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Changing Discourse

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Light + Emotion Interractoin Mimicry

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Computing + Paramtric

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Digital Design Parametric / Scripting

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Matrix

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Case Study

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Dior Ginza

Expression of Interest

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Western Gateway Design Project


CHANGING|DISCOURSE

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D I S C O U R S E

L I G H T + E M O T I O N

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D I S C O U R S E

Personally, the Church of Light, designed by Tadao Ando, has significantly impacted my own architectural discourse through its emotive use of light. Since enountering this building, my understanding and appreciation of the intangibles in architecture, not merely the physical elements, influenece my perception of built space. However the importance of the built, physical elements should not be underestimated, for they allow the concept of intangible forces such as light to be integrated. It is within this reasoning that I intend to incorporate ‘light dynamicism’ within my future designs. Integration of parts (tangible and intangible), just as Ando did, is the key to achieving an outcome that is emotionally compelling and dynamically moving.

the most important distinction in our changed notions of architectural design is the shift from geometry as an abstract regulator of the materials of construciton to a notion that matter and material behaviours must be implicated in the geometry itself

- Reiser and Umemoto, The Atlas of Novel Tectonics

Through the use digital and paramteric design, it is intended to create a series of complex geomteries that will incorporate and facilitate the potential effects of light. These effects, ranging from stillness to movement to fragmentation will be not only be driven by the form-making geomtery, but integrated within it to create one dynamic system.

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D I S C O U R S E

Pulse Spiral - Rafael Lozano Hemmer

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Whilst the focus of architecure is on a physical form, it should not be forgotten that architecture can be a sensory experience. Indeed it is the built structure that fosters such an experience, thus it is imperrative that physical and experiential (intangible) factors are acknowledged when justifying the design process. Rafael

Lozano

Hemmer

develops

interractive

installations that have the ability to alter ones spatial experience by utilising performative techniques. Hemmer’s project ‘pulse spiral’ embodies an interractive experience that is specific t o each individual with whom it comes into contact. Approximately 400 lightbulbs are connected to a sensor that reads and and responds to ones heartrate, reflecting it in a complex lighting arrangement (Hemmer, 2008). This project is merely an example, with such an intrinsic interractive experience not always necesary in a designed space. However it demonstrates the impact of a type of stimulant that can potentially impart emotional affects on ones sensory experience, converting a space into a emotive vessel.

Architecture is basically a container for something. I hope they will enjoy not so much the teacup, but the tea.

- Yoshio Taniguchi

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D I S C O U R S E

PA R A M T R I C I S M S NORDPARK RAILWAY STATIONS, ZAHA HADID Each of the four train stations were required to fulfill the same criteria whilst simulataneously responding to the spcecific conditions of each site. In order to meet the criteria, Hadid studied glacial moraines and ice movement, allowing her to base the architecture on the natural adaptations that occur in the surrounding environenment. Adopting parametric design tools, Hadid was able to mimick “a frozen stream on the mountain side” (Hadid, 2007) by adjusting each design in accordance to the variable parameters specific to each site. In this instance, Hadid’s use of mimicry not only informed the shape of the geometry, but the way in which the design could be concieved structurally. The use of paramteric modelling enabled the notion of mimicry to be adopted, utilising specific areas of her study as inputs in the modelling process. By approching architecture in a way that is relevent to the time, Hadid, along with a number of other designers adopting similar principles, is not only changing the discourse of architecture, she is actively commtting to the formation of a new architectural style. This style, as termed by Patrik Schumacher in his essay “The Parametricist Manifesto” (2010), is parametricism. 5


RELATIONSHIP TO

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EXPRESSION OF INTEREST Through the examination of particular architecture and the discourse surrounding it, a basic design idea has been distinguished that is intended to inform the design process. The three examples analaysed in the first chapter of this journal each demsonsrate the design themes that will contribute to the design on the Wyndham City Gateway. These themes comprise lighting and its potential effects and the creation of an experience (as opposed to a stagnant landmark) for passers by, which will be carefully integrated through the use of paramteric design tools. Similarly to Ando’s use of light and shadow, the intention is to focus on the impacts of light, both natural and artificial and the way in which they are percieved as motorists travel past. The creation of an experience is perhaps the most important aspect to the design of the gateway. The ability to instill a form of interraction between the design and the road user creates a sense of intrigue, promoting the visual exploration of the Gateway; not merely driving past it. For example, at night, when automobiles are using their headlights to guide them, this light will splash onto the Gateway, changing perspective from driver to driver. This will also create a dynamic experience as the positioning of such lighting will always be differing.

