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Hey all, I am Jeanie,a third year architecture student. Born and raised in Hong Kong, a high-densed city with skyscrappers around. Melbourne is a dynamic city which brought me a new vision in architecture. Felt grateful to study in Melbourne as it grants me with a spacious environments I longed for, when comparing to the packed and populated Hong Kong situation. I begin to get in touch with architecture until I meet Melbourne this place. I have experience in using Rhino in the first year of university in the Virtual environments course. That was fun but complicated to me as i remember. I wish i could apply my skills into this studio thoroughly and keep going !



Virtual Environments, a year one subject, required us to produce a body lantern via digital way, the Rhino. The theme of body lantern is to create one that can express a natural process happens around. I have adopted the orthographical projections and contouring techniques into my design.I could possible change the position of each planes from the contours as well as manipulating the

density of the planes. Surface planars is really a good basis as it can still retain the fluid and cury shape of the structure and it is rigid enough to support and stand by itself. Problem solving techniques greatly require within the model-making process so as to produce a satisfied design, since there are quite a lot of limitations in Rhino and hinders in creating an innovative design.




“Architecture, then, as discourse, discipline, and form, operates at the intersection of power, relations of production, culture, and representation and is instrumental to the construction of our identities and our differences, to shaping how we know the world.” (Dutton 1996)

“Shifted from the building facade, to what called the ‘tectonic’, which is to say, an aesthetic concern with the structure of buildings.” (Rampley 2005)

1.1 ARCHITECTURE AS DISCOURSE What is architecture? Why is it important? How to apply it to the Wyndham Project?

ety of disciplines, so to define architecture, one must explains and consider the functionality, materiality, aesthetics and its context.Architecture not just be vital in structural or aesthetic aspects, but also its impacts to society. Architecture could work as a structural skin to building, not only for appearance but also provide structural stability fo building. Unique building skin can make a building iconic and symbolic, Architecture is more than just an art, its contri- acts as a great representation of building funcbution can be sustained by various means, so tions. it is not simply a building or structure. It involved specific collective intelligence during devlop- Architecture as discourse triggeres new types ment and ongoing through communication of architecture with utilization of new technolprocess. Comprehensiveness and systematicity ogy in a cutting-edge conditions, it no longer are indeed the two key concerns of the theory follow the past but engaging in new materials and design system. So, it can acknowledge of architectural autopoiesis. that discourse can stimulate the design in the The ongoing communicatino process takes Western Gateway to be an innovative and inplace in modern architectural practices and spirational one. The inherited structure would constitutes this autopoiesis comprises diverse simltaneously serve as ornamented skin and items like CAD, rendering, sketches and so on. bring rhythm and pattern to present site. Rapid dissemination of public material links greatly with the total mass of communications, To be able to see architecture as discourse, I that gives rise to new building materials and have to look through more architectural projects to understand the significance, role and spread across in a rapid speed. symbolism of architecture are engaging in a society. Besides, architecture incorporates a braod variArchitecture can have various definitions, in Schumacher’s view, he described architecture as a system of communications. “Rather it encompasses all three categories: artefacts, knowledge and practices - all understood as communications that connect to each other in an ongoing recursive network.� (Schumacher 2011).


ARCHITECTURE AS SKIN “A buidling’s skin ought not to conceal the structure, but be integral to it, yet his concersn are no less aesthetic, for he is interested primarily in the look of a building and how it is achieved.” (Frampton, Rampley 2005).

In Modernism, there is a trend in creating a free facade for building that can replace the former and traditional rigid form. Growing interests in facade design has considered to be a structural component as well as providing ornamentation to building, that can hugely change the structural skin in a distinctive way. Structural skin can give more dynamic visual interests and reflect the aesthetic value of architecture, which is an integration of form and aesthetics.

The advantages of structural skin are its flexibility and variability. The density and distribution of surface pattern are controlled parametrically with computation techniques. Structural skin shows the advancement of architecture’s expert functional performance and the ability to innovatively utilized advanced construction technology.


Faulders with Proces2, Tokyo, 2007

The articulated densities of porous and open-celled meshwork are layered in response to create the screen skin. Separated by a 20 cm air gap, the double layer screen is derived from a compressed combination of unique patterns generated with parametric software, and is constructed using a composite metal panel material used for billboard backing and infrastructural protective coverings. To allow the cellular mesh to visually float, a matrix of thin stainless steel rods is threaded from top to bottom, to which the panels are affixed.

AirSpace greatly connects with the nature, the screen facade comprises four overlapping organic elements to form an unqie and abstract pattern. The porous there allow light transmittance and be eneryg efficient. Structural skin advantage is the flexibility it provides in terms of architecture programming. The irregular pattern design works well for the aesthetic as well as the maximization of interior space for building.


GUGGNHEIM MUSEUM BILBAO Frank Gehry, Spain, 1997

It is a modern and contemporary art museum in Spain. This museum is meant to be an innovative and wish to relate its appearance to the contemporary art theme. The randomness of the curves of the exterior were intended to appear as this to catch light so as to create more dynamic for the building with the light effects. The interconnecting random shapes

of the surface contexts are made up stone, glass and titanium. Fluctuation of the exterior produces the irregular and swirling organic form to increase the visual interest onto the building especially together with the reflection on river.

