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TIDBITS® TAKES A DIP IN
SALTWATER by Patricia L. Cook
Of all of the water on earth, 1 percent is fresh water available for human consumption, 2 percent is frozen, and a whopping 97 percent is saltwater. On average, every 2.2 pounds (1 kg) of seawater contains around 1.2 ounces (35 g) of dissolved salt. • You’ve probably seen movies where people are stranded on the ocean with no fresh water to drink. Seawater, or saltwater, is not safe for human consumption. Salt dehydrates our bodies and is harmful if ingested in large quantities. • So is it possible to make saltwater safe for humans to drink? Yes. The process is called desalination. Scientists have come up with several ways to desalinate water, but they are all costly processes. Reverse osmosis, distillation, electrodialysis and vacuum freezing are some examples. • Since saltwater is harmful to humans, is it also harmful to all animals? The answer is obviously no as there are millions of saltwater fish and other saltwater creatures that thrive in our oceans. turn the page for more!
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www. tidbitssocal.com SALTWATER (continued) • The Hebrew name for the Dead Sea is “Yam ha Maved,” which actually means “killer sea.” The Dead Sea is nearly 10 times more salty than other seas and the open oceans, having a salinity reading of 33.7 percent. This means nearly 35 percent of the water is dissolved salts. It is one of the world’s saltiest bodies of water. By comparison, ocean water is 3.5 percent dissolved salts. • The Dead Sea is over 1,300 feet (396.2 m) below sea level. At its deepest part, it is over 2,300 feet (701 m) below sea level. It is 42 miles (67 km) long and 11 miles (18 km) wide at its widest point. The Jordan River empties into the Dead Sea; the Dead Sea does not empty out anywhere. It is endorheic, which means it has no outlet besides evaporation. It is totally landlocked, and the deeper areas are the saltiest. There are an estimated 1.9 billion tons of potassium chloride salt in the Dead Sea, which are harvested by using a system of evaporation ponds. • The McMurdo Dry Valley in Antarctica has a small pond that is actually considered the saltiest body of water on earth. Don Juan Pond is an ankle-deep mirror pond between mountain peaks. It never freezes, even in temperatures that go as low as -40°F (-40°C). • The Great Salt Lake near Salt Lake City, Utah, is another endorheic lake, sometimes called “America’s Dead Sea.” The Jordan, Weber and Bear Rivers empty into the lake and deposit around 1.1 million tons (over 997 million kg) of minerals in the lake annually. • The Great Salt Lake provides habitat for brine shrimp, native birds, shorebirds and waterfowl, including the largest population of Wilson’s Phalarope in the world. This small migratory bird is halophilic, which means “salt loving.” • Another large endorheic lake is the Caspian Sea. This sea is bordered by five countries: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan and Iran. The largest lake on the planet at 143,000 square miles (371,000 sq km), it is called a sea because the Romans who discovered it found it to be salty. With the huge size of the Caspian, the saltiness varies greatly. The southern Caspian is more salty than the northern portion. There are 130 rivers that flow into the Caspian with the Volga in the north being the largest. • Major oil and gas production takes place along the edges of the Caspian Sea. In addition,
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To Your Good Health By Paul G. Donohue, M.D.
Bed-Wetting Deeply Affects Children DEAR DR. DONOHUE: Our grandson soon will be 15. He still wets the bed. His parents have done everything from pills to alarms, but nothing helps. Sometimes he gets depressed, and that scares us. He says he will never be able to have a relationship with a girl. Sometimes we worry that he will hurt himself. Is there anything that can help this situation? -- W.M. ANSWER: I feel deeply for your grandson. No one can understand the isolation and hopelessness he has to grapple with. He could stand professional counseling. Perhaps a few facts will help him. Between the ages of 5 and 6, 15 percent to 20 percent of children are still wetting the bed. Of that number, every following year, 15 percent will stay dry during the night. By age 18, only 1 percent to 2 percent of these youngsters are still battling the problem. Your grandson has three years in which his chances of gaining control are good. The problem of bed-wetting appears to stem from a brain that doesn’t respond to a full nighttime bladder by rousing the sleeper. It might be a delay in developing that response. Or it might be a delay in the attainment of a large enough bladder capacity to hold nighttime urine production. Or it might be that these children produce too little of the hormone vasopressin, which suppresses nightly urine formation. Your grandson can once more try things he probably has already tried. He should measure carefully how much fluid he drinks in one day. Once he learns that number, he should drink 40 percent of the total in the morning, another 40 percent in the afternoon and limit fluid to 20 percent of the daily total from 5 p.m. on. He can increase his bladder’s capacity by holding off on urinating during the day. If he delays each time by five or 10 minutes for one week and then gradually lengthens the delay in following weeks, the bladder will stretch. This takes time. He has to be patient. Alarms can work. They sound or vibrate when the first few drops of moisture touch them. It can be as long as six months of use before the training takes hold. For occasions when he is invited to stay at other people’s homes for the night, desmopressin, as a pill or nasal spray, slows nighttime urine production. DEAR DR. DONOHUE: I am so concerned about our grandson. He is a senior in college. He felt he couldn’t focus well enough on some of his difficult classes. He went to a doctor and was put on Adderall. I am so worried that he will become addicted. Should I be concerned? -- R.G. ANSWER: Adderall is a drug of the amphetamine family. It does have the potential of leading to dependence. However, it’s been used for so many years for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder that it can be well managed and not present a danger. The doctor who prescribed the drug is responsible for monitoring how it is used. He or she will continue writing for its use only if it’s safe to do so. I sincerely believe you do not have to worry yourself about your grandson.
