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DISTRIBUTED URBANISM EMERGENT LANDSCAPES 2 01 4 U W M LA C A PSTO N E STU D IO


INTRODUCTION

JEFF HOU

PROJECTS 10

Constructing a Sonic Terrain at Green Lake, Seattle NANCY CHAN

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Residual Space: Ballard’s Connective Tissue J ONATHAN S . PAG ÁN

42

Maximize Y(our) Hood: Community Hub as Catalyst for Creating Social Capital H S I E N - A I WA N G

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Interbay Systems at Interbay, Seattle

74

Life in Between: Revision of Urban Ambiguous Space

S HU -K U EI HS U

K EI-S ING YIU

90

Making the Invisible Visible: Urban Inter vention and Gentrification in Seattle’s Little Saigon K E V I N B O G L E

104

Beyond the Edge: Reimagining Shoreline Street Ends for Public Access and Ecological Enhancement DIANE WALSH

120

Catalytic Connectivity: Duwamish River, Seattle

CRED ITS

YUTI NG LI N


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I NT RODUCT ION


IN T ROD U C T ION JEFF H O U

Thesis has long been an established component of graduate landscape architecture education and is required at many schools around the world. The completion of a thesis is considered as demonstrating a student’s academic achievement and competency at the graduate level. As a process, students typically select individual topics and spend a semester or up to a year from developing the proposal to executing the project and presenting the outcomes. In some schools of landscape architecture, students can choose between a ‘traditional’ research and a design project. In either case, they typical work alone with the help of either a faculty supervisor or a thesis committee consisting of multiple faculty members. At the University of Washington, the requirements for a master’s thesis have evolved over the years. In the early years, a thesis was typically conducted following the scientific research model at the time when Master of Landscape Architecture (MLA) was considered as the terminal degree in the field. About a decade ago, to address the need of professional education, we began to include design, professional project, and case study research as formats for thesis and formally recognize a wider range of approaches as meeting the thesis requirement. However, these additional options did not change the facts that thesis was still carried out as individual pursuits. To encourage group collaboration and encourage students to take on more complex projects and collective endeavors, the department added another option – (self-organized) group project in 2011, as an alternative to individual thesis. Both group project and thesis are now under the umbrella of capstone requirement for the MLA

students. To further encourage collective work, a studio option was offered for the first time this year (2013-14) that provided students with an opportunity to work with an instructor in a two-quarters long studio under a common theme or project. This document is the outcome of the inaugural capstone studio. As the inaugural studio, the theme this year was formulated to balance between the individual topics (that students have already developed before the studio option was formalized) with an overarching framework that enables a focused exploration. Based on topics that students have identified, distributed urbanism and emergent landscapes emerged as a common thread that reflects a recent shift in the discourse of landscape architecture and urbanism toward a focus on networked processes and dynamic, open-ended changes in the built and natural environments. Both distributed urbanism and emergent landscapes are part of an expanding vocabulary in urbanism and design that recognizes the complexity of environmental processes and agencies of individual and institutional actors. Specifically, Wilkins (2013: 2) describes distributed urbanism as the “decentralized agency of design, control, and participation in the contemporary production of urbanity.” Emergence, on the other hand, has been described as “the way in which complex systems and patterns arise out of a multiplicity of relatively simple interactions” (Barnett 2013). The concept of emergence in particular encapsulates a repertoire of ideas and phenomena including open systems design and self-organization, and highlights the changing nature of urban landscapes.


In the studio, the focus on distributed urbanism and emergent landscapes is intended to inform the students’ individual projects and deepen their theoretical and conceptual underpinning. It is also intended to serve as a framework for collective investigation. Starting with an exploration of the key concepts and discussion of their implications and applicability, the studio then moved on to the operation of individual sites (mostly networks of sites) focusing on concept development, methodology, media, iterations, craft, etc. Specifically, we explored spatial and temporal mapping as a way to unpack, analyze, and illustrate the complexity of the projects. The range of student work reflects how the students each interpret and apply the concept(s) to specific settings, issues, and objectives. Kevin Bogle examines how design interventions in Seattle’s Little Saigon could help develop networks of relationships including commercial and social activities in the district to address the need for community economic development. Nancy Chan examines how understanding of soundscapes (from dispersed noises to focused sources) informs a new method for shaping the landscape and the human experience. Shu-Kuei ( Tako) Hsu uses a systems approach to plan for the redevelopment of Seattle’s industrial Interbay area, looking how the sites’ hydrology, habitats, housing, commercial and industrial activities, and circulation can organized into a networked system.

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I NT RODUCT ION

Focusing on the lower Duwamish River, Yu-Ting Lin examines ways that individual site interventions can be organized spatially and temporally to reconnect the isolated neighborhoods to the river and to each other. Similarly, Jonathan Pagan explores the collective benefits of networked interventions in the Ballard neighborhood for food production, place identity, and natural drainage. Also working in Ballard, Hsien Ai (Ivy) Wang explores the development of Community Hubs to engender social networks and interactions in the neighborhood faced with development and a growing population. Diane Walsh develops a series of design strategies for a variety of shoreline street-end sites in Seattle that heighten their visibility, identity, and experience. Finally, KeiSing Yiu explores urban gaps – in-between and residual spaces – along Denny Way at the edge of Seattle downtown as potential sites for new programs and activities that bridge different fragments in the city. We wish to thank the following reviewers for their participation and contribution to our effort in exploring new directions in landscape architecture discourses and design: Leann Andrews, Pam Alspaugh, Manish Chalana, Nate Cormier, Brian Gerich, Yolande Harris, Eric Higbee, Louisa Iarocci, Julie Johnson, Davidya Kasperzyk, Jennifer Eyun Kim, Devin Kleiner, Teng-Yen Lin, Lynne Manzo, Jordan Monez, Cary Moon, Nic Morin, Julie Parrett, Gundula Proksch, Iain Robertson, Dave Rodgers, Nancy Rottle, Dan Shaw, Andy Sheffer, Ben Spencer, Barbara Swift, Thomas Whittemore, Jennifer Wieland, Daniel Winterbottom, and Ken Yocom.


Ballard Green Lake Interbay Denny Way Little Saigon Georgetown/ South Park Shoreline Street Ends

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2014 mL a

c apstOne prOJects


C ON S T RUC T I NG A SONIC TE RRA IN AT G RE E N L A K E , SE ATTLE NANC Y CH A N

The soundscape, a term coined by acoustic ecologist Murray Schafer, refers to the sum of all sounds—political, social, technological, natural and among others—within a defined area. As spatial designers, site analysis predominantly consists of parsing out the various systems at play, i.e. social, ecological, economic, thereupon breaking them down as separate entities in order to understand the complexities of a place. Conversely, the soundscape offers a different, experiential reading of the landscape. The soundscape embodies, reflects, and can be interpreted as the composite of all the systems engaged with a site, thereby giving us a nuanced understanding of them not as separate entities but how they interact with each other. This project argues that sound and the act of listening has been vastly overlooked and under-utilized as a critical component in not only how we design space but furthermore how we understand the world around us. The relationship between sound and living organisms has evolved concurrently alongside human and nonhuman species, from what began as an early warning system, has now grown to take on multiple meaning and functions: how we understand spatial information, coordinate behaviors, stimulate emotions, build social relationships, retain memory of experiences, and much more. Therefore, sound is a design tool that goes beyond anecdotal, aesthetic use. It surpasses trying to create desired sounds to be heard, but rather the question is how can sound be used to support a site’s overall design intentions, program, and goals? It’s not about writing a scripted score but designing an instrument to be played.

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Sound is everywhere there is life. Anywhere there is matter and energy there are vibrations, which are the basis of sound. Sound and the detection of vibrations, otherwise known as hearing in humans, begins with understanding the relationship between sound and a given space by focusing on the physical properties of how sound waves propagate in a given space. But sound in the environment is much more complicated when we begin to consider the psychological and biological implications in how that sound is interpreted by humans and non-humans. While sound is studied in a vast array of disciplines, with each looking at a different aspect of sound, physics and psychology are two of the most pertinent fields to look at as a starting point for creating a framework when designing with sound in the urban environment. Physics focuses on explaining the physical parameters of how sound waves would behave within specific spatial geometry, where psychology becomes important when trying to understand how a stimulus, such as sound, is interpreted by the human brain which directly influences human behavior. After researching sonic theories from composers, sound artists, anthropologists, neurobiologists, and musicians, this project takes on a cross-disciplinary approach for designing for sound that begins with concept of auditory spatial awareness, aural architecture, and soundscape. Terms coined by Barry Blesser, Linda-Ruth Salter, and Murray Schafer, these concepts can be understood as operating at multiple scales. The soundscape as mentioned before describes the sum of sounds in a defined area, which can be applied at a larger systems level such as a neighborhood or a city. At a medium scale, for instance the size of city block, aural architecture refers to how a design of space can influence social behavior. Finally, at the smallest

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scale, auditory spatial awareness refers to an individual’s perceptual and cognitive ability to understand sonic processes and their interaction within a space. Because sound and the act of listening is the means by which we understand spatial geometry, propagate cultural symbols, stimulate emotions, communicate information, experience movement of time, build social relationships and retain memory of experiences, designing with sound has the opportunity to increase the imageability of the landscape, foster social relationships, and create healthier, more enriching sonic environments for human and non-human species. This capstone project builds from a foundation of sonic theory, leading into an investigation of site analysis methodologies, and culminates with potential design applications within the context of Green Lake in Seattle, Washington. With over 3.5 million users annually, Green Lake is a highly used park with a significant urban wildlife population consisting of over 160 bird species. At roughly 323.7 acres of which 75 percent is water, the public park is situated in a moderate density neighborhood with adjacent single-family and commercial land use. While Green Lake was once a natural lake with streams feeding and draining it, the hydrology has changed dramatically with no natural inlet or outflow and the park is now bounded by arterial streets and SR 99, a heavily used highway. This project proposes to construct a sonic terrain at Green Lake, where both soundscape planning and aural architecture can: improve its imageability and identity through the creation of auditory zones; mitigate air, visual, and noise pollution; and employ positive soundscape design strategies that improve sonic and ecological performance for both urban wildlife and human communities.


FRAMEWORK

AWARENESS 1. Learning to listen. Develop listening skills to build auditory awareness in both myself and the greater public •

Conduct soundwalks throughout Green Lake to observe and enhance auditory awareness.

Conduct soundwalks in other public spaces in Seattle for comparison studies.

The resulting recordings will compile into a publicly accessible website.

METHODOLOGIES

APPLICATION

2. Site analysis of soundscape

3. Master Plan and Design

Develop a framework toward analyzing sound in the urban environment.

Select sites for intervention at Green Lake and identify potential opportunities to encourage enriching interactive experiences

Develop a notation system of sound qualities that address temporal, spatial, acoustic and perceptual qualities.

Develop design interventions that go beyond defensive strategies and work towards a more positive soundscape management approach.


Constructing a

per

Sonic Terrain

ce p

a beh

tion

Individual

vior

AT G R E E N L A K E , S E AT T L E

sy m

Investigating sound as a modality for increasing imageability of the landscape, fostering social relationships, and creating healthier, more enriching sonic environments for human and ecological communities.

boli

poli

soc

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tica

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Community

ial

cult

u ra

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PHYSICS

e co

Relationship between sound and space Acoustic parameters such as wavelength, amplitude and frequency describe the structure of a sound wave and how they operate in the physical environment.

Wavelength The distance between two adjacent point on a sound wave. The wavelength is critical when the sound wave encounters a physical obstruction.

la

WAVELENGTH

AMPLITUDE Normal air pressure / silence

COMPRESSION

1 second / 20 cycles

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C A PSTONE PROJECT S

1 second / 40 cycles

QUIET

TIME

40 Hz

RAREFACTION CYCLE start point

Decreasing pressure / decreasing amplitude

20 Hz CYCLE end point

Environment

se nd u

Frequency The speed at which thes ource vibrates is known as the frequency of the soundwave and is expressed in hertz (Hz) or cycles per second. The higher the frequency the higher the perceived pitch is.

Amplitude The “amount� of compression or rarefaction of the air is the amplitude, which determines the volume or loudness of a sound. LOUD

Increasing pressure / increasing amplitude

logy

1 second / 80 cycles

SILENCE

80 Hz


PSYCH OLOGY

PH YS ICS

P SYCHOLOGY

Behaviors in response to the stimulus

the parameters of sound

Relationship between sound and an individual We are interpreting changes in our environment through our senses, these inputs are transformed in the brain, which then gives us a way to respond to the world around us.

TH E E X TE R NAL WO R L D

S ENS ES

BRAIN

Information

Perception

Cognition

The initial energy of any stimulus, such as sight, smell or sound, causes some change in the receiver, which is then transduced into a different form and passed along as sensation.

Perception is the integration of sensations into a coherent model of the changes in energy that surround us.

I N T E RN A L MO DE L

Transformed Mental Image

When you add up all these individual percepts, what you get is the an internal model of the external world, built from our senses.

