uncertainties of a changing climate. Current land use planning in Louisiana is based on a tradition of laws and policies that are often at odds with the growing threats posed by our changing landscape. But this is beginning to change. Increasing risk and greater planning leadership are leading to new regional, more integrated approaches to planning and the development of tools that support community resilience. In Louisiana, the devastation from five storms between 2004 and 2014 has sparked a renewed awareness of the tremendous risks we face in our coastal communities and vulnerability of our citizens. This has prompted a broad movement toward enhancing the resilience of whole communities, rather than individual systems or structures. Resilience enables a community to not only withstand shocks, but also to grow, develop, and thrive in spite of those shocks. The need for resilience is clear, but the ways for achieving it are not always easy. Across the state, these risks from natural hazards and climate change are compounded by vulnerability as a result of poor development controls. Both the need and the opportunity exist for planners to engage the general public, grassroots organizations, and professionals working on related issues to collectively steer growth to more appropriate areas and secure the health, stability, and vitality of communities. Such collaboration can foster more comprehensive approaches to the inherently complex challenges prevalent in this region. Set against a backdrop of renewed interest in mitigating risk and increasing resilience spurred by recent destructive storms, the work of the LRAP sought to answer the following questions: 1. How are coastal communities preparing for future storms under rapidly changing environmental conditions? 2. How can disaster mitigation be leveraged to help communities achieve their development goals and community visions? 3. How much will the risks from climate change challenge the status quo in the near and more distant future? 4. Is there something that can be learned from local communities in Louisiana and their attempts to build resilience that can be transferred to neighboring communities and others across the country and globe?

WEBINAR AND WORKSHOP SERIES The goal of the webinar and workshop series is both education and implementation. Particular communities are currently underway towards implementing the resiliency plans, but the buy-in needed to make them successful often encompasses a much larger community. Therefore, it is important that Parish leaders as well as community members can speak the same language about resiliency planning. Over the course of the two year program we ran 6 webinars and 6 statewide workshops. The series brought national, regional, and local expertise to communities across Louisiana where we applied specific topics of resilience through hands-on events.

I-20 Monroe





Pineville Alexandria

East Feliciana Parish

St. Tammany Parish I-12 Livingston Hammond Walker Mandeville Iberville Parish Slidell Central

I-10 SWLA Housing Study (Cameron, Calcasieu, Jefferson Davis, Allen, and Beauregard Parishes)

Church Point Scott

Lafayette Parish Breaux Bridge

St. John the Kenner Port of New Orleans Baptist Parish New Orleans St. Bernard Parish (GNO, inc. & Global Green) Jean Lafitte

Vermillion Parish St. Mary Parish Morgan City

Lafourche Parish

Terrebonne Parish

LRAP Communities represent Louisiana Parishes with significant damage from Hurricane Gustav in 2009


Louisiana Community Resilience Institute

Sponsor Kresge Foundation FEMA Project Team Primary Investigators Jeffrey Carney - Architecture Traci Birch - Planning Graduate Students: Rajan Karmaharya Julie Olson Ana Orosco

Documents from the research behind the April 2016 LCRI. Diagrams were assembled to show a range of planning processes that could increase resilience.

The Louisiana Community Resilience Institute (LCRI) is an initiative of the Louisiana Resiliency Assistance Program, a CSS-led initiative that connects designers, scientists, coastal managers, and citizens in efforts to plan for climate change, hazard mitigation, and community development. LCRI is a program of workshops offering small groups of mayors and community level decision makers from coastal communities a better understanding of resilient community design and planning. The mayors represent a diverse range of cities, and bring a variety of design, economic, and hazard mitigation issues to the table.

LCRI held April 2016 at LSU

visualization and data communication

Design Research and Scholarship

CPRA Visualization and Communication Program: Sediment Diversions

Sponsor Coastal Protection and restoration Authority $800,000 Contract (Tasks 1, 4) Project Team Primary Investigators Jeffrey Carney - Architecture James Sullivan - Interior Design Shelby Doyle - Architecture Jacob Mitchell - CSS Research Fellow Matt Dunn - Interior Design John White - Oceanography and Coastal Science Leanna Heffner - CSS Research fellow Additional Investigators Jori Erdman - Architecture Elizabeth Mossop - Landscape Architecture Robert Twilley - Sea Grant Clint Willson - Civil Engineering Research Fellows Elliot Manuel - Architecture Steven Armstrong - Architecture Sarah Schramm - Landscape Architecture Karen May - Graphic design Brandon Gordon - Industrial Design Graduate Students Sheryl Fishel Xian Xu Yifu Liu Anna Shaw

Throughout 2014 the CSS has been developing a program to support the internal communication, design and development, and public education and engagement goals of the Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority (CPRA). The objective within each of the four main tasks of the program is to increase visual literacy amongst the public about the innovative approaches being taken to safe-guard the people of Southern Louisiana, its environment, and its economy. By visually communicating the scientific data, project designs, advanced research, and future plans of CPRA, these tools increase awareness and understanding of highly technical information, thereby enriching public engagement and allowing citizens to make informed decisions as the CPRA proceeds with implementation of the 2012 Master Plan and development of the 2017 Master Plan. The program is intended to educate and foster an understanding of CPRA’s efforts to implement a complex system of coastal community sustaining and restoration measures that will in time ensure the reduction of land loss and hazard risk to coastal Louisiana. Project tasks include: • Developing a visual language to express CPRA’s work • Design and development of a 16,000sf exhibition of CPRA projects, science, and goals at the new small scale physical model • Content development to go into the exhibition • The development of graphics for the 2017 Louisiana Coastal Master Plan.

The Delta Cycle. Still image taken from video animation of delta growth over 8000 years (2012)

The 2012 Coastal Master Plan proposed the development of five river sediment diversions to move sediment from the Mississippi River into the Mississippi River Delta Plain in order to sustain, maintain and build wetlands. These projects are extraordinarily complex to design and construct; however, they must also be planned in consideration of the impact they may have on river navigation, fisheries, habitat health, human settlement, and other socioeconomic issues. Clear communication of diversion-related science is essential to successful design, stakeholder engagement, implementation, construction, management and monitoring of these projects.

CPRA Visualization and Communication Program: Center for River Studies Exhibition Design

Sponsor Coastal Protection and restoration Authority $700,000 Contract (Tasks 2,3) Project Team Primary Investigators Jeffrey Carney - Architecture James Sullivan - Interior Design Shelby Doyle - Architecture Jacob Mitchell - CSS Research Fellow Matt Dunn - Interior Design John White - Oceanography and Coastal Science Leanna Heffner - CSS Research fellow Additional Investigators Jori Erdman - Architecture Elizabeth Mossop - Landscape Architecture Robert Twilley - Sea Grant Clint Willson - Civil Engineering

The new small-scale physical model to be built in Baton Rouge is a tool for research but also for teaching people about the tremendous challenges – and opportunities – Louisiana faces along its coast. The 16,000sf exhibition space is being developed by the CSS to reach a range of users and introduce them to the complex research being conducted to maintain and regenerate the Louisiana coast. The CPRA is supporting construction of the exhibition with a $3M construction budget. The design of an interior space has expanded the CSS to work with faculty from interior design. The CSS brings a truly unique blend of knowledge to the project allowing us build ongoing dialogue between scientific researchers and designers to develop an exhibition of significantdesign quality andvalue to the scientific community.

Research Fellows Elliot Manuel - Architecture Steven Armstrong - Architecture Sarah Schramm - Landscape Architecture Karen May - Graphic design Brandon Gordon - Industrial Design Graduate Students Jimmy Canales Yifu Liu Anna Shaw Alexis Malone Kayla Bossarge Vedika Nigma

Rendering of new Center for River Studies building on the Baton Rouge Water Campus

User 1: Model Visitor

User 2: Exhibition Viewer

User 3: Researcher

User 4: Meeting Attendee

Test model is a small piece of the 130’x 90’ final model.

Wall 6



Wall 4 3A Wall 3

Wall 5

5B 2A


Wall 1 1B

Wall 2 5C


The design of the exhibition responds to these user groups by offering different levels of engagement with the work. Paths through the exhibit allow users to move through at a fast or slow pace, depending on the purpose of their visit. Exhibit information is also displayed at different scales of complexity to accommodate the amount of time visitors spend in the space. For instance, visitors who move through the exhibit quickly on their way to a meeting or workshop will view and understand overarching themes through large scale messaging, while visitors who come specifically for the exhibit will view and understand the content in greater detail.


The exhibition is designed to be viewed by four types of user groups who may have different reasons for visiting the exhibit space and Mississippi River Delta Model. These are: the visiting researcher, the exhibition visitor, the model viewer, and the meeting attendee.