For Advertising Call (951) 695-2323 SALTWATER (continued) caviar harvested from the lake’s sturgeon, which are large ancient-looking fish with large mouths and no scales, is a major commodity. There are three types of sturgeon in the region: the Beluga, Russian Sturgeon and the Stellate Sturgeon. The Beluga is the largest member of the Sturgeon family, sometimes exceeding 14 feet (4.3 m) and weighing in excess of 2,000 pounds (907 kg). • The Caspian and Dead Seas both have areas of sandy beaches and popular tourist resorts built along the banks. The Great Salt Lake has two parks, Antelope Island State Park and Great Salt Lake State Park, that are popular places to boat, swim and enjoy nature. • A large resort, the Saltaire Pavilion, was built along the southern shore of the Great Salt Lake in 1893 as a joint effort of the Salt Lake and Los Angeles Railroad Company and the Mormon Church. The resort was built on 2,000 pylons driven into the shore of the lakebed, had a long bridge leading out to the water for swimming and lounging. It became known as the western “Coney Island.” • Accidental fires in 1925 and 1931 and an arson fire in the 1970s at Saltaire have made the location famous more for its history than its tourist appeal. The Saltaire boasted the largest dance floor in the world after the rebuilding from the first fire. New investors reopened the venue for music events in 1983. • When we think of life in bodies of saltwater, we often think of whales and sharks, but many other odd and interesting creatures call saltwater home. The largest living crocodilians on earth are saltwater crocodiles, called “salties” by Australians. Average males are 17 feet (5 m) long and 1,000 pounds (450 kg). It is not uncommon for them to be as long as 23 feet (7 m) and 2,200 pounds (1,000 kg). The range of “salties”
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www. tidbitssocal.com SALTWATER (continued) is Eastern India, Southeast Asia and Northern Australia, so we don’t have to be worried about them in North America. • A bizarre family of fish called white-blooded or crocodile icefish are found in the cold salty waters of Antarctica and southern South America. Lacking red blood cells in their bodies, these fish are pale, have long snouts, wide mouths and large teeth — hence, their name. Their blood carries less oxygen than the red blood cells of other fish. Because of this, icefish have oversized hearts that pump large volumes of blood at low pressures. • You can bring some of this life into your home or office with a saltwater aquarium. Fill it with colorful fish, sea anemones, jellyfish and other creatures to mimic the abundance of the oceans and seas. • Now, to end this Tidbits on a sweet note. Saltwater taffy is a treat found in many stores, fairs and amusement parks. Is it made from saltwater? No. The most popular story is that a shopkeeper in Atlantic City, New Jersey, gave it the “saltwater” name after his shop was flooded by a tidal surge.
OVERCOMING THE ODDS: PAUL ORFALEA 1. In 2010, Mike Redmond set a major-league mark for consecutive games by a catcher without an error (253). Who had held the record? 2. Name the last two Detroit Tiger A.L. Rookies of the Year. 3. Who are the only two coaches to guide NFC South teams to Super Bowl victories? 4. When was the last time before Butler University in 2010 that a Division I men’s college basketball team played in the Final Four in its own home city? 5. Name the first team in NHL history to have four 500-goal scorers on the roster. 6. Who was the fastest to reach 100 goals in Major League Soccer history? 7. Name three of the four opponents heavyweight boxer Joe Frazier fought between the time he won the heavyweight title from Jimmy Ellis in 1970 and lost to George Foreman in 1973.
