ISSUE 2 Commercial Buildings
lBUILDING TECHNOLOGY THERMIE PROGRAMME: promotion of energy technology in Europe EDITORIAL In this issue of Building Technology, the second in the series, we look at a number of innovative projects which have addressed energy efficiency in a range of commercial buildings. Commercial buildings contribute significantly to the total energy consumed in the building sector. The figures alongside illustrate the energy consumption split in typical (a) naturally ventilated and (b) air conditioned buildings. As can be seen, both heating and lighting account for most of the energy used and thus provide key areas for improvement. Lighting in commercial buildings can account for up to 50% of the electricity used, and may even exceed the cost of heating. Through the application of improved lighting design, better controls, more efficient lamps, greater utilisation of daylight and regular maintenance, savings of 30-50% can be achieved.
Other electrical 12%
Space heating 60%
(a) Energy use in a typical office building (naturally ventilated).*
Office machines 1%
Pumps, fans etc 19%
Space heating 48%
(b) Energy use in a typical office building (air conditioned).*
Heating and hot water have traditionally been the largest single users of annual delivered energy consumption in many central & northern European commercial buildings. An average building can use 200 kWh of gas or oil per annum for these purposes per m2 of treated floor area but can occasionally use far more. In reducing energy input to heating and hot water systems the application of controls, insulation, high efficiency boilers and other measures to minimise waste, together with steps to maximise useful solar gain - these can all make significant contributions. Through this series of newsletters, it is hoped that greater awareness of new and innovative technologies, promoted through THERMIE, will help building professionals achieve the savings Europe requires to reduce energy consumption and improve the environment. * UK figures from Energy Efficiency Office, DOE, Good Practice Guide No. 28 (1991).
IN THIS ISSUE COOLING USING A Q U I F E R S Building Technology looks at combined heat and power in a hotel, cold storage in an aquifer, capillary tube matting and controls coupled with telecommunication data transfer; plus news and events.
The aim of this innovative project in Amsterdam was to replace a chiller by underground cold storage. The purpose was to remove heat released during a printing process. As a result of the heat gain a chiller was required once the outside temperature rose above 11째C. Because of the addition of a new printing press a second chiller was to be installed. Instead, a study to look for an alternative was carried out and
Roof view of the cooling plant.
Commission of the European Communities Directorate General XVII for Energy
the findings showed that a suitable aquifer existed at a depth of between 60 and 200 meters. The principle of the system for cold storage in winter involves groundwater being extracted from a “warm” well and after cooling injected into a “cold” well. In summer, the stored cold energy is transferred via the same heat exchanger to the existing water cooling system. At temperatures below 4°C the aquifer is charged and above 11°C the stored cold water is utilised. Of the total required cooling capacity (1650kW), the aquifer supplies a base load of 550 kWh. The first period of testing did not fully meet the target set because of higher than normal winter temperatures. As a result, the system has now been adapted to operate at higher warm and cold well temperatures. This allows more cold water to be stored in the winter and so meets the cooling demand of the summer. Further information can be obtained from Techniplan Adviseurs BV, Michelangelstraat 30, Postbus 8280, NL - 3009 AG Rotterdam.
C H P I N H O T E L S A combined heat and power (CHP) system together with an energy management system (EMS) was installed in the Burlington Hotel in Dublin in May, 1991. In the first year of monitoring a saving of 82 TOE was achieved. The hotel in which the CHP system was installed consists of 500 bedrooms as well as conference facilities. The system installed supplies an electrical output of 185kW and a heat output of 310 kW, based on a fuel input of 620kW. This gives an overall efficiency of approximately 80%. The CHP unit is used as the lead heat source in the hotel. The existing boilers are switched on in sequence when required. Thus boiler firing times and maintenance charges are also reduced. The system contributes approximately half of the hotel’s requirements, running for 15 hours per day, and shutting down at night to take advantage of the off-peak rates offered by the Electricity Supply Board.
Control system of the CHP unit during commissioning.