Frameless TV Screen Direct Print on MDF Wall Panel

Spot Color Direct Print Secondary Title Spot Color Direct Print Intro Text

Direct Print MDF Content Panel

Plywood Structure Behind 4’ Panel

132” (11 ft) Top of Wall 126” (10’-6”) Top 6” Clear TYP

111” (9’-3”) TYP Top of Panel

66” Wall Midpoint / Eyeheight

42” Top of Shelf 36” Bottom of Shelf

Spot Gloss Direct Print Large Wall Title

Content printed & mounted

WALLS Exhibit walls organize content into discrete subjects that follow a logical narrative of coastal inhabitation, historical context, challenges and opportunities. The story of the coast is told using large images, graphic elements, interactive and written components on walls and pitched shelves. Exhibit walls will consist of large format images and graphics, as well as shelves and insets containing additional written and interactive materials.

KIOSKS A collection of interactive exhibition elements and kiosks introduce curated, ongoing coastal research. These pieces can be replaced as new research becomes available. Kiosks will also offer an opportunity for sponsorship in the future. The space of the kiisk can be used to hold an installation of a corresponding size.

Steel Model Shelf Steel Content Shelf

6” Kick Painted MDF Wall Panel


0” FFE

Central hall of the exhibition will house kiosks surrounded by the project location wall

Multiple Lines of Defense

Sponsor Coalition to Restore Coastal Louisiana Project Team Sarah Schramm - Landscape Architecture Jeffrey Carney - Architecture

design thinking and speculations in the dynamic gulf region

Design Research and Scholarship

In The Mississippi Delta: Constructing with Water 2010 Venice Biennale Project

Project Team Faculty Leadership Elizabeth Mossop - Landscape Architecture Jeffrey Carney - Architecture Jori Erdman - Architecture Natalie Yates - Landscape Architecture Robert Twilley - Coastal Science Clint Willson - Civil and Environmental Engineering Lynne Carter - Climate Science Bradley Cantrell - Landscape Architecture Ursula Emery McClure - Architecture Michael McClure - Architecture Graduate Students: Jason Bordelon - Environmentla Science Marcelle Boudreaux - Architecture Devon Boutte - Landscape Architecture Louise Cheetham - Landscape Architecture Tom Grubbs - Landscape Architecture Josef Hoffman - Civil and Environmental Engineering Mary Martinich - Landscape Architecture Brandon Maggiore - Architecture Jacques Metevier - Economics Matt Moerschbaecher - Renewable and Natural Resources Princeton Team: Guy Nordenson Katherine Sevet Anthony Fontenot

This exhibition was a collaborative project between the CSS and a multidisciplinary team from Princeton University. The study proposes a series of five large-scale sediment diversions along the lower Mississippi river to rebuild subsiding land in the delta. The natural resources provided by the Mississippi Delta have been hugely important to the industrial development of Louisiana and the country as a whole. Tidal wetlands support the shrimp and oyster industries, while the main river supports the largest bulk cargo port in the world and the largest container port in the US. The wetlands and deeper waters of the gulf of Mexico hold as much as 1/3 of the oil and natural gas used in the United States. However, the cutting of canals to support these industries has allowed saltwater to intrude far into fresh water marshes, effectively killing them. The clearing of wetlands for grazing and housing causes wetlands to dry out and subside. Consequently, this fragile environment is disappearing at an alarming rate. Made worse by sea-level rise and increased storm intensity, the situation is on a trajectory to degrade further unless new strategies for restoration, protection, and adaptation are employed. This project proposes regional-scale interventions into the man-made and natural processes that currently shape the constructed landscape. The project studies the outcomes of creating robust sediment diversions from the river along with various “soft infrastructure� interventions including manmade barrier islands, oyster reefs, and wave and wind turbines. By activating new land formations and reviving existing biologically diverse habitats, the proposal challenges the hard infrastructure ideology of the 20th century with a soft infrastructural strategy of the 21st century. As evidenced by the devastating effects of recent hurricanes and the deepwater Horizon oil spill, the abuse suffered by the Gulf Coast has severely weakened its ability to sustain itself. The future of settlement, our national economy, and defense may rest on a bold solution to these problems.

Regional Infrastructure The five diversions proposed are strategies to balance the necessity of man-made structures with the coastal processes needed to sustain natural systems. By incorporating diversions in strategic locations along the Mississippi, these projects achieve flood control with sustained and sustaining controlled flooding.

10 year Flood event map of flow rates through the major sediment diversions proposed


The Mississippi River drains the primary watershed of North America, ending in a land-building delta at the Gulf of Mexico. Over time the Mississippi has shifted its meandering course as illustrated by Harold Fisk in 1944 (above). In the last century the US built numerous levees and other structures to control the natural flooding along the river. As a result, the flooding of wetlands and coastal basins has been prevented. Without sediment from the Mississippi these wetlands drown due to the effects of rising sea levels and sinking land. Sea level rise due to climate change will only amplify the need for new land, as has the recent oil spill. This study is an attempt to restore the delta with river diversions that also promote flood control

and navigation. Natural wetland ecosystems have been shown to significantly mitigate and protect local communities from the damaging potential of hurricane storm surge and flooding, as well as providing sources of recreation, fisheries, economic vitality, migratory habitats, and unique cultural developments. The five diversions proposed are strategies to balance the necessity of man-made structures with the coastal processes needed to sustain natural systems. By incorporating diversions in strategic locations along the Mississippi, these projects achieve flood control with sustained and sustaining controlled flooding.


Models of the Palisades Bay and Mississippi River Delta projects with Mississippi Delta video and boards in background at the American Pavillion in Venice.



The Wax Lake Pass is an artificial channel that diverts 30% of the Atchafalaya River’s fl ow into the Gulf of Mexico. In the aftermath of the Flood of 1927, the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) started work on the Atchafalaya Floodway, to convey excess Mississippi waters into the Gulf via the Atchafalaya River. In 1941 the Wax Lake Pass canal was added to create a secondary outlet for flood waters to reach the Gulf. To create it, the USACE cut through the natural levee left behind by the ancient delta distributary known today as Bayou Teche. The result has been a slow prograding of the subdelta in Atchafalaya Bay, known as Wax Lake Delta.

More than three thousand years ago, Bayou Teche, as the main terminus of the Mississippi River, was actively building the Teche Subdelta Lobe into the Gulf of Mexico. Today, the high ground left behind by Bayou Teche’s natural levees is the foundation for a string of small towns such as New Iberia, Franklin, Morgan City, Mandalay and Houma. The natural levee, which begins west of the Atchafalaya subbasin and meanders eastward through the Terrebonne subbasin until it is criss-crossed by the natural levees of the Lafourche Subdelta Lobe, is also the foundation for modern Bayou Boeuf and Bayou Black. E NGINEERING / C ONTROLLED F LOODING : This proposal aims to convey fl ow and sediment into Terrebonne Bay. One potential path involves diverting water from the Berwick Bay outlet of the Atchafalaya River in Berwick/Morgan City, along the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway to Houma, then through a new channel alongside the Houma Navigation Canal and into Terrebonne Bay. This proposal diverts 40% of the current fl ow through the Atchafalaya River over to Terrebonne Bay—which is in dire need of new land formation. Although the diversion overlaps with the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, it is otherwise envisioned as a separate outlet to Terrebonne Bay.

E NGINEERING / C ONTROLLED F LOODING : The Wax Lake Delta is the best example of controlled fl ooding’s possibilities. The Flow Diagrams on this and the other four panels show various Lower Mississippi fl ow scenarios and the opportunity to route water and sediment into the Atchafalaya Bay to build land. The orange to yellow delta diagrams show the extent of land forming to date (orange), projected to 2060 (dark yellow) and to 2110 (yellow). Our proposal is to increase the flow through the Wax Lake Pass during extreme flood events and add to the land forming success at this diversion. P LANNING + ARCHITECTURE : Small coastal communities, private land owners and large tracts of nature preserves make up the human settlement patterns of the Wax Lake Delta area. This success story along the coast demonstrates the positive impact of wetlands growth. While not exhibiting a large urban settlement pattern, the low-scale and adaptable occupation of the land makes this landscape a model for future development. Continued wetlands building will create more opportunities for employment and tourism as well as providing needed protection from storm events at a fraction of the cost required for building increasingly large man-made barriers.





P LANNING + ARCHITECTURE : In conjunction with the Bayou Lafourche diversion the Terrebonne diversion would have a positive impact on the availability of drinking water for affected communities. This has become a significant problem in recent years, as saltwater intrusion has consistently polluted the water column in the area. One of the most populated community’s in the area, Houma, is predicted to sustain growth in the coming years unlike many coastal communities. The economy of the area is connected to both the oil and gas industries as well as fi shing and aquaculture, but without a reliable source of fresh drinking water the area may begin to lose economic advantages.





Bayou Lafourche is a stream near the geographic center of the Mississippi River Delta that was once a main distributary channel of the Mississippi River; by the mid-19th century, Bayou Lafourche was the delta’s second largest distributary. In 1903, Bayou Lafourche ceased to be an active distributary of the Mississippi River when a dam was constructed across its head in the town of Donaldsonville. Today, the Bayou is only a scenic relic stream that along with Louisiana State Highways 1 and 308 holds together a winding string of small towns starting with Donaldsonville then heading southward to Thibodaux, Larose, Golden Meadow, Leeville, and fi nally Port Fourchon.