KE Y CONCEPTS

Potential Application of Sonic Theories in Landscape Architecture

P HYSICS

P SYCHOLOGY

P HYS IOLOGY

SOCIOLOGY

A RCHITECTUR E

UR BA N STUD IES

COMMUNICATION

CULTUR A L STUDI ES

MUSI C

AESTHETI C S

Key concepts on how sound affects us in the built environment

Auditory Spatial Awareness

Auditory Spatial Awareness

Aural Architecture

Aural Architecture

Soundscape

an individual’s ability to understand sonic processes and their interaction within a space and also the phenomenology of how sound can stimulate anxiety, tranquility, socialization, isolation, frusteration, fear, boredom, aesthetic pleasure etc. B. Blesser and L.R. Salter

social system, interwoven relationship between spatial awareness, social behavior and design of a physical spaces. Aural architecture can influence our moods, association, and can also have social meaning. B. Blesser and L.R. Salter

Soundscape the sum of all sounds within any defined area, is an intimate reflection of the social, political, technological, and natural conditions of the area. Change in these conditions is echoed in the sonic environment. R. Murray Schafer


E X IS TING COND I TI ONS

NEIGHBORHOOD DEMOGRAPHICS

1 Bathhouse Most rich and complex landscape, varied topography, passive recreation, major entry point, wildlife habitat

14,212

2 Wading Pool Wading pool area with open lawn and informal tree groupings, open to the street

Total population

33

Median age

1,959 Under 18

1,289

65 and over

84% White

3 Community Center Primary entry point, flat open area, gathering space high human activity

7.7% Asian

6,797

Total households

7,707

Pop. family households

5 Aurora Strip narrow and linear, significant noise and air pollution, stressed vegetation, pass through zone

4 Duck Island official State Water Fowl Refuge, off limits to people, used by various birds of prey, heavily vegetated

6,197

Nonfamily households Census 2010

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7 Aqua Center large and diverse, but fragmented landscape, busy park hub, boat related recreation, half-demolished Aqua Theater, adjacent to golf course, wildlife habitat

6 Southeast Shoreline Very narrow, less human activity than other areas


TUNED IN

IN FLUX

TUNED OUT

Socializing 1

Bathhouse

Field Sports Crew/Boating

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Wading Pool

3

Community Center 4

Duck Island

Dog walking Tennis Airplane Playground Birds Waterfowl

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Wheeled vehicles Jogging/walking

Aurora Strip Automobile Bus 6

Swimming Basketball

Southeast Shoreline

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Aqua Center

Existing Conditions To understand how sound in an environment has implications relating from physics to psychology, the soundscape analysis of Green Lake Park consists of studying the passive acoustics of a space, the active sound events occuring over time, the cultural biases of listeners, and the listening state of individuals when occupying a site. The soundscape is composed of the intricate relationships formed between the spatial conditions, or passive acoustics of a space, to how individual sound events create sonic effects in the perceiver. Green Lake Park is broken down into seven distinct areas, each with its own unique spatial characteristics: materiality, vegetation, topography, etc. This diagram connects three components relating to the existing conditions of each of the seven areas: spatial characteristics, the most commonly heard sound events, and the potential listening states of individuals engaged with particular activities.


A

T

ICS

HE

SOUNDSCAPE PLANNING AL TH

S PAT I A L

IMAGEABILITY legibility / navigation / identity

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SOUND

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CO M M U

NI

CA T

Acoustic Zones Sound operates on multiple levels of one’s experience of a place: aesthetics, health, social, identity, communication, and understanding spatial geometry. Depending on the circumstance, certain aspects become more relevant than others. The diagram illustrates proposed design interventions in three different areas of Green Lake. The strategies employed in each of the proposed acoustic zones correspond to support the intended uses and goals of each area. For instance, strategies such as William Whyte’s concept of “triangulation” could be used when designing with sound in the “Community Center” area. The color chart reflects how sound can be employed to support different dimensions of experience at various degrees.

ES

T HE

SOCIAL

Soundscape Planning Designing with sound involves thinking about how sound operates from a larger planning scale, to the individual sonic experience. Soundscape planning for large parks or neighborhoods considers what type of management approach to take and the opportunities for sound to support the planning goals for a site. At Green Lake, there are opportunites to increase the imageability of the park by creating acoustic zones to strengthen the identity of each of the seven areas, which functions as a wayfinding and navigational strategy for users of the park.

Aurora Strip Opportunities: -enhance wildlife habitat -buffer negative impacts of visual, air, and acoustic pollution -experience movement

Aqua Center Opportunities: -unify varied park uses and create temporary auditory refuge

Community Center Opportunities: -enhance civic identity -encourage social interaction

Resonating zone

Restorative zone

Generating zone

Strategies Filtration Collect + Reverberate Expand + Reflect

Strategies Masking by creating “aelioan sound pockets”

Strategies “Triangulation” interactive sonic instrumentation for communal music-making

“Syncopation”

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M AST ER P L AN

URBAN (EXISTING)

GENERATING

RESONATING

AUDITORY SPACE legibility / navigation / identity

RESIDENTIAL (EXISTING)

RESTORATIVE

0

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0.1

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Miles 0.4

Analysis Beyond the planning level, the project delves into schematic design by taking a closer look at the “Aurora Strip” portion of Green Lake. The following pages illustrate the different analysis methodologies and notational systems that were explored. Analysis included the acoustic aspects of sound (i.e. amplitude and frequency) at different times of the day, as well as the experiential, rhythmic qualitites of sound, which looked at how different sound events interact with each other over the length of an hour.


FREQUENCI ES

MORNING VS. EVENING Temporal comparison of frequencies

Tuesday, January 28, 2014 6 p.m. AUTOMOBILE TRAFFIC Hz 19853 17054 14211 11369 8570 5727 2885 43

Time (seconds) Sunday, February 2, 2014 7 a.m. Hz 19853

RUNNER 17054 14211 11369 8570 5727

AUTOMOBILE TRAFFIC

WATERFOWL

2885 43

Time (seconds)

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RHY THM A N ALYSI S

AURORA STRIP Tuesday, February 11, 2014 4:00–5:00 pm 1

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P EOP LE B IRDS AUTOMOB ILE S AIRP LAN E

P EOP LE B IRDS AUTOMOB ILE S AIRP LAN E

The relationships between nature, people and space take the form of rhythms.

P EOP LE B IRDS AUTOMOB ILE S AIRP LAN E

COMMUNITY CENTER Monday, February 17, 2014 5:30–6:30 pm 1

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P EOP LE B IRDS P LAYG ROUND BASKE TBALL B US AIRP LAN E AUTOMOB ILE

P EOP LE B IRDS P LAYG ROUND BASKE TBALL B US AIRP LAN E AUTOMOB ILE S

P EOP LE B IRDS P LAYG ROUND BASKE TBALL B US AIRP LAN E AUTOMOB ILE S


Acoustic Horizon Similar to a visual horizon, the acoustic horizon refers to the limit of distance a listener can hear from a given point. The distance is influenced by how many sound events are happening in a given time and space and the intensity of each of those sound events. The sound events can be categorized as either a keynote, signal or soundmark. Keynote refers to the ubiquitous background sounds that often defines the sonic character of an environment. A signal refers to foreground sounds that are listened to consciously, and a soundmark, analogous to landmark, refers to a unique sound to an area. The “Aurora Strip” is dominated by the keynote sounds of automobile traffic from Hwy 99. The acoustic horizon changed depending on the time of day, and the intensity of the automobile keynote sounds influenced what sounds a listener could hear and determined the limit of distance.

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Signal sounds Keynote sounds

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Design Process As mentioned before, the project focus is on creating an instrument to be played, not scripting the score. Therefore, the design process involved exploring how to shape the acoustic horizon and the aural arena that would impact a user’s experience of the “Aurora Strip,” a space used for wildlife habitat and as a pass-through corridor for park goers.

Proposed

Existing

ACOUSTIC HORIZON

+

100 feet


SI TE PL AN

HWY 9 9

Rhythmic Accents CR USHED GR ANI TE PATH

F I SHI NG P I ER

E ARTH M OUNDS

CONIF ER GR OVE

BOAR DWAL K UPP ER ASP HALT PATH

WI LDL IF E R EF UGE E ME RGENT PONDS

SOUND M IR R OR S

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SHOR EL INE VEGETATION

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“Syncopation” The design concept of “syncopation” refers to the change in the placement of rhythmic accents. Currently the keynote sounds of traffic dominate and shape the acoustic horizon of the “Aurora Strip.” The design proposes to shift the emphasis from the automobile to the urban wildlife. Furthermore this shift is emphasized by creating a series of expansion and compression of the acoustic horizon that is shaped more by the sounds of human and urban wildlife movement rather than the sounds of traffic.


Coupled Strategies In response to the question of how sound can be designed to support a site’s goals, the design proposed for the “Aurora Strip,” employs coupled strategies to address the site’s visual, acoustic and air pollution. Operating as a “sound field” that listeners pass through, the design strategies involve: expanding shoreline habitat, creating a filtration buffer of conifers and earthwork, and collecting stormwater through “suikinkutsu” raingardens. These strategies illustrate how to approach a site’s design sonically as well as ecologically to support creating a healthier environment for human and wildlife communities.

COUPLED STRATEGIES Sonic Performance

Ecological Performance

FILTRATION Conifer Grove + Earth Mounds

EXPAND + REFLECT Sound Field Decrease in traffic sounds and improved, expanded shoreline habitat conditions encourage greater species diversity

Capture airborne particulate matter from vehicles to improve air quality

COL L EC T + RE VE RB E RAT E Suikinkutsu Raingardens

Obstruct traffic sounds from propagating to create healthier auditory conditions for human and animal species

Collect and infiltrate stormwater from Hwy 99

Collected rainwater flows through ceramic pots creating musical tones

Visitor auditory experience is shifted from the sonic predominace of traffic to the sounds of urban wildlife

HW

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T EC

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PA SSIVE ACOUST ICS

Sound mirrors focus, amplify and reflect soundwaves captured between the two sinusoidal concrete surfaces Thick vegetation absorbs sound Mitigate acoustic pollution from automobile traffic on HWY 99

Water amplifies sound

CONIF E R G ROVE

S H ORE L INE

Doug Fir Cedar

E E LG RA S S M E A D OWS

Carex Creeping spike rush Bulrush

Metasequoia glyptostroboides Nysaa sylvatica Parrotia persica Taxodium distichum Populus Salix

F I LT R AT I O N

+160 BIRD S P ECI E S

E ARTH M OUNDS

GROV E OF CONI FE R S

CO L L EC T + R EV ER B ER AT E

SUI K I NK UTSU R AI N GAR DE N

S O U ND M I RRO R/ RE TA I NI NG WA L L

E M E RG ENT P O ND S WOODE N B OAR DWALK

C RU S H E D G RA NI T E PAT H

S OUN D M I RROR

+1 MI L L I O N V I S I TO RS P E R YEAR

AC T IVE S OUN D EVEN TS

EX PAND + R EF L EC T

PROTEC TE D WI LDLI FE REF UG E

Runners/walkers create different auditory rhythms as they walk on alternating materials between crushed granite, wood, and asphalt

Water movement to rain garden flows into Suikinkutsu device creating a reverberation effect

Increased diversity of animal species creates a more robust wildlife soundscape

U R BAN WI LDLIFE SPEC IE S Sliding scale of species impact on soundscape

Mallard Duck

Pied Billed Grebe

Canada Goose

American Crow

GlaucousPacific Hooded Winged Gull Chorus Frog Merganser

Goldfinch

Robin

Black-Capped Pileated Chickadee Woodpecker

Swallow

Double-Crested Cormorants

Red-Winged Blackbird

Barn Owl

Barred Owl

Bald Eagle

Peregrine Falcon

Osprey

Coopers Hawk

Anna’s Great Blue Hummingbird Heron

California Myotis Bat

Northern Alligator Lizard

Western Pond Turtle

Red-Eared Sliders

S PR I N G S U M MER FA L L W I N T ER Habitat creation for targeted species to increase biodiversity


R ESI D UA L S PAC E : B A LLA RD’S C O N N E C T I V E TISSUE JONATH A N S. PAGÁ N

Residual spaces form in the aftermath of urban expansion and signify that a process of transformation has taken place. Numerous, typically vacant, and often overlooked, these irregularly shaped sites resist further development. As urban dwellers struggle to increase the amount of open space within their neighborhoods, many recognize the existence and value of residual space and the potential it has for transforming local communities. Large parcels of land are increasingly rare in the city, as economically driven development projects repeatedly acquire vacant urban lots, leaving a neighborhood’s identity transformed by developers and not local stakeholders. More manageable, abundant, and smaller-scale residual spaces can be identified, programmed, and ultimately function as a valuable network to address a number of urban problems such as; lack of public open space, sense of community and neighborhood identity, insufficient stormwater infrastructure and non-sustainable food practices. Residual Space: Ballard’s Connective Tissue seeks to identify, analyze, and program residual spaces, with the intent of counterbalancing topdown development and providing intervention that can influence broader neighborhood processes. These interventions will focus on creating urban natural habitats that emphases stormwater mitigation, providing a sustainable and local food economy through urban agriculture, and engaging urban art and culture through citizen participation, to ultimately conceive of a new public urban infrastructure that enhances neighborhood identity and systematically promotes community and environmental health.

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C A PSTONE PROJECT S


CONCEPT HABITAT AND S TO RM WAT E R FU N C T I ON : E S TAB L I S H I N G U R B A N N AT U R A L H A B I TAT S W I T H A N E MP H A S I S O N S TO RMWATER M ITIG ATIO N URB AN AGR ICULT U R E : E N H AN C I N G L O C AL FOO D P RO D U C T I O N A N D C O N N E C T I N G C O M M U N I T Y T H RO U GH F O O D URB AN ART AND C U LT U R E : C R E AT I N G O PE N S PAC E TO E N G AG E L O C A L A RT, C U LT U R E , A N D R E I N F O R C E D NEIGHB O RHO O D IDENTITY


Typologies Six typologies were established for the identification of residual spaces. Identification The study area was divided into a grid and individual residual sites were identified using mapping tools such as Google Earth, GIS and on-ground observations. A single grid section (C2) was chosen to investigate more in-depth with the intention of extrapolating the findings to the remaining study area and beyond. The chosen section encompasses parts of Ballard’s historical and industrial districts, and a small portion of shoreline.

