lBUILDING TECHNOLOGY THERMIE PROGRAMME: promotion of energy technology in Europe EDITORIAL
THERMIE on Internet The University College Dublin OPET is the site of a new pan-European computer network for the dissemination of information on energy-efficient building technologies. A user-friendly interface, based on the World Wide Web system, allows easy access for every building professional who is connected to a computer network. The site will provide users with a wide range of energy information resulting from the European Commission’s THERMIE Programme. In addition to information on THERMIE, OPET and Eastern European Energy Centres an expanding collection of documents will include newsletters and maxibrochures.
Toftegård housing with new fourth floor and conservatories.
EXTRA HOUSING WITHOUT EXTRA ENERGY
For users already connected to Internet the THERMIE Home Page can be accessed at: http://erg.ucd.ie/opethermie.html For those not yet connected to the Internet but who are interested, further information on local service providers can be obtained from UCD -OPET by contacting Pierre Jolivet: (e-mail: email@example.com or Fax +353.1-283 8908) or using EUROKOM.
The Toftegård estate, Copenhagen, was built in the 1950s and by 1987 was in need of thorough refurbishment. Work to roofs, balconies, and water and drainage services was particularly necessary. Adding a fourth floor to the existing three-storey apartment blocks meant that the number of dwellings could be increased by 25% without the need for investment in new roads and public services or the use of virgin land. Work was carried out while the existing tenants remained in residence. Steel joists were laid for the new apartment floors - these required a waiver under Danish building legislation - the load being taken by the brick diaphragm walls. Semi-finished timber wall and roof elements were assembled and clad
on site. The new roofs, like the old, are of conventional timber truss construction with plastered ceilings. The new roofs and walls are heavily insulated, and insulation to old gable walls and to the cladding panels under the windows has been upgraded.
IN THIS ISSUE Building Technology looks at retrofitting in high-density low-cost residential projects, and at centralised control systems for organisations which manage many buildings.
European Commission Directorate-General XVII for Energy
All of the balconies have been enclosed to create conservatories on the ground floor and bay windows above. Water saving appliances have been used in both old and new units, and the new dwellings have been connected to the district heating system without any increase in its capacity. In two of the blocks the upper roof space is constructed as a solar collector. Transparent insulation is used as a roofing material on the south-facing slope and is backed by black fibrecloth fixed to the underside of the rafters. Solar heated air is drawn from this cavity into an air-to-water heat exchanger to provide pre-heating for domestic hot water.
Claymill House today.
GREENWICH ACTION IN LEAD PROGRAMME
New section at Tofteg氓rd.
Work was completed in August 1993. The apartments had been monitored since the mid 1980s and this has continued since refurbishment. A more detailed twoyear study of the solar collector elements, hot water and heating will run to 1 January 1996. Energy costs for existing residents have been reduced and, in spite of the increased population, there has been no increase in energy or water usage for the estate as a whole. The architects for the refurbishment scheme were KBI A/S (Kooperativ Byggeindustri A/S). For further information contact: arch. John Engel, Boligselskabet af, 1944 i Herlev (H44), Kronprincessgade 14, DK-1306, Copenhagen. Tel +45.33 14 31 11 Fax +45.33 14 64 22. (THERMIE Project No. BU 138/90 DK)
Claymill House, a 24-storey block of 93 one- and two-bedroom apartments, is one of four similar blocks on the Glyndon Estate in the London Borough of Greenwich. Constructed during the 1960s using the Bison Wall-Frame heavy concrete panel system, it has good space standards but is impossible to keep warm in winter. The walls and roof are under-insulated and the onpeak electric underfloor heating is expensive (1630 ECU/year per dwelling). Concrete walls with large expanses of single-glazed windows in steel frames are a major source of heat loss. Permanently ventilated stairs, lifts and corridors at all levels create draughts and exacerbate heat loss. Condensation problems in kitchens and bathrooms are common. The objective of the Greenwich Directorate of Housing Services is to turn this thermally inefficient and unpopular block into a comfortable, secure and attractive place to live. The project is part of the THERMIE Low Energy Applications in Dwellings (LEAD) Programme. Refurbishment measures planned by architects Hunt Thompson Associates include rainscreen cladding and external insulation, timber-framed double-glazed windows, enclosure of balconies, insulation of lift core, enclosure of common areas, and Genvex heat pump ventilation units in each dwelling. The block will have a computer based energy management and security system, smoke detection, low energy lighting, and automatic control of the communal lighting. The potential for
Nightingale House after refurbishment.