The integration of structure and aesthetics greatly reveal in the facade, the irregularity and flexibility of the distribution of the surfaces create maximization of the interior space. Structural skin comprises both interior and exterior with no identifying separation between. Both interior and exterior are defined in same geometry and skin in a controlled parametric design.


1.2 C O M P U T A T I O N I N ARCHITECTURE “Electronics now rule.” (William J, 1998)

“The dominant mode of utilizing computers in architecture today is that of computerization; entities or processes that are already conceptualized in the designer’s mind are entered, manipulated, or stored on a computer system. In contrast, computation or computing, as a computer-based design tool, is generally limited.”(Kostas 2006)

“For the first time perhaps, architectural design might be aligned with neither formalism nor rationalism but with intelligent form and traceable creativity.”(Kostas 2006)

1.2 COMPUTATION IN ARCHITECTURE How will the use of computation contribute to an innovative characteristic in a design?How to integrate computation in design flow? How does it help?

Computation provides a break through the barriers in modeling especially in complex typologies. Advanced computation mechanics enable the simulation anistropic materials and hence the differentiation and diversity of its elastic properties. The nature of computers are superb and analytical, it can come up with a precise and reasonable conclusion after following a set of instructions- programmes, in a fast way. Manipulations in computers for the process of design require both creative and rational abilities in order to produce a suitable and satifisfy outcome. Computers can list and keep track of all the goals and constraints that might encounter through the design process, designers can keep tracks of changes and updates. It can generate the design solutions and get them represent in graphical, numerical way, which will be easier to understand. Computers could even alert the users with errors or informality so that designers could be able to amend and correct it at once and many mistakes could be avoided.

virtual way, make it easier to edit, draft and accurately produce a design. further options can then be explored through modifications to the program – sketching by algorithm. An algorithm is a particular set of instructions, and for these instructions to be understood by the computer they must be written in a language the computer can understand, a code. The algorithm formed part of the parametric model that was used to develop and define the building form. Algorithmic thinking means to understand the results of the generating code, knowing how to modify the code and speculate on design potentials in further.

Furthermore, computer could offer a new stage by providing new “space� to users, it posesses an fascinating communication ability. Sharing information among human and computers becomes a common thing and it could greatly reduce time consumption and enhance efficiency, that faciliate using computer programming to design architecture. The development of computationComputation redfines architectural practice, al simulation tools can create more responsive development of digital tools creates opportu- designs, allowing architects to explore new denities in design, fabrication and construction. sign options and to analyse architectural deciArchitects nowadays use computers to simply sions during the design process. digitize all design processes through the help of programming. Digitalization allow an extension for architects to deal with complex ideas in a



FREE, Mexico, 2011

This structure has adopted a complex computational techniques, with an integral and collaborative design approaches. New techniques such as laser scanning, parametric modelling and other algorithmic techniques to design and create the model in three dimensions. The exterior is critical for Museo Soumaya, as it is a double- curved surface. A digital model is used to guarantee the 26 curving columns and horizontal steel rings are on the design surface, hence, to ensure the building facade can all be composed with the hexagonal aluminium panels. In this case, using Gaussian analysis, can help identify the curvature on the surface. The surface was divided into two zones: the most curved and the most regular. The geometric solution was to stretch each hexagonal panel to maintain the spacing, with each panel responding in size and angles to the local geometry of the surface.

Details of a double-layer facade, the relationships between each layers to support the hexagonal panels.

The entire mechanical system is coordinated with the 3-D computation system, includes the free-form space-frame for providing support to those facade panels. The free-form building structure is manipulated through programming by adjusting the vertices or panels to attain a desire geometry, help in allocating the design skeleton frame inside the facade as well. Architects increase experimentation with computation to simulate building performance, to incorporate performance analysis and knowledge about material, tectonics and parameters of production machinery in their design drawings. These innovative custom digital tools allow for creating new design opportunities.

Geometric data for the panels was extracted and reapplied to the surface, adjustments of the panel sizes to be made to the gaps between them is required. This adjustment and comparison will last til the desired result was achieved. Shows the internal skeleton frame, with columns and horizontal members


CURRENT PROJECTS OF SOM There are strong culture of collaboration at SIkdmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM) with innovation in computational technologies, a firm highly embraced the computer on recent year works. Computation continues to play a vital role in in speculative collaborations as there are lots of benefits of computer which are much more powerful than traditional methods. Computation provides a more sophisticated and visualised techniques that render data in an immediate and analytical way. It greatly facilitate the architectural and structural concepts in a theoretical basis. Emergence of finite element (FE) algorithms has recently be used read-

ily in architectural projects. Develop expertise in this type of software programs create a fundamental level to ongoing evolution and FE alogrithm. Traditionally, 2D FE meshs offer interesting idealised rectangular or triangular elements that help in attaining stability of a surface plane. Most recently, there is a new approach which can even turn the meshing extended from 2D domains into 3D domains. Diverse distribution of stresses and magnitudes of displacements can develop an immediate powerful overall shape of a building and the flows of shape is visually satisfied and dynamic.

Alogrithm used to identify the complex structural shape.