T Y PO L OG I E S FO R R E S I D UA L S PAC E

Vacant land

Excess right of way

Odd size/shape

Unused infrastructure

Publicly owned green space

Lacking intentional program

S T U DY AR E A: R E S I D UA L S PAC E I D E N T I F I C AT I O N

3

Size: 0.079 acres

4

Size: 0.006 acres

5

Size: 0.030 acres

Size: 0.002 acres

8

Size: 0.184 acres

9

Size: 0.020 acres

10

Size: 0.046 acres

12

Size: 0.063 acres

13

Size: 0.004 acres

14

Size: 0.005 acres

15

17

Size: 0.137 acres

18

Size: 0.052 acres

19

Size: 0.265 acres

1

Size: 0.052 acres

2

6

Size: 0.011 acres

7

11

Size: 0.031 acres

16

Size: 0.026 acres

Size: 0.025 acres

D

C

B

A 1

28

C A PSTONE PROJECT S

2

3

Size: 0.005 acres


N EIGH BOR H OOD AN ALYS I S

S I T E P RO G R A M S ( C 2 )

Analysis Layers of neighborhood systems were analyzed to investigate relationships, identify patterns and visualize potential programming implementations for the residual spaces.

vacant lots

stormwater outfalls

Program The 19 residual spaces, from grid section C2, were examined through various filters and each site was giving a potential design concept.

cs outfalls

detention systems

Productivity The total combined acreage of the 19 residual sites shows the potential impact on the neighborhood. Stormwater mitigation total is based on a 6 inch ponding depth with a precipitation rate of 0.5 inch per hour (GSI sizing factor of 0.046). Crop yield is based on 0.5lbs per square foot of available growing space.

cso basin

catch basins

drainage system

right-of-ways buildings 2 foot contours

23.07

acresof of impervious impervious acres surface mitigated* surface mitigated*

ceb ll ob ottt o tom m

aarre ea a /

G/ SG I fS acI f toac rt

or

COMBINED SIT E PRO D U C T I V I T Y ( C 2 )

19 11

ce ll

16

13

1.06

18 12

10

15 17

9

7

1.06

acres (46,217 ft2)

4

14 6

3

acresfor of community acres community based art and identity based art and identity

2 1

8 5

00.5

.5ll bbss /s/qs uqau rae rfee e

ftt.

23,108 lbs.of of crop yield** lbs. crop yield**


BALLARD STORMWATER CELLS

Site: 0.104 acres

2.27 acres 30

C A PSTONE PROJECT S

stormw


water runoff mitigated

S I T E PL AN

Stormwater Roads, parking lots, and other types of impervious cover are the most significant contributors to stormwater runoff, negatively effecting the biological and physical condition of receiving waters. These Ballard Stormwater Cells, totaling 0.104 acres, have the potential to make a significant contribution to mitigating stormwater runoff from up to 2.27 acres of impervious surface.


Site Features Habitat and stormwater modular site features can be adapted into green stormwater infrastructure to help contribute to Ballard’s environmental health while enforcing a neighborhood identity.

M OD U L AR S I T E FE AT U R E S

1

2

Identity border / seating feature

3

Seating feature

Planter / seating feature

S E C T I ON

Sidewalk

32

C A PSTONE PROJECT S

Road way

Stormwater/habitat cells

Road way


4

5

Wildlife structure

Flow direction control

Stormwater/habitat cells

6

7

Brick weir

Curb cuts

Stormwater/habitat cells


BALLARD URBAN FARM

Site: 0.265 acres

5,772 lbs 34

C A PSTONE PROJECT S

of crop yield


M OD U L AR S I T E F E AT U R E S

Urban Agriculture There are approximately 78 restaurants within a 1/2 mile radius of this potential Ballard Urban Farm site. A 0.265 acre urban farm can yield up to 5,772 lbs of crops, supplying a large portion of fresh produce to the community while contributing to the local economy.

1

Single greenhouse

Shed / greenhouse

Double planter

4

Wood pallet vine lattice

Wood pallet bin

Wood pallet planter

5

In-ground agriculture

6

Rope spool seat

Storage shed

3

2

Recycled wood planter

Double greenhouse

Metal water storage

Wood water storage

7

Spool table

Tire play structure

Boat garden

Site Features Agricultural modular site features can be implemented into these residual spaces to contribute to Ballard’s food production while enhancing neighborhood identity and lessening the negative impacts of food production and distribution.


Movement The street was converted from twoway to one-way traffic to enhance automobile, bicycle, and pedestrian safety and accessibility, while allowing for a more dynamic and functional streetscape.

S I T E PL AN

4

5

17th Ave St

Skateholders Many local organizations can assume ownership over these Ballard Urban Farm sites, helping contribute to the success of the agriculture while enhancing community and providing a valuable neighborhood resource.

6

2

6

7

2

3

2

3

S TAK E H O L D E R S

36

C A PSTONE PROJECT S

Residential

City Fruit

Food Trucks

Food Bank

Seattle Tilth

Restaurants

1

5


4 2

1

3

3

6

2

3

2

3

6

15th Ave St

4

NW 50th St

1

5

1

5

2

3

6

1

4

5

SIT E MOV EMENT

Residential

NW Peaks Brewery

Vacant

Auto lot / Storage

Food truck/ Beer garden

Automobile Dirt Exchange

Bicycle Pedestrian


BALLARD IDENTITY SITES

Site: 0.002 acres

0.002 acres

38 for community art and identity C A PSTONE PROJECT S


Neighborhood Identity The Nordic Heritage Museum in Ballard is dedicated to the heritage of Seattle’s Nordic immigrants. The museum serves as a community amenity and shares Nordic culture by exhibiting art and providing educational and cultural experiences.

SITE PL AN

NW 48

th St

Ba rd lla W

eN Av


Site Features These neighborhood modular site features can be inserted into Ballard Identity Sites to create a unique assemblage of community character.

M OD U L AR S I T E FE AT U R E S

1

2

Ballard Bowl / skate feature

3

Ballard Locks / salmon statue

4

5

Nordic Museum / Tafl board game

6

C A PSTONE PROJECT S

Micro breweries / beer barrel art wall

7

Urban Farm / example green house

40

Golden Gardens / children’s sandbox

Ballard Library / book bench


PA RT ICIPAT ING ID E N T I T I E S

1

2

Ballard Commons

4

Participating Identities These Ballard Identity Sites can be adopted and intervened to highlight organizations and neighborhood features, creating a walking map and contributing to the identity and character of the Ballard neighborhood.

3

Golden Gardens

Ballard Locks

5

7

6

Nordic Museum

Micro Breweries

Ballard Library

Urban Farm

e Av rd

lla

Ba

1

2 3 5 4 NW Leary Way

7 6

Salmon Bay


M AX I M I Z E Y ( OUR) HOOD :

C O M M U N I T Y H U B A S C AT A L Y S T F O R C R E AT I N G S O C I A L C A P I TA L H S I E N - A I WA N G

Social capital is defined as social networks and interactions that inspire reciprocity among citizens. Built environment (including the way we design and build our communities and neighborhoods) affects the degree to which people are involved in their communities and with each other. The fundamental premise is that some neighborhood designs enable or encourage community connections, whereas others do not. Theoretically, healthy and multi-functional neighborhoods are expected to enhance social capital because they enable residents to interact. Spontaneous “bumping into” neighbors can help to encourage a sense of connection between people and the places they live in the everyday built environment. This interaction can be intentional or accidental. These casual contacts can occur in local parks, or even on the sidewalk. Social interaction can also occur by invitation, not only by chance encounter. These interactions have been theorized to be of great importance for fostering “a web of public respect and trust, and a resource in time of personal or neighborhood need” (Jacobs 1961). We are a generation that uses social networking tools to connect with one another online. However, most contemporary social networking does little to enable real-life social interactions. We spend time sitting in front of our computer and using smart phone easily to interact with others but resulting in spending more time alone. When we open our computers, we shut our doors. Therefore, creating places for people to gather, share, or just waving hello to bridge the community bond is becoming more important. This project’s main goal is to examine the relationship between neighborhood design and social capital. Built environment is

42

C A PSTONE PROJECT S

important in encouraging enhanced levels of social and community engagement (i.e., social capital). I chose two residual spaces in Ballard to catalyze them in becoming hubs for citizens in the face of dense development. In Ballard, housing boom has resulted in buildings being torn down and replaced with tall, expensive townhouses and apartment buildings. While greater density is desirable for cities, this pattern of development is also resulting in greater demand for community open space, which is the main focus of this project. To encourage participation and collaboration in the creation of the Community Hubs, neighborhood stakeholders can collaborate with each other through Website such as Neighborland.-- a simple online platform that can also engage decision makers and developers. Through this website, neighborhood organizations can form from local members to develop a partnership system. They will share their ideas to others to identify and prioritize needs and assets in the community. The group can then find the supporters and volunteers to implement the proposals. These Hubs can move around when there is another residual space in the neighborhood, and allow the community to activate residual land. On weekdays, elements of these Hubs can become mobile and dispersed in different locations in the district or the city. During the weekends, they will converge on the selected sites in Ballard to form the Community Hubs. The temporary nature of these Hubs allows for flexible and openended programming. In the future, parts of the Hubs may become permanent public spaces for the community. Reference Jacobs J. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York, NY: Random House; 1961.


SOCIAL MEDIA

BO

NE

ER

S

S

DS

EN

RK

ND

O

FR

IE

Hiram M. Chittenden Locks

1ST HUB // BALLARD FARMACY abandoned storefront+vacant lots Farmer’s Market

Active nonintimate ties

2ND HUB // FLOATING PARADISE under development

The Burke Guilman Trail

Salmon Bay

15th Ave NW

Shilshole Ave NW

Leary Way NW

OR

Active intimate ties

-W

Active intimate ties Active nonintimate ties

W

total daily intake

I

h

CO

catalyst

FR

1h

CO -

current

Gaming

9

IG H

BO IG H

NE

s

Entertainment

FA M

RS

ILY

ILY

space

1.25h

.75h

FA

RS

M

cal

Social Network

Blog

3.5h

ng

RS

2.5h

rk i

ys i ph

News

wo

KE

so c i a l ne t


ISSUES

According to E Relph, he mentioned the distinctive and diverse places are manifestations of a deeply felt involvement with those places by the people who live in them, and that for many such a profound attachment to place is as necessary and significant as a close relationship with other people.

1

The spaces, places, and boundaries that define city life. America is not like Asia at the mix-used development. In Asia, I can easy to have connections with friends by walking in my neighborhood. Otherwise, American most urban life is lived out in local communities that result in fragmentation connections. Additionally, since the internet has been introduced to our life, electronic spaces are gradually incorporated into physical spaces within contemporary cities. The traditional sense of the program and function of the city have been changed and it transforms people’s everyday life. Distance is diminished; the boundaries between those assigned functions and programs are dissolved. However, the physical spaces and most workers’ everyday life still remained rigid. Accoarding to the right side diagram, 1. existing situation 2. renewed link between environment and human: This vacant concrete space will be transform into a community asset worth improving. Residents can build upon their accomplishments to effectively plan and organize resources toward a specific vision. 3. spatial identity carriers: It begins with a series of demonstration activities encouraging an iterative approach and an opportunity to experiment, assess, and evolve a community’s vision. 4. strong network: They will demand changes to the new developmentthat reflect the values and desires of the Ballard neighborhood.

2

3

4

44

C A PSTONE PROJECT S


ST R AT EGIC OPER AT I O N

HUB IDEA ]

Properties Owners

Brainstorming Process

Ballard

first hill/capitol hill

south park

seattle center downtown university community south lake union

institution industry

school

Hub

business

platform system

Community [ POP UP HUB ]

Negotiate with developers

= [ WORK ]

on weekdays

+

[ EVENT ] on weeknights/weekends SHARE LEARN PLAY MAKE SHOP.................

community center

step 01 BOOK 1 2 3 4

northgate uptown Ballard

south park

seattle center downtown

public/private vacant lot street/sidewalk/alleyway vacant storefront unused warehouse/office/retail

step 02 CHOOSE you also can add a kit of parts with food truck

configuration 01 classroom

then you can start to make your workplace be more LIVABLE

configuration 02 performance configuration 03 dining/meeting

university community south lake union

chicago dallas boston

[ CLASS ] on weeknights

Hub

WEEKDAY

first hill/capitol hill

+

partnership system

northgate uptown

survey by NEIGHBORLAND

profits 60%

upload their vacant stock

profits 30%

[

upload information location: size:

step 03 INTERACT conduct your event and you also can shop daily produces

washington

Hub Hub

new york

backside

san francisco

WEEKEND

Government/Developer shape the new urban design

more.......


EXISTING CONDITIONS office/factory l retail l existing open spaces l potential assests(includes programs/ classes/studios)

industrial l commercial l mixed use l single family l multifamily: mid/highrise l multifamily: lowrise l open space l institutional

land use

assests

hub urban village l main route l secondary route l weekday density l weekend density

exisiting parking lots l potentially activate land

There are sixteen posibilities to make diverse programs that collaborate with domestic and international partnerships. Locals could find whatever they want, the hub becomes an incubator to stimulate their network.

1/2 1/4

conflicts l alliances l potential alliances

C A PSTONE PROJECT S

12

13

Gardener New Patient Resident

14

15

a theraputic space which is natural to heal their illness through working out

11

Scandinavian Teenager Biker Homeless Job Seeker

quiet space in which to plant and escape the noisy everyday life

10

a space in which he can learn new practical skills to help get a job

a safe space to throw a ball

space to run with fresh air and spaces for exercise points

a space to play music, where there are people who will pay for it

a space to sale their products and make income , also make customers willing to come

space in which to make and sell artworks

a space to eat outside away from computer screen

9

space to hang out with friends,not to be told what to do

8

shelter, basic sanitation a platform to generate their income

7

space can keep and reflect their cultural identity

6

5

a healthier working space that not conflict with ballard neighborhood

4

an enclosed space from which to observe species

3

Resident Office Artist Retailer Busker Sporter Dog Student Bluecollar Worker Walker

a quiet space in which to appreciate nature as he has no yard

space to run and play

places to visit, subjects and objects to photograph activities to participate

a secure place to park the car, and a place take a break inbtween shopping

an easy way to exchange or buy goods

Elder

peace adnd quiet, time to thhink and admire the scenery. a chance to get out the house

2

Market Market Shopper Child Seller Goer Tourist

a convenient space from which to sell goods

1

46

open space gap

density core

It works with local organiztions and private companies, sharing and mixing the exist resoures and potential posibilities. Also, open to the public and for education programs, special events.