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C O M P U T I N G + P A R A M T R I C

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D I G I T A L A G E

C O M P U T I N G

D I G I T A L D E S I G N

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Digitally enabled architecture does not conform

have ther own insufficiencies. In a way, digital

to rules and it does not know any boundaries. These intangibles do not exist - at least in the realm of digital design. It is so new and so raw that its potential is yet to be defined, yet it has the power to impart drastic change on a

design processes ablolish such insufficiencies beacuse the said communication process inadvertantly combines the dominant traits of each system. The key to this notion is that insufficient traits of the computer system are

profession that has existed for centuries.

in fact the dominant traits of human cognitive functioning, and vica versa.

This change is due to the development of new and capable computer programs that have bridged the gap that existed between

Due to the integration of the two opposing systems, there is no need for an ultimatum by

the communicational processes of man and machine. The ability of the machine to now understand a set of manipulative, dynamic instructions (dialogue), allows digital design to occur. Previoiusly, this was not feasible

which one system should be preferred over the other. The fact that ‘the best of both worlds’ can now coexist throughout the design process, a much more informed design solution can now be achieved.

as computer systems lacked the ability to interperate information inputted by man. Each of the two systems (man and machine)

The computer is not simply following input


C O M P U T I N G commands, but is responding to questions, movements, impulses, etc, and thus, becomes capable of virtually anything. Digital design through human and computer interraction allows the exploration of a multitude of design methods, reducing the rationalism factor, leading to a much less ‘mechanic’ and therefore, a more creative design outcome. This, through other means, can be achieved via the notion of parametric design, highly specific in relation to this journal.

The term parametric design, especially when

He does this by generating a unique spatial

applied to architecture, encompasses the whole manifestation of what digital design is and how

experience conjured by the formation of imperculiar geometries (Daniel Libsekind,

the industry may progress. Parametric design techniques define geometrical primitives as objects that are variable by their dimensional

2011). Whilst libeskind does not rely heavily (if at all) on parametric design methods, his design philosophies do demonstrate its potential. Its

parameters (Menges & Ahlquis, 2011). This suggests that an object has endless variational

potential to not only create complex geometry, but to manipulate this geometry to form a

capacity due to said parameters. This is the point at which digital design enables architecture to once again be current with the time.

unique interaction of spaces.

Perhaps most importantly, the creation of ‘new’ spaces and the evocation of ‘new’ spatial experiences is one of the most intriguing aspects made possible by digital design. Looking at the work of Daniel Libeskind, he creates architecture that moves people.

but while they can follow instructions precisely and faultlessly, computers are totally incapable of making up new instructions: they lack any creative abilities or intuition - Yehuda Kalay, Architectures New Media

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S C R I P T I N G | C U LT U R E S

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As a continuation from the previous section of this journal, scripting is a form of digital design that gives the designer power at the highest level. One’s engagement with digital

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design software is significantly enhanced through the use of the generic computational

methods

language referred to as ‘script’. Through the mutual understanding of scripting (between man and computer), an increased

The concrete exoskeleton of the tower consists of a number of perforations that fulfill a number of complex functions. Constituting a reactive

level of control is presented to the designer.

architecture, the facade adheres to structural implications, sun exposure, overall program,

Scripting allows the designer to tailor a programme to a set of specific needs, depending on the project. The strength of

views and luminosity. The complexity of these functions is not the function itself, rather it is the way in which they were designed.

scripting, particularly for designers is that it provides opportunity for the designer to

They were to be integrated in such a way that each perforation would fulfill multiple

escape strictures that may be inherrent in the software (Burry, 2010). It basically allows one to further maximise the predefined capabilites

functions in the most efficent manner possible.

of a programme and manipulate it to perform in a way that was not necesariy intended by its

was treated as an input according to its primary function, size and placement. The

creators. This process, being more flexible than traditional digital design methods provides a

process of modulating the perforations was originally accomplished using a

multidirectional approach to design, provoking

script,

a much more intellectually informed creativity.

present through the entire design process.