SOM, White Magnolia Office Tower, Shanghai, China, 2010

SOM, Convention Centre, Tanggu, China, 2009

SOM, Shanghai Centre, Shanghai, China, 2010



Massimiliano Fuksas and Knippers Helbig Advanced Engineering, Shenzhen, 2012 Computation design processes provides a breakthrough in conventional model thinking and allow new forms of interaction through particularly computer-aided fabrication methods. The introduction and implementation of digital design strategies creates an unique aesthetic expression of each structure. Meshing, geometry and data exchange are encouraged in the model thinking and structure design process. Limitation of calculability and accuracy no longer exists as its geometry and complex structural forms. The new terminal show the concept of perforated cladding in a form of stretched structure with metal sheet of 60,000 facade materials and 400,000 individual steel member. It would be

complicated to clad on a g of glass openings are two de simply Rhino and excel can ture, inner and outer facade

This intelligence of engineeri tion and control of data rath tionalisation of geometry. Th served as a basis for entire d tween global shape and m a dynamic grid planar for th and accurate way.

Types of modules with variation of size and slope of glass panels.

geometric surface, the size and slope esign parametric data to concerns, help generate the axis of grid struce.

ing go into the parametric generaher than helping in the detail or rahe variations in size and slope of glass design process. An interaction bemeshing has to existing first to achieve he terminal surface in a systematic


1.3 P A R A M E T R I C MODELLING “is a set of equations that express a set of quantities as explicit of a number of independent variables, known as ‘parameters’.” (Weisstein 2003)

“Parametric modelling is not new: building components have been adopted to context for centuries.” (Aish & Woodbury 2005)

“‘Post-modernism and deconstructivism were mere traditional episodes’ and parametricism will be ‘the great new styel after modernism’.” (Schumacher 2010)

1.3 PARAMETRIC MODELLING What is parametric modelling? What ‘parametric’ means? How does it influcence architecture nowadays?

‘Parametric’ this word means changes in design comprising with mathematics. The initial definition of parametric is perhaps just based on the mathematical formula that require values to substitute for a few parameters so as to generate variations, however, the latest definition should imply the entity once generated can easily be changed. Parametric design is an emerging concept of design process in which the parameters are interconnected as a system. One parameter’s change affects the whole network and causes global influence. Parametric design creates systematic, adaptive variation, continuous differentiation, and dynamic figuration from the scale of urbanism to the scale of architecture, interior and furniture. The term ‘parametricism’ has since been gathering momentum within architectural discourse, this profound style has been mature in the last 10 years in architectural practice. This new style directly linked up with the computation and programming, just a specific word of digital architecture, speaking of algorithms with parametric design. It redefines architectural languages and fundamental concepts, people tend to make complex building appearance with less restrictions in building rationality. Parametricism is perhaps the least constrainted

architecture, it usually free from parameters of tectonics, form and environment. Post-modernism and deconstructivism were mere transitional episodes, similar to art nouveau and expressionism as transitions from historicism to modernism. Parametricism emerged in a period of transition in modernism. Parametric modelling was brought up during the mechanical and digital period, at that moment, architecture was undergoing changes in parameters and styles owing to the breakthrough of technological concepts. Besides, “of all types of parametric modelling, propagation has the relative advantages of reliability, clarity and speed.”(Woodbury 2010) Efficiency of algorithms and simplicity of decision making assist in dataflow programming as well as start off with a parametric modelling building. An updated algorithms uses node properties to compute others, those properties are computed dependently in a clear context, that can compute everything. Propagation is far most simple form of parametric modelling. Thus, for sure that, technical skills of programming or geometry, will be the basic outlines for parametric design to be applied by designers.



Zaha Hadid Architects, Beijing, 2012 The complex form of Galaxy SOHO is derived from the concept of Chinese terraced rice field on mountain, which is an expression of organic form of nature. Illustrating the mimicrcy of the urban Chinese landscape connects with multiple plateaus. Synthesis from modern computational technology and natural landscape to construct a parametric model. It greatly demonstrates the “Continuous curvilinearity� which works well with soft and malleable volumes, fuse and pull apart to create a seamless flowing form. This multi-level architecture comes in with a logical continuity direction, with high fludity carried out from those rigidless and stretchy layers. The strategy here is to create a space of flow and orientation. Open and enclosed volumes directs the dynamic movements of a structure should be. Each separate level merges together at various levels and directions, to create a dramatic atmosphere with linkage of stretched bridges. What’s more, to stress on the curvilinearity throughout the whole structure, there are no corners or abrupt transitions that might break the fluidity of its formal composition. The architecture is no longer composed of rigid blocks, but instead comprised of volumes which incorporate to create a world of continu-

ous adaptation and fluid movemen links to the terms of the architectural o built environment. The form of Galaxy different sections that varies in shape metricism brings malleable elements responsiveness as well as contextual a

Architectural element, like geometry associated with computation, made invents and formulates rules to the la vides the building an organic aesthe of the building in the environment leg gether in a network. It results in a grad facade, with the transformation eng cism allow architects to come up the built form. Morphological output vari spond to environmental input param

nt with the basis of parametricism, order and stylistic expression of the y SOHO is like being divided up into es and even direction of flow. Paras into a dynamical play of mutual adaptation.

y, position and materials, can be e them inter-related. The designer aws of nature. This modulation proetic that also makes the orientation gible, everything made to work todient, changeable and continuous gaged. Contemporary Parametrie communicative complexity of the iables can be programmed to remeters.