change in the visual character of Bison apartment blocks is demonstrated by earlier work on a similar block at Nightingale Heights, where there is now a waiting list for potential tenants. The building will be monitored for a period of 18 months and it is expected that both annual energy consumption and CO2 emissions will be reduced by 60 - 70%. The design life of the refurbished dwellings is 30 years and the payback period calculated to be just under 11 years. For further information contact: Julia Farr, Directorate of Housing Services, London Borough of Greenwich, Peggy Middleton House, 50 Woolwich New Road, Woolwich, London SE18 6HQ. Tel. +44 .181854 8888 Fax +44 .181-317 3088. (THERMIE Project No. BU 365/93 UK)
REHAB IN THE SOUTH OF FRANCE REHABSOL is a project for the bioclimatic and socio-environmental renovation of social housing for HLM Dr么me, in the Rhone Valley near Valence. The six buildings (on two sites - Mazorel, Crest and Val d'Or, Saint Rambert d'Albon) contain between them 88 apartments of varying sizes. The objectives are very similar to those of the Greenwich project described above, but the climate of course is different. The designers, ARCHI.M.E.D.E.S., arranged new site planting to provide meeting and play spaces as well as protection from sun and wind. External insulation with a rendered finish, double glazing and conservatories improve appearance and thermal performance. Trombe
RETROFITTED CONTROL SYSTEMS The three schemes which follow demonstrate the very significant energy savings which can result from the installation of centralised control systems by organisations which own or manage many buildings.
Modified facades at Mazorel.
walls with transparent insulation act as passive solar collectors on South facades. The new conservatories add 15 m2 to living rooms, which were formerly only 18 m 2 even in the five-room dwellings. In winter they act as solar collectors, and in summer provide shade from high-angle sun for the rooms behind. And the inhabitants have somewhere to grow their plants kumquats, lemons and herbs. Gas boilers replace the oil-fired system, with zoned controls for rooms of North and South orientation. Solar panels on the roof terraces provide 60% of hot water requirements.Mechanical ventilation incorporates a heat recovery system. The cost of this energy-saving retrofit is approximately 13000 ECU per unit, compared with 9000 ECU in a standard HLM Drôme refurbishment project. Energy savings are expected to be 70% of previous consumption overall - 2.12 TOE/year per dwelling. Pollution reduction should be 2.2 TOE/year per dwelling. The projected life of the retrofit components is 25 to 30 years, and the calculated payback period 8 or 9 years. Work at the Val d'Or site is complete. At Mazorel all interior work has been carried out and Trombe walls are being installed in March 1995. Monitoring is under way and will continue until March 1996, when a final report will be published. For further information contact: Serge Jauré, ARCHI.M.E.D.E.S, Place Fabre d'Olivet, F - 34190 GANGES. Tel +33. 67 73 89 07 Fax +33. 67 73 85 49 (THERMIE Project No. BU 443/92 FR)
J. Sainsbury plc is a large UK supermarket chain. The JS-Thermie energy monitoring system features real-time monitoring of electricity, gas and water consumption. Data is collected at 15-minute intervals and stored in a Caradon Trend BEMS in each of 250 supermarkets, to be retrieved automatically during the night and uploaded to a central control facility. Here a specially developed software system compares measured consumption with a reference profile and checks for deviation beyond set limits. Within 24 hours of the original measurement local store management is alerted to any deviation, its likely cause and cost, and advice on how to correct it. In addition to reducing energy costs and pollution the system provides the company with a wealth of information for future planning. (Contact: Sainsbury’s Energy Team, Tel +44. 171-921 7020. THERMIE Project No BU 498/92 UK) Rotterdam’s Education Service and Public Works departments aim to control energy usage using an energy management system connected by modem to 302 schools. Functions such as optimal start-stop, duty cycling, boiler sequencing, temperature