The average availability over the 12 month monitoring period was 96%, the remaining 4% being attributed to service and maintenance. The EMS installed with the CHP unit has also contributed to the overall savings. It controls 20 space-heating and hot water zones and six airconditioning zones in the building. In addition, because of the high availability of the CHP unit, and reduced demand due to tighter control and judicious switching out of nonessential loads by the EMS, maximum electricity demand reductions of 260kW to 495kW have been achieved. The EMS analysis of the building’s energy systems also allows continual
monitoring so that any inefficiencies can be targeted and eliminated. Environmental benefits from the installation were also significant. Over the 12 month monitoring period some 956 tonnes of CO 2 was displaced directly as a result of the electrical and thermal output of the CHP system. The replication potential of this project is estimated at 250 times in Ireland alone. The implications for the whole of Europe would appear to be very encouraging. Further information can be obtained from Temp Technology Ltd., Unit 9, Enterprise Centre, Childers Road, Limerick, Ireland. Building Electrical Load
Fuel (eg. gas)
Control & Protection Systems
3 Phase Electricity
Building Heating Water Load
ESB Electrical Supply
Heating Water Return
Schematic of the CHP unit.
PROJECTS IN BRIEF CAPILLARY TUBE MATTING Often, office buildings constructed during the 1950s to the 1970s were equipped with uneconomical heating and air conditioning systems, all too
many of which are still in use today. Some of the emission systems are now being replaced using capillary tube matting (CTM). CTM is a plaited network consisting of plastic tubing approximately 2mm in diameter through which water is pumped. The
network of tubes can be embedded in ceilings or floors, converting building surfaces into heating and cooling components. One such project, supported by the European Commission, was completed at the beginning of this year. Capillary
tube matting was installed in an office block in Frankfurt where previously 100,000 m 3 /hr of air was being distributed through a ducting system. It was estimated that approximately 60% of the energy consumed by the old system was attributable to the fans alone. Preliminary results from the monitoring period demonstrate significant savings, with an expected reduction of 42% in energy consumption. One test showed that during the course of a day when the CTM system was operational, in conditions of high starting temperatures, after one hour the room temperature was held constant at the set point. This was despite increasing external temperatures.
Further information on CTM can be obtained from Dr. Walter Herbst GmbH, Frauenstrasse 6, D-1000 Berlin 45.
H E A T I N G CONTROLS A combination of the latest control technology together with data transfer using telecommunication devices has been utilised in a project carried out in Paris. The new control systems were installed in 15 buildings across the city.
characteristics and behaviour of the buildings. Only equipment directly related to the GESTHERM system (such as sensors, control panels, etc.) was added to the existing installations. Analysis of the results showed an average annual energy saving of 6% for the centralised management of interconnected systems. The operating efficiency of boiler plant before improvement averaged 77% but was increased to 82% after installation of the new system, resulting in energy savings of 1845 MWh/yr.
Centralised management and control of the systems was carried out through GESTHERM automatic regulation taking into account the thermal
Further information can be obtained from Delta Dore Electronique, Bonnemain, F-35270 Combourg.
available technology is employed throughout the Community. If the energy targets were realised, the Community's consumption could be greatly reduced, with a corresponding reduction in emissions of CO 2 , the main greenhouse gas.
THERMIE 1994 - Call for Projects
NEWS THERMIE - Promotion of European Energy Technology THERMIE open days at the "Halles de Schaerbeek", Brussels, 12-16 October 1993 New and innovative energy technologies form the focus for a major exhibition being organised by the Directorate-General for Energy of the Commission of the European Communities. The exhibition will be held at the "Halles de Schaerbeek", Brussels, from Tuesday 12th to Saturday 16th October. It will feature a selection of the most successful projects supported through the European Community's THERMIE programme for the promotion of energy technology. The Community has invested over 1.7 billion ECU in some 3000 projects aimed at promoting greater use of new and innovative energy technologies. The THERMIE programme is part of the EC's drive to ensure the best
Such a achievement would benefit European industry as well as every citizen of the Community. The air would be less polluted, transport would be more efficient, electricity and heating costs could be reduced and industrial competitiveness would be increased. The exhibition will illustrate a range of successful projects covering areas such as rational use of energy in industry, buildings, transport and the energy industry, renewable energy sources such as solar (thermal and photo-voltaic applications), wind, biomass and waste, small scale hydroelectric, solid fuel technology and hydrocarbons. Comprehensive data on each of the projects will be available.
The Commission of the European Communities has published the 1994 call for projects making available approximately 150 million ECU to support projects which aim to improve energy efficiency, promote wider utilisation of renewable energy sources, encourage cleaner use of solid fuels and optimise the exploration of oil and gas resources. Anyone interested in receiving further information can find full details in the brochure â€œTHERMIE 1994 - Information and Procedures for Submitting Projectsâ€?. This publication gives details on submitting proposals, guidance on the eligibility of projects and the selection criteria used by the Commission. For more information, please contact: Commission of the European Communities Directorate-General for Energy THERMIE Programme 200 rue de la Loi B-1049 Brussels Fax: +32 - 2 - 295 05 77
NEXT ISSUE The next issue of Building Technology will focus on public buildings and will include features on heat control via ultrasonic sensors, energy monitoring and control, wireless energy management systems and the use of heat pumps and recovered heat to save energy; plus news and events. 1992 OPET meeting and exhibition at Halles de Schaerbeek.