The Davis Pond Freshwater Diversion Structure is located on the West Bank of the Mississippi River in St. Charles Parish, 22 miles upstream from New Orleans. It is the largest freshwater diversion project in the world and was authorized by the Flood Control Act of 1965 and modified by the Water Resources Development Act of 1974, 1986, and 1996. The goal of Davis Pond, as stated by the USACE, is to “imitate historic spring floods, providing a controlled fl ow of fresh water and nutrients” from the Mississippi River into a target area of the Barataria Bay estuary. The construction of the structure began in 1997 and was completed in 2002.

Located in St. Bernard Parish, Bayou La Loutre is an ancient Mississippi River distributary responsible for building the St. Bernard Delta. Nearby the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MRGO) was authorized by Congress in 1956, and was constructed from 1958 to 1968 to be a safer and shorter route between the Port of New Orleans and the Gulf of Mexico. In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, its notoriety as an environmental liability led Congress to de-authorize it in 2006.

E NGINEERING / C ONTROLLED F LOODING : This proposal is directed toward recreating the historic conveyance of fl ow and sediment to Bayou Lafourche south of Golden Meadow. Any increase in the fl ow of water through or alongside Bayou Lafourche would necessitate widening it or adding channels in order to move more water and sediment. This is the most challenging proposal for its impact on the social, constructed and natural contexts, but it has great potential as a way to rebuild the wetlands of the Terrebonne and Barataria bays. The Flow Diagrams show the possibility of alternating yearly diversions between Bayou Lafourche, Davis Pond and MRGO/Bayou La Loutre.

E NGINEERING / C ONTROLLED F LOODING : This proposal aims to expand the ecosystem restoration impacts of the existing Davis Pond diversion by adding much-needed sediment into northern Barataria Bay. A large-scale fl ow and sediment diversion in this region would provide for the delivery of inorganic and organic sediments with salinity control and nutrient delivery capabilities. In typical years, this diversion could operate in rotation with the Bayou Lafourche and MRGO/Bayou La Loutre channels, diverting 28% of the Mississippi River fl ow one of every three years. In extreme flood events, the expanded Davis Pond diversion could serve (in addition to Bonnet Carre) as an additional fl ood control measure to protect New Orleans.

P LANNING + ARCHITECTURE : Without sediment from the Mississippi River the wetlands essentially drown due to the combined effects of rising sea levels and sinking land—the sum of which is known as relative rise in sea level. Due to the wetlands loss created by the dam at Donaldsonville, the settlements along Bayou Lafourche have already adapted to changing environmental conditions such as the change from freshwater to saltwater fi shing and harvesting. However, the communities in this area are increasingly impacted by hurricanes and storm surge, necessitating new adaptations in response to the wetlands rebuilding proposal.

P LANNING + ARCHITECTURE : The increased fl ow through the Davis Pond diversion will result in expanded opportunities for recreational activities as well as improved fresh water habitats for wildlife. The Louisiana coast is known throughout the world for its abundant fishing and hunting, creating a rich cultural heritage and vibrant tourist trade. With its close proximity to both Baton Rouge and New Orleans, the Davis Pond diversion area could become part of an overall increase in both tourism dollars and food source productivity.



E NGINEERING / C ONTROLLED F LOODING : The goal of this proposal is to convey river water and sediment to the historic St. Bernard Delta. Construction of this diversion would require a new structure along the river but after a short distance the water and sediment could pass through existing man-made canals in addition to Bayou La Loutre. Re-introduction of sediments will help stabilize these critical wetlands southeast of New Orleans. During typical years, this diversion could be operated on a rotating basis with the Bayou Lafourche and Davis Pond, diverting 28% of the Mississippi River fl ow one of every three years. In more extreme fl ood events the diversion would take larger quantities but less percentage of the total fl ow. P LANNING + ARCHITECTURE : Wetlands lost to the construction of MRGO was a factor in the signifi cant loss of life and property in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. The current construction on the heightened levees as well as the Inner Harbor Navigational Channel project is intended to diminish the possibility of another storm surge event. However, the best protection has proven to be vibrant wetlands in conjunction with levees and seawalls. This proposal demonstrates the possibilities for a more synergistic relationship between human and natural environments, diminishing the alienating character of existing levees and seawall.




The Giving Delta: 2015 Changing Course Competition

Project Team Moffat & Nichol West 8 LSU CSS Deltares UNO Pontchartrain Institute RAND Corporation LSU Team Jeff Carney Robert Twilley Ursula Emery McClure Forbes Lipschitz Kenny Rose Rex Caffey Stephen Barnes Jim Wilkins Liz Williams Research Fellows Elliot Manuel Patrick Michaels Leanna Heffner Emily Powell Graduate Students Alex Percevault

Flooding and storms have always been a part of life for the world’s delta communities, but the great wealth offered from navigation, commerce, energy and fisheries justifies living with these risks. In the Louisiana Gulf Coast today, the balance between risk and reward has been tipped. A century of levees-only river control designed to safeguard navigation and limit riverine flood risk has resulted in massive land subsidence that threatens communities across the coast including New Orleans. The design competition “Changing Course” is the latest of a series of high profile “Resilience” Design competitions in North America. Changing Course chose three multi-disciplinary design teams out of over 25 applicants in a 5 month search for a bold, yet implementable, plan of action for addressing the next century on the Louisiana Delta Coast. The aim was to maintain the navigation corridor that the Lower Mississippi provides to the nation while simultaneously providing for human settlement and sustained ecosystem function. Our proposal suggests a radical retooling of the management of the Mississippi River as the primary decision driver, resulting in a reorganization of ecosystem services, communities, and economic systems. The human environment emerging at the intersections of these systems are dense urban nodal cities, “Delta Cities,” that thrive behind and within a renewed marsh zone. As seas rise and much of the Delta continues to inevitably transgress, communities will have to consolidate behind protection and elevate in areas with increased risk. However, behind a wetland barrier built by the re-connected Mississippi River, human communities will continue to thrive even as sea levels rise into the next century. The challenge of the Changing Course Competition reflects a growing understanding of the scale and complexity of challenges we will face with increased sea level rise and climate change, both in Deltas, and across the globe. Realizable and effective solutions will operate across scales and require coordination across traditionally segregated disciplines.

The Coast Today

The Coast in 100 years

Most Coastal Settlements Occupy a Line

Southern Louisiana Has the Resources of the River to Create a Thriving Delta Buffer

SYSTEMS APPROACH Tradeoffs in complex systems of large landscape require a systems analysis of interacting natural and social infrastructure that involves the flows of water, energy, materials, and money. The Giving Delta uses this systems analysis to link multi-purpose needs of the diverse services and stakeholders that a large river system and coastal network provides. There have been 150 years of intense discussions and designs to accommodate the economic values of flood control and navigation to support agriculture, human settlement, manufacturing, refining, energy production, and transport, largely at the expense of the natural systems. With present evidence of future risks to both the flood control, navigation, and delta resources of the coast, we are searching for innovation using a systems approach on how to move forward to accommodate a new future for the Mississippi River Delta.

Five Individual Basins Combine To Form The Delta: System-Wide Processes Cross Political And Project Boundaries

ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM A goal of the ecological system framework is to empower the river’s natural flood pulse to nourish the coastal landscape. Controlled flood-pulses will build and maintain wetlands with augmented sediment delivery and provide seasonal salinities gradients that promote fisheries productivity, retain nutrients to reduce offshore hypoxia.

ECONOMIC SYSTEM Southern Louisiana sits at one of the most powerful strategic positions in the Nation. Controlling the mouth of the Mississippi River and bridging the I-10 corridor, this region has potential to advance and innovate in the way it moves and processes goods by water, rail, pipeline and road.

COMMUNITY SYSTEM Human settlement in the Louisiana Gulf Coast is framed by two overlapping systems of the I-10 corridor and the traditional linear bayou developments that reach deep into the Delta. These systems of development share a core principle of continuous access to transportation along an infrastructural spine, both highway and river, that supports over 2 million people who call this region home.

DEVELOPMENT ALONG THE SPINE Our proposal retools these linear communities concentrating development on the I-10 and US-90 corridors bisected by the industrial river and ridgeline settlements stretching to the South. Emerging at the intersections of these system are dense urban nodal cities, “Delta Cities,” that thrive behind and within a renewed marsh zone. As seas rise and much of the Delta continues to transgress, communities will have to consolidate behind protection and elevate in areas with increased risk. Traditionally Louisiana communities built close to the spine of infrastructure. This proposal suggests a radical retooling of the spine to support transportation, levee protection, and settlement along the highground. The “hyperuse” that results will reduce the footprint of these linear communities and prepare them for increased dynamics from the Gulf and the River.