compensation, max-demand control, real-time monitoring and targeting are included. The interactive system will allow users to study the effects of their own energy saving actions. The target is to save 34% of energy consumption - 780.000 m3 of natural gas or 592 TOE per year. The investment cost of the system is 1907 ECU per TOE saved, and the expected payback period is six or seven years. (Contact: Gemeentwerken Rotterdam, Tel +31.10 489 42 60. THERMIE Project No. BU 471/92 NE) The electricity bill for lighting on University College Dublin’s campus could be cut by 30%. The university has approximately 15000 full-time equivalent students, and a gross internal floor area in excess of 200,000 m2. The electrical load for lighting averages 1,276kWh per day. On a campus of this size hard wiring would be expensive, mains-borne signalling slow and susceptible to interference, and many distributed control systems too complex and inflexible. In a pilot project involving the administration building a new ‘UCC4/DMTF’ lighting controller has been added to the existing Cylon ‘Unitron’ building management system and interfaces with the PABX telephone system. The system permits full local control by building users, and lights are operated via the telephone system. Payback is calculated at 3 years. (Contact: Cylon Controls Ltd., Tel +353.1 836 6626. THERMIE Project No. BU 0249/91 IRL)
THERMIE PUBLICATIONS - 1994 Natural and Low Energy Cooling in Buildings Maxibrochure, English. Insulation Measures for Retrofitting of Residential Buildings Maxibrochure, English. Energy Efficiency in Buildings - Compiling of Experience from the OPET Work in the Building Sector Maxibrochure, English. Retrofitting of Metering and Control Technology for Heating Systems in Residential Buildings Maxibrochure, English.
Penetration of Technologies and Materials to Improve the Energy Efficiency in the Building Sector in Romania - Industrial and Commercial Mission Publication, English. Dual Energy Management System (DEMS) Video, English / French / German. Introduction to Passive Solar Energy (IPSE) Diskette, English. Solar Swimming Pools Maxibrochure, English.
Daylighting in Buildings Maxibrochure, English. Daylighting in Buildings Video, English. Energy Efficient Lighting Practice Summary Guide Maxibrochure, English. Building - Targeted Projects Newsletter. English. Design and Maintenance of HVAC Systems Proceedings, Portugues / English.
For further information, please contact: OPET-CS Avenue R. Vandendriessche 18 B-1150 Brussells Fax: +32.2-771 5611
EVENTS 7 April 1995 Évora, Portugal Workshop Mr José Manuel Ferreira de Jesus
Thermal Regulation of Buildings
3-4 May 1995 Kassel, Germany Conference Mr Nicola Sacca
Municipal Energy Management
10 May 1995 South-Hesse, Germany Congress Mr Nicola Sacca
Low Energy Buildings
16-18 May 1995 Amsterdam, Netherland Exhibition Stand Mr Lex Bouman
THERMIE Stand at POWER-GEN ‘1995 Europe
23-24 May 1995 Vilnius, Lithuania Workshop Miss Britt Herlov Pedersen
New Insulation Technologies
INETI / ITE
May 95 Portugal Workshop Mr Rob Jackson
Workshops in Energy Efficiency Management in Hotels & Leisure Complexes
1-2 June 1995 Seville, Spain Workshop Mrs. Maria Luisa Borra Marcos
Energy Labelling of Buildings in the south of Europe
9 June 1995 Düsseldorf, Germany Symposium Ms Petra Götz
REHVA - Ventilation for Buildings Design Criteria for the Indoor Environment
June 1995 Tunis, Tunisia Business Mission Ms Maria Melchiorri
Energy Efficient Building Materials and Components
September 1995 Madrid, Spain Workshop Mr José Donoso Alonso
Energy Efficiency in Hospitals
THERMIE is a European Union initiative designed to promote greater use of existing European energy-efficient technologies and to encourage the development of new ones.