1/8

16

a space in which he can learn more about the cultureod neighborhood

However, even Ballard has such exciting programs but it is still unsatisfied for different users. Based on the analysis of social components-identifying users’ conflicts and alliances, mix different advantages to make diverse programs.

a safe space to ride and socialize

From Ballard existing conditions, there are some exist programs such as art studios provide classes for students to learn basic embroidery and hand sewing stitches make they create their creatures. Ecological companies support environmental protections.

social components-identifying users’ conflicts and alliances


outside social spaces

rk

nearby nodes t ke

pa

n in

an

nd

ch ch ur ur ch ch ill sh ar m

ou gr ay

pl

ill sh ar

m

lm gi

ly

l jo o di tu ys ul os ih di ch l tu 's S oo oe tt rj ch le w es de pr Ho tgra rd n are r win lla ba tio t c te re da es cen r b a's e l un qu ry d's r sg fo dd we iar ee n pebre hill b es ur ter er ic tb n ks k us isph es ce ea an m w cal t p d b me hem rth di es o w fo just no me rth ard ish no ball

ed sw

h tc pa

p-

er ey

r te emy os di en d tu t c r ca ar uo a n iq e or d l tim eb lar ri fir bal ma d le ol eatt s

om m ro red ap f

t er

g ro zs za ba

p

m ra at bo

nearby nodes

on or mo an e m th e rd ac lla br em

ar

m

e or od

m

m co

outside social spaces

ba

n io at nd er u y nt fo er er w ng ce rn t g u en re i w b in t b c re ar es are ks b s he w c er ea ler ike & rth est nt t p dd er ah ch no qu l ce wes pe s be w es ' ee ica th c er rd k sp ed nor illia ban usi sph rd m h d e m mi lla o ish n fo ba m he ed tio rd ust k la sw ula j or al y n y sim le n b o G ty in lard newshi dem l e- ifes rd fa ca a er p onre l alla l ba o i e a b p u ot tud nc ee gro h ge c s est dk n sifi ts n oun esig ra et s y d g ba pu ott li el

s ck lo

’s e en er m ac d pl gar far en 's ay rg vin nd be ar su m

pa b clu th al es lti he ia rd ec lla sp ba k s& or ice tw sp ne et ce m an ur td go es w r th ic no us m r r te rd o lla an en ba ly m rts c i a da on ho vs se

ch ur ch al k op ar isc s p ep on l 's m na ke om io lu at st rd c rn lla te in ba le irc nd d c ou re gr ac ay s pl

rd lla

FLOATING PARADISE

ba

BALLARD FARMACY

rd lla ba

P HYSIC AL SIT E CO M PO N E N T S


P R O G R A M M I N G L AY E R S B A L L A R D FA R M AC Y

In the weekend, all of tucks will come back to serve hub and become other functions such as mobile book stores, fishing booths or bike renting stops, ect. Also, it also attracts people to come the hub. Those temporary programs that will be distributed in permanent site design. Based on the analysis, this block is surrounded by marine ecological, fabrication and sports company. Also, tons of restaurants and Swedish Medical Center are around this site. Currently, one of these companies in the site is supporting community events highly. Therefore, the function could be regarded as a community center. Based on the interviews, the owner wants to make this vacant lot to become a hotel but it lack of money . Therefore, that is why it results in abandoned storefront and empty parking lots. My goal is to create a multi functional farm for community to work out. Importantly, Swedish Medical Center will be one of partnerships. It becomes a theraputic garden for patients. To run a business in historical area is very vibrant. Lots of people come here to open their own stores. Howeve, the rent is not affoardable. I also create a commune for new coming generation to have opportunity to make their dream that will collaborate with community incubator to run those programs. During weekend, the programs will be expanded. Most of parking lots will open for people instead of cars. (just like parklet ideas) It will be more sporty, exercising to welcome people and animals. (Ballard has one popular farmer’s market). During events, we will hold one week events that is related to art’s and farm’s issues. In the future, the site maybe will be constructed. But part of those programs could be hold in another residual sites. So, it could be moved around not only specific on this site.

48

C A PSTONE PROJECT S

Cafe and Brew Mountain

Art Show

Waffle Garden


sharing

farming exercising

Herb Foraging

EVENT Community Incubator Information Center Cafe n Brew Mountain Art Show Herbs Foraging One Week Pallete Pavillion Mobile Farm Promotion

r ’s m arke

t

ging han ce c ran ent

from

fram e

WEEKEND

ark ing

lo t

Commune Greenhouse Mushroom Waffle Garden Community Incubator Information Center Food Truck Cafe n Brew Mountain Scenery Tower Biking Renting Dog Park Roller n Hocky playground Music Station n Open Air Theater Chalkboard Jungle

to p

from burke

trail

Commune Greenhouse Mushroom Waffle Garden Community Incubator Information Center

LO T

Event Scenario

guilman

WEEKDAY

en tra nc e

Community Incubator

VA CA NT

Inflatable Greenhouse Mushroom

healing


M AS T E R P LAN WEEKEND

1

10

2

4 3 5 9

6

1.Information Center 2.Gathering Area 3.Inatable Greenhouse Mushroom 4.Plaza 5 Wafe Garden 6 Recycled Table and Seating 7 Community Incubator 8 Cafe n Brew Mountain 9 Commune 10 Biking Renting 11 Giant Triangle 12 Open Air Theater 13 Music Station 14 Hocky playground 15 Roller Skate Class Field 16 Food Truck 17 Pop-up Kitchen 18 Off-leash Park 19 Chalkboard Jungle 20 Farm TED Talk Stage 21 One Week Pallete Pavillion 22 Art Show 23 Mobile Farm Promotion

50

C A PSTONE PROJECT S

16 8

17 18

7

11

14 19

12 13

15

0

40

80

160

240 feet


Chalkboard Jungle

Off-leash Park

Hocky playground

Roller Skate Class Field

Weekend Scenario


P R O G R A M M I N G L AY E R S F LO AT I N G PA R A D I S E

This site is located in marginal industry area. It becomes a vacant lot for a long time. The owner is the same with Trader Joe’s that wants to build the apartments but no one want to buy. He would love to supports community needs and hear their voices. Therefore, that is the great opportunity for owner through Neighborland tool to know what they want.

Aquaponics Pavillion

2 Days Science Shows

Aquaponics Lab Otherwise, Seattle Marine Academy have a plan to expand their school to strehgthen Ballard marine identity and education. I want to base on this idea to make this lot become marine science hub under the academic resources. Also, this site is a connector with others by taking boat to here or from otherside fremont by walking on the bridge. Therefore, the transportation is very diverse, so it should be increase the amount of people to come here. This site is located in marginal area, therefore providing daily needs is basic requirement. Second, the current site is sunken so I use this advantage to make people have connection with water. Also, create fun educational function for children to learn by playing. During weekday, scholoar and students can do research in the site. But during weekend, it combines with trucks to become a fishing pond for the increasing family population their kids have a public space to go. During holding science two days events, the site will expand to block the street to allow the science booth occupy the street. Through this program it might could change industiral area become a fun imagination for ballard community. Also, they can find their marine identity back.

52

C A PSTONE PROJECT S


sharing

healing

farming exercising

researching playing gathering

Science Experiment Booth

EVENT

EVENT Aquaponics Lab Aquaponics Pavillion Lunch Picnic Science Barge Food Truck 2 Days Science Shows Floating Wetland Experiment Ballard TED Talk Up Balloons

up

r ’s m arke

t

ging han ce c ran ent

Community Incubator Information Center Cafe n Brew Mountain Art Show Herbs Foraging One Week Pallete Pavillion Mobile Farm Promotion

om

fram e

WEEKEND

from burke

guilman

Commune Greenhouse Mushroom Waffle Garden Community Incubator Information Center Food Truck Cafe n Brew Mountain Scenery Tower Biking Renting Dog Park Roller n Hocky playground Music Station n Open Air Theater Chalkboard Jungle

WEEKEND en tra r joe’s trade

nc e fireborn arts

me acade seattle mariti

my

from canal

Aquaponics Lab Aquaponics Pavillion Lunch Picnic Street Painting Food Truck Pop-up Kitchen Fishing pond Boat Workshop Science Barge

trail

WEEKDAY

ind ust r

Commune Greenhouse Mushroom Waffle Garden Community Incubator Information Center

ya rea from

il n tra ilma e gu burk

WEEKDAY Aquaponics Lab Aquaponics Pavillion Lunch Picnic Rain Garden Food Truck

T T LO

AN VAC Event Scenario

7


M AS T E R PL AN WEEKEND

14 11 13 1 10 5

9 12 3

2 7

6

4

8

15

1.Aquaponics Pavillion 2.Aquaponics Lab 3.Giant Triangle 4.Recycled Table and Seating 5.Gabion Basket 6.Gathering Plaza 7.Waving Picnic 8.Pallet Planter and Seating 9.Food Truck 10.Rain Garden 11.Pop-up Kitchen 12.Underpass Food Court 13.Fishing Booth 14.Street Painting 15.Boat Workshop 16.Science Barge 17.Ballard Marine TED Talk 18.Science Experiment Booth 19.2 Days Science Shows 20.Pallet Stage 21.Up Balloons

54

C A PSTONE PROJECT S

16 0

40

80

160

240 feet


Summer Bookshop

Fishing Pond

Art Painting

Waving Picnic

Fishing Booth

Gathering Plaza

Weekend Scenario


Programs that mobilize citizens to connect with others by gardening, participating events, food, or sharing, etc. In Ballard neighborhood, there are abandoned shiiping containers, art/fabrication/wood studio. Therefore, there are cimmunity-based interventions.

gallery

/proje

ct spac

e

shop / lab residential spaces (2 units) collaborative studio spaces (3 units) studio spaces (3 units) retail

UNIT 3-babecue UNIT 1-corner table UNIT 2-table / bench

56

C A PSTONE PROJECT S

giant triangle

recycled table

pop-up kitchen (with food truck)

aquaponics lab

scenery tower / tourist station

L O C AL I ZE D I N T E RV E NT I O N S

commune

The role of values in the design of community interventions is discussed. It is argued that participation in the design of community interventions by community members and professional experts associated with the problem of interest is congruent with the values of community psychology.

community spaces retail residential spaces (2 units) information center


PP ROGR R O G R AAM M DDIST I S T RRI IBBUUTTI IOONNS S

W E E K D AY W E E K D AY

WEEKEND WEEKEND

1. 1. Locations Locations of of events events Using Using the the permanent permanent site site design design to to organize organize the the temporary temporary activities’ activities’ locations. locations. The The current current design design makes makes the the most most of of the the climatic climatic conditions conditions in in rainy rainy season. season. The The community community incubator, incubator, commune commune or or information information center center will will offer offer spaces spaces for for events events all all year year through. through. The The goal goal is is aimed aimed at at grouping grouping functions functions together together and and thus thus providing providing larger larger activities activities diversely. diversely. These These two two areas areas become become the the means, means, which which allows allows the the vacant vacant parking parking lots lots to to continue continue attracting attracting crowds crowds also also in in the the short short waiting waiting development development days. days.

EVENT EVENT

noon nap

music parties

yoga class

cafe/beer drinking

fashion show

healing

aquaponics tour

open-air opera

rollerskating

farm promotion

aquaponics

foraging

open-air cinema

learning/sharing

farm show

art flea market

farming

dancing

dog running

boat workshop

flower exhibition

biking shows

researching

food service

one night living

dinner parties

art painting

swimming beach

lectures

artwork exhibition

working

sunbathing

view seeing

children's day

fishing

summer bookshop

scholar sharing

celebration

community gathering

lunch golf

shopping

farm to table

hockey

science barge

science game

balloon festival

2. 2. Flexibility Flexibility in in programming programming It It is is seen seen as as aa stage, stage, on on which which various various events events can can happen. happen. Part Part of of the the program program is is fixed, fixed, but but part part of of it it is is left left only only suggested. suggested. The The project project has has aa substantial substantial area area of of outdoor, outdoor, but but also also indoor indoor spaces, spaces, which which function function has has not not been been fixed, fixed, but but only only possibilities possibilities for for it it have have been been suggested. suggested. These These spaces spaces offer offer aa great great flexibility flexibility in in the the functioning functioning of of the the park. park. They They make make it it possible possible both both to to fix fix aa function, function, which which the the future future park park management management considers considers important, important, but but also also to to keep keep changing changing the the functions, functions, which which take take place place at at aa specific specific spot. spot.


IN TE R B AY S Y STE MS AT IN TE R B AY, S E ATTLE SH U-KUEI H SU

The project explores the new possibility to recycle and reuse urban Drop-scape by develop a new water reuse system on an old industrial site, and cooperate with the new developments. The new water distribution system collect and clean the run-off and decontaminate the contaminated soil on site, distribute the clean water to new transit system, housing unit, new school. The new development respect and rebranding the identity of the history, remain the productivity of the site, and create the space for different activities. The development also meet the criteria of sustainability development, it content economic, ecology, and society strategy.

Urban run-off from adjacent neighborhoods went through the contaminated ground in Interbay into Puget Sound bay. The plan is to collect and reuse the urban run-off, rain water, old infrastructure. Establish a new water recycle system, and new sustainable neighborhood. Our main strategies are Reuse, Identity, and Productive.

Project Narrative: Interbay landfill, Seattle. An abandon and forgotten area 2 miles away from Seattle downtown. It is the low point between Queen Anne, and Mongolia. The site contents four major zones, from west to east, Industrial use, railroad, armory, and Pier 90, Pier 91 in the south. Interbay has limit access from surrounding neighborhood, the industrial area is underutilized. The need of the railroad is reducing every. Pier 90 and Pier91 is transforming from exporting harbor into tourist oriented, it brings 50,000 tourist into Seattle every year.

Identity: Maintain the local iconic elements, for example, warehouses, railroad, and containers. Use the iconic elements to create new identity, such as Railroad Park, Container art festival, Container shop, and warehouse into artist work shop.

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C A PSTONE PROJECT S

Reuse: Collect and reuse the run-off water, rain water, and old warehouses, infrastructure into clean water for irrigation, new workshops, and museum to create more work opportunity. Turning old railroad to new transit infrastructure.

Productive: Create more housing units with p-patch, the residents can grow their own foods and trade in the food market. And Create more working opportunity on the site, the new pier can also attract more tourist into Seattle.


REGIONAL MAP

ISSUES Land use: 70% Industrial Impermeable space: 95% Vacancy: 2200 acres

Discovery Park West Point Treatment Plant

Limit access Soil contamination

Queen Anne

Magnolia

STRATEGIES Reuse

Contaminate

Runoff

Queen Anne Greenbelt

Identity 1 mile

2 mile

Olympic Sculpture Park Puget Sound Downtown Interbay Landfill

King County Wastewater Treatment Plant

Productive


INT ER B AY T IMELI N E 1874

1870

1894

1890

1910

1975

1930

1990

2014

Cruising In 2009, the piers became the termainal of cruise ship. It brought 480,000 passengers to Seattle every year.