The 0-14 Tower, designed by architects Jesse Reiser and Nanako Umemoto, utilised scripting throughout

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Using scripiting techniques, each function

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P A R A M E T R I C Human intervention was required in order to maximise efficenincy. As mentioned, computers are flawed in their ability to solve problems using processes such as reasoning.

allows for extreme precision and the opportunity for a greater range of diverse outcomes. However it must be recognised that limitations do exist within the digital

Therefore, the cognitive capacity of man is required to further refine and resolve ideas that will contribute to a desired output.

realm and therefore, not all design power should be surrendered to machine. Rather it should be used as a tool that informs the design process, working in conjunction with, and second too, human cognition.

The ability to design using scripting methods

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EXPRESSION OF INTEREST Digital design will be at the forefont of the design process. The ability to integrate parametric modelling (in the form of Grasshopper) will significantly impact the final geometry, including the effects it will generate. The ability to interract with the software, with it understanding the tasks that it is required to perform, enables a high level of control. The intention is to use Grasshopper in similar vain to the way Reiser and Umemoto designed the O-14 Tower. Specifying inputs that are specific to the design of the gateway will allow geometry and form to adhere to specific principles.

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D E V L O P M E N T M A T R I X ATTRACTOR POINT VS PATTERN OVERLAY

CURVE ATTRACTOR VS PATTERN OVERLAY

MATHS FUNCTIONS VS PATTERN OVERLAY

The main focus of this matrix is to examine the effects of overlayed patterns and surfaces using a number design techniques. The specified inputs, outputs and associations were chosen in order to create a series of optical tricks. Each pattern, although stationary, defines a non-linear path of movement as it is examined by the eye. Overlaying the patterns and creating a series of layers allows this conceptual idea of movement to become much more kinetic once fabricated or animated. This is due to the disallignment of the overlayed patterns whereby light can only penetrate where perforations align, creating the illusion of movement.

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USING SETS VS PATTERN OVERLAY

Model images that depict the form and effects of the geometry in reality

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C A S E | S T U D Y

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C A S E | S T U D Y

D i O R | G i N Z A Whilst the Dior Ginza presents as a complex optical trick, the process of creating the geometry is relatively simple. Fundamentally, the ‘lines’ of Diors famous Cannage pattern are achieved by making a series of strategically placed perforated cirlces in the outer layer of the facade. These perforations vary in size and positioning in accordance to the specified pattern. It seems that this form of geometry does not require paramatric software in order for it to be produced. Indeed, digital design methods allow for the design to be achieved in an extremely efficient manner, especially when referring to the fabrication methods that are involved. However, having stated this, there are certain advantages that parametric design offers compared to general three-dimensional modelling in relation to this geometry. Parametric techniques allow the key elements of the geometry (perforation sizing) to be manipulated as a whole. Therefore, once the pattern has been defined, the dimater of both the small and large circles can be altered, applicable to each and every perforation as required, in a single process. Layering a series of predefined geometry over one another provides a dynamic effect for people moving past. It serves as potential to alter ones visual experience as the geometry housed within the layers aligns with the direction of ones view. Moving past at speed, if utilising an effective pattern, elements of movement within the static strucure may become evident. Such patterns can be manipulated to reflect a desired pattern of faux movement.

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30 percent size decrease of the second sheet.

Accurate depiction of perforation pattern and sizing.

Optical trick: The eye percieves that the second layer is cinsiderably further back than it

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EXPRESSION OF INTEREST The ability to study realised projects offers insight into the way they are designed and concieved. Just as important is the ability to fabricate such designs, gaining a perspective into how they may operate at full scale. The creation of the developmental matrix provided a direction for which the design of the Wyndham City Gateway would evolve. While perforations are present in each stage of the matrix, the idea of layering, creating varying densities in ‘dark’ and ‘light’ is now the driving force in the design process. Perforating the material demonstrates the varying effects that can be created when combining two or more large layers. The Dior Ginza was studied for the exact same reason. Perforations and layering add a sense of visual complexity that is relatively simple to achieve. Each of these projects formed a design idea that ironically does away with the use of perforations. Given that perforations may be to detailed to incorporate into the gateway project, layering and contouring methods will be preferential.