Building Technology is produced within the THERMIE programme by the UCD - OPET, Energy Research Group, University College Dublin, Richview, Clonskeagh, Dublin 14, Ireland.
OPET OPET (Organisations for the Promotion of Energy Technology) is a Union-wide network of organisations working within the framework of the THERMIE programme for the promotion of European energy technologies on behalf of the European Commission. Each organisation has particular experience in the field of energy technology. The type of organisation and the work it undertakes varies considerably. Both private and public companies are represented: some are consultants in the energy field while others have direct experience of working with energy programmes in their own country. At present the OPET network consists of 49 organisations located throughout the European Union, with over 2000 experts engaged in the energy and related fields. Those OPETs active in the Building Sector include: ADEME - Agence pour l’Environement et la Maitrise de l’Energie 27, rue Louis Vicat, F-75015 Paris, France. Fax: +33.1-46 45 52 36, Contact: Agnés Morel. ASTER Agenzia per lo Sviluppo Tecnologico via Morgagni 4, I-40122, Italy. Fax: +39.51-227803, Contact: Milena Guizzardi BCEOM - Société Française d’Ingénierie, Place des Frêres Montgolfier, F-78286 Guyancourt Cédex, France. Fax: +33.1-30 12 10 95, Contact: Christopher Startford. BRECSU - Building Research Energy Conservation Support Unit, Garston, Watford, UK-Hertfordshire, WD2 7JR, United Kingdom. Fax: +44.923-664097, Contact: Eugene Saunders.
Editors Ann McNicholl and J. Owen Lewis Design Pierre Jolivet For further information on the OPET network please contact: OPET-CS Avenue R. Vandendriessche 18 B-1150 Brussells. Fax: +32.2-771 5611
EUROPLAN, Chorus, 2203 Chemin de Saint Claude, F-06600 Antibes, France. Fax: +33.93-743131, Contact: Marie-Laure Falque.
INNOTEC Kurfürstendamm 199, D-10719 Berlin, Germany. Fax: +49.30-885 4433, Contact: Rainer Behnke.
ETM Consortium Av. Louise, 304 bte 8, B-1050 Bruxelles, Belgium. Fax: + 32.2-646.1440, Contact: Stephan Goetghebuer.
LUXCONTROL Avenue des Terres Rouges, 1, L-4004 Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg. Fax: +352.547930, Contact: Karel Derveaux.
FAST - Federazione delle Associazioni Scientifiche e Tecniche, Piazzale Rodolfo Morandi 2, I-20121 Milano, Italy. Fax: +39.2-782485, Contact: Paola Gabaldi. Fiz-Karlsruhe / KFA Jülich Postfach 24 65, D-76012 Karlsruhe, Germany. Fax: +49.72-47 80 81 34, Contact: Werner Bahm. FORBAIRT Glasnevin, IRL-Dublin 9, Ireland. Fax: +353.1-837 2848, Contact: Rita Ward.
MARCH - Consulting Group, Telegraphic House, Waterfront 2000, Salford Quays, Manchester, UK-M5 2XW, England. Fax: +44.61-848 0181, Contact: Sarah Sidebottom. NIFES 8 Woodside Terrace, UK-G3 7UY, United Kingdom. Fax: +44.41-332 4255, Contact: Rob Jackson. NOVEM - The Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment, P. O. Box 17, NL-6130 AA Sittard, Netherlands. Fax: +31.46-528260, Contact: Lex Bouman.