Pier A/B Export and import to Asia Locomotive The Port was ranked second in the nation for the value of its imports and exports. C A PSTONE PROJECT S

1970

WWII U.S Navy purchased the Piers

Gas works star working in Interbay.

60

1950

1992

Buy Back After war, the Port purchased back the harbor. The piers handled imported cars at the time.


A

Queen Anne

F

B

M AST ER PLAN

D

Magnolia

C

G

H

I

E

J

LEGEND K

Elliott Bay Marina

L

Pier 90/91

Puget Sound

A

Wastewater Plant

B

Wetland

C

New Community

D

P-patch

E

Community Center

F

Railroad/ Bike Lane

G

New Design School /Railroad Museum

H

Artist Workshop

I

Farmers Market

J

Railroad Park

K

Office

L

Hotel


DIAG R AMS

EXISTING LAND USE

CONCEPTUAL PROGRAMMING

Building configuration Culture/ Work

Musuem Armory Warehouse

Farmers Market Artist Workshop

Industrial G1

Green Industry

Wetland Live

Marina Commercial Industry

Tourism

Office Retail Recreation/ Work

Hotel

Office Residntial

GREEN NETWORK

DRAINAGE SYSTEM

TRANSIT CIRCULATION

P-patch

Public Transit Freight Train Bike

Green Space

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C A PSTONE PROJECT S


DEV ELOPING PH A S E S

1890 Smith Cove

1930 WWII

2020 Phase 1 -

2025 Phase 2 -

Decontaminate

1970 Pier90-Pier91

Revitalize

2030 Phase 3 -

Reborn


Cornus stolonifera

Carix Sp.

Wood duck

Salix nigra

Bacopa monnieri

Distichlis spicata Oenanthe sarmentosa

Juncus acuminatus

Double-crested Cormorant Sockeye salmon

Steelhead trout

Greywater Inflow Water treatment plants Rain Water Inflow Aeration pool

Sedimentation pool

Lineal plant treament Clean Water Outflow Birds Island

Reservoir/ Aquaculture

Flood control dam

Pudge Sound

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C A PSTONE PROJECT S

Upland Habitat


Wetland Elevation In different parts of the wetland serves different function, some part clean the water, some storage the water.

Water Distribution System The diagram below shows the new sustainable system to recycle and reuse the water goes into the site, and the water cleaned by wetland. Collect runoff from Queen Anne, Mongolia, and Interbay region to waste water treatment plant for preliminary clearance. Rain water from roof top or bio-swale goes to sedimentation section, skip the water treatment plant. The clean water will storage and infiltrate in reservoir section, the clean water will provide the New design school, Artist workshop, and P-patch irrigation.


Lineal plant treament

Cross Wetland Boardwalk

Children Play Sand dune

Birds Island

Kayak landing

Riparian Habitat

Reservoir

Lookout boardwalk

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C A PSTONE PROJECT S


The New Heart of Interbay

WAT ER QUA LIT Y D I AG R AM

The wetland which provides habitat, clean water, and fun for wildlife and human. The mediation wetland provides different types of habitats to meet the needs of different wildlife, which increase bio-diversity and resistant landscape. Moreover, the new wetland will going to be the new heart of Interbay community, it create places for varies activities to happen. And it also restores the old shore line fabric back into 1930.

Clean

Dirty


WATER DIST R IBUT ION S YS T E M The rain water collected from roof will be recycle in the building itself, and transport to water storage in P-patch. The rain water in new community would goes to bioswale, and wetland for next stage of cleaning process. The run-off from Mongolia and Queen Anne goes to wastewater treatment plant, then mediation wetland. 70% clean water would reuse by less water quality demanding industrial use, 90%100% clean water would reuse by P-patch, residential unit, and New art school.

Neighborhood run-off 70% clean water for Industry Run-off from Mognolia

To Storage Tank

for P-patch

for P-patch

Queen Anne Run-off

Rain Water

Detention Park

90% clean Water

Run-off

Bio-Swale

Detention Pond Outflow

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C A PSTONE PROJECT S

N


NEW INT ER B AY C O M M U N I T Y

Walk able Neighb o rho o d Proposed Bus Stops Community Center Pedestrian Zone Speed limited street

Pedestrian zone provides the comfortable and safe walking experience. Retail stores and restaurants were along the pedestrian zone.

Seattle Transit stop Connection Landbridge

G reen Net wo rk Public Green Space Stormwater Detention Park Bio-Swale P-patch

Community Park stores the storm water and also provide habitat. Scatter small green spaces advance the living of birds and insects.

Sto rm Water Co llec ted Community run-off Bio-swale Irrigation Network Water Storage Tank

Create a network system to collect and storage the storm water in Neighborhood. Use the storage water in the water tank to irrigate the P-patch.

D iverse L andu se Commercial Community Center Residential Transit Station

Maximize the sunshine rate surface per building and diver the use of building, for example, retail in first floor, residential units in second floor.


Site Sections

Connection Bridge Interbay Station

A

Wetland

Loading Zone

Artist Workshop

Railroad Museum

Farmer's Market

Out door Railroad Exibition

Freight Railroad

P-patch Seattle Transit Pedstrian Zone

Connection Bridge

B

Wetland

Loading Zone

Wood/Stone Workshop

Farmer's Market/ Multifuction Lawn

Speed limited Pedstrian friendly zone Railroad Park

Freight Railroad

P-patch

Seattle Transit Pedstrian Zone

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C A PSTONE PROJECT S


PIER90/ PIER91 New multifuction commercial and recreation harbor

Office Marina

Cruise Ships docking at Pier 91 bring 481,000 passengers into Seattle and the Interbay District every year. We proposed to reuse and renovate the existing structure into office, dived the interior of old building into small compartments to small business.

Office

Retail Hotel

Second, build new hotel for the large amount of the tourist brought by cruise ship. Moreover, we designed the new water overlook, Pier coffee shop, and shaded pavilion. Third, collect and recycle the rainwater and runoff, direct into the designated rain garden, reuse the water to irrigate the roadside trees.

Rain Water Collected

Wind Barrier

Bus Route

A B

Bus Stop

Pier 90

Cruise Ship Stop Pier 91 View Point


Freight Train

Seattle Transit

Interbay P-patch

Bike Path Pedestrian Walk

P- PATC H

Connection Bridge Container Shop

Preserved Railroad

RAIL ROAD PARK 72

C A PSTONE PROJECT S


Queen Anna

Wetland Promenade

Bird-watching boardwalk

MEDIATIO N WETL AND


L IF E I N B E TW E E N

R E V I S I O N O F U R B A N A M B I G U O U S S PA C E KEI-S IN G YIU

There are lots of in between spaces, which have neither specific programs nor users, in the urban area. People have no attachment when going pass by these spaces. However, these ambiguous spaces have great potential to become an activity buffer and mood transfer place where people can enjoy their life. Using the ideas of Overlap, Penetrate, and Soften to create places that not only reflect the surrounding elements but also contain a variety of uses is the main goal of this project. Denny Way in Seattle is a typical demonstration of urban ambiguous space. The historical development in the area created triangular wedge spaces that limit their uses. The area is currently faced with new developments near the Seattle Center and a growing number of new residential and office buildings. As In between space, the sites along Denny Way could resolve the conflicts between car traffic and pedestrian circulation. They could also support the surrounding programs and the potential street activities. The overall systems strategy is to create four zones at the site to serve different users in different time. By doing so, the strategy strengthens the identity in each area and improves not only street experience but also the economic and way finding system. For the phasing strategy, I vision changes in the next 50 years, and try to

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C A PSTONE PROJECT S

make a collaborative design. The users and activities will change through the phases, and the design will respond to the changes. In addition, based on a series of analysis, I chose three sites to become multifunctional nodes to handle water, planting, circulation, traffic, and spatial feeling issues. In site I, the objective is to design an interactive place in between educational and exercise activities. The task is to penetrate the class use and the exercise needs, soften the circulation system, and overlap the activities at different time. In site II, the goal is to provide a healthy place in between green corridors and residential communities. The task is to penetrate the nature and the community accessibility, soften the edge between people and nature, and overlap the eco-function and community activities. In site III, the main propose is to create an attractive place in between an exhibition area (Seattle Center) and the surrounding office area. The task is to penetrate the environment feeling from these two different programs, soften the well-defined factor, and overlap the potential needs.


Shop Work Sleep Cook Ex Eat hibition

AM R G

RO

P

BUILD

INGS

D Wait forive Car r Bu Walk s Bike Take P icture STREE

Rest Have F Play o o d Perfom enc Gathe e r

T

PLAZA

Stroll Have F Rest ood ExercRisead e PARK

CE A SP

TIME

06:00

09:00

12:00

17:00

20:00

22:00 Residents

Passers

Homeless

Residents

Workers

Passers

Consumers

Students

Residents

Passers Visitors

Homeless

Residents

Workers

Consumers

Students

Residents

Passers

Visitors Students

Visitors

Workers

Students

Homeless

PEOPLE

14:00


WA

Queen Anne

KING COUNTY

Seattle Center

Lake Union

St .

The surrounding of Denny way is the edge between different era. That is, it formed by different angle of street and create lots of triangular spaces.

L O C AT I ON

G R I D PAT T E R N

Br oa d

Denny way locate at the north of Seattle, King county, Washington State, USA. Because of the urban development history, which based on the economical purpose at 18th century, the grid system have different angle. Because the expand of Seattle downtown, Denny Way locating between south lake union and Belltown become thrive. Lots of new residential and office buildings have been built or will be build in the next 20 years. That create a opportunity for this space to rethink it’s position and how it can do to connect the surrounding district.

Denny Way

Site

The leftover space turn out to be parking lots or abandoned place, the experience of moving through this space is bored and unfriendly.

Downtown

S I T E P H OTO

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C A PSTONE PROJECT S


CO NCEPT

What will happen when people go between different activities? What will people see during the time they traveled through street? Every leftover spaces have potential to provide opportunities for street activities which could invite surrounding people to join or watch. In this case, people will enjoy the life in between different space, time, and activities. The characteristic of these space should provide spaces where can reflect surrounding activities, can contain multiple use, and can create chance of interaction. The three methods to practice the concept of reflect, contain, and interact are Penetration, Overlap, and Soften. Penetrate the surrounding spatial elements, activities to extend and invite the circulation and users. Overlap the existing and potential activities to create varies appearance in different time. Soften the edges to provide harmony spaces allow flexible use.

PART I

Penetration

Create spatial connection to surroundings

Overlap

Create multi-functional program and space

Soften

Create exible use area between different activities


Site analysis in this project has been arrange to three categories. The first is the analysis of people activities. I visited the site several times and investigate each buildings and places in order to understand the existing programs in and beside the site. In addition, I mapping out the path people usually walk in the site to realize the important gathering spot, rest space, and cut through way. The result shows that even in different time during the day, the users will be different, most of the path is used by connecting buildings to public transportation stations. So does the gathering spots, most of them are close to bus stations. The second category is the analysis of time. I studied the development history and the future plan surround this area. The first park in Seattle - Denny Park is beside Denny Way which provide a precious nature resource. However, it doesn’t provide a chance of people life, which is a crucial needs in this era. Furthermore, I studied the future plan, that it will be a lake-bay loop proposed in recent year and lots of new residential buildings as well. The Last category is the analysis of space. It includes all the elements affecting space form. Building height analysis shows the site have lots of open space that unlike to the CBD area, which provide a better resting space for both people and wildlife. The traffic analysis shows that the system should not totally follow the street pattern which cause lots of confusion for car users. The topography and green resources analysis point out the potential location for public space.

S I T E AN ALYS I S

Future Plan

Landuse

Building Height Gathering Spot

Traffic

Circulation Topography

Accessibility

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C A PSTONE PROJECT S

Historical Elements

Green Resources


COMPLEX ANALYS I S

Complicate traffic circulation create traffic jam, the proportion of road width and car utilization is inefficienct

Pedestrian circulation based on scatter or gather from the public station in each zone

New development create more family users

People need better waiting space around bus stops

Street space for car will decrease, for people will increase P

Lowrise area provide great spatial transition from CBD to South Lake Union

OO YL -BA

KE

LA

SITE

The Important of public transportation will increase Precious green area should be preserved and expanded


00:00

00:00

M A STER PLAN 22:00

02:00

STREET / PARK

10:00

14:00 12:00

STREET / PARK -Street Park -Green Parklet -Pocket Park -Bio-Swale

80

06:00

08:00

16:00

C A PSTONE PROJECT S

02:00

04:00

20:00

04:00

20:00

18:00

22:00

ART / REST

18:00

06:00

08:00

16:00

10:00

14:00 12:00

ART / REST -Multi-functional Art Structure -Rest Court -Outdoor Concert -Bio-Swale -Chess Plaza -Outdoor Cafe -Bike Share Spot -Green Space -Temperary Street Event

CON

-Urban Ar -Recreasio -Retention -Commun -Roof Gar


00:00 22:00

22:00

04:00

20:00

CONNECT / COMMUNITY

18:00

06:00

10:00

14:00

02:00

04:00

20:00

08:00

16:00

NNECT / COMMUNITY

rgriculture onal Plaza n Pond nity Market rden

00:00 02:00

18:00

PLAY / EDUCATE

06:00

08:00

16:00

10:00

14:00

12:00

12:00

PLAY / EDUCATE -Multi-functional Playground -Slope Lawn -Movable Street Furniture -Community Classroom -Elephant Car Wash Sign -Skateboard Park -Basketball Playground

N

0

100

200

500ft


All the systems are based on providing a walkable space and strengthen the advantage of people experience, based on the analysis result and the vision of future Denny way.The main strategy is creating couple node to connect the whole area. The nodes will have gathering, drainage, public transportation, green connection, and spatial feeling functions. There will be three main phases: the first one is in 10 years in which the local users will increase, so places like parking lots will be reduced and changed to parks. In phase two, public transportation will partially replace personal vehicles, so temporary street events will happen. In the third phase, each community will have its own characteristic and complete life cycle to become a healthy neighborhood.