METROPOL PARASOL J.Mayer.H Architects, Spain, 2011 It is a world largest wood structure consists of six parapols spreading across in a large dimension. It’s also a stunning example of parametric design on a large scale offering multipurpose within the structure while protecting the archelogical originals over there. Laminated timber and steel are major structural members, held together in correct spanning corrected by engineers. Whole structure is divided up into numerous surface planars and get them interlock with each others in an organised and mathematical way. Through computations, simple planars work as a continuous contour to express the curvature in immenseness. Parametricism plays a fundamental role throughout the design, sets of equations have been inputed to special softwares for calculating the exact distance and spanning between each components and the direction of flow should be. The form is soft and differentiated with diverse

gradients, shapes are changeable an All activities among the strucutre are each other in a same architectural lan rounding components.

Though the form is abstract and secti involved in fact to direct all the feature factory way. Parametric modelling gre and efforts required compare to trad ance in vibrant design can avoid rigid an unique and ordered form. Elemen like Metropol Parasol through parame can edit and erase easily, that is how coordinated way.

nd dramatic but independent. indeed communicating with nguage, responding to all sur-

ioned, computational control es and components in a satiseatly reduce time expectency ditional design process. Allowstererotypes so as to produce nts could be orderly lined up etric modelling, as architects w to alter a component in an

Interesting way of how planars interlock with each other in a coordinated way, it appears in a waffle pattern that looks neat and order. Spacing between each span are significant to interpret the overal design, curvature and fluidity can be brought up by these components. Rhino or other computation softwares might be able to produce similar pattern structures by simply contours commands. Perhaps, this concept can be applicable to the Wyndham Project, in order to produce an neat structure for Western Gateway.


Linkage between each command has to think accurately and concisely in order to attain satisfy result.

This is the first time for me using grasshopper as a plug-in in Rhino, as my previous work in virtual environments mainly focus on the usage of Rhino itself. Grasshopper is somehow quite a fresh plug-in to me since I m not so familiar to the commard and representation of icons. Grasshopper is such a good tool that could easily adjust our design into different free-form, without many limitations. The notification of errors and disconnect are very help-

ful that can let users aware of the errors at once during the design process. Grasshopper could bWe used in parametric modelling, as such the pattern and fluidity engaged allow the formation of an abstract model in a systematical way. By setting up various commands and connections as the parameters throughout the modelling construction process, an ideal and with accurate measurement design could be able to produce.


Perspective view

Left view

Right view




Architecture itself has multiple disciplines that could be explained in many ways. Architectural language and practise does vary from time to time and in diverse expressions, all unique and significant. Architecture can mean a lot, symbolism, association, structurality, etc. Discourse brings changes to architctural norms, I realise that architecture not only for aesthetics but also with a wide range of considerations. Hopefully, have to think of all elements during the deisng of Western Gateway, it must be structurally stable as well as with innovative aesthetics design. Digital architecture has become a very specific vocabulary after modernism, computers play major role in leading the trend. It has been argued that architects start adopting computational technologies in design approaches rather than

conventional methods. Hence, i recognise the importance of designing structure with the help of digital tools owing to the higher accuracy and efficiency. Parametric modelling might enable me to produce an innovative design, to me, the structure and sectioning, are the main elements to consider of. Parametricism brings malleable components into a dynamical play, certain fluidity and curvature should be addressed in my design as I do not wish a rigid typical form. Simple geometric form will be useful in creating drama and variations for the Gateway, comply along with the sense of continuity.


When something supposed look as ‘parametric’ today, it’s asethetic production with quality. The mastering of hi-tech engineering softwares ultimately used to produce ornate architectural decorations. Parametricism allows the production of asethetic and abstract facades with the usage of light-weight materials, the creation of fluditiy and curvature into my design will be a must. Parametric model usuall comes up with a fluid form and it is basically malleable and soft in nature. The responsiveness with the context is the main concept I might focus and get my design develop from. Let’s say, the communication among each components and its surrounding should be interactive.

tural elements must be parametrically malleable and interdependent to each others in a strong sense of context. The system of elements around the façade are, the spacing, shape and orientation of the individual elements, gradually transform and adapt to the specific exposure conditions of their respective location. The changeable pattern is resulted from gradients and continuity which should be applicable to the Wyndham Project. Gradient and direction of flow can be edited through computational softwares, like Rhino, setting up equations in terms of different parameters can produce dynamic outcomes.

Developing an innovative design should comply with abstraction and fluidity as mentioned above, it is important to first consider the form and how it is going to be set into the Western Gateway. All urban and architec-




2.1 DESIGN FOCUS [C] SPACE DRL 10 PAVILION Alex Dempsey & Alvin Huang, NEX, Synthesis Design + Architecture, London, 2008

The adoption of new building material, fibrous reinforcement concrete elements, demonstrates the experiments on how architecture as skin. Emergence of complexly shaped forms and intricately articulated surfaces, structures and enclosure, whose design and production were fundamentally enabled by the expertise of digital technologies to precisely represent and fabricate any complex forms. This spherical structure exemplify the efficiency and structural logic of waffle grids to span wide and offer a

wide open space underneath. The interlocking between vertical and horizontal members imposes a strong shadowing effect to the context. Harmony of form there consists in the proper balancing with both straight and curve lines. Apart from that, the fabrication way of each ribs should be a reference to our design as the joints there can help holding two separate curved elements into a desired shape, suiting the material properties and design structure.


