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WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL PORTLAND, OREGON Development Analysis Document January 25, 2013

Prepared By: Eric Nielsen JD Guttermuth Stacey Henderson Christopher Laswell Rachel Peterson


INTRODUCTION

TABLE OF CONTENTS: 03

SECTION 1 - CITY SCALE

06

SECTION 2 - NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE

18

SECTION 3 - [IMMEDIATE] SITE SCALE

24

SECTION 3 - BUILDING SCALE

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DEVELOPMENT ANALYSIS

2


SECTION 1 CITY SCALE • City Historic Districts • Portland Climatic Conditions

WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL

DEVELOPMENT ANALYSIS

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CITY SCALE

PORTLAND’S HISTORIC DISTRICTS Portland has 14 historic districts, primarily located in or near the Central City. All of Portland’s historic districts are listed in the National Register. The Buckman Neighborhood is currently under deliberation and consideration for becoming a historic district.

Current Historic Districs: Alphabet, King’s Hill, Skidmore, Old Town/Chinatown, Eastside Grand Ave., Ladd’s Addition, Irvington Proposed Buckman Historic District

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CITY SCALE

PORTLAND’S CLIMATE AND ENVIRONMENT Portland is within a marine climate zone. This zone is a wet climate with moderate temperatures. Portland has a high cloud cover, particularly during the winter when it occurs 80% of the time. The wind is not typically strong and the direction varies greatly. The psychrometric chart to the right plots Portland’s average temperatures and humidities to determine hours within and outside of the given comfort zone. This chart also suggests design strategies, both passive and active, which would be effective in providing comfort within the building. Portland’s climate requires predominantly heating hours, therefore, design strategies which provide heating should be maximized. Containing internal heat gain is suggested as a strong strategy for providing comfort 30% of the time.

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SECTION 2 NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE • • • • • •

North Buckman Neighborhood Characteristics Neighborhood Demographics Land-use Zoning Surrounding Uses Transportation Options Planned Developments

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NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE

NORTH BUCKMAN NEIGHBORHOOD CHARACTERISTICS Washington High School

Washington High School Block: The Washington High School Block is in the transition zone between the eastside industrial district and the residential neighborhoods to the east. At this transition the heights and size of the buildings decrease with larger setbacks, more open space, . 28th Ave

Burnside St

Washington High School Block

Location: The Buckman Neighborhod is located in southeast Portland and consists of the eastside industrial disrict, small commericial / retail, and a large area of residential housing. It is bordered by Burnside to the north, Morrison to the south, 28th Ave. to the east and the Willamette River to the East.

Buckman Neighborhood

Hawthorne Blvd

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NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE

BUCKMAN NEIGHBORHOOD CHARACTER

Single-Family Detached

Single family homes make up the bulk of the residential neighborhood surrounding the Washington High School block. Most of the home are sited on large lots with generous setbacks and are generally quite large homes. The majority of homes appear to be wellmaintained. Stylistically, most homes resemble typical craftsman, bungalow, or victorian houses. Very few new homes have been built in the neighborhood; existing homes have been kept. Parking is on the street or a garage.

Single-Family Attached

A range of single-family attached homes exist in the Buckman neighborhod. Large craftsman homes function as apartment houses with multiple tennants. It is unclear as to the size of the individual units. The majority of these homes appear to be well-maintained. Visually this type of housing does not stand out from the neighborhood and are mixed in with single-family detached homes. Parking is on the street.

Multi-Family Apartment

The vast majority of apartment buildings appear quite old, but seem to have been well-maintained. This type of housing is fairly sparse and are generally surrounded by singlefamily detached homes. With the exception of a couple apartment complexes built in the last 20 years, apartment building in the Buckman are brick construction with minimal setbacks from the street. Most are single-use buildings with minimal mixed-use to be found. Parking is on the street.

WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL

Commercial

A few areas in the Buckman neighborhood have commercial/retail buildings. The vast majority are single-use and single floor buildings with a variety of exterior material choices. Storefronts in general are open with a high number of users. Types of business range from a hardware store to coffee shops and restaurants. Most businesses are located along Stark St. immediately surrounding the Washington High School block and engage the street. Parking is on the street.