Generation 1

Generation 4

Generation 1

Generation 4

4th Generation: Postioned for change Seventy-five to 100 years from now, the Mississippi River Delta and Louisiana Coastal zone will look very different from today. If we act boldly, we can turn the risks of the delta into our greatest asset and return the Delta landscape into a protective, sheltering environment for generations to come. The 4th generation of this plan depicts a place that has adapted to change and is poised to keep adapting in the face of changing climate and economies.

Framework plan by generation 4.

Illustration of the Lower River Spine reaching into the Mississippi River

Illustration of the Lower River Spine, which integrates Ecological, Economic, and Community Benefits

Professional Work with Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill LLP

Design Research and Scholarship

Parkmerced Neighborhood Masterplan Skidmore, Owings and Merrill LLP Job captain and designer on the development of the masterplan, sustainability masterplan, and building typologies.

The goals of the redesign of Parkmerced were to reshape the community into an ecologically, socially, and economically sustainable community by integrating new patterns of non-automotive mobility, neighborhood amenities, a diversity of housing types, and an ethic of environmental engagement. All of this as the neighborhood tripled its size over 20 years.

1905 Burnham plan of San Francisco shows the watershed draining to Lake Merced and the location of the future Parkmerced.

Sustainable urban design demands a new approach to neighborhood building. The needs of a community are layered, complex, and evolving. The planning of Parkmerced’s future responds to the potential of various systems at work. Circulation networks, the location of amenities, and consideration of environmental factors such as sun, shade, and wind are among a few of the systems analyzed and considered to their fullest extents. Through this analysis, synergies between systems became apparent and were worked into a cohesive, integrated design for the Parkmerced community. The urban design process for Parkmerced has been non-hierarchical, systemic, layered, and adaptable -- a break from the traditional process of urban design. There have been attempts throughout the process to effect this change in the way that we approached the design of the project as well as the way we integrate our work with the work of our consultant teams. The results are a masterplan with a fine grain of precision and definition yet a surprising range and possibilities for the final form of the project.

An aerial photograph taken shortly after completion of the project around 1952 shows the imposition of towers seemingly randomly placed on the site.

Recent photo of the main yard area between towers. The sprawling green spaces are considered a part of Parkmerced but are causing ecological harm to the lake and local environment

Three Scales of The Neighborhood

Systems of mobility – bike network, pedestrian network, mobility for children and seniors, auto circulation, parking, Muni, the bus and shuttle systems are all overlaid to maximize choice of mode or the residents and to re-link Parkmerced to the transportation systems of San Francisco not only the automobile.

Nodes of amenities – neighborhood retail, community open space, courtyards, business centers, recreation center, community garden and the urban farm are integrated along the transportation corridors and in relation to the programming needs of the community of parkmerced and the greater city of San Francisco

Housing fabric – Some of the considerations for the integration of a complex, diverse, and dense housing fabric were stoops and access, protection against wind, solar access, location of lobbies and gathering spaces, shadows cast on parks and courtyards, proper locations for taller buildings.

Strategies The driving force behind the sustainability masterplan was that the nacent ecology of the site could reimerge through the existing urban framework; regenerating the environment while allowing a redevelopment of the urban fabric.

Green Corridor + Boulevard Street

Wind blocks + Primary Streets

Rainwater Collection + Neighborhood Streets

Transform Gonzalez Drive into an easily navigable boulevard connecting the neighborhood to the surrounding community, as well as the Lake Merced ecosystem.

Buffer against prevailing westerly winds and maximize daylight penetration with a primary north-south orientation, while focusing neighborhood access onto these streets via their connection to Gonzalez Drive.

Create a fine grained street pattern and drainage network that maximizes bio-filtration and offers a variety of engaging pedestrian routes through the neighborhood.

Stream Corridor + Social Nexus

Open Space + Building Placement

Ecological Network + Pedestrian Walkways

Focus neighborhood services and social amenities at the center of Parkmerced along a stream corridor that cleans rainwater runoff and provides new habitat for native plants and animals.

Encourage community interaction with gardens, parks and recreation spaces set in public open spaces, Neighborhood Commons and semi-private courtyards, defined by the adjacent building edges.

Link all open spaces into an ecologically interconnected and interdependent network with a system of pedestrian connections that lead to the neighborhood’s social heart.

Instruction and Mentorship

LA 4001 Crossing The Rio Grande: Speculations on the Border LA 4001 LSU School of Landscape Architecture

COURSE DESCRIPTION “Those who wish to secure America’s borders from ocelots, pronghorn antelopes, gray wolves, and bighorn sheep scored a victory earlier this month, as an amendment to a Homeland Security bill passed by the House mandates an additional 369 miles of fence that will prevent these animals from crossing the border.” - Eoin O’Carroll, Christian Science Monitor “If you believe that the only answer to our immigration Problem is to build a bigger wall, then I would argue you are not totally aware of the conditions of the human heart.” -Senator John McCain The Texas/Mexico border is defined simultaneously by the intensity of its connections and the ferocity of its divisions. The border is schizophrenic - it is a container, a deterrent, a repellent, and at the same time a crossroads, something to overcome, an entryway. International politics has always mingled with the everyday issues along the border. In recent years decisions made because of NAFTA, the escalating drug trade, and terrorism have overwhelmed the ability of these communities to structure a meaningful defense to keep their communities and environments from being overrun. The dramatic swings operating on a global scale have overburdened these small communities. The creation of the border fence further compounds the problem. As the system of containment becomes more impenetrable the moments of rupture also grown in strength. Entire communities of people, businesses, plants, and animals – mere blips on a map of the United States - have been cut off from their greater communities and in some bizarre cases from their own country by the creation of the wall. The traditional balance between containment and overcoming has been lost. But what does this have to do with us as landscape architects? How can something so large and out of our control actually be changed through design? This studio will be speculative. We intend to use the border as a tool to inspire new ways of producing goods, of farming, of community, of ecology, and so on. What are the benefits of a border? How can a fence actually be permeable; letting some elements through while deterring others? Can a border actually be a center – a place - unto itself? We will break both the structure and strategy of the border down and analyze its various potentials. The final project will be a conceptual design proposal for a new US/Mexico Transnational “entry state”. This jointly controlled territory will stretch roughly 50 miles North and South of the current border from Brownsville on the East to Del Rio roughly 400 miles to the West and demonstrate a bold new vision for ecology, community and control along The Lower Rio Grande valley.

PROJECT 1: OBSERVATION “So what is it that I know? Is it Nature? Nature as such has no ‘real’ essence – no truthful secrets to be revealed. I have not come closer to anything essential other than myself and, besides, isn’t nature a cultural state anyway? What I have to know better is my own relation to so-called nature (i.e., my capacity to orient myself in this particular space), my ability to see and sense and move through the landscape around me… Just by looking at nature we cultivate it into an image. You could call that image a landscape.” -Olafur Eliasson We all know that it takes a lifetime to truly “understand” a place. We know our hometowns in a way we will never know anyplace else. The fabric of our environment shapes us while we simultaneously formulate our understanding of it. To truly understand the condition of the “local” is to be completely immersed in it and see it through many different lenses. Can we understand even the basic structure of a complex culture in a few days of visiting? Will we be able to comprehend the function of an ecosystem that we are unfamiliar with? In the concentrated time of this trip we want to focus our efforts on the concept of the border. We will gather information to build a new landscape – in fact we will start building this landscape as soon as we leave Baton Rouge. Through observation, measurement, documentation, listening, questioning, walking, and driving we will rapidly construct a new place – a completely new vision of The Rio Grande Valley – as a border and as a place. The border can be seen as a transitional zone where cultures mix to create a hybrid cultural space. The border can also be a simple line – a barrier that demarcates with brute force. A border wall can alternatively have thickness, within which certain objects can pass through. There are many ways to give form to the conditions at the border.

Border Crossing: Active Observation In the concentrated time of a one week road trip the class gathered information to build a new landscape – in fact the requirement was to start building this landscape as soon as we left Baton Rouge. Through observation, measurement, documentation, listening, questioning, walking, and driving students actively and rapidly constructed something new – a completely new vision of The Rio Grande Valley – as a border and as a place. Each team devised a tool to collect and understand the environment with as we moved across hundreds of miles of landscape and through six border crossings. The objective was to process the experience on site; an experience and a response simultaneously.

Team 1: John Oliver, Will Benge, Kelly Sprinkle Just past dawn on Mustang Island Beach (Corpus Christi, Texas) the team encountered this sandbar. Here the poles describe the elevation change from the shore and past the sandbar.

Team 2: Garrett Newton, Zane Busby, Sarah Miller The view is overwhelming but it is made up of a range of signs and objects. The border is in fact small but its experience extends far beyond its boundaries. Photomontage “framed� on site.

wave break

birds diving

calm water

Student System Model This model, approximately 15’ in length was built through the collaboration of 13 students over the course of two weeks. The model explores the “actual” engagement of systems as defined, tested, and constructed in the model.