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C A PSTONE PROJECT S

S YS T E M


PROGR AM PH ASING


PLAY / EDUCATE Residential

Denny Way B’ 07 14

09

06 08

Dexter Avenue

10 01

6t

hA ve nu e

02 04

13 11

A’

Residential 03 05 12

Retial

St

re e

t

By the overlap parti, the program is set for varies people and time. The playground for children(02) is overlap with the circulation and combine the sitting area for community. The skateboard park(08) is respond to the existing skateboard store(09). It overlap the program of bus waiting which is the main use of the site. By the soften idea, all the edge in the site is flat and without obstacles. People can go through each area and doing different activities. Moreover, the movable furniture also invite people to occupy different area and stay at the site.

Retail + Residential

A

The issue of this site is how to provide a place with for potential activities for surrounding users, and how to solve the complicate traffic situation. By using the parti of penetrate, the circulation is extended to attract people to use the space. In addition, the surrounding program such as reading, chatting and resting are also penetrate into site and provide the space as movable bench(03) and activity hall(05).

Retail

Aurora Avenue

Site I This site is locate at the south of Denny Way, and between the 6th Avenue and Dexter Avenue. The Denny Park is at the opposite side of the east-north corner. There are two colleges at the south side of the site. The north side is residential and retails. The exist use of the site is partial parking lots with vacant lots. The future plan is a 4 story residential house.

W all

B

City University of Seattle Antioch University Seattle

L O C AT I ON

S ITE PL AN 01 community lawn 02 playground 03 movable bench 04 entry plaza 05 activity hill 06 elephant sign plaza 07 bus plaza 08 skateboard park 09 skateboard shop 10 basketball court 11 flexible use lawn 12 street event 13 workshop 14 retail + residential

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C A PSTONE PROJECT S


SECT ION A-A’

buffering grass

ketball , bas top s s bu

skat ebo ard

skateboard lope, fac rd s ilit a y, bo te

pla yg ro u

s

oard facility, b u ateb s sto p,

lay facilities nd, p , 511 rou g ye y a a l p

training row g , old

playground

, sk pe lo

rs

pathway

ground, play play f a cili ad tie , sn s nd

p, community clas sho s, t k r ea o c ,w

wo rk sh o

class, teach i unity n g in mm te co r p,

p, study rnshi nte i ng hi

community lawn

, play grou n rs old d , sn yea ad -11 ,5

retail + residential

rt, resting s ll cou p a ce, tba sk ske a ba

street cafe

event, yoga c l a s ory s ro , st om hip ns

SECT ION B-B’

elephant sigh

activity lawn

workshop

flexible use lawn

pathway

skateboard park

bus station


Connect / Community

Taylor Avenue N

Site II This site is locate at the south of Denny Way, between 5th Avenue and Vine Street. It is surrounding by retail and residential buildings. The monorail is passing by on the 5th Avenue, which create a unique view for the site.

Residential

Retail

Residential

The issue for the site is the fragmentation. Taylor Avenue, which has low traffic happened, cuts the site into two pieces and make the area have no chance for activities,

Retail

Denny Way

Since there will have new residential buildings along Taylor Avenue and the circulation in lake-bay loop, Taylor Avenue is become are pedestrian friendly road, and the use of cars will be reduce. I closed the road and make it as a community park to serve the surrounding users.

01 05

02 04

06

03

07

Restaurant + Residential

The program at the site will overlap by different altitude. On the rooftop will be urban agriculture(05), at the first floor will be restaurant(06), on the top of the market(02) will be roof garden and a grass slope for view watching and resting.

St

re e

Retail + Residential

Vi

ne

hA ve nu e

t

5t

Retail + Residential

Residential

L O C AT I ON

S ITE PL AN 01 observation grass slope 02 public market 03 roof garden 04 community plaza 05 urban agriculture 06 street cafe 07 wetland

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C A PSTONE PROJECT S


SECT ION

monorail

entry plaza

observation lawn

public market

playground

wetland

pathway

retail + residential + farm


The identity for this site as in between exhibition and office area is art and rest. Providing area that allow workers to rest at lunch time or after work, and attracting tourists from Seattle Center will be the main program.

ART / REST 01 entry plaza

10 multi-function plaza

02 mount pathway

11 multi-function lawn

03 art plaza

12 temp. street food court

04 art slope

13 art island

Seattle Center

01

05 temp. street market 06 bike share station

02

07 forest pathway

Retail + Office 1 + 2 story

Site III The site is locate between Broad Street, 4th Avenue, 3rd Avenue, and Clay Street. It next to the Seattle Center, and surrounded by office buildings. The existing use is parking lots and some suburban style buildings.

08 art hill 09 outdoor stage

St re e

t

The strategy is extending the street pattern to the site to attract people, overlap different programs by movable furniture and temporary events, and soften the circulation pattern to create blur edges to encourage interactions.

03

d Br oa

In addition, the site is at the south east entrance of Seattle Center, it is a great chance to create a entry feeling at the intersection of Broad Street and Denny Way. I proposed three multifunctional art installation at the three corner to become a entrance image.

Denny Way

05

Retail + Office 4th Avenue

Pacific Science Center

04

Denny Way

Denny Way

13

06 Residential

08

07 09 11

Office

4t

hA ve nu e

Cl

L OC AT I ON

t

Re t + ail + 2 sto Offi ry ce

tre e

1

ay S

3r dA ve nu e

R 1 etai + l+ 2 sto Of ry fice

Br oa

d

St

re et

10

Residential

12

Residential Office

S ITE PL AN

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C A PSTONE PROJECT S


Create entry gate feeling

Provide resting space


M AK I N G T H E INV ISIBLE V ISIBLE :

U R B A N I N T E R V E N T I O N A N D G E N T R I F I C AT I O N I N S E AT T L E ’ S L I T T L E S A I G O N KE V IN BO G L E

Little Saigon is a social, cultural, and economic hub for over 70,000 people of Vietnamese descent in the Puget Sound area. Located south of downtown, immediately bordered by Chinatown to the west, Yesler Terrace to the north, the Central District to the east, and light industrial to the south, this vibrant district serves as both a destination and a thoroughfare to thousands weekly. Little Saigon was born in the 1970s when the first wave of Vietnamese refugees opened up shops and restaurants. Previously, the area was mostly abandoned to neglect. It is an ideal location for this community as it is almost connected to Chinatown/International District, separated only by the I-5 overpass. Over the intervening decades, hardworking entrepreneurs built a thriving business district that attracts both Vietnamese and non-Vietnamese consumers to a variety of restaurants, grocers, small businesses, and service shops. Last Saturday afternoon, I took a walk up Jackson Ave. to take in the neighborhood. Beginning at I-5 and walking east I pass a fruit and vegetable grocer whose wares have begun to encroach the sidewalk in crates and on tabletops. Next door is the Buddhist shrine supply store, open by invitation only: a peek in the windows shows gilded gods and goddesses. As I walk, I hear and smell the auto traffic passing by on Jackson Avenue, a major street that serves as the shortest connection between Lake Washington and Eliot Bay. Jackson is a favorite for bicyclists as it is the smoothest gradient up First Hill, one of Seattle’s famed Seven Hills. I also notice freshly constructed streetcar tracks in the middle of the avenue: Jackson will be serviced by a new streetcar line connecting the King St. Station to Capitol Hill, with a stop in Little Saigon. Continuing, I notice long block lengths, at least 2-3 times too long. I pass by a parking lot, one of

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C A PSTONE PROJECT S

dozens that cover land in this district. Parking is a necessity in Little Saigon; the diverse shops cater to the Vietnamese population from the larger Puget Sound region, drawing in people from as far afield as Olympia and Vancouver. At last count, there were 300 parking spots for a six-block area. I pass by a large stretch of abandoned buildings and vacant lots, barbwire and fences. Chain link fences hide verdant weeded lots from view, these are some of the only open ‘green’ space in the neighborhood. I pass the home-made tofu shop, Vietnamese sandwich shop, and a pho restaurant. Looking across the street, I see more grocery stores, restaurants, and small businesses. There are two known crises threatening Little Saigon’s continuing existence: within ten years the neighborhood could be gone and the Vietnamese diaspora continued. In 2011, the Livable South Downtown Rezoning changed the neighborhood’s zoning to allow building height to go up to 160’. The majority of Little Saigon is built to around 40’. In 2012, the Yesler Terrace Rezoning Proposal passed, and plans will increase residential density from 561 up to 5,000 units, add up to one million square feet of office space, up to 180,000 square feet of retail, and up to 13 high rise towers to go as high as 300’. This is just blocks north of Little Saigon, yet there is currently no plan to integrate the neighborhood into this development. Increasing height limits of a property will increase its value. The drastic up-zoning of Yesler Terrace will directly impact property values and therefor rents for small businesses. My fear, and I assume this is shared through the community, is that the developers will take a top-down approach to this new situation and attempt to bring in tenants who can pay top-dollar for retail space.


EXISTING CONDITIONS

Pacific Rim Center

Grocery and parking across Jackson

Empty lot space, 12th and Jackson

Boren Ave S.

Streetcar stop on Jackson

Jackson, Boren, and Rainier

Fenced off empty lot

A B Jackson and 12th

Parking under 1-5

Lot b/w Jackson and King Asian Counseling Service Food Bank

Japanese American Memorial Wall

Chinese Southern Baptist Mission Looking south

A-Jackson, at 10th

How How Shopping Center

Ding How Center

B- 12th, at Jackson


Top: Little Saigon is bounded by I-5 to the west, Rainier to the east, Jackson to the north and Weller to the south. Jackson and King connect pedestrians from Chinatown/International District to Little Saigon.

Major automobile/ cycling corridor First Hill Streetcar (Under construction)

I-5 is a major visual and auditory boundary between Little Saigon and the International district and, although permeable, serves as a deterrent towards pedestrian access from the west. The streetcar might alleviate this over time. Street types

Middle: The neighborhood is relatively compact, yet walking feels difficult due to long block lengths.

Bottom: The commercial/cultural attractions draw people from afar and 530 parking spots are currently a grim necessity. In the future, added parking at the Yesler Terrace redevelopment and better connections via the streetcar will alleviate the high ratio of lots to usable space.

250’

530’ Block lengths

Surface parking

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C A PSTONE PROJECT S

690’ 870’


MAKI NG T HE

Community Vision for Little Saigon

I NVI S I BLE VI S I BLE

Little Saigon 2020 Action Plan:Years 1+2

CULTURAL Build Vietnamese Cultural Center Develop Little Saigon into center for VietnameseAmerican arts, history, and culture Preserve the stories and history of Vietnamese refugee experience Share vietnamese culture with broader community through regular events

SOCIAL Build affordable family and senior housing Increase community-based organizational capacity Advocate for medium-rise desnsity to presrve neighborhood feel Advocate for more direct transit connections with major VietnameseAmerican population centers Develop open space and parks

Within Little Saigon, a majority of activity happens behind closed doors within the many businesses that form the neighborhood. Much of what makes the neighborhood unique and alive is invisible to passersby, hidden behind the generic strip-mall building facades.

ECONOMIC Build affordable commercial space Business assistance and access to financing Develop centralized parking structure Create more opportunities for micro-enterprises Limit building heights to 65’

The over arching strategy is to extract the cultural richness hidden from public view by creating a series of public and open spaces. The hope is that, by exposing what makes this community valuable to the public and developers, the value will then increase and allow the community to thrive in the face of economic gentrification.

MARKET OPEN SPACE MID-BLOCK PASS PHASE 2 PROJECTS Proposed interventions


Top: Currently, small businesses, restaurants, groceries, and service shops are isolated from one another, keeping social connections contained and contributing to an environment where a visitor parks, goes to one or two shops, and leaves. Business owners are pinned to their shops, battling to stay alive and unable to organize to advocate and engage on the communities behalf. Bottom: Through the conversion of above ground parking into an ad hoc marketplace, the neighborhood ecosystem moves into a more distributed form. The design, control, and participation in the new space brings previously siloed community members into a community controlled open space. The range of interactions between business owners amongst themselves and with new customers increases dramatically, as does visibility to the public -- and to the developers.

94

C A PSTONE PROJECT S


THE MARKET The vacant lots on Jackson, between 10th and 12th, are the most likely location for the future Little Saigon Landmark Project. This proposed project will be a mixed-use commercial, community services, cultural, and residential center aiming to serve the Vietnamese community and is proposed to be built within the next decade. This project is still years away from funding and construction. A more immediate intervention would provide multiple benefits to current and new business owners including: secondary income; more public visibility; adjusting to changes in demographics as they occur; and paving the way for the Landmark Project. The Market would be a year-round open air market with covered space and heat lamps in the winter and plenty of outdoor seating for summer. The stalls would eventually be integrated into future development; shopkeepers would be making an investment for a future in the neighborhood.


The Market in Spring

Elevated planting beds

96

C A PSTONE PROJECT S

+

Outdoor performance space

+

Ad hoc market stalls

+

Unused open space


From unused space...

...to open air market...

...to incorporation in future development!


Once new development begins, the outdoor marketplace will be incorporated into new facilities.

98

C A PSTONE PROJECT S


THE C O RNER L OT Little Saigon has a complete absence of open, public gathering space, despite the heavy pedestrian and commercial qualities of the neighborhood. The abundance of surface parking, often not optimally used, provides opportunities for cheap and quick introduction of public open gathering space. The corner of 12th and Jackson is an obvious location for phase one. The awkward corner of this parking lot makes it difficult for cars to enter the final two spaces, leaving them empty during busy hours. Seating could benefit the restaurant, as people would have a place to eat take away. There is a bus stop very near which has limited seating. Other options are across 12th, in front of the foot massage and deli’s, and further west on Jackson in front of a grocer.


Bright umbrellas catch the eye while shrubs offer protection from traffic.

1 0 0 C A PSTONE PROJECT S


Planting, seating, and new paving provide inviting open space


THE MID-BLOCK CONNECT ION The long east-west block lengths of Little Saigon give the feeling that the neighborhood is far less walkable than surrounding areas, and reduces mobility between businesses on Jackson and King. There is a mid-block parking lot between Rainier and 12th Ave. that, if opened up, would serve to connect a crosswalk and new streetcar stop with Lam’s Seafood Market, a neighborhood institution. This property is currently blocked off by a chain link fence to the north with a steep slope directly south. The bulk of the property is parking. The property has recently been purchased by Seattle Parks Department and is looking for funding for development.