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NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE

BUCKMAN NEIGHBORHOOD DEMOGRAPHICS Population: 8,472 Area: 726 acres Population Density: 11 persons per acre Male Population: 4,477 (53%) Female Population: 3,995 (47%) Households: 4,862 (95% occupied) Home Owners: 15% (743) Renters: 79% (3,860)

Race Distribution WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL

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NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE

BUCKMAN NEIGHBORHOOD DEMOGRAPHICS

Age Distribution WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL

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NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE

BUCKMAN NEIGHBORHOOD DEMOGRAPHICS

Household Types WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL

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NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE

CS

13TH

17TH

R1

ASH

R2.5

R2.5

CO1

PINE

14TH

SA ND Y

R1 OAK

15TH

CG

OAK

16TH

CS STARK

IG1

R1

9TH

EX

CS

R1 YAMHILL

R1

CM

13TH

BELMONT

17TH ALDER

RH

10TH

8TH

ALDER

R2.5

12TH

11TH

WASHINGTON

CM

R1

CM

Washington High School Block R1 zone: The R1 zone is a medium density multi-dwelling zone. It allows approximately 43 units per acre. Density may be as high as 65 units per acre if amenity bonus provisions are used. Allowed housing is characterized by one to four story buildings and a higher percentage of building coverage than in the R2 zone. The major type of new housing development will be multi-dwelling structures (condominiums and apartments), duplexes, townhouses, and rowhouses. Generally, R1 zoning will be applied near Neighborhood Collector and District Collector streets, and local streets adjacent to commercial areas and transit streets. Zoning Requirements: See following pages for zoning requirements specific to the Washington High School Block and surrounding neighborhood. Ref: City of Portland Title 33 - Planning and Zoning

CM R2.5

R1

18TH

WASHINGTON

18TH

R5

LAND-USE ZONING

LEGEND Washington High School Block See following pages for zoning descriptions.

YAMHILL 0’

125’

WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL

250’

500’

N

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NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE

R1 LAND-USE ZONING SUMMARY Title 33 Ch. 33.120 Table 120-1 Multi-Dwelling Zone Primary Uses Residential

allowed

Commercial

not allowed

Industrial

not allowed

Institutional

limited/conditional use

Other

limited/conditional use

Title 33 Ch. 33.120 Table 120-3 Summary of Development Standards Max. Density

1 unit / 1,000sf site area

Min. Density

1 unit / 1,450sf site area

Max. Building Coverage

60% of site area

Floor Area Ratio

no max. on number of units within allowable floor area

Title 33 Ch. 33.120.265 Amenity Bonus Options to Increase Density: • Outdoor Recreation facilities • Children’s Play Areas • 3-Bedroom Units • Storage Areas • Sound Insulation • Crime Prevention • Solar Water Heating

R1 PARKING REQUIREMENTS:

HISTORIC PRESERVATION ZONING INCENTIVES:

Title 33 Ch. 33.266 Parking and Auto Loading Table 266-2 Parking Spaces by Use • Residential categories of Household Living require 1 parking space per unit minimum. • Residential categories of Group Living require 1 parking space per 4 residents minimum.

Portland’s Zoning Code includes special provisions that encourage new historic listings and increase the potential for historic structures to be renovated and rehabilitated by increasing land use flexibility and redevelopment options. Relevant options include:

Title 33 Ch. 33.266.110.B3 Minimum Required Parking Spaces Section B • There is no minimum parking requirement for sites located within 500’ from transit street with 20-minute peak-hour service. • Bicycle parking (in addition to required bicycle parking) may substitute up to 25% or requiresd parking. • Motorcycle parking may substitute up to 5 spaces or 5% of required parking spaces.

Additional Density in Multi-Dwelling Zones: Allows additional dwelling units in Landmarks and contributing properties in historic districts beyond what would normally be allowed, with no maximum density.

Transfer of Density or Floor Area Ratio (FAR): Allows unused development potential on a site with a Landmark to be transferred or sold to another site.

Exemption from Minimum Housing Density: Eliminates minimum housing density requirements in Landmarks and contributing properties in historic districts. Nonresidential Uses: Allows nonresidential uses, such as retail, office and others, in up to 100 percent of the floor area in a Landmark or contributing property in a historic district, if the structure has not been in residential use. Conditional Uses: Allows requests for land uses in a Landmark or contributing property in a historic district that are only allowed through a conditional use review. WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL

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NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE

SURROUNDING BUILDING DENSITY AND USES The Buckman neighborhood functions as an edge between the primarily business and industrial Central Eastside, and the primarily residential neighborhoods further east. While Buckman is primarily residential, it is mixed with industial and commercial, particularly at its western edge. The Washington High School, shown in burgundy, lies within this western edge. This site acts as a buffer between the high density Central Eastside commercial and industrial area, and the lower density of the residential neighborhoods. Washington High School is within the Belmont Area Business Association. While areas east of the site are primarily residencial, there is the large Eastside Business District starting directly east of the high school. There are 314 registered businesses within 1/4 mile of the site. Washington High School Schools Restaurants Groceries Industrial District Residential District

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NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE

NEIGHBORHOOD LAND-USE ZONING DESCRIPTIONS R1 zone: The R1 zone is a medium density multi-

dwelling zone. It allows approximately 43 units per acre. Density may be as high as 65 units per acre if amenity bonus provisions are used. Allowed housing is characterized by one to four story buildings and a higher percentage of building coverage than in the R2 zone. The major type of new housing development will be multi-dwelling structures (condominiums and apartments), duplexes, townhouses, and rowhouses. Generally, R1 zoning will be applied near Neighborhood Collector and District Collector streets, and local streets adjacent to commercial areas and transit streets.