EVENTS 23-27 August The Hague
Approaching Retail Energy Technologies for the Environment
26-29 September Arnhem
The seminar will focus on new energy technologies used in small and medium-sized retail stores. it will cover the whole European retail sector, the present status and future trends of more rational use of energy in the sector, results of successful strategies for the introduction of new technologies, analysis of the state of the art of proven and ready-for-market energy technologies and identify financial barriers and incentives. The seminar is intended for representatives of the retail sector, financial organisations, consultants, equipment manufacturers, installers and architects, government and local and planning authorities. Further information is available from the Seminar Secretariat Approaching Retail, OPET NOVEM, P.O. Box 17, NL - 6130 AA Sittard. 15-17 September Copenhagen
Energy Efficient Urban Renewal European Experience The aim of this seminar is to look at the renovation of housing in cities taking into account energy saving measures. Special attention will be paid to the utilisation of solar energy and conventional energy measures as well as low temperature operation of heating installations in buildings connected to district heating networks or supplied by CHP units. The seminar will be aimed towards consultants and decision makers in the field of urban renewal. Further information is available from the Energy Centre Denmark, Suhmsgade 3, DK - 1125 Copenhagen. Fax: +45 33 11 83 33
Right Light : 2nd European Conference on Energy-Efficient Lighting The principal objective of RIGHT LIGHT is to exchange latest ideas on energy-efficient lighting and its impact on building energy demand, and also to stimulate its application. RIGHT LIGHT stands for good quality lighting with minimal demands on our energy and financial resources. This is the main theme guiding throughout the conference. All topics will be dealt with, however with special attention to: Energy technology policies in the European Community (European directives, promotional activities) national and international policy programmes, environmental aspects, standardisation, legislation and interaction between standardisation and grants. Building design and building engineering, to emphasise its importance in relation to energyefficient lighting. Lighting equipment (technical developments, economical analyses, computer aided design and auditing). The audience will comprise representatives of the lighting industry, the electricity distribution companies and energy conservation organisations. Furthermore, policy makers, architects, consultants, designers and users of light will participate. The conference is being organised by the OPET NOVEM. Further information can be obtained from the Conference Office, Right Light, Mrs. M.J.G. de Man, P.O. Box 9035, NL - 6800 ET Arnhem.
THERMIE is a European Community initiative designed to promote greater use of existing European energy-efficient technologies and to encourage the development of new ones.
Building Technology is produced within the THERMIE programme by the Energy Research Group, University College Dublin, Richview, Clonskeagh, Dublin 14, Ireland.
OPET OPET (Organisations for the Promotion of Energy Technology) is a Community-wide network of organisations working within the framework of the THERMIE programme for the promotion of European energy technologies on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities. Each organisation has particular experience in the field of energy technology. The type of organisation and the work it undertakes varies considerably. Both private and public companies are represented: some are consultants in the energy field while others have direct experience of working with energy programmes in their own country. At present the OPET network consists of 40 organisations located throughout the Community, with over 2000 experts engaged in the energy and related fields. Those OPETs active in the Building Sector include: Agence pour l’Environement et la Maitrise de l’Energie 27, rue Louis Vicat, F-75015 Paris, France. Fax: +331 46 45 52 36, Contact: Michel Viaud. Agence Régional de l’Energie Conseil Régional Nord-Pas de Calais, 2, rue de Tenremonde, B. P. 2035, F-59014 Lille Cédex, France. Fax: +33 20 60 67 80, Contact: Nathalie Dutremee. Agence Poitou-Charentes Énergie Déchets Eau 15, rue de l’Ancienne Comédie, BP 575 F-86021 Poitiers Cédex, France. Fax: + 33 49 41 61 11, Contact: Agnès Morel. BCEOM - Société Française d’Ingénierie, Place des Frêres Montgolfier, F-78286 Guyancourt Cédex, France. Fax: +331 30 12 10 95, Contact: Christopher Startford. BRECSU - Building Research Energy Conservation Support Unit, Garston, Watford, UK-Hertfordshire, WD2 7JR, United Kingdom. Fax: +44 923 66 40 97, Contact: Clare Carden. CCC / CEEETA / CBE, Estrada de Alfragide, Praceta 1 - Alfragide, P-2700 Amadora, Portugal. Fax: +351 1 471 13 16 / 395 24 90 Contact: Luis Silva / Philippe Bollinger. COWIconsult, Consulting Engineers and Planners Parallelvej 15, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark. Fax: +45 45 97 22 12, Contact: Britt H. Pedersen. C.R.E.S. - Centre for Renewable Energy Sources 19 km Athinon-Marathona Avenue, GR-19009 Pikemi, Greece. Fax: +30 1 603 99 04, Contact: Dimitris Papastefanakis. EAB - Energie-Anlagen Berlin, TU Berlin, Berliner Kraft- und licht, AG, Flottwellstrasse 4-5, D-10785 Berlin, Germany. Fax: +49 30 25 49 61 00, Contact: Frank Dittwald.