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EXPRESSION OF INTEREST:

WESTERN GATEWAY DESIGN PROJECT

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EXPRESSION OF INTEREST:

WESTERN GATEWAY DESIGN PROJECT

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DESIGN BRIEF AND CONSIDERATIONS: Following an assessment of the design brief it has been decided that the following considerations will be most influential when designing the Wyndham City Gateway: 1: ORIGINAL & ENGAGING IN FORM 2: ABSTRACT ASSOCIATION 3: DAYTIME AND NIGHT TIME VIEWING 1: The design should take into account other projects of similar cause, ensuring that they do not inform the final design. The design should utilise innovative design techniques that are prevalent in digital and paramteric modelling softwares. 2: The design will be based on a concept that has a conncetion to Wyndham. Whilst the design idea will be present once the Gateway is complete, it will not be obvious, generating thought and speculation about its relationship to the city. 3: The highway is used 24 hours, 7 days per week. Because of this, the design should be relevant at all times. The effects of light, both natural and artifical will be used to create contrasting effects between noght and day, ensuring a dynamic design.

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INFLUENTIAL FACTORS INFORMING THE DESIGN: In adhering to the chosen design considerations, the followng factors have been researched and developed in order to inform the design of the Wyndham City Gateway: 1: ILLUSION / PERCEPTION 2: MOVEMENT 3: LIGHT

The purpose of illusion is to create an experience that is percieved differently to how it actually exists. Through this notion, movement, using the effects of light and shadow, will be incorpotated into the Gateway design. Falsified movement, or ‘static kineticism’ is being persued rather than actual movement due to the speed at which people will be tavelling past the Gateway. If real movement were to be utilised, an increased level of detail would be required, causing the effects to become irrelevent at 100km/h. In order to develop this perception of movement, a design methodology will be adopted that such a perception will be created due to ones point of view moving around specified geometry. The primary means of achieving this effect will be through the use of targeted moire patterning or contour sequencing. Both of these methods utilise layering systems, which through the presense of fluctuating light (bright and dark), provides a different perspective from whichever angle it is viewed. As ones angle of view or perspective alters, varying sequences of movement occur. In the case of the highway, ones point of view is being altered on a consistant basis, being controlled by the speed and the path of movement that is being travelled. By targeting this path of movement, a controlled pattern can be applied to the geometry that will systematically unfold as one moves past.

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LOCATION + FORM: The design brief offers the choice of three divided locations. Given this, site-A and site-B have been selected due the size and felxibility they offer as opposed to site-C. In addition, the ability to design the Gateway so that it extends over the road, integrating the two locations, eliminates possible shortcomings of the final design. The following image depicts the intended form that the Gateway design will present.

The geometry for the overall form has been taken from a section of the Werribee River that runs past Wyndham. The significance of the river lies within its name. ‘Werribee’, in the language of the native Australians, can be translated to the word ‘spine’ or ‘back bone’. As the river is depicted as the spine of the Werribee shire, emphasis has been placed on its spiritual connontations to the people of Wyndham.

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CONVERTING DESIGN IDEAS TO REALITY: Three varying design approaches have been considered in the planning of the design for the gateway. As the idea of percieved movement is the driving concept behind the design, the following methods have been adopted that have the capability to create effects of illusion: CONTOURING PERFORATION LAYERING The ability to contour or perforate specified geometry, according to specific data, can lead to the effect of movement through the use of layering. Layering, which in this case ultimately achieves variations in the density of the overlayed geometry, combined with fluctuations in light, enhances the desired effect.