RH zone: The RH zone is a high density multi-dwelling

IG1 zone: General Industrial. The General Industrial zones are

two of the three zones that implement the Industrial Sanctuary map designation of the Comprehensive Plan. The zones provide areas where most industrial uses may locate, while other uses are restricted to prevent potential conflicts and to preserve land for industry. The development standards for each zone are intended to allow new development which is similar in character to existing development. The intent is to promote viable and attractive industrial areas. General Industrial 1. IG1 areas generally have smaller lots and a grid block pattern. The area is mostly developed, with sites having high building coverages and buildings which are usually close to the street. IG1 areas tend to be the City’s older industrial areas.

zone. Density is not regulated by a maximum number of units per acre. Rather, the maximum size of buildings and intensity of use is regulated by floor area ratio (FAR) limits and other site development standards. Generally the density will range from 80 to 125 units per acre. Allowed housing is characterized by medium to high height and a relatively high percentage of building coverage. The major types of new housing development will be low, medium, and highrise apartments and condominiums. Generally, RH zones will be well served by transit facilities or be near areas with supportive commercial services.

EX zone: Central Employment. This zone implements the Central

R2.5 zone: The R2.5 zone is a low-density, detached

allow auto-accommodating commercial development in areas already predominantly built in this manner and in most newer commercial areas. The zone allows a full range of retail and service businesses with a local or regional market. Industrial uses are allowed but are limited in size to avoid adverse effects different in kind or amount than commercial uses and to ensure that they do not dominate the character of the commercial area. Development is expected to be generally autoaccommodating, except where the site is adjacent to a transit street or in a Pedestrian District. The zone’s development standards promote attractive development, an open and pleasant street appearance, and compatibility withadjacent residential areas. Development is intended to be aesthetically pleasing for motorists, transit users, pedestrians, and the businesses themselves.

single dwelling zone characterized by minimum lot sizes of 1,600 sf. Allowable uses include household dwellings with limited or conditional use Institutional. Commercial uses are not permitted within the R2.5 zone. Maximum height in 35’ with exceptions. The R2.5 zone requires deep setbacks from the street.

R5 zone: The R5 zone is a low-density, detached single

dwelling zone characterized by minimum lot sizes of 3,000 sf. Allowable uses include household dwellings with limited or conditional use Institutional. Commercial uses are not permitted within the R5 zone. Maximum height is 30’ with exceptions. The R5 zone requires deep setbacks from the street.

Employment map designation of the Comprehensive Plan. The zone allows mixed-uses and is intended for areas in the center of the City that have predominantly industrial type development. The intent of the zone is to allow industrial and commercial uses which need a central location. Residential uses are allowed, but are not intended to predominate or set development standards for other uses in the area. The development standards are intended to allow new development which is similar in character to existing development.

CG zone: The General Commercial (CG) zone is intended to

CM zone: Mixed Commercial/Residential zone. The

Mixed Commercial/Residential (CM) zone promotes development that combines commercial and housing uses on a single site. This zone allows increased development on busier streets without fostering a strip commercial appearance. This development type will support transit use, provide a buffer between busy streets and residential neighborhoods, and provide new housing opportunities in the City. The emphasis of the nonresidential uses is primarily on locally oriented retail, service, and office uses. Other uses are allowed to provide a variety of uses that may locate in existing buildings. Development is intended to consist primarily of businesses on the ground floor with housing on upper stories. Development is intended to be pedestrian-oriented with buildings close to and oriented to the sidewalk, especially at corners.

CS zone: The Storefront Commercial (CS) zone is

intended to preserve and enhance older commercial areas that have a storefront character. The zone intends that new development in these areas will be compatible with this desired character. The zone allows a full range of retail, service and business useswith a local and regional market area. Industrial uses are allowed but are limited in size to avoid adverse effects different in kind or amount than commercial uses and to ensure that they do not dominate the character of the commercial area. The desired character includes areas which are predominantly built-up, with buildings close to and oriented towards the sidewalk especially at corners. Development is intended to be pedestrian-oriented and buildings with a storefront character are encouraged. Ref: Title 33 - Portland Zoning Code

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NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE

PUBLIC TRANSIT

14TH

ANKENY

Street Car: The Portland Street Car blue line runs

north on Grand Avenue and south on Martin Luther King Jr at a frequency of approximately 14 minutes during peak weekday hours. Distance from the Washington High School to nearest street car stop is under 1/2 mile. This may help with decreasing parking requirements for planned development. The blue line currently connects riders to downtown via the Broadway Bridge with future plans to complete the loop south of downtown.