Final Project: John Oliver An exploration into the variety of spaces along the Rio for the rediscovery of the Rio Valley. Setting out along the Republic Water Trail one would encounter a mosaic of spaces heading east- ward to the Gulf of Mexico. Setting out from the Facilities at Roma where a unique expanding vista begins the trail. Along the path encountering more enclosed spaced where the wild begins to press down harmoniously with the flowing water, more primitive shelters are located through- out, staggering the days of paddling for through travelers. When intersecting with an urban crossing the trail transforms. Embracing the existing conditions is a crucial aspect of this plan for it allows the Republic of the Rio Grande to be embraced for its true identity.

type 3 type 2

type 2

type 3 type 2

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Final Project: Alex Strader

The city of Reynosa’s origins

Maquiladoras are factories on the Mexican side of the U.S. - Mexico border that utilized cheap Mexican labor to produce goods for the American economy. The growth from the maquiladora development has been rapid, and has not been accompanied by adequate infrastructure improvements. The tax money produced from the factories goes to the federal government, so none of it is used to aid the local area. The industrial parks that the maquiladoras operate from lie on the outskirts of the city, disconnected from Reynosa’s center. In order to solve the problems that the maquiladora workers are facing, I have proposed a system of “co-op communities.” These communities are built around the factories themselves and connect these outlying areas to the city of Reynosa. They will help by identifying these employees with a community where they can grow economically and intellectually.

Reynosa grows outward over time

Maquiladora factories are established on the outskirts of town

Reynosa’s 100,000 maquiladora employees are equally divided up into 10 communities. These 10,000 workers and their families, along with a supporting economy, comprise a new community of 30,000 citizens built around education and economic growth.

Development near maquiladoras creates a void between Reynosa’s cultural center

The design of these communities is crucial to their success in creating a healthy, productive environment for their citizens. The source of form for the design was to look at three very different approaches to neighborhood/community design, and draw principles from each. The result is a series of “neighborhood units” centered around a commercial spine that fit in near the factories and within a system of “green fingers.”

A connection is needed to connect the development to the city

Rural Transformation: The Long Lot and the Fabric of Dwelling on Louisiana’s Coast ARCH 5002 LSU School of Architecture

COURSE DESCRIPTION The studio will use the physical history, structure, and ecological framework that has shaped the fabric of Southern Louisiana settlements to rethink how architects address the development of the urban environment. More specifically, the studio will question the primacy of the “object” building by challenging us to see the urban environment as an actively constructed fabric. The French unit of land division, the arpent, has since colonial times structured the engagement between human and environmental systems along the bayous of Southern Louisiana. The arpent system provides rules, orders, and hierarchies that govern ownership, occupation, and the deployment of infrastructure. But the arpent system is more than static structure; it enables a great degree of variation in settlement practices – ranging from rural to urban – that have developed for centuries. The system also has a remarkable relationship with the natural landscape providing a measure of flexibility and resiliency that has allowed for a close relationship between settlement and a complex natural environment. Under this system the landscape has shown a remarkable ability to develop rich transformations over time while maintaining overarching structural clarity and order. The studio will be research based. We will start the semester with a series of design exercises, case study research, and active site analysis problems to develop particular skills that will guide our efforts to observe, document, and communicate the complex language and building embedded in the fabric of Southern Louisiana settlements. The studio will be project based as well. We will iterate between reading the landscape and extending it as designers. The main projects of the semester will ask you to extend the urban fabric of an area along Bayou LaFourche as well as develop a particular series of architectural programs embedded within it. The specifics of the building program will be developed throughout the semester. There will be a series of buildings – from housing to commercial and other neighborhood infrastructure that we will consider in our designs. COURSE OUTCOMES At the conclusion of this course the student will have completed the following: Develop a working knowledge of particular terminology, documentation techniques, and design skills particular to designing within an urban fabric. Documentation of the principles, strategies, rules, and parameters that govern settlement along Bayou LaFourche and much of South Louisiana. Design an extension of the settlement fabric of an urban area in LaFourche Parish that uses the skills developed during the class. Design and implementation of a series of architectural programs that thoroughly test the settlement extensions that the student has developed.

PHASE 2: STRATEGIES: EXTENDING A DENSE FABRIC Constructing a site -- Building agreements The natural and infrastructural systems that structure it, have a huge impact on determining the way that dwelling occurs on that site over time. This relationship to the land has developed over many generations and with it a set of “rules” that have guided a vernacular tradition of settlement for generations.

Lafourche urban fabric model constructed by Students Steven Belflower, Kale Theriot, Will Salzer, Bryce Gilbert. This model investigates the systems that construct the built environment including infrastructure, drainage, roads, levees, and other systems. The model is intended to be “virtual” meaning that the construction is not mearly representation but a functioning formal exploration.

However, the problems that this area faces cannot be solved through this traditional way alone. In fact, it has been failing for some time to keep up with changes from modern life. As the environment rapidly changes it is essential to use the lessons of the place to propose bold responses to a radically different future environment. The goal of our project is to develop a vision for development in Lafourche that is protected from storms, flexible for a changing community, supports a diversity of activities, reduces auto dependence. Your studies should provide a map forward for this region that actually makes opportunity from the threat of change.

FINAL PROJECT Our project is to develop self-sufficient communities along the Bayou that provide major amenities, protection, housing, space for gathering, dwelling, commerce, education, and government. As a concept development the Parish has asked us to use the traditions of South Louisiana land use and building to guide our proposals. This is a very open request - this is not historic preservation. Neighborhood level: Each team must produce a coherent strategy at the fabric scale. This strategy will be “hashed out” on the model but will eventually be accompanied by a site plan, and your agreement book to explain the major agreements that shape and direct the individual design work. Site Level: Each designer will develop a particular program for their dwelling fabric and how it ties into the overall program. What is driving your individual response to the problem? Who is your audience? This is where you build an argument and a narrative for your design. Dwelling level: How does dwelling happen here? How does the individual and collective “home” tie to transportation, how is it accessed, how is it protected, how is it elevated, how do houses change over time?

Project: Steven Belflower

Reenvisioning the Tectonic of Cutoff, Louisiana

- to respect the arpent system and the dimensions set by it, to create a new elevated infrastructure that provides for a new ground plane and habitation.

Currently, nearly all development along Bayou Lafourche is slab on grade and shares little relationship with the bayou. Transportation has is solely based around the personal automobile and the current development patterns have taken traditional suburban development, and manipulated it to fit within the narrow French Arpent. This pattern of development has left Cutoff, Louisiana unable to currently adapt to subsidence and sea level rise. If Cutoff is going to remain a viable community for generations to come, a new housing typology must be developed to cope with nature and existing developmental pressures from industry. This new typology should be respectful of existing dimensions and ideas with in area, and incorporate them. It should be safe from flooding and help promote a better quality of life and sense of community.

The Arpent


The French Arpent has been subdivided many times since its creation. This has led to a particular style of development that is narrowly set within the subdivided plots of land. Originally the bayou was the main source of transportation, and homes were built near it, on the highest land. As the automobile became the main source of transportation, Highway 1 was built, and ranch homes began to be built on side streets along narrow plots of land. When Highway 3235 was constructed, it became the new thoroughfare for the region, and became the main focus of development. These dimensions set by the linear system of the arpent, can be used to inform a new typology.



set back road

1. Bayou is the main form of transportation

2. Highway 1 replaces bayou as main artery

3. Highway 3235 becomes focus of transportation

Relationship of dimensions set by the arpent Perspective of Seasonal Dwellings Facing Northeast

Dimensions set by the arpent across the site


ground plane-Flooding will likely increase around Bayou Lafource as sea levels rise and land subsides. To combat this, a new ground plane can be created, that has been conceptually extruded from the ground following dimensions set by the arpent. The new ground plane can be used for access, agriculture, and refuge from high waters.

infrastructure-A new type of elevated infrastructure will be designed to allow for future development. This

vertical nodes

new infrastructure will be above the flood plain and contain all of the city services, such as sewage and electricity. This is to help insure their operation during times of high water. It will also be highly adaptable to different housing configurations and implemented through time.

dwelling-Dwellings will remain familiar to the people of Cutoff. They will retain their ranch like qualities in room

ground plane

dimensions and scale, but will simply be elevated. These homes will be highly adaptable and constructed through time, as the means become available. The dwelling will be inserted on top and between the new elevated infrastructure.


vertical nodes-The Vertical Nodes will become the main access from the new elevated ground plane and

Seasonal Neighborhood Plan NTS Concept Diagram


dwellings to the existing land and will exist as a grid along the new infrastructure. These nodes will be hubs of activity and public space. They will be used as anchor points to stretch an elevated pedestrian pathway through the site.

pathway-To help facilitate pedestrian access during time of high water, and elevated pathway will be constructed


through the side. This pathway will be stretched between the vertical nodes and surrounding neighborhoods

Implementation 1. This new tectonic can and will be achieved over time by stratifying and prioritizing the uses of the home. 2. An elevated structure will be built above the existing slab-on-grade housing. This new structure will include all of the city services to protect them during flooding. As the means become available, uses of the house can begin to be built elevated on this new structure. 3. At first, it can include spaces needed only to seek refuge from storms or high water. 4.But slowly, other spaces can be built, until it becomes the dominant new dwelling. Materials from the existing slab on grade house can be salvaged to create the new elevated dwelling.