1 0 2 C A PSTONE PROJECT S


From unused hill to active pedestrian connection


B EYO N D T H E E DGE :

R E I M AG I N I N G S H O R E L I N E S T R E E T E N D S F O R P U B L I C AC C E S S A N D E C O L O G I C A L E N H A N C E M E N T DIANE WA L SH

This project explores a peculiar typology of public space in Seattle— shoreline street ends. Though Seattle is a city defined by its many water bodies, private development has rendered much of the shoreline inaccessible to the public. Shoreline street ends have the potential to provide public access to the broad spectrum of unique shoreline conditions resultant from natural processes and substantial human interventions. These marginal segments of right-of-way are the remnants of old roads platted into the water. The sites are often remote, neglected, or encroached upon by adjacent property owners. Shoreline street ends have the potential to be much more than entry points to physically access the water. The small-scale and intimate qualities of the sites lend themselves well to private, reflective experiences where users may be open to narratives that communicate the social and environmental transformations on-site. Additionally, there is an untapped opportunity to apply experimental technologies to address the untreated stormwater that currently contaminates most water bodies. Five sites, representing a range of common site conditions, were selected to explore the challenges and opportunities involved in site-specific design interventions that could be applied to similar shoreline street end sites. The playful, yet pragmatic, interventions aimed to improve the legibility of the sites as public space, enhance habitat, address stormwater, appropriately reflect the surrounding context, serve the needs of the immediate community, and create inviting spaces that tell compelling stories.

1 0 4 C A PSTONE PROJECT S

1 1 T H AV E N W


Analysis via photomontage The experiential qualities of each site were explored through the use of photography. 11th Ave NW felt like a space dominated by cars and garbage, and yet it possessed a wonderfully expansive view.


public right-of-way

OPPORTUNITIES Less than half of the 149 shoreline street ends have been improved as well-functioning mini parks, so there remains an enormous opportunity to punctuate Seattle’s shoreline with little gems that provide residents and visitors alike with the chance to experience one of the city’s greatest assets.

ordinary high-water mark

Improving shoreline street ends serves to reclaim public space and access to the shore, to restore sensitive shoreline habitat, to treat polluted stormwater, and to showcase the unusual character of Seattle’s diverse shorelands. Design interventions can 1) use public art as a tool for wayfinding, 2)communicate environmental narritives, 3) engage the surrounding community, and 4) use innovative environmental technologies for ecological restoration. ! !

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Lake Union

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Elliott Bay

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Lake Washington

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Duwamish River

Puget Sound

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149

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149 shoreline street ends (s.s.e.) were established by city resolution 29370 in 1996. The sites were designated for “public uses and access.”

1 0 6 C A PSTONE PROJECT S

“Roanoake Mini Park” is a wellfunctioning SSE in Eastlake. Site elements that contribute to its success include--clear signage, discernable site boundaries, appealing amenities, and a modest plant palette.

S.S.E.

designated street


Disconnected + remote

Private encroachment

Untreated stormwater runoff

Conflicts between users

Challenging wayfinding

Poor habitat quality

Marginal space

Lack of legibility

COMMON CONSTRAINTS The following images represent the wide array of typical shoreline street end challenges. The constraints are a function of physical conditions--existing topography, patterns of development, neglect, poor design-that may be altered through public awareness, artistic wayfinding, ecological restoration, and the provision of basic amenities. SSE’s are undervalued public spaces that can provide access to the shore, ecosystem services, and public awareness of past and future environmental challenges.


CON DIT IONS ADDRE S S E D B Y S H OR E L I N E S T R E E T E N D S

Gaps in usable open space

Remainder space from a 1/4 mile buffer around city parks and other open spaces

Gaps in public shoreline access

75% private 25% public Public use

Untreated stormwater runoff

Streeet watersheds

Total Seattle shoreline ~200 miles

Poor quality shoreline habitat

Degraded shoreline

1 0 8 C A PSTONE PROJECT S

Environmental landscape narratives

Historic landform Present landform

Consideration of the future

Projected 30 year flood zones


SIT ES AND CONC E PT S

REVEAL

CONNECT

DESCEND

CARVE

SW Brace Pt Dr

5th Ave S

S Carver St

(FAUNTLEROY)

(SOUTH PARK)

(RAINIER BEACH)

• • • •

• Degraded habitat • Industrial • Remote

• Steep, eroded slopes • Heavily vegetated • Lack of access to the shore • Part of a larger green space

E Allison St (EAST LAKE) • Mixed residential, commercial • Highly hardscaped • Lack of legibility • Boat connections

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Residential Private character Beach access Views

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MIX 11th Ave NW (BALLARD) !

• • • •

Industrial, commercial Gradual slopes Need for identity Proximity to bike/ ped path

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Spectrum of approaches Temporary

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11th Ave NW

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Permanent

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Simple, inexpensive

Substantial, costly

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Community-driven

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Government-driven

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Aesthetic, playful

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Functional treatment

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5th Ave S

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“Natural,” highly vegetated

E Allison St

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“Built,” durable hardscape

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SW Brace Pt Dr

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Carver St

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APPROACH Selected five distinct shoreline street ends representing a range of typical conditions. Designed context-specific interventions to provide potentially replicable solutions.


CONNECT

EXPER IMENTAL FL OAT I N G WET LANDS FIFTH AVENUE SOUTH The site abuts an intact bend of the old Duwammish river before its massive rerouting during the era of industrializtion. There is a mild slope to the river’s edge that facilitates access, though the view is of anchored boats and industrial activity. The site suffers from neglect, typical of the working waterfront. The site is overrun with blackberry, pools of untreated stormwater flood the road, and bike or pedestrian amenities are nowhere to be found. Fortunately, efforts in South Park are underway to connect the industrial core with the increasingly active residential and commercial zone to the south.

1 1 0 C A PSTONE PROJECT S

5TH AVE. S . PL AN 1” = 10’

N


CONCEPT Resident interest in connecting the myriad riverfront pocket parks should be captured to create a network of points of interest along the river. The site has an interesting environmental and cultural story that could be told in a creative way with an artistic manipulation of durable, industrial materials.

2nd Ave S

Additionally, there is an enormous opportunity for ecological restoration to bring back critical shoreline habitat and to use experimental techniques to clean both the untreated stormwater from the road as well as the river itself.

IRON BEND

S Riverside Dr

7th Ave S

S Riverside Dr

CIR CULAT ION ¼ mile buffer

S EC TIO N ( L O O KING EAS T) 1” = 5’


DESCEND

ROTAT ING POET RY M A RKER

EAST CARVER STREET The steep gradient to the water typifies the shoreline along this southern section of Lake Washington. The steep slope prevents easy access to the water and the high speeds and noise pollution from the traffic along the road render the upland portion of the site unappealing to potential lingerers. The historic road has become a deafening loud thoroughfare through Rainier Valley that compells nobody to linger.

1 1 2 C A PSTONE PROJECT S

S . C ARVER S T. PL AN N

1” = 40’

1” = 10’

N


CONCEPT When land was carved away to allow valuable cargo to float from Lake Washington to Puget Sound, the level of Lake Washington dropped by 9 feet. A portion of the former lake bed was exposed to become newly created land. The lower half of the site is compromised of this land. To tell this compelling story and to draw people from the noisy street to the underutilized adjacent Chinook Beach Park, a series of staircases with 14-foot high markers could address the obstacle of the steep slope. The brightly painted markers communicate the former level of the lake through color and create visual interest with their slightly rotated position--giving pedestrians and cars alike a noticiable visual effect. Given that some people opt not to make the arduous journey to the water’s edge, the markers could provide additional intrigue by hosting rotating poetry installations.

CIR CULAT ION ¼ mile buffer

Chinook Beach Park

RAINIER SLIDE

SECTION (LOOKING NW) SE Lake Washington Bicycle route

1” = 10’


CARVE

B O L L ARDS WITH P ERVIO U S PAVING

EAST ALLISON STREET A series of pocket parks dot the shorelines of Lake Union in Eastlake, connected by the Cheshiahud loop. The parks offer a wide array of amenities, each slightly different than the next. With its gradual slope to the water and visually accessible location, this site is well-suited to provide a public access piont with a physical connection to the water. The hardscaped site currently functions as parking for the residents of the nearby cottages. Impervious paving lines the entire roadway from the steep descent off of Eastlake Avenue to the water’s edge. In heavy rains, the untreated stormwater likely flows directly into Lake Union via East Allison Street.

1 1 4 C A PSTONE PROJECT S

E. AL L IS O N S T. PL AN 1” = 10’

N


Portage Bay Parks South Passage Point Park

Good Turn Park

ALLISON’S LANDING

CONCEPT The site is already well-positioned to become a part of the vibrant network of connected shoreline mini parks, but needs clear visual cues that communicate its public nature and welcome potential visitors. The hard edge is pulled back to incorporate seating, stormwater treatment, and an aesthetic softened by plants. Design elements include decorative native plants, large sitting steps, and a low-profile, functional bounding edge of pervious paving stones.

Fairview Park Waterway 11

Cheshiahud Lake Union Loop

CIR CULAT ION ¼ mile buffer

S EC TIO N ( L O O KING NO RTH) 1” = 5’


MIX

“BOAT LIF T ” SWIN G S

11TH AVENUE NW One of the site’s greatest assets is its close proximity to the BurkeGilman path. Additionally, the gradual slope makes physical access to the water achievable and presents no obstacle to passers-by who may be inclined to take a quick detour to the water. The mixed industrial/commercial context is a boon for activation, but a potential hindrance as recreational uses meet the working waterfront. The site is currently littered with trash, home to invasive species, and primarily functions as parking for the adjacent businesses.

1 1 6 C A PSTONE PROJECT S

11TH AVE. NW PL AN 1” = 40’

N


CONCEPT Reclaimed industrial materials serve as design elements that suit the context while providing a sense of identity. Visibility from the Burke-Gilman is aided with large, provocative red swings inspired by boat lifts. These swings provide intrigue and functional, yet playful, seating.

14th Ave Boat Launch

UPLIFT PARK

Burke-Gilman

CIRCULAT ION ¼ mile buffer

SECT ION (LOOKING S E ) 1” = 5’


Fauntleroy Ferry

REVEAL 45th Ave SW

PSAI-YAH-HUS

SW BRACE POINT DR Located along the shores of Lake Washington, this SSE has a spectacular view of the Olympic mountains, proximity to the Fauntleroy ferry, and great water access by way of a clean, sandy beach. The winding, narrow road that leads to the street end provides an additional feeling of discovery.

SW Roxbury St

Its secluded nature gives the site a “secret” feel, but also makes it difficult to find for those who may not already know its whereabouts. The already unintuitive access may be further hampered by the site’s potentially discouraging appearance as private property, sandwiched in a confined space between two homes.

C IRC U L ATIO N ¼ MIL E BU F F ER

CONCEPT The site needs little improvement and, in fact, demands a measure of restraint to preserve its spectacular inherent qualities (e.g. driftwood that piles up and forms natural seating). Instead, the discovery (or “revealing”) of the site can be emphasized through discreet wayfinding markers that tell a story of their own--the phytoplankton and zooplankton that ordinarily escape notice.

WAY F I N D I N G

1 1 8 C A PSTONE PROJECT S


SW BR ACE PT PLA N

1” = 20’

N


C ATA LY T I C C ONNE C TIV ITY D UWA M I S H R I V E R , S E AT T LE YUTIN G L IN

People and the Duwamish river used to be very close, people relied on the waterfront and used it all the time. They fishing, boating, and hanging. In the past, the Duwamish river not only gave all of things that people need. Also, it provided a rich habitat for wildlife. After 1913s, the Duwamish villages have been occupied by industrial zone. Since pollution has been entering the Duwamish River for over 100 years from many different sources, river has been seen as a symbolism of dangerous. The environment does not good enough for wildlife either. The project’s goals are trying to reconnect the relationship between the Duwamish river and people and wildlife, also bring the activities and memories back that people used to do and have. First of all, based on the analysis of open space, public ownership, existing proposal, and access location, the shoreline could be categorized into 3 different types. Then, based on the data of intertidal and land-use, the proposed plan could be classified as two categories. Three locations was chose by all data analysis above, Kellogg Island, Georgetown, and South park. According to the different environment and situation, three locations have different development strategies and timeline, and the main step would be deal with the existing pollution in river and soil, and the develop proposal could be scheduled by three steps: 1. Deal with the contaminant. Collected data: PCB, cPAF, Toxic metals. 2. Land-use transformation. Collected data: Warehouse/ Retail office, IG1/ IG2, Transportation/ Utilities/ Communication. 3. Bring activities (for human being and wildlife) back.

1 2 0 C A PSTONE PROJECT S

Kellogg Island has rich intertidal and habitat; It is a good habitat for sandpipers, salmon, and different wild life. In the short term, focus on maintain and complete the habitat, and not allow human being to get to the island. In the long term, limit the number of people to close to the island every day, and people will have chance to learn and enjoy the natural. Georgetown and South park are very important residential area, both were focused more on the waterfront recreational and accessible for people. Georgetown is a small village and surrounded by industrial zone 1 and zone 2. By data analysis of contaminants, the big issue in Georgetown is pollution. Therefore, in the short term, dealing with different contaminants would be step one. After that, with the land use change in the future, library, public building, retail and restaurants will happen and attract more people. Also, the bridge that connects Georgetown and South park would be built, and affordable houses could be provided for grow-up population in the long term. South Park has not so much pollutant soil as Georgetown. In the short term, complete the eco-system in the community would be the first step, bio-swale and rain garden. After that, create an accessible waterfront by using the street ends. Extend the street into the river area, and recreate the new route for people to walk along the Duwamish River, also guide people to access to the river from the community. Three different spots along the Duwamish Rive be connected by the new route: Waterway Park, fishing pier, and civic plaza park. They provide various kind of recreation for community and visitors.