Paul Orfalea counts his learning problems as “the blessings that allowed him to see the world differently from his peers.” Nicknamed “Kinko” because of his curly red hair, he is an extraordinary entrepreneur. • Orfalea was a child who couldn’t sit still in the classroom. He couldn’t read; he was restless, wiggling all of the time while his mind raced. When he was in school in the 1960s, dyslexia and ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) were not recognized or dealt with as they are today. Educators didn’t always know what to do with children who had the undiagnosed “differences.” • Dyslexia is a neurological condition that affects language processing. People with the
1. CLUBS: According to the Boy Scout Law, how many good traits (thiftiness, cleanliness, etc.) should a young member possess? 2. LANGUAGE: If someone suggested you were headed for Gehenna, where would you be going? 3. HISTORY: In ancient days, who was eligible to wear a Roman toga? 4. U.S. PRESIDENTS: Which U.S. president adopted the Good Neighbor policy toward Latin America? 5. POETRY: Who wrote the line, “Tiger! Tiger! burning bright”? 6. BIBLE: To what does the Heptateuch refer? 7. SCIENCE: What are opponents of technological change sometimes called? 8. CHILDREN’S LITERATURE: What is the name of the faithful dog in the story of Peter Pan? 9. ANIMAL KINGDOM: What is a group of owls called collectively? 10. U.S. CITIES: In what city is the famous blues district called Beale Street located?
For Advertising Call (951) 695-2323 PAUL ORFALEA (continued) condition have a hard time recognizing and decoding words. Reading comprehension and even pronunciation skills are usually lacking. With ADHD, restlessness coupled with impulsivity, frustration, difficulty organizing and completing tasks can lead to behavioral problems in classroom settings. Orfalea flunked two grades in school and was expelled from several schools. He did graduate from high school but was a D- student at the bottom of his class. • In Orfalea’s words, he “had supportive parents, and that made all the difference. I was a sensitive kid. I could have easily fallen through the cracks.” He, like many with similar learning difficulties, had the creative thinking, curiosity, adventurous spirit and boldness to pursue an unusual endeavor. • While Orfalea was a student at the University of Southern California, he realized that photocopiers were a need for students and were not easily accessible. • In 1970, Orfalea borrowed $5,000 from a local bank, rented a small store-front next to a hamburger stand in Isla Vista, close to the University of California, Santa Barbara, and opened the first Kinko’s Copy Center. He also spent time on the sidewalk in front of the store selling pens and pencils from his backpack and encouraged passersby to give his store a try. The tiny store featured one copy machine selling copies at 2.5¢ each, an offset press, film processing and school supplies. • Orfalea saw a need, zeroed in on it and created a company that eventually grew to more than 1,200 locations and 23,000 employees in 10 different countries. • Orfalea attributed the success of his company to the creation of a working environment where employees loved coming to work. The achievement that really made him proud was having Kinko’s named one of the best places to work in America by FORTUNE magazine three years in a row. • Kinko’s was acquired by FedEx Corporation (Federal Express) in February 2004, and the company was called FedEx Kinko’s. In 2008, Kinko’s was dropped from the name, and it was changed to FedEx Office.
www. tidbitssocal.com PAUL ORFALEA (continued) • Even though Orfalea has never learned to enjoy reading, there are several books about his success. His autobiography “Copy This!” was published in 2005; “The Entrepreneurial Investor,” about investing, came out in 2008; and the latest book, “Two Billion Dollars in Nickels: Reflections on the Entrepreneurial Life,” became available in February 2009. All three books tell his amazing story of rising above his learning differences to achieve success.
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PAPER BAGS Paper or plastic? In the 1980s and ‘90s, that was a question asked frequently at grocery stores. More recently, reusable cloth bags are being promoted in conjunction with a “greener” lifestyle. Let’s look at the development and history of paper bags. • Francis Wolle, a Pennsylvania botanist who later became a minister, invented the paper bag-making machine in 1852. Working at his father’s store, he saw the need for something to help customers carry their groceries home. • Wolle received the patent for his machine in the United States and then later in England and France. It was the first of its kind and with further advancements added by others, is very similar to the machines still in use today. • In 1869, Wolle, his brother and other men involved in the paper bag industry founded the Union Paper Bag Machine Company in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.