“used to affect the perceptions and experience of the forms, surfaces, and spaces; they can embody meanings, evoke feelings.� (Eisenman 2008)

DESIGN FOCUS When we asked to pick one specific approach towards the Wyndham Gateway Project, our group aim to produce an unique driving experience with light infiltration and shadow casted by installation. To pose a strong after-effect and attract drivers revisit the site as a iconic ornament built onsite.

high speed traffic along there. We should be capable to develop structurally rational and visually dynamic. Separation of standard disciplines have give way to collaboration of diverse interest and expand infinitely the boundary of what is possible geometry and material-wise.

We conceive the site is an open and immensely exposed to sunlight one, which contains full potential to interplay with light and shadows effects. We end in one conclusion is to vary the density of sunlight and shadow casting through sections.

Sectioning as a powerful means to rationalize architectural structure and forms which can provide building skins with adaptive and dynamic behaviours. Sectioning works effectively in curvilinear shape and creates movement along the Gateway, while simultaneously allow to demarcate and encompasss the 3 driveways there. Importance of the experiential journey are wished to manipulate and fit into context.

Natural sunlight keeps changing constantly on site and we look for a way to create dynamics in visual impacts that can cater the



2.2 CASE STUDY 1.0

AA Student Project, Hooke, 2008-2009

A solid wooden sculpture of early computational skills in complying with grasshopper definitions. They provoke established formal and material conceptions of architecture. The Modernist surface is treated as an abstracted boundary of volume, expressed mainly through contours and intervals. Shape and volume are given priority which the aspiration for geometric purity and

reductive aesthetics work corporative and work well to the structure. Material composition and surface articulation offer unprecedented freedom from standardization that defined design and production for much of today’s lives. Such variability presents a radical departure from the present normative practice not just in spatial layouts.










Consider the site as enormously flat and widely open, receive sufficient amount of sunlight. We begin achieve Wyndham municipality by the structural organization of those parametrically-defined voids along with certain degree of porosity. It should help characterize the Gateway through filtering the sunlight and produce endless changing patterns by the sun’s play on structure. Use sections to create provisions to site while the undulating morpholog of design generates huge contrast to flat plain, that highlight the prominence with surrounding landscape. Contouring allows flowing morphology and applies varia-

tions to surfaces while maintaining diversity and consistency of structure. In our case, we start to think of diagonal arrangement of interlocking ribs hold by notches and apply to the Gateway. “Complexly shaped forms are affecting outr perceptions of space”( Branko & Klinger 2008), the control of varying density of intersecting ribs is going to give an outstanding and exceptional effect on sunlight diffusion.The sense of different direction from city towards Wyndham city or vice versa can be another great appraoach for the manipulating morphology, like the sense from condenseness to openness.


2.3 CASE STUDY 2.0 BANQ RESTAURANT Dan Gallagher, Office dA, Boston, 2006-2008 The Banq Restaurant is one of the precedents we have chosen for the Western Gateway Project. The use of contours, planes and the sectioning way are something unique and repeatable. Each unit adhered together formular the continuous member. These sections become structurally stable and as well, decorative to the interior of Banq Restaurant. It

is highly appreciated with its selfsupporting structural sectioning skin. Fabricating with woods and bamboo amplify the striping effect which play across the space. And the light and shadow effects generate within regular layers is what fascinate us most, as this quality matches the tectonic unity of skin. Providing variations in volumes and also the composition and patterns of transformation.



Amplification of curves along x-axis


Amplification of curves along y-axis

Amplification of curves using with image sampler

Amplification of shape using Voronoi

Waffle Use straight line to seperate two axis by ‘prepframe’

Waffle Use curves to seperate two axis by ‘prepframe’

Waffle Use circle to seperate two axis by ‘prepframe’






We manage to generate range number of designs by exploring these parameters to produce as many variations of design outcomes as possible. We decided to focus on the most relevant one to Wyndham, light and shadow effects, for the construction of rational dynamic structural skin there. Which can represent and becomes iconic in Wyndham Gateway.


“With digital parametric design and production, variation becomes possible not only in spatial layouts and component dimension, but also in material composition and surface articulation, offering unprecedented freedom from standardization that defined design and production for much of the twentieth century. Such variability presents a radical departure from the present normative practice.� (Kolarevic 2008)

static rational


dynamic vary

The parametrically organized spatial element in combination with our study on sectioning, we can achieve a certain degree of porosity and thus helps characterize the growing Wyndham Municipality which is heading to the future. The two selected structural void patterns diffuse sunlight to create most endless changing shadowing effect. We would like carry out further explorations on them. Both comprise vibrant experience and reshape the city into a new dynamic form.



message bring to our design focus. The whole idea behind is a reflection of sectioning and generally in one form of feature and ornament. And this project is also be constrained to standard waffle-pattern looking and Spacing between the visible ceiling the parameters problems as well. ribs is variable; compressing and releasing to maintain visual densities of However, this project benefit us in the overall surface as seen from dif- learning new and useful Grasshopper ferent angles. The geometry of wood techniques. slats are radiused to smoothen relationship between adjoin equipments, Hence, our group will develop further forming a seamless interior. The main- on matrix and find desire flexible form tainence of flexibility as a result of fluc- for the Gateway project. tuating components is an important Picking Banq Restaurant as reversed engineering basis, as we can further extend on the existing contouring surfaces. We explored the matrix and reversed engineering at the same tiime.