13TH

7TH

PINE

OAK

SA ND Y

Bus Service: TriMet bus service is readily available

GRAND

MARTIN LUTHER KING JR

ASH

and within close walking distance to the Washington High School block. Access to the bus will give residents access to the entire Portland metropolitan area with connections to employment, shopping and travel centers. Direct access to downtown or the east side industrial area can be reached along Morrison and Belmont.

OAK

9TH

ALDER

MORRISON

BELMONT

LEGEND Street Car Line Bus Line Bike Lane Stree Car Stop Bus Stop Zip Car

BELMONT

YAMHILL

13TH

YAMHILL

exist immediately around the Washington High School block. Two dedicated ZipCar stations are found to the north and south of the block.

10TH

MORRISON

8TH

MORRISON

Bike Lanes: Bike lanes are easily reached and within close proximity to the Washington High School block. Connection to downtown via the Burnside Bridge can be reached from the Sandy bike lane. See traffic map for low traffic streets also presenting biking opportunities.

Car Share: Car sharing / short-term rental opportunities

14TH

ALDER

16TH

15TH

12TH

6TH

WASHINGTON

11TH

STARK

Washington High School Block

YAMHILL

0’

125’

TAYLOR

WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL

250’

500’

N

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NEIGHBORHOOD SCALE

VEHICLE CIRCULATION The Washington High School block is located between medium traffic streets. Stark and Morrison/Belmont are busy commercial and mixed-use streets with amenities for residents of the neighborhood. To the north and west, Burnside and MLK / Grand are major traffic arteries linking the Buckman neighborhood to downtown Portland. The majority of the surrounding streets are light traffic residential streets.

VACANT & DEVELOPED LAND The Buckman neighborhood has been widely developed and there is little to no vacant land. To the east of the Washington High School block is primarily low-density detached residential housing. West of the block is the east side industrial area. Although vacant land is sparse, future development in the form of higher density mixed-use is likely given Portland’s metropolitan growth model.

PLANNED DEVELOPMENT A proposal has been developed for a Community Center on the Washington High School block and would be a great amenity to future development on the block. At the corner of Sandy and Burnside a mid-rise senior housing project is currently under construction.

LEGEND High Traffic Street Medium Traffic Street Light Traffic Street Developed Land Vacant Land Future Development Parks / Open Space Washington High School Block

0’

125’

WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL

250’

500’

N

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SECTION 3 [IMMEDIATE] SITE SCALE • Timeline of the WHS Property • Site Characteristics • Historic Evolution of the Site

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DEVELOPMENT ANALYSIS

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SITE SCALE

DEVELOPMENTAL HISTORY: TIMELINE OF THE PROPERTY 1906 East Side High opened on current location 1909 School changed name to Washington High School

1924 Washington HS opened (Current masonry structure)

1922 East Side High burned down

1911 The first gym was built.

1908 Manual Training building was built

1970 Auto shop was built

1961 New classroom, cafeteria, and office additions

1956 Acoustic ceiling panels installed throughout building 1912 Boiler building was built

2009 Most recent location of PICA’s time based art festival

1958 Hawthorne school and old gym were torn down, new gymnasium was built

1957 Some classrooms were combined to accommodate more students

1981 Stopped functioning as a school

1989 South facing windows replaced

1983 Reopened as a child care center

DEVELOPMENTAL HISTORY The original Washington High School opened in 1906 under the name East Side High, which later changed to Washington High school in 1909. The original building was of Romanesque style, and burned down in 1922. The new school opened in 1924, (current building) and is built of masonry and concrete, which was a part of the fireproofing efforts in school buildings at the time. Washington High School was built with a budget of $500,000 by a Portland firm Houghtaling and Dougan, and the builder was Parker and Banfield.

In the 1950’s there was an increase in the student-aged population, which resulted in a higher demand for space in schools and the combination of classroom spaces at Washington High School. In 1961 there were new classroom, cafeteria, and office additions. Other major additions include the acoustic ceiling panels added throughout the school in 1956, and the enclosure of the main west stairwell and the dropped ceiling in the auditorium, which happened at unknown dates. Washington High School used to sit amongst a campus of buildings, including a boiler building, auto shop, managing building, Hawthorne school, and gymnasium.