Above: Perforation Above right: Contouring Right: Layering

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EXPRESSION OF INTEREST:

PRECEDENCE STUDIES

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PARAMETRIC MODELLING + SCRIPTING: O-14 TOWER, JESSE REISER + NANAKO UMEMOTO

The O-14 Tower, designed by Jesse Reiser and Nanako Umemoto is an example of digital design that was achieved through the use of parametric and scripting modeling tools. Each of the perforations within the exoskeleton of the building were generated using scripting techniques that controlled a series of project specific inputs. Based on structural requirements, views, luminosity and overall program, a script defined the size and placement of each perforation in order to maximize functionality. Through the study of this building, a greater understanding of the way in which parmatric design will inform the gateway design has been developed. Similar design strategies will be incorporated, whereby inputs specific to this project will be utilised in order to shape and manipulate an overall form. Parametric design software will be advantageous throughout the design process, offering precision, efficiency and fabrication capabilities, while at the same time applying functionality and meaning to the final design. Parametric modeling will be of increased importance as it will help to identify a formal pattern that can be systematically applied to the design to create a distorted perception, be it through the use of perforation or contouring.

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LAYERING + MOIRE: GALLERIA CENTRECITY FACADE, UN STUDIO

The facade of the Galleria Centrecity shopping centre, designed by UN Studio, demonstrates the effects of opticl illusion through the use or moire patterning. Comprised of two seperate layers, the moire works due to a slight variation in the patterning or geometry of the layers. In this instance, the pattern on the internal layer deviates slightly at calculated points, resulting in the perception of a wave cascading down the building. The space in between the layers, although minimal, is vital in achieving ths effect. The space also allows the facade to look as though it is moving as ones point of view alters.

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CONTOURING / PROFILING: DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF NATURE, SOFT RIGID

The Dynamic Performance of Nature installation, designed by SoftRigid, is an example of static movement created by the conturing of specififed geometry. In this case, the effect of movement is generated via three-dimensional methods, with extruded, pinch-like elements attributing. The variation in light and shadow that occurrs at the extruded areas provides the effect. This same principle can be applied to the Wyndham City Gateway by situating the geometry somewhat paralell to the road as opposed to it being perpendicular. This would be reverting back to the idea of layering, as each contour would be strategically placed behind the next, allowing the effect of movement to travel with the motorists on the highway. The inclusion of strategicaly placed lighting, and / or from the light emitted by car headlights will add depth the the effect of movement.

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PERFORATION / LAYERING: DIOR GINZA, KUMIKO INUI

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The Dior building of Tokyo, designed by Kumiko Inui illustrates the concepts that are driving each of the fundamental design ideas. Comprising of two layers, the façade of the Dior building presents as an optical trick. It does this through its use of space between the layers: the external being perforated and the internal being printed. The pattern on the interior layer is scaled to be 30 percent smaller than that on the exterior layer. The result is that of a distorted moiré effect, inducing perceptions of slight movement as one moves past the building. Through the use of parametric modeling, the aim is to reflect the concepts behind this building, not the building itself. Given that the Wyndham City Gateway will be viewed as people travel past, the Gateway should offer an experience that moves with them. It should not be a be static blob on the landscape. More accurately, it will be perceived as moving, creating an interactive experience that lasts for the 15-20 seconds that it takes for motorists to travel past. It is not simply viewed by people moving past, it is engaged with and interacts with them as they make their journey. Not dissimilar to the way the Dior building interacts and creates an experience for its admirers. A major consideration however, is that of detail. Recognising that people moving past are travelling at speeds of 100km/h, the level of detail embedded in design needs ot be kept at a minimum. This is why the theory of static movement has been incorporated. The addition of moving parts would ultimately serve little purpose because at 100km/h, they are likely to become a blur of speed. Ned Kahn’s “Wind Veil” project is an excellent example of a kinetic facade, however this is due to the scale at which it was implemented. Given the restricitons imposed by the allocated site, the significance of such dteailed elemnts would be lost due to the spped of passers by.

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DESIGN DIRECTION: The measured use of layering, light and shadow will be critical in the formation of static movement in the final design. In order implement this percieved form of movement, two desin strategies will be used, both of which have been previously discussed. CONTOURING / PROFILING: This method will be adopted in order to create a form of movement that is experiential. Situated in a manner that is marginally parallel to the highway, fluctuations in the geometry of each layered panel create the illusion of movement as one moves past. The panels will be positioned in accordance to the speed of the passing vehicles in order to avoid becoming blurred and ineffecive. MOIRE PATTERNING: Will have the most impact on drivers approaching the gateway. The high speed will destroy the effects of the pattern if viewed at the exact time motorists are passing it. Rather than situating this part of the gateway parallel to the highway, perpindicular will allow the patterns to be appreciated before the geomteyr shifts into a series of contours. The use of perforations will not be effective as the detail would surrender any effects due to high speeds. However, research into perforations and layering has formed the direction and form of the final design. So whilst not being part of the design, the analysis of perforations has been crucial in forming design concepts.