“Solution development is a process of informed search: one solution leads to another,better developed solution, until one that satisfies all the goals and abides by all the constraints has been reached.� (Kalay 2004)

Our group intend to carry experiments in different shapes with intersecting ribs rather than the standard waffle-pattern. We attempt in diagonal arrangement and curvilinear involvement in new designs. We found the variations in this model are even more significant and impressive and thus, we decide to carry further investigatoin on this concept.


“By optimizing material variables in composites for local performance criteria, entirely new material and tectonic possibilities open up in architecture.” (Kolerevic 2008)

“Every assemblage of forms should be arranged on certain definite proportions; the whole and each particular member should be a multiple of simple unit.” (Jones 1910)

2.5 TECHNIQUE How do elements fit together? How do visual and compositional effects depends on structure and material selection? Our group decided to construct three prototypes to demonstrate virtually choices of material, fabrication methods and how the light and shadow effects would be applied to the context there. The planar structuraal infill in wafflepattern models are cut at right angle to surface with notches and fabricate them according to the profile of structural frame. The material choice should be able to hold slats properly without shearing or bending which can still maintain its



original desired shape. The model should be durable and act as a self-supporting structure. Materials are offering unparalleled thinness, dynamically changing properties, and functionally gradient compositions. Material will directly affect the feature of structure, so have to consider both aesthetics and physical properties. In our case, durability and stiffness will take the first considerations as the deisgn is an exposed one in open area.


PROTOTYPE ONE The perpendicular ribs in this waffle-pattern model are held by notches, sections works highly effective in curvilinear shape in a rational degree of porosity. All slats are regularly spaced and are aligned in parallel manner.


PROTOTYPE TWO Similar basis to the first one, but this shape is more flucuated and lead to a more undulating morphology and make it multi-sensory, not only visual but also experimential effects.


PROTOTYPE THREE Move out from waffle-pattern and try to achieve diagonal intersection of ribs by using an exponential curve to control and define locations of points. Adjust the centroid and vary both density and location of focal points by adjusting the value of index. It allows irregularity in shadowing effects.


2.6 TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL In terms of our team arguement, we urge to emphasis a rational eye-cathching structure which not only act as ornament but also providing experiential journey for users. The proposed sectioned structure is actualy span wide across the gateway, imposes a strong light and shadowing effect to context. One key attribute of it is that it will give out non-repetitive geometric pattern when viewing from different angles. The interplay with sunlight is such a great connection with nature while driving, a proliferation of ecological and biological design considerations, examine how the shape in response to various environmental influences in Wyndham City. As the Western Gateway installation should provide entry statement and become a new iconic identifier for the municipality. The design should be brave and inspiring enough to

be viewed by users travelling at high speed and particularly create different sense of direction when travelling away from city to an open suburban area or vice versa. The variations in condensity would be a nice design approach as well. Thus, our design now is in a giantic scale with inspiring achievements, like the abstract engagement in sectioning form, should be preferable to be installed for the gateway.Some constraints have to draw back and consider, the scale might be too big to spanning over and cause visual confusions to drivers which may lead to traffic accidents.Perhaps, our group will think of a smaller scale one and put along the driveway instead. Installation methods and fabrication methods have to take into account to ensure structural stability, such as metal sheet and bolting system.



After looking through the explorations our group did, we realised the potentials to interplay with light infiltration, to pose a strong after-effect to drivers and appeal them to revisit again. The powerful means of sectioning can rationalize the architectural forms and promises its capabiilty in experimenting as skin or ornaments and contribute to the urban settings in Wyndham city. We move our focus for creating provisions of views by manipulating progressive gradation of porosity, which generatesspecial experiential journey in terms of varying light diffusion. At first, we interest in the waffle-pattern structure as it is selfsupporting and aesthetics, and we believe it can create different expressions through diverse environmental influences. Later, we slightly shift away from waffle but instead

pursuit a more curvy and diagonal arrangement of ribs act to resist lateral loads, particularly the applied wind load in such an open site. However, we failed to make notches for the diagonal one and it is a barrier we have to overcome in order to generate correspond composition. From Banq Restaurant, is a good case study for the possibilities in differentiate light expression and shading patterns in the interior. The undulating morphology basically tangible to each other elements in a controlled amount of light coming through. Modules are controlled by parametrically digital model in this case and we will try develop further on this example. Moving on in osciliate form and increase complexity to trigger users’ satisfaction and interest about Wyndham City.




“The Western Gateway installation should provide an entry statement and arrival experience, and become a new identifier for the municipality. Create focal point of iconic image with inspiring ideas to encourage local community pride. “

3.1 PROJECT INTERPRETATION Our group spent some time on thinking how and which direction should we move on after the presentation. The feedbacks of our project emphasis that the design should be driven by more specific qualities, such as inserting new aspects into waffle structure. And how a simple structure to be fabricated and constructed effectively and possibly in real situation. Response to our group discourse, which in line with the concept of generative ornamentation, we aim to design an unique experiential journey for users with significant visual satisfaction. Our proposal not just intends to produce some eye- catching art piece but also a site reponsive one which fits into the context there. In order to archieve it, we have to ensure our structure will generate a new discourse to exisiting site while expressing dynamism and movement by capturing moment and varying profiles.

Apart from that, our design represents the transition between city and Wyndham, a chaotic environment to an organic nature. Aiming to identify and stress the different atmosphere and spatial effects between two locations through vibrant and organized characteristics of our design. Furthermore, it is crucial to investigate on how the structure can stand and being supported by utilizing current constructional technologies and methodlogies. Based on our conceptional research and grasshopper scripts proposed, we believe our design is able to act as a self-supporting structure with the help of mechnical elements in an open area. Hence, hoping our design is the most suitable solution and remarkable for Wyndham Gateway project by possing multiple dynamism and representations.