The only buildings that remain today are the auto shop and boiler building. A scar on the west facade of the school shows evidence of a catwalk that used to connect Washington High School to the building that stood where the grass field is today. Washington High School closed in 1981, and served as a childcare center and offices for some time beginning in 1983. In the early 2000’s Portland Public Schools determined it was an unnecessary building and put it up for sale. The city purchased the surrounding grounds for the park service in 2005, and the building is still for sale.

WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL

HISTORICAL CONTEXT

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SITE SCALE

1924: NEW HIGH SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION

SE STARK STREET

Washington High School (1924)

Hawthorne School (1897-1957)

SE 14TH AVENUE

Old WHS Gym (1912-1960)

SE 12TH AVENUE

SE WASHINGTON STREET

During the construction of the fireproof, reinforced-concrete Washington High School structure, the site also contained another school building, Hawthorne School (built 1897). It was removed in 1957. Additionally, the old gym building and boiler room (both 1912) existed adjacent to the Hawthorne School. According to Sandborn maps from the 1920s, SE Washington Street cut halfway into the now larger site.

Boiler Room (1912)

SE ALDER STREET

SE MORRISON STREET

40’

10’ 5’

20’

WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL

80’

N

HISTORICAL CONTEXT

20


SITE SCALE

1961: MID-CENTURY ADDITIONS

WHS Gymnasium (1958-2006)

SE 14TH AVENUE

SE 12TH AVENUE

SE WASHINGTON STREET

“Temporary” Classrooms (1960-2006)

WHS Track

“C”-Wing Buioling (1960-2006)

SE STARK STREET

With the boom of school-aged children in the middle of the twentieth-century (after WWII), the demand for classroom space increased. Portland Public Schools added several new additions to the site, including the new gym (1958-2006), “C”-Wing Addition (1960-2006), and the portables (temporary) classroom building (1960-2006). Also, the adjacent buildings to the west of the high school were demolished for a track field.

SE ALDER STREET

SE MORRISON STREET

40’

10’ 5’

20’

WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL

80’

N

HISTORICAL CONTEXT

21


SITE SCALE

TODAY: CURRENT CONDITIONS

SE STARK STREET

SE 12TH AVENUE

SE 14TH AVENUE

SE WASHINGTON STREET

After closing as a high school in 1981, Washington High School was used as a Child Services Center. Today all that remains of the 1950s and 1960s additions are building imprints on the ground. After years of being vacant, the old track site has become popular with pet-owners as an unofficial dog park. Currently, SE Alder Street is shut down to vehicular traffic in preparation of Portland Parks and Recreation’s proposed community center (by SERA Architects) for the North Buckman neighborhood.

Auto Shop (1970)

SE ALDER STREET

SE MORRISON STREET

40’

10’ 5’

20’

WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL

80’

N

HISTORICAL CONTEXT

22


SITE SCALE

FUTURE: COMMUNITY CENTER PROPOSAL

SE STARK STREET

Proposed Community Center

SE 12TH AVENUE

Portland Parks and Recreation

SE 14TH AVENUE

Venerable

SE WASHINGTON STREET

As Venerable negoiates with Portland Public Schools to purchase WHS, Portland Parks and Rec have approved plans (but no funds) to build a new community center. This proposal calls for underground parking, a paved drop-off area, open park space, and possibly a community garden space. There is also a lot of land south of the old high school (where the 1970 auto shop currently sits) that is still owned by PPS. It is up for sale.

SE ALDER STREET

Portland Public Schools (to be sold)

SE MORRISON STREET

40’

10’ 5’

20’

WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL

80’

N

HISTORICAL CONTEXT

23


SECTION 4 BUILDING SCALE • • • • •

Character-Defining Features Preservation Zoning Assessing Damages and Alterations Building Envelope Analysis Possible Environmental Strategies

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DEVELOPMENT ANALYSIS

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BUILDING SCALE

HIGH SCHOOL’S STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE Washington High School is significant for its historical association to the changing views of education present as Portland was growing in the early 20th century. This was a time when many new schools were being constructed around the city and education was becoming a priority to the community. It is also significant for its architectural design as a representative form of its type related to education. The main period of significance for Washington High School is from the date it opened in 1924, to when the last additions and major alterations were added in 1961. In the early 20th century, the sizes of the schools were increasing, commonly up to three or four floors, accommodating for population growth. During this high demand and growth, the construction of many of these schools transitioned from wood to masonry structures emphasizing the importance of a long lasting education, and to aid with increased fireproofing. The design of Washington High School is unique with its square shaped plan, setting it apart from other schools which were generally in a U or linear fashion. The designers also employed a platoon style design, making it one of the earlier schools to have rooms and spaces designed with specific uses in mind. These characteristics set Washington High School apart from others built in Portland around that time, and add to the historic significance.