Energy Centre Denmark Suhmsgade 3, DK-1125 København, Denmark. Fax: +45 33 11 83 33, Contact: Flemming Øster. ENEA (Fire), Cre Casaccia - PB 2400, Santa Maria di Galeria, I-00060 Roma, Italy. Fax: +39 6 30 48 64 49 Contact: Walter Cariani. EUROPLAN, 630 Route des Dolines, Ophira II, F-06560 Valbonne, France. Fax: +33 93 95 83 71, Contact: André Jacquemart. EXERGIA, Apollon Tower, Energy Information Technology and Management Consultant, 64 Louise Riencourt Street, GR-11523 Athens, Greece. Fax: +30 1 649 61 86, Contact: Yannis Caralis. FAST - Federazione delle Associazioni Scientifiche e Tecniche, Piazzale Rodolfo Morandi 2, I-20121 Milano, Italy. Fax: +39 2 78 24 85, Contact: Paola Perini. GOPA - Consultants Hindenburgring 18, D-61348 Bad Homburg, Germany. Fax: +49 6172 3 5046, Contact: Hans-Joachim Siegler. IABPO - Friedemann und Johnson Pestalozzistr. 88, D-10625 Berlin 12, Germany. Fax: +49 30 313 2671, Contact: Hermann Homann. ICAEN - Institut Català d’Energia, Avda Diagonal, 453 Bis, Atic, E-08036 Barcelona, Spain. Fax: +34 3 419 72 53, Contact: Joãn Josep Escobar. ICEU Leipzip Auenstr. 25, D-04105 Leipzig, Germany. Fax: +49 341 29 09 04, Contact: Alexander Schmidt.
For further information on the OPET network please contact: OPET-CS Avenue R. Vandendriessche 18 B-1150 Brussells. Fax: +32 2 771 5611 Editors Paul Kenny and J. Owen Lewis Design Pierre Jolivet
ICIE - Istituto Cooperativo per l’Innovazione Via Nomentana 133, I-00161 Roma, Italy. Fax: +39 6 855 02 50, Contact: Nicoletta Del Bufalo. IDAE - Inst. para la Diversification y Ahorra de la Energia, P° de la Castellana 95 - P. 21, E-28046 Madrid, Spain. Fax: +34 1 555 13 89, Contact: José Donoso Alonso. MARCH - Consulting Group, Telegraphic House, Waterfront 2000, Salford Quays, Manchester, UKM5 2XW, England. Fax: +44 61 848 01 81, Contact: Sarah Sidebottom. NOVEM - The Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment, P. O. Box 17, NL-6130 AA Sittard, Netherlands. Fax: +31 46 52 82 60, Contact: Ewoud Van Der Koogh. RHONALÉNERGIE - Agence Régionale de l’Énergie de la Région Rhône-Alpes, 69, rue de la République, F-69002 Lyon, France. Fax: +33 78 37 64 91, Contact: Christian Labie. TÜV RHEINLAND Sicherheit und Umweltschutz - Institut für Umweltschutz und Energietechnik, Am Grauen Stein, D-5000 Köln 91, Germany. Fax: +49 221 806 13 50, Contact: Jörg Bostel. University College Dublin - Energy Research Group, Richview, Clonskeagh, Dublin 14, Ireland. Fax: +353 1 283 89 08, Contact: Mary Rigby. Zr-E - Zweckverband Regionale Entwicklung und Energie, Wieshuberstrasse 3, D-93059 Regensburg, Germany. Fax: +49 941 44691, Contact: Toni Lautenschläger.