Our group decided to design a model which correspond to the site elements and determine which part of site will be the most beneficial and practical for our design. Since, we wish to create an unique roadside artpiece place along the highway which occupy small scale of land, so site B might be a great choice due to several reasons. The flat contour in site B favours artpiece construction where does not require additional land excavation. The roads circulate along site B should enable users to observe the artpiece entirely in multiple views with different perspective, and becomes an iconic symbol to that specific area.Make use of the sun direction to create shadowing pattern onto the highway as an indication of experiential journey, provide excitment on their way. Most importantly, site B location definitely facilitates expression of transition of chaotic to organic nature, perhaps changing from abrupt to organized form. All these site responsive criteria are considerations we have to take into account when designing.




Considered three aspects as our major design direction, namely: 1. Site 2. Users’ View 3. Light and Shadow And, experiment how these three factors can contribute to the sense of transition between two locations.

Aim to produce diverse visual experiences when travelling along the structure. Focus chiefly on the two roads surrounding the siteB, think of driver’s perspectives and signals drivers.


Attempt in building an undulated structure composes with curved ribs, that can be able to weave along the road side. The undulating profile creates dynamic and vivids to Wyndham as well as provides excitement to drivers. The direction of wavy pattern represents the transition between city and Wyndham, contrasting level of activities.

Disorganized waffle pattern responsible for the interplay of light and shadow effect due to the sunlight penetration. The endless changing pattern generate unique driving experience and become an iconic feature to the particular location.





Constructing a1:50 physical prototype of our design, we have applied the notching techniques in relation to the intersections between each ribs. Notches have to create on two individual ribs in an opposing direction so that they can lock and hold each other firmly. Material was a big issue as our ribs require bending while maintaining its certain rigidity and structural stability. Hence, we are limited to 1mm boxboard as its properties allow us to bend according to the design. The model was being sprayed to matt black eventually for imitating the matt metal surface we picked in reality. Frankly, we didnt have enough time in testing different materials and techniques to achieve similar effects.


Ribs Connection This jointing method is for full-scale on-site installation and is no longer using notches for connection. This time, boxboard members will be replaced by anodized aluminium structural members, which are held by circular joints in reality. Steel rods with phosphorescent coating acts as screws to fix rib members to the joint. Also, the structural members will be welded together to attain a continuous beam effect, as there is no such a long beam for real.

3.3 TECTONIC ELEMENTS JOINTING METHOD Connection to Ground We should also consider how the installation connects to ground besides it selfsupporting properties through internal joints. The curved ribs touch the ground by the bolting system, get fixed by screws, metal cleat and structural columns and connect together to ground. Columns and footings underneath must be able to support whole structure load and bear external pressure, such as car and wind loads.

This jointing method is specific and unique that holds members in correct orientation, each joint must be specific and not identical to match with the beam direction and numbers of beams connected. By Grasshopper script, each joint can be designed and adjusted technically, not only be able to adjust direction and number, but also the thickness of beam. It has complex geometry which is a node with arms that protrudes towards the neighboring points. Those arms have a flat end that connects to a regularly cut linear member with a butt joint. It would be technically more reliable and accurate.



Alex Dempsey & Alvin Huang, NEX, Synthesis Design + Architecture, London, 2008

The internal beam connection in C Pavilion is a solid reference to our ribs joints. It demonstrates how a parametric joint works and the way each elements connects. Structure was designed with use of dynamic relaxation and node aggregation techniques, which was programmed in Processing which requires precise parametric geometry. Special node system was developed to accomodate twisting geometry of non-planar connections. Hence, similar concept as our chosen joint that each joint is unique and precise.


In order to enhance exicitment into our design, we decided to install LED lights to corners of each ribs so that it can heighten the profile of our installation during night time. So, drivers can still aware of this iconic feature even when they drive at night.


This is a 1:50 prototype, ribs a notching method. Angels and p to be parametrically defined so could fit perfectly to overall struc


assemble by profiles have o that they cture.



FINAL PRESENTATION & FEEDBACKS After listening to the feedbacks from final crit, we realized that our design is weak and have to continue to develop and refine our design. We should keep opportunities all open for us without being limited by any specification and continue to explore further in several aspects.

1. Lack of Grasshopper technique 3. Appropriate scale? - not enough attempt in Grasshop- Scale is too big for a artpiece, not per , should apply more techniques to responsive to site transform the relative grid into something not typical 4. Profile/ elevation is not attractive 2. Not practical to be built - beam too long, no such a long ma- Side views are not eye-catching terial in reality. Have to consider the and cant show design implications (top view is comparatively attractive, but contrustion joint who will see it?) Decided to develop further based on our fundamental design concept, amending the form and grasshopper definition so as to create a design with stronger expression in especially the transition between two locations and atmospheres.



Re-establish our design focus and form into a more site specific and technical one. Transition between city and Wyndham is quite a board concept and we made our mind to focus on three expressions of change. 1. Contrasting pattern between two locations 2. Gradual transition 3. Maintain our design approach (sectioning) Response to Site B boundary, variations in density of buildings there greatly define contrast between city and Wyndham. We would like to express the gradual transition in two sections of form, one is waffle grid pattern and the other one is strip sectioning. Waffle grid pattern represents the high density of chaotic city while strips indicate the organized form of Wyndham and rural nature. Integration of two variables and the fushion way of two parts can strongly identify the location transitions.