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HISTORICAL CONTEXT

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BUILDING SCALE

CHARACTER DEFINING FEATURES [EXTERIOR] The square shape is a highly visible feature of the structure, and is primarily made up of five-to-one common bond brick with the fenestration and sculptural detailing, creating a pattern of horizontal and vertical divisions across the facades. Horizontal elements include a stringcourse of brick, a substantial entablature, and terra cotta decorative moldings. Vertical elements, especially apparent on the main west facade, include terra cotta columns and brick pilasters as well as the vertical grouping of the window openings. The main entranceway of the west elevation is made up of a projecting bay with three portals, divided by four fluted Ionic columns on the third and fourth floors, an entablature with “Washington High School� engraved in the frieze, and a prominent projecting cornice with egg and dart moldings. The approach to this main entry is made up of concrete steps, sidewalk, and a flagpole. There are also two protruding one story brick entryways on the east side of the building which boast fluted Doric columns, a plain frieze, and cornice with egg and dart molding. The site that Washington High School sits on is distinct as a large area of open recreational space, contrasting with the context of the developed city blocks surrounding it which consist of single family residential, multi-story apartments, and small scale commercial buildings. Being four stories tall, the school stands out prominently on its site as well as against the neighborhood backdrop.

WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL

HISTORICAL CONTEXT

26


BUILDING SCALE

CHARACTER DEFINING FEATURES [INTERIOR] The building maintains a donut-shaped plan, with a corridor accentuating the surrounding ‘ring’ of the floor plan. Prominent stairwells are found on the west, south, and east sides. The stairway at the west entrance is the grandest space with more decorative detailing, due to its ‘main entryway’ status. All of the stairways also provide a significant amount of light to the hallways, as there is more glazing concentrated in these places. The auditorium in the center of the building is a distinct, characterizing space. A light well, now painted over in black and covered with a dropped acoustic-tile ceiling, is found above the auditorium. Not all of the windows in the school are original, but the large fenestrations are dramatic, with a design intention to let in natural light. Wood trim work in the hallway is an original element to the interior of the school and emphasizes the elongated hallways. Some of the classroom spaces also still maintain original wood cabinetry and built-ins. The hallways are made up of rows of lockers and polished concrete floors.

WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL

HISTORICAL CONTEXT

27


BUILDING SCALE

DAMAGES, ALTERATIONS, and SURVIVING ELEMENTS OF THE HISTORIC FABRIC

DAMAGES

ALTERATIONS

SURVIVING ELEMENTS

• •

On the west elevation, there is a highly visible scar on the second and third floor where there once were corridors attached to the 1961 classroom and office addition. Condensation and standing water have damaged much of the flooring and ceiling in the southeast corner of the basement. Some windows are cracked and/ or shattered.

• • •

• •

Exterior alterations include the replacement of the southfacing windows from the original 12/1 single hung sash windows to double-glazed windows in 1989. Several other first floor window openings have been boarded/bricked up and/or replaced by new doorways. Inside the building, one of the major alterations is the integration of additional useable space on the fourth floor. Several other rooms were modified to accommodate new uses (such enlarged spaces for offices, home economics and woodshop space on the first floor, and an expanded library). In the 1950s, acoustic panels were hung in all of the classrooms and offices and the ceiling was dropped (shutting out the light well) in the auditorium. Many of the original doors, trim, hardware, and classroom flooring have been replaced.

Once part of a larger campus of buildings, only the high school, 1970 Auto Shop and the 1912 Boiler Building survive. A spectacular view to downtown Portland still survives on the west side of the building. If the community center is built as currently planned, that viewshed will be compromised.

WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL

HISTORICAL CONTEXT

28


BUILDING SCALE

NECESSARY BUILDING UPGRADES

PARKING

ENTRANCES

VERTICAL CIRCULATION

BATHROOMS

ROOF ACCESS

Need: For accessibility purposes, and when considering the future uses of Washington High School, more parking needs to be added. The city technically owns the property around the school, so an agreement would have to be made to allow for on site parking. That being said, there needs to be handicapped parking available near the main entrances with a clear path to the building.

Need: At Washington High School there is one accessible entrance on the South side of the building leading to the basement. Some (not all) of the other entrances need to be implemented with ramps or accessible alternatives to make the building more accommodating.

Need: There is one small, outdated elevator in the building near the main west entrance. This elevator needs an upgrade, but in addition, another elevator needs to be added on the other side of the building to comply with current codes.