For Advertising Call (951) 695-2323 PAPER BAGS (continued) • Probably surprising to many is that a woman first put forth the idea and secured the patent for a device to cut, fold and paste paper bag bottoms, creating flat-bottomed bags. Some tried to discredit Margaret Knight, but she fought and won recognition for her paper bag machine. She was employed by the Columbia Paper Bag Company in Springfield, Massachusetts, when she invented her machine in 1870-71. During this time, it was unusual for a woman to get recognition as an inventor. Sometimes called the “woman Edison,” she is credited with 22 patents and 90 inventions. • Charles Stillwell, a Union soldier during the Civil War, added another patent to the development of paper bags in 1883. His bag machine allowed for flat bottoms and pleated sides, which made the bags stackable. • Stillwell’s bags were called S.O.S. or “selfopening sacks.” With the birth of supermarkets in the 1930s, the demand for paper bags skyrocketed. They were strong, easy to use and inexpensive and quickly became popular around the world. • Savannah, Georgia, was chosen by Union Bag and Paper Company in 1935 as the location for a $4 million plant, thrilling the local area, providing 500 jobs in a depressed economy. • In 1956, Union Bag merged with Camp Manufacturing and became Union Camp. In its busiest years, 5,500 people were employed in Savannah; today there are about 700. It is the largest mill of its kind in the world. Over 1 million cords of long-fibered southern pine are used to make 35 million paper bags per day. That is over 9 billion per year! • The largest paper bag manufacturer today is a privately owned company, Duro Bag, opened in 1953 and owned by the family of founder David Shor. It is based in Florence, Kentucky. The company has a strong program for recycling its waste and using recycled paper. • Plastic grocery bags were introduced to the supermarket industry in 1977. Kroger and Safeway started the craze to replace traditional paper bags with polyethylene “t-shirt” type bags in 1982. Most grocery stores today offer both types of bags but also encourage shoppers to use cloth bags. • With the wide availability of inexpensive paper bags, Americans have used them for groceries, garbage, lunch bags and more for years.
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Affordable Pet Care By Samantha Mazzotta
Recently, I spoke with Dr. Karen “Doc” Halligan, a veterinarian and author who has appeared on shows like “The Today Show” and “Animal Rescue 911.” She is the author of “What Every Pet Owner Should Know: Prescriptions for Happy, Healthy Cats and Dogs.” Foremost on my mind was on how pet owners who are financially challenged -- whether seniors on a fixed income, unemployed or otherwise having difficulties -could continue to keep their pets healthy. In addition to stressing the importance of preventive care, Halligan urges owners to tell their vet if they’re having money problems. “I tell owners, be up front with your vet,” says Halligan. “Say (that) money is a factor. Don’t come in there and think that we’re going to change the way we treat your pet because you tell us you can’t afford it. That’s not the case. We need to know if you’re on a fixed income ... [to] come up with a game plan to keep your pet as healthy as possible and try to save you money.” Here are a few tips from Halligan on affordably keeping pets healthy: --Flea and tick prevention in summer is paramount. Look for the first generic drug for pets, www.petarmor.com/ PetArmor Plus, a topical solution that costs half as much as Frontline. It’s available from vets as well as at Wal-Mart and Sam’s Club. --Keep vaccinations up to date: diseases like parvo can be fatal to pets, but are completely preventable. --Pets need annual checkups: “Animals age 7 years in 1 year,” says Doc. “If you (only) take them every three years, that’s like 21 years (between checkups).” Want to read more of my interview with Doc Halligan? Visit www.pawscorner.com.
1. Mike Matheny, with 252 errorless games (2002-04). 2. Justin Verlander (2006) and 1. Twelve Lou Whitaker (1978). 2. To hell 3. Jon Gruden (Tampa Bay, 2002 3. A citizen season) and Sean Payton (New 4. Franklin D. Roosevelt Orleans, 2009 season). 5. William Blake 4. UCLA in 1972 (Los Angeles 6. First seven books of Memorial Sports Arena). the Old Testament 5. The Detroit Red Wings in 7. Luddites 2001-02 (Brett Hull, Luc Rob8. Nana itaille, Steve Yzerman, Brendan 9. A parliament of owls Shanahan). 10. Memphis, Tenn. 6. Taylor Twellman, 174 games. 7. He beat Bob Foster (1970), Muhammad Ali (1971), Terry Daniels (1972) and Ron Stander (1972).