MASTER PLAN

W ETLAND

P- PATCH

Wetland

H ABITAT I SLAND

C IVIC P LAZA AND L IBRARY

P-Patch

R EMEDIATION TECH N EW G EROGETOWN

H ABITAT ISLAND

C IVIC F ARM B RIDGE G ARDEN

C IVIC FARM

G REEN I NDUSTRIAL

C IVIC P LAZA P ARK

Habitat

J OGGING TRAIL

S EA LION


SHORELINE CATEGORY

SHORELINE CATEGORY -O PPORTUNITIES

-E XISTING P ROPOSAL

-A CCESS L OCATION

-P ROPOSED L OCATION

Duwamish/ Diagonal

Wetlands Construction

O PEN SPACE P ARK V ACANT P UBLIC OWNERSHIP O VERLAY ZONE

Slip4 Boeing Plant 2/ Jorgesen Forge

H UBS P OCKETS C ORRIDOR

C OMPLETED P ROPOSAL

A CCESS LOCATION

PROPOSED LOCATION CATEGORY -I NTERTIDAL

-M AINLY R ESIDENTIAL

-I NDUSTRIAL Z ONE

-P ROPOSAL

IC

IG1

Georgetown IG2 IB South Park

P ROPOSAL LOCATION

P ROPOSAL LOCATION

I NTERTIDAL ZONE

M AINLY RESIDENTAIL ZONE

1 2 2 C A PSTONE PROJECT S

P ROPOSAL LOCATION IG1 ( GENERAL ) IG2 ( GENERAL ) IC ( COMMERCIAL ) IB ( BUFFER )

W ATERFRONT RECREATIONAL ACCESS H ABITAT RESTORATION


POLLUTANT -PCB

- C PAH

>810 210 - 810

>1100 480-1100

-T OXIC M ETALS

>25 14- 25

-O VERLAY ZONE

BAD NORMAL SPOTS

LAND USE -W AREHOUSE +R ETAIL / O FFICE

-I NDUSTRIAL Z ONE

-T RANSPORTATION / U TILITIES / C OMMUNICATION

-O VERLAY ZONE

T RANSPORTATION I NDUSTRAIL W AREHOUSE


Choose four different remediation tech to apply, and combine Tech with design. BIOREMEDIATION- Biopiles Biopiles are a form of soil composting that use existing soil microbes to break down contaminants. MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION Scientific monitoring is needed to ensure remediation is taking place in a way that is not harmful to people or nearby ecosystems. Computer modeling of data is often necessary to understand the change in contaminant levels over time. CAP AND FILL The cap and fill approach to dealing with contaminated sites involves the removal of toxic soil that comes in direct contact with people. PHYTOREMEDIATION/ MYCOREMEDIATION Plants can break down some toxins into harmless chemicals. Also, other toxins can be removed by harvesting the plants. The process is affordable but slow. Least invasive and most attractive techniques

STRATEGIES- REMEDIATION TECH

BIOREMEDIATIONBIOPILES I MPERMEABLE S OIL A IR T ARP C OVER B LOWER AND W ATER P UMP

0

C ONTAMINATED S OIL

Contaminated soil is piled around porous PVC pipes and irrigation hoses. L EACHATE 10

4’-5’

6’-10’

C ONTAMINATED SOIL L IQUID F ERTILIZER S TRAW C ALCIUM C HLORIDE F ILTER F ABRIC G RAVEL

MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION

20

R EUSE W AREHOUSE

30

CAP AND FILL

C LEAN S OIL F ILL C ONCRETE C AP C ONTAMINATED S OIL

40

PHYTOREMEDIATION/ MYCOREMEDIATION

Toxins are broken down and released as harmless elements.

50

Toxins are absorbed by the rootsToxins Does not work below root zone T ARGET POLLUTANTS - A IR P ARTICULATES , PCB S 60

1 2 4 C A PSTONE PROJECT S

- H EAVY M ETALS - PCB S


18%

LAND USE TRANSFORMATION ANALYSIS

WAREHOUSE

BEFORE

RETAIL/ OFFICE

AFTER

21%

The Duwamish Manufacturing Industrial Center (M/IC) has been in industrial use for over 100 years and functions as the city’s principal industrial area. Duwamish is a major international trade hub, receiving and distributing goods via roadway, water, rail and air. It covers nearly 5,000 acres, nearly 84% of industrial-zoned land in the city. 93% of the land in the Duwamish is zoned Industrial General 1 (1,965 acres/51%) or Industrial General 2 (1,595 acres/42%). Industrial land is used less for manufacturing and more for storage and repair as well as production.

INDUSTRIAL GENERAL 1

Transportation is the most common use on industrial land in Seattle, followed by warehousing and then by manufacturing.

INDUSTRIAL GENERAL 2

BEFORE

AFTER

39%

TRANSPORTATION/ UTILITIES/ COMMUNICATION

WAREHOUSE/ RETAIL/ OFFICE - Easiest to be changed in a short term. - Structures provide different kind of uses, cultural exhibition, civic events, or flea market. IG1 The intent of the IG1 zone is to protect marine and railrelated industrial areas from an inappropriate level of unrelated retail and commercial uses by limiting these uses to a density or size limit lower than that allowed for industrial uses. - Could be changed in long term. - Structures provide different kind of uses, exhibition gallery, museum, workshop.

BEFORE

V ACANT E ASY N ORMAL H ARD

AFTER

TRANSPORTATION/ UTILITIES/ COMMUNICATION - Hard to change. - Planting plants and built the bio-swale around the edge of the parking space. As a result, the pollutant will not go into the waterbody directly.


Based on the analysis, the intertidal around Kellogg island is very rich and tones of species grow in this area. It is a good habitat for sandpipers, salmon, and different wild life. In the short term, focus on maintain and complete the habitat, and not allow human being to get to the island. In the long term, limit the number of people to close to the island every day, and people will have chance to learn and enjoy the natual.

ZONE 1- KELLOGG ISLAND I SLAND INVERTEBRATES

1 MUD SOIL PLANTS

PHASE 1

PHASE 2 1. P ARK

NEMATODES

BIRDS ARTHROPODS

PHASE 3 B OARDWALK T RAIL P OND D ECK

ORGANIC MATTER

BACTERIA

ANIMALS

SITE PHASING STRATEGY PHASE 1 (0-5y) Create the biking and jogging trail. PHASE 2 (5-20y) Design new park1. Build the observation decks. PHASE 3 (20-40y) Build the wetland around. Provide a small walking bridge. Create a small trail.

TIMELINE

0

5

10

20

30

40

0

5

10

20

30

40

CLEAN-UP wetland COMMUNITIES USES viewing bike/ jogging green space nature class fishing

1 2 6 C A PSTONE PROJECT S


ZONE 2- GEORGETOWN

12

TECH- CAP & FILL

RESTAURANTS

10

7 3

RETAIL

13

6

LIBRARY

2 1

17

4

PUBLIC BUILDING

9

14

15 8 TECH- MONITORED

11

TECH- MONITORED

TECH- BIOPILES

5

TECH- BIO-SWALE

TECH- CAP & FILL

16

1 F LOATING ISLAND 2 G REEN ROOF 3 P OND 4 O BSERVATION PIER 5 J OGGING TRAIL 6 C IVIC PLAZA 7 F ISHING DECK 8 L AWN 9 B ENCHES AREA 10 G RASS HILL 11 G RAVEL PATH 12 A FFORDABLE HOUSES 13 G RASS HILL 14 R EMAIN OF RAIL TRAIL 15 D ECK 16 W ALKING BRIDGE 17 H ISTORICAL TRAIL


Georgetown is a small village and surrounded by industrial zone 1 and zone 2. By data analysis of contaminants, the big issue in Georgetown is pollution. Therefore, in the short term, dealing with different contaminants would be step one. After that, with the land use change in the future, library, public building, retail and restaurants will happen and attract more people. Also, the bridge that connects Georgetown and South park would be built, and affordable houses could be provided for growup population in the long term.

2 1

2

PHASE 1 1. B IOPILE 2. B IO - SWALE

2 3

1 2

1

PHASE 2 1. B IOPILE 2. C AP AND HILL 3. N EW PARK WITH POND

PHASE 3 1. B IOPILE 2. A FFORDABLE HOUSES

SITE PHASING STRATEGY PHASE 1 (0-5y) Extend the existing green space. Develop the Biopile area. Build bio-swale around parking area. Create the biking and jogging trail. Build some observation decks. PHASE 2 (5-20y) Extend the existing green space. Develop the Biopile area. Create the biking and jogging trail. Design new park. Build the jogging trail along the river. Change the landuse and reuse the warehouses. PHASE 3 (20-40y) Extend the existing green space. Develop the Biopile area. Create the biking and jogging trail. Develop the affording house area. Build the other jogging trail along the river. Change the landuse and reuse the warehouses. Build the bridge for people to go.

TIMELINE CLEAN-UP biopile cap & fill wetland bio-swale

0

5

10

20

clean soil clean soil

30

clean soil

40

clean soil

COMMUNITIES USES viewing jogging work shop green space access to the river fishing kayaks BUILDING TYPE monitored community center restaurants library affordable house bridge

1 2 8 C A PSTONE PROJECT S

0

5

10

20

30

40


J OGGING T RIAL

O BSERVATION D ECK

F ISHING D ECK

B OARDWALK

L AWN

Pond

W ETLAND

G RASS H ILL

G RASS H ILL


South Park has not so much pollutant soil as Georgetown. In the short term, complete the ecosystem in the community would be the first step, bio-swale and rain garden. After that, create an accessible waterfront by using the street ends.

ZONE 3- SOUTH PARK

8

WATERWAY PARK

Extend the street into the river area, and recreate the new route for people to walk along the Duwamish River, also guide people to access to the river from the community. Three different spots along the Duwamish Rive be connected by the new route: Waterway Park, fishing pier, and civic plaza park. They provide various kind of recreation for community and visitors.

1

2

Four different spots along the Duwamish Rive be connected by the new route, Waterway Park, fishing pier, public pier, and civic plaza park. They provide various kind of recreation for community and visitors.

EXISTING R OUTE S IDEWALK

6

G RID

B US R OUTE

S TREET E NDS

3

4 5

FISHING PIER

Few people use the street ends since those buildings around street ends are private and there are no enough space for people to hang in there now, even though the streets are public for everybody. Therefore, provide a complete function space would be very attractive.

PUBLIC PIER

9

SO

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CIVIC PLAZA PARK

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1 3 0 C A PSTONE PROJECT S

B IKE

TH

AV

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H UT

PAR

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BRI

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1 G REEN A REA 2 J OGGING F OOTPATH 3 F ISHING D OCK 4 P OSTS 5 F LOATING TIRES 6 B OARDWALK 7 T RAIL 8 T IMBER D ECK 9 B IKE L ANE / P EDESTRIAN


PHASE 1

PHASE 2

B OARDWALK

SITE PHASING STRATEGY PHASE 1 (0-5y) Build bio-swale along the street. Encourage people to build rain garden in their yard. Create biking and jogging trail. Maintain the existing green space. Extend the street ends to the river area. Build some observation decks. Provide farmer market and flea market. Provide floating farm.

PHASE 3

F LOATING F ARM

P OSTS

PHASE 2 (5-20y) Create the biking and jogging trail. Connect the boardwalk that extend from the street ends. Build floating wetlands along the waterway. Redesign the existing parks. Provide farmer market and flea market.

PUBLIC PIER

PHASE 3 (20-40y) Build the public boating pier. Build the community center. Provide beach area.

TIMELINE

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5

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40

0

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CLEAN-UP bio-swale rain garden wetland floating wetland floating farm COMMUNITIES USES viewing jogging (along river) work shop green space access to the river annual festival flea/ farmer market fishing kayak beach


- Civic Plaza Park PUBLIC PIER

3 12

Sou th P ark B ridge

Species observed at the South Park and on the Duwamish River. For instance, Red Eared Slider Turtle, Dungeness Crab, River Otter, Beaver, Red Leg Frog, Harbor seals, Salmon, Eagle, Falcon, American Widgeon and so on.

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4 9

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Civic Plaza Park

1 3 2 C A PSTONE PROJECT S

14th Ave

Dall

1 F OOTPATH 2 B OARDWALK 3 P UBLIC B OATING P LACE 4 B EACH 5 P UBLIC SEMI - OPEN F ACILITY 6 E XISING R AIN G ARDEN 7 H OLIDAY M ARKET 8 C IVIC P LAZA 9 A CCESS P ATH 10 W ETLANDS 11 S CULPTURE P LAZA 12 F LOATING F ARM 13 P OSTS FOR B IRDS


B OARDWALK

W ETLAND

P OSTS

P UBLIC F ACILITY

G REEN R OOF


Redesign the topography from a big lawn to a flat slope. Since the street nearby the park is a sub-basin, the groundwater would be collected and flow into this park, then goes down to the filtering system and the wetland. Keep the existing activities, BBQ, picnic, and the exhibition. Also provide more ecological function to filter the ground water from the residential and industrial area by topography.

- Waterway Park

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Fishing Pier Foating Farm

1 3 4 C A PSTONE PROJECT S

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1 Floating Island 2 Wetland 3 Observation Deck 4 Timber Deck 5 Boardwalk 6 Festival Plaza 7 Sitting Area 8 Lawn 9 Grassy Slope 10 Filtering System 11 Small Mound 12 Outdoor Terrace Classroom 13 Tree Battle Formation


Based on the land-use abound, keep the activities far away from the residents, people can fishing or boating along the boardwalk. Floating Farm - Local Food The South Park neighborhood lacks abundant supplies of fresh local farm produce. They do not have major nearby grocery stores.

- Fishing Pier

F ISHING P IER

B ENCHES A REA

F LOATING T IRES

F LOATING G ARDENS

- Waterway Park

F ISHING P IER

S LOPING L AWN

T RAIL

P OST

W ETLAND


1 3 6 C R EDIT S


CRED ITS Department of Landscape Architecture College of Built Environments University of Washington Instructor: Jeff Hou, PhD, ASLA; Students: Kevin Bogle, Nancy Chan, Shu-Kuei (Tako) Hsu, Yuting Lin, Jonathan S. Pagรกn, Diane Walsh, Hsien-Ai (Ivy) Wang, Kei-Sing Yiu Book Design: Nancy Chan Book Assembly: Nancy Chan & Diane Walsh


Department of Landscape Architecture College of Built Environments University of Washington


Distributed Urbanism: Emergent Landscapes