Need: The bathrooms need to be upgraded completely. This includes installing more bathrooms, and making sure there are enough handicapped restrooms available to comply with code.

Need: Currently, there is one way to access the roof through a narrow, steep stairwell. There is a good possibility that future use will involve utilizing this roof space by making a green roof or garden. Therefore upgrades will need to be made and more access points installed.

Impact: Adding handicapped parking during the rehabilitation does not directly affect the building, but does limit what parking is available on the streets.

Impact: This can be an invasive process resulting in the loss of historic integrity if not done carefully. The entrances add historic character to the exterior of the building and the new work needs to be reversible if possible.

Impact: The installation of another elevator shaft could be a costly and invasive process. The new location, and new work on the elevators would need to be handled delicately and not interfere with major spaces and character defining features.

Impact: The current bathroom spaces do not retain historic integrity, and are completely open to future uses and needs. That being said new accessible bathrooms can be easily accommodated for.

WASHINGTON HIGH SCHOOL

Impact: Making the roof accessible includes the need to install another point of egress opposite the existing one, as well as a handicapped accessible entrance. This could include making sure the elevator can reach the roof.

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PRESERVATION PLAN: POSSIBLE ZONING OF THE HIGH SCHOOL PRESERVATION

Preservation zones are those that retain a high level of historic integrity and have been relatively maintained over time. Changes to these areas would result in a loss of historic character in the building overall. Preservation areas include the exterior walls, and all four stairwells, as they retain a high amount of original materials, characters, and design. This includes the handrails and panel designs in the stairwells, and the window details, fenestration, and classical revival details on the exterior.

RESTORATION

Restoration zones are those that speak to the original design and historic character of the school, but have fallen out of repair and are encouraged to be restored. These spaces, when restored, add to the historic integrity of the building, and include areas in Washington High School such as the hallway corridors.

REHABILITATION

Rehabilitation areas speak to the original spaces of the schools design and character, but can undergo changes in order to make the space more functional for the new use. They need to be changes that are sensitive to the historic fabric. The hallway walls and auditorium space are important volumes to the school’s spatial character, but changes to materiality and details of the space would not cause the building to loose integrity. Other rehabilitation elements that affect the spaces of the school include the location of the classroom walls (in floors 2-4) the auditorium stage, and auditorium balcony. These are important because they speak to the historic character and original design of the school, but they can be sensitively altered for new use.

FREE (OPEN)

The classrooms have undergone major alterations over time, including new lighting, acoustic ceiling panels, and other material surface changes. These spaces that have undergone extensive alterations do not contribute to the historic integrity of the building, and can be changed.

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PRESERVATION PLAN: POSSIBLE ZONING OF THE HIGH SCHOOL

BASEMENT

1st FLOOR (Ground)

2nd FLOOR

3rd FLOOR

Stairwells- Preserve

Stairwells and Exterior- Preserve

Stairwells and Exterior- Preserve

Stairwells and Exterior- Preserve

Hallway- Restore

Hallways- Restoration

Hallways- Restoration

Hallways- Restoration

Classrooms and Utility- Open

Stage- Rehabilitation

Balcony- Rehabilitation

Hallway Walls- Rehabilitation

Classrooms- Open

Classrooms- Open

Classrooms and Library- Open

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REGULATING HISTORIC PROPERTIES: TREATMENT OF HISTORIC PROPERTIES IN PORTLAND Designations

Zoning

Financial Incentives

Historic Landmark A building can be designated as a local historic landmark, or be nominated for the National Register on a local, state, or nation wide level. Washington High School was recently accepted as a local Historic Landmark in Portland, and may possibly be nominated for the National Register depending on future needs and uses.

Regulations include special provisions that encourage new historic listings and increase the potential for historic structures to be renovated and rehabilitated by increasing land use flexibility and redevelopment options. The incentives are not applicable in every situation and some apply only to certain types of resources. Many require a land use review and a covenant with the City. Local Historic Landmarks and National Register Historic Landmarks are generally treated the same in the zoning code, with a notable exception of demolition review.

When rehabilitating a historic resource in Portland, there are various financial incentives that can be obtained depending on the designation and status of the resource. The PDF: “Financial Incentives for Historic Preservation: A summary of selected grant, loan, and tax benefits “ document found on the City of Portland Department of Planning and Sustainability website should be consulted for more specific regulations and details.

Conservation Landmark Similar to the historic landmark, but these are resources that are significant on a local or neighborhood level and may not be eligible for the National Register.

A few points from: “Summary of Portland Historic Preservation Zoning Review”

Historic Districts These are areas within the city that have many resources within a neighborhood of historical significance. Districts can be nominated on a local level, or for the National Register.