Concept Diagram


The land west of Highway 3235, the new r nient access to the highway. These home used to elevated portions of the land, this

Concept Axon

Conceptual Plan 1/16”-1”




4. Seasonal Neighborhood Transect 1”-50”


Vignette of Massing and Development Over Time


Neighborhood Section 1/16”-1’


Perspective of Single-Family Housing Facing South East

Perspective of the Town Center Facing Northwest


N Single-Family Neighborhood Plan NTS

N Multi-family / Town Center Plan NTS

l / Recreational


3- Multi-family / Town Center

ring levee, will become a great location to allow for seasonal and recreational housing because of its convees will be built along canals, and have access to the 40 arpent canal and Gulf of Mexico. Dirt fill will also be s fill will come from detention ponds and canals dug within the sight

The single-family dwellings will follow current development patterns and remain parallel to the road. This new housing type will be elevated with parking and access from below. The plan of the dwelling will mimic that of the current typology. There will be access to the roof above which will serve as a new ground plane and serve as a means of recreation and agriculture.

To achieve the required densities and to allow for different housing types, a multi-family development will be designed, that also incorporates a small town center with neighborhood retail. The center of the development will hold local retail and services. This will be built above the existing roadway and create a pedestrian mall. This mall will have small ”pocket parks” that can serve as gathering zones and will connect to the vertical nodes to make for a connection point to the elevated pedestrian pathway.

A dead wall will be provided between the units for private spaces and plumbing. The rest of the space can then be filled in as desired by the tenant to meet their needs.

Conceptual Plan 1/16”-1”

Single-Family Neighborhood Transect 1”-50”

The multi-family housing will exist within the new infrastructure. Because these extrusions of the land exist at different heights, the ground plane and roof of one can become the new “front yard” of the extrusion adjacent to it. The access to these units will lead from the vertical nodes through the “front yards” this will help foster a sense of community and place, rather than leaving the nodes, and then walking through a corridor, as in many multi-family housing units currently are designed.

Conceptual Plan 1/16”-1”

Multi-family / Town Center Plan NTS Multi-family / Town Center Transect 1”=50’

hoods & Housing Types

Neighborhood Site Plan 1”=150’

Project: Blair Lancaster

Final Project: Abbey Brown My main concepts are increasing the depth of the land, and building connections. By increasing the depth of the land I am beginning with a strategy of adding and subtracting land. The subtracted land creates an intricate network of canals from the back levee where the land is lower, allowing water to flow into the site, shaping the grid of agriculture and building up plots of land called chinampas; this is a Mexican type of agriculture and appears as though the land is floating. This will prevent flooding, allow irrigation, and is a way for future boat access. The front levee is where the urban community begins to grow by pushing the housing to the front levee where the ground is already higher. The added land will be used to elevate housing with mounds of earth.

Winter: December- February Extremely low tide

There are different layers of housing units. The first floor is meant to flood and can be used for housing or storage. the second or third floor is for parking. the third and fourth floor is for everyday use and growing plants and vegetables. People can move up to different housing units over the years. Spring : March-May High tide

Future Spring: (Yr. 2034): March-May

After the Flood: Recovering Baton Rouge in 2016

ARCH 4001 LSU School of Architecture

COURSE DESCRIPTION: Over the last century communities along coastal Louisiana grew significantly. In many cases the growth of these places (people, economy, urban infrastructure) came at the expense of the surrounding ecosystem. Forests were cut, wetlands filled, and levees were built. This created a vicious cycle: The more the environment was controlled, the more stable settlements became, enabling development to intensify, effectively increasing the level of risk. Today communities across the Gulf region are living through the consequences of these actions. In the places where development intensifies partly as a result of this risk, how do we learn from the mistakes of the past? Living behind levees breeds a false sense of safety and a disconnect from the environment. Neighborhoods that flood, often sit on former wetlands or in the shadow of culverted stream beds. In an effort to “clear” land for development have we in fact simply hidden the risk? The fundamental concept behind this studio will be for each of us to take a position on design in a volatile environment and articulate this position through the production of architectural space. What specifically can architects contribute to this debate? We will investigate the integrated human, ecological, and infrastructural landscape across scales ranging from architectural enclosure systems to the neighborhood scale. What is the capacity of architectural form to adapt to change? How does the effects of environmental change impact the neighborhood? How can change be a good thing? FINAL PROJECT OVERVIEW After numerous floods, including the utter devastation caused by the most recent one, how does this (and many communities just like it) transform to be more resilient? Looking beyond flooding, how can we design a fabric for dwelling that has greater capacity to adapt to change? Our project is to imagine the redevelopment of the current nursing home site into a retirement “village” that provides a range of housing, recreational, and treatment options to residents. If the nursing home was insular and separate from the neighborhood, the new center will be integrated with the environment, the neighborhood, and the people. In addition to the specified program, this project will ask you to reflect upon the neighborhood more broadly, the recent flood and its toll, and other larger issues. This project should be a way for you to test concepts and architectural methodologies to transform, adapt, and make more resilient this and other neighborhoods to future flooding and other destabilizing challenges. Project: Zack McLain (98% Complete at time of publishing this)

SITE CONCEPT Zach McLain | ARCH 4001

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Delta Building: Science, Engineering, and an Opportunity for Design Leadership JEFFREY A. CARNEY Louisiana State University

Trans-disciplinary design research is leading to significant academic production, pedagogical innovation, and in the process transforming architectural design practice. Melding parallel movements of “design thinking” and “trans-disciplinary Research”, architecture is centrally positioned to achieve significant agency in the increasingly urgent effort to adapt to climate change. In the university setting, this has enabled new institutes to develop rapidly, creating new opportunities and challenges for architectural education, research, and practice. Introduction Climate change threatens far more than the structural integrity of the built environment. At the height of the period of anthropogenic control of the world around us, climate change forces us to consider the indeterminate and dynamic aspects of the environment and its effects on human civilization. The decision-making process, policy framework, urban form, funding mechanisms and many other issues will be challenged by this new paradigm. Framing the university response to research related to climate change has been the development of trans-disciplinary research centers. Located in various departments these centers are increasingly significant spaces for research production, pedagogical innovation, and community engagement in a rapidly changing environment. The spatial design fields of architecture, landscape architecture, and city planning are well positioned and suited to achieve significant agency in this new research landscape. The increasingly urgent effort to adapt to climate change positions design thinking as an actionable structure to activate broad-based trans-disciplinary teams. Design bridges the often tremendous gaps between academic disciplines through a focus on applications, communication, and community engagement. The iterative project focus of design education and research is the perfect platform for making change that links the university with the broader community. Within the university the deep silos of discipline-specific research are being fundamentally challenged by the growing search for

New Trajectories in Academia: Contested Settlements

integrated solutions and applications to problems at the interface of science, infrastructure, and society. An emergent focus around the issues of climate change as a synthetic, systems based, and socially motivated challenge can focus university research output around issues immediately important to society while simultaneously feeding deep research questions. For design education, research, and service the establishment and leadership of large, significantlyfunded centers of research is well within reach. Social pressures on universities for tangible products, federal funding agencies pressing for action, and an increasing entrepreneurial bridge between design and urban development is leading to a far more innovative environment for higher education and university research. Design links science and society, theory and practice. As it is both the product and activity, design provides both process and result. The broad meaning of the word – both active and object – is a perfect method for the iterative process of innovating in times of great uncertainty and change. (Nassauer 2008) The goal of this paper is to lay out an argument for significant engagement of universitybased design research in larger research efforts toward resilience and sustainability in reaction to climate change. Design education holds a special place in the university. Located between the humanities, arts, and sciences, our process is in many ways central to all at the same time peripheral to each. The adaptation of human settlement will require data modeling, scientific research, and advanced engineering, but these tools must be applied to problems through the integrative lens of design. Far from a choice between design and science, or design and service, the opportunities that this moment holds are for an expansion of design as a core principle of decision making and policy, expanding the voice of designers on campus and beyond.