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R E F L E C T I O N

REFLECTION / CONCLUSION The greatest challenge presented by this design project is that it is a form of architecture that I am not completely familiar with. I have always had a desire to create spaces that provide a stimulating experience as a opposed to a place one occupies. Given this, the difficulty faced is the fact that this project does not call for the design of a space, rather, it asks for the creation of an object. In labelling it an object I mean no disrepspect to sculptures or the like, I am merely expressing my own desires in the direction I intend on travelling in the future. Having said this, the knowledge gained and my new found interest in architectural theory has definitely attributed to a greater understanding of the architectural discourse. In his book “The Eyes of the Skin”, Juhani Pallasmaa wrote: “Architecture offers pleasurable shapes and surfaces moulded for the touch of the eye and other seneses, but it also incorporates and integrates pyhsical and mental structures, giving our existential experience a strengthened coherence and significance” (Pallasmaa, 2005). To me, this is what architecture is and I have had trouble conjuring any sort of emotion through the design of the Wyndham City Gateway. Nevertheless, instead of focusing on emotion and embodiment, I have directed my ideas toward an effect emitted by the gateway. The effect, which is the perception of movement through something that is absolutely stagnant, is the driving force rathe than the emotoins it may conjur. As stated by Kalay (2004), design is a process that it engaged in when the current situation is different from a desired situation, and when the actions needed to transform the former into the the latter are not immediately obvious. This is true of applying the same architectural principles to the design for a home as it his for the design of a ‘sculpture’. The ability get from one situation, I found, was through the process of parametric design. As this is a new concept, it made the process of designing something I generally wouldn’t, simpler. The ‘thing’ being designed and the software encouraging the ‘things’ conception seemed a good way for me to step out of my comfort zone. Something I had previousy never considered was the ability of computer-aided design to dampen ones creative instincts. Burry (2011), argues that the computers ability to mechanise the design process creates a tension in the way humans percieve its primary use. This is to say that the computer takes over the design process by disallowing the computer user to step out of the boundaries imposed by software. Alternatively, paramteric and scripting design methods break such barriers, allowing the computer user, through human intellect, to use the software in a way that best suits them. Whilst my expections of this subject were severley distorted, it has generated knowledge that will hopefully improve my prospects of becoming a proffesional. The introduction to new design tools, methods and projects has instilled in me an understanding of the importance of the past and the present. By this I am alluding to the discourse, which exists based on precedence, and technology, which is paving the way forward. The integration of theory, precedence and technology has allowed for an axtremely diverse learning outcome.

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R E F E R E N C E S Achim Menges & Sean Ahlquis, Computational Design Thinking: Computation Design Thinking (United Kingdom: John Wiley and Sons, 2011) C. B. Liddell ‘Talking With Taniguchi’, in Architecture Week < http://www.architectureweek.com/2008/0213/design_5-1.html> [accessed 2 April 2012] Daniel Libeskind, ‘Hillman Curtis: Art series: Daniel Libeskind,’ in Daniel Libeskind < http://daniel-libeskind.com/> [accessed 11 April 2012] Jesse Reiser & Nanako Umemoto, The Atlas of Novel Tectonics (New York: Princeton Architectural Press) Juhani Pallasmaa, The Eyes of the Skin (England: John Wiley and Sons, 2005) Mark Burry, Scripting Cultures (United Kingdom: John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 2011) Patrik Schumacher, The Paramtericist Manifesto (London, 2008) Rafael Hemmer, ‘Pulse Spiral,’ in Rafael Lorenza Hemmer Projects < http://www.lozano-hemmer.com/pulse_spiral.php> [accessed April 7 2012] Yehuda Kalay, Architectures New Media: Principles, Theory and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2004) Zaha Hadid, ‘Nordpark Railway Stations,’ in Zaha Hadid Architects Archive < http://www.zaha-hadid.com/architecture/nordpark-railway-stations/> [accessed 11 April 2012]

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