CCC / CEEETA / CBE, Estrada de Alfragide, Praceta 1 - Alfragide, P-2700 Amadora, Portugal. Fax: +351.1-471 1316 / 395 2490 Contact: Luis Silva / Philippe Bollinger.
GOPA - Consultants Hindenburgring 18, D-61348 Bad Homburg, Germany. Fax: +49.61-723 5046, Contact: Jürgen Janovsky.
COREA - SEA Altenkesselerstrasse, 17, D-66115 Saarbrücken, Germany. Fax: +49.681-976 2175, Contact: Nicola Sacca.
IABPO - Friedemann & Johnson Consultants Pestalozzistr. 88, D-10625 Berlin 12, Germany. Fax: +49.30-313 2671, Contact: Georg Narciss.
RARE - Rhonalénergie 69, rue de la République, F-69002 Lyon, France. Fax: +33.78 37 64 91, Contact: Christian Labie.
COWIconsult, Consulting Engineers and Planners Parallelvej 15, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark. Fax: +45.45-972212, Contact: Britt Herlov Pedersen.
ICAEN - Institut Català d’Energia, Avda Diagonal, 453 Bis, Atic, E-08036 Barcelona, Spain. Fax: +34.3-419 7253, Contact: Joãn Josep Escobar.
SODEAN Bolivia, 11, E-41012 Sevilla, Spain. Fax: +34.4-462 6301, Contact: Maria Luisa Borra Marcos.
C.R.E.S. - Centre for Renewable Energy Sources 19 km Athinon-Marathona Avenue, GR-19009 Pikemi, Greece. Fax: +30.1-603 9904 / 11, Contact: Theocharis Tsoutsos.
ICEU Leipzip Auenstr. 25, D-04105 Leipzig, Germany. Fax: +49.341-980 3486, Contact: Alexander Schmidt.
SYNERGIA, Apollon Tower, Energy Information Technology and Management Consultant, 64 Louise Riencourt Street, GR-11523 Athens, Greece. Fax: +30.1-649 6186, Contact: Yannis Caralis.
EAB - Energie-Anlagen Berlin, TU Berlin, Berliner Kraftund licht, AG, Flottwellstrasse 4-5, D-10785 Berlin, Germany. Fax: +49.30-25 49 62 30, Contact: Frank Dittwald. Energy Centre Denmark Suhmsgade 3, DK-1125 København, Denmark. Fax: +45.33-118333, Contact: Henny Hansen. ENEA (Fire), Cre Casaccia - PB 2400, Santa Maria di Galeria, I-00060 Roma, Italy. Fax: +39.6-30 48 65 11 Contact: Walter Cariani.
ICIE - Istituto Cooperativo per l’Innovazione Via Nomentana 133, I-00161 Roma, Italy. Fax: +39.6-855 0250, Contact: Maria Melchiorri. IDAE - Inst. para la Diversification y Ahorra de la Energia, P° de la Castellana 95 - P. 21, E-28046 Madrid, Spain. Fax: +34.1-555 1389, Contact: José Donoso Alonso. INETI / ITE Asinhapa dos Lameros à Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, P-1699 Lisboa Codex, Portugal. Fax: +351.1-716 6569, Contact: José Manuel Ferreira de Jesus.
TÜV RHEINLAND Sicherheit und Umweltschutz - Institut für Umweltschutz und Energietechnik, Am Grauen Stein, D-51105 Köln, Germany. Fax: +49.221-806 1350, Contact: Jürgen Schwenke. University College Dublin - Energy Research Group, Richview, Clonskeagh, Dublin 14, Ireland. Fax: +353.1-283 8908, Contact: Mary Rigby. Zr-E - Zweckverband Regionale Entwicklung und Energie, Wieshuberstrasse 3, D-93059 Regensburg, Germany. Fax: +49.941-464 1910, Contact: Toni Lautenschläger.