A New Climate for Design Research Over the past decade, society has experienced the results of increased risk from storm and flood. From Hurricane Katrina a decade ago, to Hurricane Sandy in 2012, we are entering a time marked by increasing environmental disturbance exacerbated by global climate change. During this decade, the concept of resilience

Cross-Americas: Probing Disglobal Networks


has entered the mainstream and captured significant attention in policy, research, practice, and academia. Resilience acknowledges a delicate balance between the dynamic ecological system and the stable structure upon which society is largely built. However, in a time where disturbances will at times overwhelm our ability to rebound and sustain the status quo, we will need to adapt and transform alongside the disturbance. The concept of resilience is able to account for the return to stability as well as this potential “bounce forward” or adaptation. As the term itself is continually debated and redefined it in fact, can mean both. Resilience has been defined in terms of engineering – the ability of an object in stress to return to normal. The fundamental consideration in this paradigm is making objects or systems strong enough to survive a stress and find their way back to equilibrium. The ecological definition of resilience differs in a fundamental way. Davoudi describes resilience as, “not conceived of as a return to normality, but rather as the ability of complex socio-ecological systems to change, adapt, and crucially, transform in response to stresses and strains.” (Davoudi 2012) The focus of ecological resilience is not the eventual return to a stable state but the transformative potential of the disturbance itself. The disturbance introduces energy into a complex system that has the potential to transform the system. In terms of social ecological systems, resilience becomes the ability to harness the power of the disturbance, not merely the ability to defend against such a risk. Thus resilience, far from a defensive position, requires a nimble and creative acuity to imagine and act to create what could be from what currently is. Climate change is also challenging many long held research paradigms. Problems are not solved as much as our engagement with the world is negotiated and tested iteratively. Given the complexity of climate change and its associated problems, design disciplines are particularly well suited to cultivate and push adaptation efforts. Design is the integrative lens through which tools like data modeling, scientific research and advanced engineering must be applied. Designers are the integral bridge essential to the implementation of solutions to problems at the interface of environment and society. Herbert Simon once said, “To design is to devise courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones.” (Simon 1969). At its core, design is aspirational in terms of our desire for something better than what we have. As climate change imposes an increasingly uncertain world we are going to have less predictability, less security about what comes next. We will not be able to “know” exactly what the future holds; instead we will have to explore, design, and envision future scenarios.

Defining Transdisciplinary Research Trans-disciplinary research has emerged as a methodology that extends research beyond the primacy of science and the primacy of practice, transforming the fundamental knowledge and methodologies that structure disciplines. “Trans-disciplinarity,” according to Lang’s definition, is a “reflexive, integrative, method driven scientific


principle aiming at the solution or transition of societal problems and concurrently of related scientific problems by differentiating and integrating knowledge from various scientific and societal bodies of knowledge.” (Lang 2009). Trans-disciplinary research is not purely theoretical or purely applied; it relies on the communication between theory and application. According to Stock, the method produces “Flexible methodologies driven by the context and problem.” (Stock 2011) The method doesn’t simply benefit from an ongoing dialogue between research and practice, but the ongoing feedback between the two is essential to the process. (Nassauer 2008) Design thinking has become a common term referring to an applied problem-solving approach. Through this approach, problem-solvers go through a process based on the following five steps: empathize, define, ideate, prototype, test. (Brown 2009) This formal method for finding practical, creative solutions to intractable problems is fundamentally different from other research methods. Where the scientific method starts with a thorough definition of problem parameters, design thinking seeks to engage with the problem in an exploratory way, developing empathy (not distance) with actors through an iterative process of design. The definition of the problem, exploration or constraints, and determination of what means success are part of a fluid dialogue explored through design, iteration, and prototyping.

An Opening for Design Institutes in the University Structure Universities are becoming increasingly fragmented, spreading dwindling resources further over more discipline-specific and scientifically deep initiatives. The breadth of this pursuit without integration across disciplines leads to a flat research landscape punctuated by silos of intense specialization. As departments become increasingly disconnected behind narrow language, process, and culture; research centers can provide a means for researchers to connect to broader pursuits. Centers can focus curricula around pertinent societal issues while academic departments might be struggling with issues of accreditation or challenges associated with highly specialized research. The depth that the department brings to teaching and research is leveraged by the synthesis, integration, and real world application of the center, offering ways for academic institutions to respond to surrounding communities, transcend academic isolation, and break down traditional barriers between departments and the outside world. By reaching beyond university to other groups, centers are one of few ways universities regularly reach out to the public. (Larson 2000) Some colleges of design in particular are facing funding shortages, student enrollment declines, and overall questions of direction in a rapidly changing design and planning profession. Adding measurably to this, schools of architecture are increasingly burdened with accreditation requirements often focusing curricula deeper into discipline specific skillsets. The emergence of research centers that connect design to fields outside the normal bounds of architectural Delta Building: Science, Engineering, and an Opportunity for Design Leadership

departments (Duderstadt 2004).

Structural Engineering

Civil Engineering


Geography Construction Management


Biological Engineering


University Capacity


Ag Center

Design Projects

Plant and Soil Science



Renewable and Natural Resources



Environmental Science




Philosophy and Religious Studies History

Sea Grant

Figure 1: LSU Coastal Sustainability Studio diagram showing the range of research partners involved across campus.

production provides opportunities for faculty and students to contribute highly specialized skills to often intractable socio-ecological problems. In terms of funding, centers operate fundamentally differently from the traditional architecture department, often relying heavily, if not exclusively, on external sources. This represents a significant change in design schools that are often tuition driven. External grants and donations, foundations, state or federal agencies, or the sale of products or services are primary funding resources available to centers. Thus, success of a center is largely reliant on links and relationships developed to publicize, make work visible, and continue to develop community impact. (Roberts 2004) The benefits to the department, faculty, and students that the center can provide are relevant questions, projects, clients, and funding for research. In addition, this type of center can link and apply primary research from other parts of the university using the particularly useful skills and process of design, leveraging the resource of the studio environment to the center’s success. Centers have great potential to augment architectural education and research. As a practice-based field, it is our responsibility to engage in the specific challenges we face in society and integrate this into our teaching. The center should model practice in many ways. Studio-based education is the bridge that our process develops between research, education, and practice. It is a model of practice without competing or losing the independence of the educational process. Expanding this model beyond the college of design can provide a source of leadership among increasingly fragmented

New Trajectories in Academia: Contested Sett lements

There are clear opportunities for design but also major challenges that this type of research operation can bring to design education and research. The opportunity for funding, political agency, and increased professional breadth drives many designers towards this opportunity; however, it is important not to underestimate the threat (real and perceived) that can undermine the credibility of the center and lead to conflict within a faculty. There is a potential that projects brought through the center become compromised when “real-world” problems are not only theoretically investigated but also funded locally, supported by policy makers or others with a real stake in the outcome, or lead to recommendations that are not supported by elements of a community. It is essential that a center clearly articulate contractually a clear path for creative investigation and expression. Design education prepares students for practice but it is important to maintain a well-defined space between research, academia, and actual practice. The completely unencumbered design experience that often separates academic design from the practice can become mixed in the research center.

Case Study: The LSU Coastal Sustainability Studio The Coastal Sustainability Studio (CSS) emerged in 2009 in response to the tremendous challenges Louisiana faced after Hurricane’s Katrina, Rita, Gustav, and Ike. Across research, governance, and private industry, Louisiana took on the challenges posed by these storms through aggressive planning, design, and environmental restoration. In response to these challenges ranging from community resilience and adaptation, large-scale environmental restoration, and storm protection, trans-disciplinary efforts have emerged to move intractable problems towards effective design process and solutions. The CSS has built a network of disciplines behind a methodology of design thinking, ecosystem design, and performance modeling. For six years the CSS has been revitalizing stagnant curriculum, building professional influence in coastal planning and design, producing visualization tools to communicate complex science, and challenging state officials to design boldly for future challenges and opportunities. The challenge of sustaining the ecological, settlement, and economic framework of the gulf region is one of the most pressing issues for coastal Louisiana and coastal regional globally. Our goal is not only to reduce measurable risk to communities but to raise the capacity of the built environment to incrementally adapt in an increasingly dynamic context where land and water meet. A principle method of our work is the advancement of trans-disciplinary partnerships between scientists, engineers, architects, landscape architects, and planners linked together through the process of design. Through state funded contracts, grants, and competitions the CSS has achieved a significant position in shaping the coastal landscape through design leadership. This research center has developed a design-based approach that brings together designers, planners,

Cross-Americas: Probing Disglobal Networks


Figure 2: Mayors and resource team members working together on community resilience issues at the Louisiana Community Resilience Institute.

scientists, and engineers to intensively study and respond to the interdependent issues surrounding human settlement, coastal restoration, and flood protection. The center focuses its work around four primary themes: • Education and capacity building • Visual communication • Community resilience, advocacy, and planning • Design speculation Each is described below through a description of the theme then articulated further through a brief description of a CSS project. 1 Education and Capacity Building: Implementation of the “Delta Research Minor” housed in the College of Art + Design Integrated systems-thinking approaches are needed to meaningfully address the most pressing issues facing the Gulf Coast and create sustainable ecological, economic, and human settlement frameworks. This requires transdisciplinary collaboration. Capacity building among these groups is crucial in order to connect experts, create interdisciplinary teams, and build a collective body of knowledge and understanding that crosses disciplinary boundaries. The CSS achieves this by funding interdisciplinary research, creating opportunities for 4

cross-disciplinary networking and knowledge-sharing, and training students through internships and program curricula at LSU. The CSS has built a collaborative effort with the LSU College of the Coast & Environment, College of Engineering, and College of Art + Design to create a new multidisciplinary undergraduate applied research minor. The program, located in the College of Art + Design, is slated to be officially open to students in Spring 2017, however courses began Spring 2016. Built around a collaborative, “design thinking” methodology, curricular components of the Delta Research Minor (DRM) are systems ecology and ecosystem design, fieldwork methods in the Louisiana landscape, and an integrated design thinking studio course. Coursework will be augmented with a professional internship, a faculty-mentored final research project, and a final seminar that culminates in a public exhibition of thesis and final projects from a broad range of majors. The goal of the DRM is to introduce design and research methods from a range of fields to enable students to research and solve problems across the arc of their undergraduate careers. This will prepare them for a rapidly changing design and research practice upon graduation. The program provides them training in applied research, effective communication, and problem solving for the emergent challenges facing coastal Louisiana and similarly vulnerable coasts worldwide. Visual Communication: Design of the permanent exhibition called “Shifting Foundations” in the state-funded Center for River Studies Delta Building: Science, Engineering, and an Opportunity for Design Leadership

Figure 3: Conceptual Rendering of the main exhibit hall of the Center for River Studies exhibition: Shifting Foundations designed by the CSS.