Conservation Districts These are similar to historic district nominations, but for districts significant on a local or neighborhood level. (Less significant than Historic Districts)

Historic Resource Inventory List This is an inventory of resources in Portland that are possibly historically significant but are not listed on the national register yet. This helps raise awareness.

Design Reviews When dealing with major exterior alterations to designated districts or landmarks, a design review is genearlly required. These reviews ensure that the historic values are considered and preserved during changes. In a district, construction of a new building and major alterations also need to go through the design review process, regardless of contributing status. Normal repair and maintenance and interior alterations do not trigger a historic design review.

Transfer of density of floor area ration (FAR). Allows unused development potential on a site with a Landmark to be transferred or sold to another site. Exemption from minimum housing density requirements. Eliminates minimum housing density requirements in Landmarks and contributing properties in historic districts. Day care in residential zones. Waives the requirement for a conditional use review for day care uses in landmarks and contributing properties in historic districts in residential zones. Nonresidential uses in RH, R1 and R2 zones. Allows nonresidential uses, such as retail, office and others in up to 100 percent of the floor area in a Landmark or contributing property in a district. Requires a land use review to minimize potential impacts on nearby residences. Encourages renovation and reuse of historic building types that do not lend themselves to reuse as dwellings (e.g. churches, meeting halls, and commercial storefront buildings) Commercial allowances in Central City industrial zones. Allows offices and retail uses in individual National Register properties and contributing properties in National Register historic districts in zones where nonindustrial uses are otherwise more restricted. Encourages preservation and reuse of historic, sometimes functionally obsolete buildings by providing additional development flexibility and higher income potential. Increased maximum parking rations for historic properties in the Central City. Increases the maximum parking ratio for individual National Register buildings.

20% Tax Credits The incentive is a federal income tax credit equal to 20 percent of the rehabilitation costs. The building must be: Listed on the National Register Rehab work must meet the Secretary of Interior Standards NPS and SHPO approval are required before the project is completed. The building must be used for income-producing purposes after the rehab. 10% Tax Credits Rehabilitation of non-historic buildings placed in service before 1936. HPLO Preservation Easements Results in more tax reduction for property owners, potentially reducing income, estate, capital gains, and property taxes. Preserving Oregon Grants Administered by the SHPO and may be used for restoration or rehabilitation work on National Register structures. Resources • Summary of Portland Historic Preservation Zoning Incentives http://www. portlandoregon.gov/shared/cfm/image/cfm?id=150295 • City of Portland: Department of Planning and Sustainability http://www. portlandoregon.gov/bps/article/133692#hdr • Financial Incentives for Historic Preservation: A summary of Selected Grand, Loan, and Tax Benefits http://www.portlandoregon.gov/bps/article/146265

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BUILDING ENVELOPE CONDITION

BUILDING ENVELOPE CONDITION

Interior Water Damage

Sand Blasting Damage

Efflorescence

SKYWAY SCAR

WINDOWS

POSSIBLE WATER ISSUES

On the west (main) facade there is a large scar to the south of the main stairs that is about twenty feet wide and goes from the first to second story. Although it may be insulated properly, it needs to be removed and the facade should be restored to coincide with the rest of the west facade.

There are very large windows on all facades of the school which are a major asset to the historic character of the building. However, because of the high volume of surface area that is glazing, and the fact that many of the windows are original and probably need maintenance, they could be a source of energy loss.

Interior As seen in the image above, there are points of water damage happening at some of the windows. Water is leaking in where the wall meets the windows which would need to be reflashed and sealed.

The catwalk is more of a visual eye sore, but depending on how and when it was patched up, it may be a source of water infiltration or air leakage and should be taken care of.

It is recommended that the current original windows be restored so they work more efficiently, and interior storm windows be installed to help keep the original windows in place, while increasing the energy efficiency of the envelope. The windows on the south facade are not original, and can be replaced to become more efficient.

Efflorescence The white seen on a lot of the exterior masonry is efflorescence, and is an indication of water retention in the wall. This problem can be helped by noting where it is heaviest, and installing a water gutter system to help take the water away from the building. Spalling Spalling causes the face of the terra cotta or brick to break off and away from the building. It is seen around the Washington High School and is also a result of water retention. Sand Blasting There is an area of masonry that was sandblasted and is therefore permanently damaged.

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POSSIBLE ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES Using a Solar and Water Budget Spreadsheet, we can determine the existing buildings potencial for solar energy production and water collection. With a solar array covering the enitre roof, excluding the open center, 29% of the building’s estimated energy use can be produced. With a rain collection system that incorporated the entire roof, including the open center, nearly 800,000 gallons could be collected and stored for use.

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Washington High School