It is designed to be a site specific one, as it is fitting the site bounday and located on a desirable flat surface. The stretched cantilever creates dynamism and allow drivers to observe clearily the structure pattern. Intentionally to stretch it up to about 7m in order to avoid blocking drivers vision.

Similarly, the internal beam joint is based on the same principle of our previous model that every joint is not identical but unique.


As we understood our previous design was lack of grashopper technique and approaches, therefore, we ought to experiment and explore a new technical method to re-develop our digital model. In order to express our focus on transition, we used two set of curves to identify horizontal and vertical lines seperately. Intersection of two curves create waffle grid pattern, by using the graph mapper in Grasshopper script, the void sizes can be adjust into different densities. Fusion of two surfaces allow the transition of varying density across the design and how waffle transform to strips.

Fabricated a 1:100 model to to illustrate the cantilever and sprawing feature of the design. This model is comparatively harder to build as we have to bend the ribs to a correct direction and position(but the boxbard is too soft and we have to be careful).



There are several reasons explain why our design is comparatively more advanced and appropriate for the Wyndham Western Gateway project. First, our design intent is very much site driven to engender affects to reinteprete landscape and its aesthetic, eye-catching appearance can become a remarkable icon for drivers and signal them locations as well. Especially our design is greatly related to the transition between two locations, users will be aware of this transition and be ready to go to either locations. The skin of this art piece is able to support itself as well as provide visual and spatial experience to drivers.

Besides, the construction materials we chose for this project is anodized aluminium, which is durable and not reactive to surrounding elements. We deliberately pick the matt surface one in order to prevent light reflection and affect drivers’ vision when driving. And the jointing method is stiffened as each joint is designed individually and specific. I won’t say our design is perfect but at least it fits the site boundary and could be able to produce dynamism and vivids to the highway. Also, an eye-catching iconic symbol for the transition.


Have been tried out different grasshopper techniques for producing various outcomes, they are all sketchy and primary structures which need further development. I tried them only because of personal interests.






We used Grasshopper to help us label and identify each ribs into a correct sequence, which greatly reduce our time and we are able to recognise each pieces efficiently. Seperating the horizontal and vertical rbis into two groups, name them A and B. Once we input the desire sequence number into Grasshopper, it will automatically generate two sets of numbers. So that we do not have to label each components ourselves. What we have to do is just fabricate based on the sequence and it makes our progress much more convenience.


To be true, parametric modelling is really not an easy job to me, and the introduction of parametric modelling this semester have made me grown and learnt so much as a designer. I m happy that my digital modelling skills have been improved bit by bit throughout the semester, especially Rhino and Grasshopper, though they were hard to me at first. Developing a satisfied design and rationalizing it for fabrication are major process we got to undergo and solve every problems we encountered (problems were likely to pop out once we proceed to a next step). After attempting the typical waffle grid, our group would like to work further on the undulating curved profile to amplify the appearance of our design. The bending ribs spread over and becomes iconic to the site. The deformed grid network present a dynamic pro-

gression in densities, get controlled by the list mangement. However, feedbacks from crit were pointing the fact that our design is weak and not practical. Insufficient grasshopper techniques shown and should have considered more on user’s view. After that, we would like to emphasis our fundamental concept of transition between cityW and Wyndham, and get improved in particularlly grasshopper techniques and construction methods. Reverted back to the original by further developing a new design, we generated site specific form with undulating fluid elevations (get inspired by the Wyndham City logo). Rewrote the Grasshopper script for controlling the curves and bending degree in a systematical and accurate way.

3.6 LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES In our new design, we could probably make it effectively representable with our “transition� concept. Gradient shown in changing from waffle grid into strip sectioning are wish to produce a better perspectives and diverse experiential journey to users. Lucky that we can get two sections fuse in an appropriate way at last, as we failed in combining them in a smooth direction beforehand. Next was to consider connection and construction methods for actual installation. Since there is no such a

continuous beam in reality, so we have to cut and hold individual elements together with joints. Based on the research from C Pavilion and other useful online resources, we are managed to come up with some possibile joint methods which every joint is specific and unique. Although this studio is a tough one, it provides me a kick start in further studies on parametric design. I hope I can incorporate these skills for the next studio and I will consider every aspects thoroughly during the design process next time.



REFERENCES Jones, 1910, The Grammar of Ornament, pp. 5-8. Kalay, 2004, “Introduction”, Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design, pp. 5-25 Kolarevic, 2008, Material Effect, pp.6-24. Moussavi, 2006, Function of Ornament, pp.615-623. Rampley, 2005, “Architecture and Visual Culture”, Exploring Visual Culture, pp.102-116. Schumacher, 2011, “A New Framework for Architecture”, The Autopoiesis of Architecture, pp. 1-28. Woodbury, 2010, “Introduction”, Elements of Parametric Design, pp. 7-48. Wilson, 2011, “Algorithms”, MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences, pp.11-12.

Hill, 2006. ‘Drawing Forth Immaterial Architecture’, Architectural Research Quarterly, 10, 1, pp. 51-55 html Agenda.pdf


Finaljournal 383512 jeanietang  

2013 Studio AIR - Sem ONE

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