Visualizations provide a powerful platform for communicating complex ideas. Understanding the challenges facing coastal Louisiana requires an understanding of the history and context of place, the structure and function of natural systems, the engineering of economic, industrial, and social systems, and the perspectives that derive from and shape individual experiences and beliefs. Developing processes and solutions to solve problems of this level of complexity requires us to see and communicate across disciplines. Through a trans-disciplinary and iterative process, the CSS creates and employs visuals to stimulate thoughtful explorations, encourage dialogue, and ultimately galvanize action. Through a contract with the Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority (CPRA), CSS is building the CPRA Visualization and Communication Program, tasked with developing materials to support the internal communication, design and development, and public education and engagement goals of the CPRA. The CPRA is strategically working to restore and sustain coastal Louisiana, improve flood water management, and enhance protective infrastructure across the state. The state is investing roughly $1 billion per year over the next 50 years on projects through the Coastal Masterplan for a Sustainable Coast. This program goes far beyond science communication to apply design thinking to the process of conceiving of, and communicating the principles of coastal restoration to citizens and policy makers. By New Trajectories in Academia: Contested Settlements

visually communicating the scientific data, project designs, advanced research, and future plans of CPRA, these tools increase awareness and understanding of highly technical information, thereby enriching public engagement and allowing citizens to make informed decisions. As part of this effort, the CSS is currently completing design of the Center for River Studies on the Water Campus in downtown Baton Rouge. The 9,000 square foot exhibition space and development of exhibit content is to be located in the Center for River Studies which houses a physical model built to test hydraulic and sediment dynamics along the lower Mississippi River. The design of this space reinforces the trans-disciplinary nature of coastal design and research: to foster an ongoing dialogue between scientific researchers and designers in the development of ongoing and effective solutions to coastal problems. Community Resilience, Advocacy, and Planning: Synthesis and engagement through the Louisiana Resiliency Assistance Program (LRAP) and Louisiana Community Resilience institute (LCRI) CSS projects deal specifically with issues pertinent to coastal Louisiana and are developed through collaboration with local partners. Our work aims to reduce economic losses and protect assets, promote a sustainable coastal ecosystem through utilizing natural processes, provide suitable habitats to support an array of commercial and recreational activities, promote resilient coastal community design and development, and contribute to sustaining the unique Cross-Americas: Probing Disglobal Networks


Figure 4: 100 year plan for the Mississippi River Delta Developed for the Changing Course Competition (Moffat & Nichol, West 8, LSU CSS)

heritage of coastal Louisiana. Resilience design and planning augment traditional land use planning with information and expertise from various fields, particularly disaster science, floodplain management, climate, and environmental sciences. The process and outcomes of this emerging field of research and practice is to build community and state level capacity to respond and adapt to disturbances. LRAP was founded and developed by the CSS with the State’s Office of Community Development – Disaster Recovery Unit (OCD-DRU) and with funding from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). The mission of LRAP is to collect, develop, house, and disseminate current planning efforts, resources, and best practices to promote, assist, and build networks around resiliency planning in Louisiana. The Louisiana Community Resilience Institute (LCRI) was created as an extension of the LRAP. Since 2012, LRAP has hosted numerous webinars, statewide workshops, and two Mayors’ Institutes. LRAP’s core strength is to serve as a platform for assembling a broad range of academics and practitioners to increase resilience through efforts in coastal communities. Academic research and practical applications


are simultaneously tested, enabling research and practice to learn from each other and advance the application and theory of community resilience. Design Speculation: “The Giving Delta”, a winning project in the “Changing Course” design Competition. CSS regularly engages in design speculation as a means to research and explore the complex challenges posed by occupying a deltaic landscape, and allows for the space to imagine potential futures. Through design speculation, CSS puts forward new ideas and reimagines future possibilities for coastal Louisiana (and other modern deltaic systems worldwide). These designs are provocative and make proposals that challenge our assumptions, expand our understanding of the subject matter, and facilitate the creation of bold, innovative solutions. Because of the engagement of so many disciplines, these projects have gone far beyond provocative design speculative to inform real policy and decision-making. The design competition “Changing Course” selected three multidisciplinary design teams in a search for a bold, yet implementable, framework for the next century on the Mississippi River below New Orleans. The aim was to maintain the navigation corridor that the Lower Mississippi provides to the nation while simultaneously Delta Building: Science, Engineering, and an Opportunity for Design Leadership

providing for human settlement and sustained ecosystem function. The CSS was on a team co-led by CSS, Moffat & Nichol (engineering), and West 8 (landscape architecture). Our team also included the RAND Corporation, Deltares, and the University of New Orleans. Our team proposed a retooling of the management of the Mississippi River as the primary driver of restoration, protection, development, and economic decisions. This radical departure from the highly engineered 20th century river effects all aspects of settlement along the river and the greater delta. We were a part of a large team that brought nine investigators to a team of roughly 35 participants located around the world. The CSS portion of the team represented 7 distinctly different disciplines. The success of our team and the value of this to the university was that the institute structure enabled us to bring tremendous research depth to a problem that essentially operated in a design practice format. The design approach was novel and a bit uncomfortable for the science community, but in the end proved to be an effective method for getting a tremendous range of ideas on the table in rather short time.

Conclusion In conclusion, the integration of design thinking and trans-disciplinary research using an institute model can bring designers and colleges of design tremendous agency and significant funding opportunities for integrated and applied research. This can empower architecture schools to not only participate in, but lead climate change adaptation efforts. This could present a transformative opportunity for the field. The four CSS projects discussed capture larger themes that bolster a broad application of design thinking to practice and research within and beyond the discipline. These projects have brought significant funding into the center; built institutional capacity through staff, equipment, and space; benefitted students through research assistantships and applied coursework; supported faculty through funded research, trans-disciplinary partnerships, and ample publication opportunities. Over the span of six years the CSS has been able to shape the educational and research landscapes of the university and affect real change in the communities that make up our state and region.

New Trajectories in Academia: Contested Settlements

Bibliography Brown, T., & Kātz, B. (2009). Change by design: How design thinking transforms organizations and inspires innovation. New York: Harper Business. Davoudi, S. (2012). Resilience: A Bridging Concept or a Dead End?. Planning Theory & Practice, 13(2), 299-333. doi:10.1080/14649357. 2012.677124 Duderstadt, J. (2004). Fixing the Fragmented University: A View from the Bridge. Working Paper. University of Michigan Lang, D. J., Wiek, A., Bergmann, M., Stauffacher, M., Martens, P., Moll, P., . . . Thomas, C. J. (2012). Transdisciplinary research in sustainability science: Practice, principles, and challenges. Sustainability Science Sustain Sci, 7(S1), 25-43. doi:10.1007/s11625-011-0149-x Larson, S., Long, R. (2000) Academic Centers: Moving Beyond the Periphery. Journal of Public Service and Outreach. Volume 5, Number 2. Nassauer, J. I., & Opdam, P. (2008). Design in science: Extending the landscape ecology paradigm. Landscape Ecology Landscape Ecol, 23(6), 633-644. doi:10.1007/s10980-008-9226-7 Roberts, J. (2004). Riding the Momentum: Interdisciplinary Research Stock, P., & Burton, R. J. (2011). Defining Terms for Integrated (MultiInter-Trans-Disciplinary) Sustainability Research. Sustainability, 3(12), 1090-1113. doi:10.3390/su3081090


Theme and project descriptions have been excerpted from a recent collection of CSS work “The Coastal Sustainability Studio – A Collection of Works: 2009-2015”. The document can be downloaded in full here: downloadable-publications/

Cross-Americas: Probing Disglobal Networks


20161130 portfolio  
20161130 portfolio