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JaRonda Gumby, RTI Coordinator and Carrie Field, Social Worker- LICSW August 13, 2010

The DC Partnership for Early Literacy

AppleTree Institute for Education Innovation

• Introductions • Establishing a positive classroom atmosphere -Focus on creating schedules, organizing classrooms, and using touch -Classroom schedule and classroom organization activity

• Formal and informal management systems

-Materials, transitions, pre-corrections, active supervision, preparation -School rules, Sit and Watch, Calm Down Spot, whole-group token economy, response-cost, rewards system -Modeling activity for introducing management systems -Using Tier 1 data to modify management systems -Small group and whole group video analyses

• Using less intensive strategies

-Nonverbal gestures and visual cues, praise and reprimand techniques, adopting a hands-off approach -Communication activity

• Questions and comments

•  Teachers will learn how classroom schedules, centers arrangement, teacher planning, and teacher affect play roles in establishing the atmosphere of the classroom. •  Teachers will learn how to create and consistently implement informal and formal classroom management systems such as visual prompts, predictable routines, planned transitions, wholeclass token economies, stoplights, and rewards. •  Teachers will learn how to use less-intensive strategies to manage inappropriate behaviors. •  Teachers will analyze scenarios and provide solution-focused Tier One behavior strategies.

A key component of successful classroom management is ensuring that each team member holds consistent, high expectations for each student with respect to behavior. What are your objectives for your students? Begin with the end in mind ď Š. Introductions: Name, grade level, campus, number of years teaching, and component of the day where you think levels of appropriate behavior are the lowest.

• Classroom Schedule Considerations

•  Time spent sitting vs. time spent moving •  Whole-group vs. small group instruction •  Teacher-led vs. student-led •  Number of transitions and their fluidity •  Who is doing what? When are teachers at their best? When are your students at their best?

Look at the four schedules and discuss potential pitfalls with colleagues in groups of three. Discuss one reason you have changed your schedule in the past and how the change in schedule impacted your students.

• Classroom Organization Considerations •  Accessibility of materials •  Noise level and traffic flow •  Children’s eye level •  Teacher supervision •  Positioning of visual aids and student artwork •  Storage of materials

Work around fixed furniture to arrange your classroom with the post-it notes provided– teams of three must agree on placement of everything.

•  Using Touch Effectively •  Teach students about personal space and appropriate ways to touch friends and teachers. •  Ask permission before entering a student’s personal space or let the student know why a teacher is entering his or her space without permission. •  Use touch to nurture students in the form of hugs, handshakes, or high fives. •  Never place yourself into a position that could compromise your intentions or integrity. •  In re-direction, use a hands-off approach to the maximum extent possible. •  Know your students and how they react to touch.

•  “If the only tool you have is a hammer, you tend to see every problem as a nail.” -- Abraham Maslow

Small Group Story Reading: What tools or strategies could be helpful for this teacher in managing behavior?

Classroom Rules • Create five or less class rules that connect/align/mirror school rules/procedures/culture. •  Write rules positively in terms of appropriate behavior. •  Post photos of children performing the class rules. •  Use rules to frame appropriate behavior and misbehavior (praises and reprimands). • Allow students multiple opportunities to model appropriate behavior for their peers. • View adherence to rules realistically and in a developmentally appropriate fashion.

• Whole Group Token Economies

•  Positive reinforcement technique •  Divide the class in a way that makes sense for your students (carpet square color, small group names, alphabetically, etc.). •  Choose the targeted behavior to be increased. •  Discuss with team specifics on what that behavior looks like and agree upon a definition. Collect data on current instances of this behavior. •  Choose parts of the day for implementation. •  Choose tokens and create the token economy. •  Decide what reward can ALWAYS be earned. •  Implement the token economy, awarding tokens when everyone within a group of students exhibits the targeted behavior. •  Collect data to determine effectiveness of the intervention.

Model Moment: What language is important to use when introducing this token economy?

Response-Cost Systems

•  Differential reinforcement technique – when used incorrectly it can become a negative punishment strategy. •  Stoplight management system is most common example •  Choose and define targeted inappropriate behaviors and ‘the cost’ •  Take Tier 1 data to develop a criteria for demerits – it is important to determine the norm of inappropriate behaviors •  Define a green, yellow, and red day and communicate to students and families •  Adapt the stoplight to suit your classroom (add more circles, start on yellow, add faces, use animals, limit components, class store tickets, ribbons, etc.)

Model Moment: How and when should teachers introduce this response-cost system?

• Time Management Techniques •  Always have a plan! •  Create routines around set-up, clean-up, bathroom, data collection, and intervention implementation. •  Have a system of preparation that works for everyone. •  Position your clock so it is in view during whole-group experiences. •  Hold each other accountable. •  While at school, focus on school. •  Put first things first. 

Large Group Instruction: What formal management systems can this teacher use in the future?

This is NOT an informal management system! In the classroom, many times the best defense can be a great offense. Informal management systems focus on how teachers can manage the classroom and their own behavior as a strategy for classroom management.

Informal management systems •  Whole-group and small-group: praise, pre-corrections, nonverbal signals, engaging and interactive instruction, planned materials are easily accessible, wiggle worm, stickers, ‘Hard-at-work Hat,’ SayShow-Check, Sit and Watch, Calm Down Spot, SuperFriend!, Friend of the Day

Model Moment: Introduce Sit and Watch using the Say-ShowCheck procedure. •  Centers: limit students, routine for switching, accessible materials, appropriate quantity of materials, fun activities across all centers, teachers engaged in guided play with students, tic-tac-toe, Plan-DoReview, Boardmaker steps, photos of purposeful play, marker symbols check-in

Informal management systems • Meals: teachers present and conversing, teachers model the trying of new foods, eating steps, songs, ‘food rules’ are consistent across teachers •  Outdoor Play: active supervision, appropriate quantity of materials, pre-corrections, transition warnings, track team •  Transitions: planned, predictable, purposeful •  Naptime: praise, clear expectations, sleep-inducing environment, consistent messages from teachers Model Moment: Introduce Naptime using the Say-Show-Check procedure. Whole group discussion: When you walked into your FIRST classroom, what part of the day was the most chaotic? Why was that? What steps did you take to solve the problem?

• Proximity, volume, tone, and body language are powerful communication tools. Children often react to these four and not the content of what is said. • Use visuals and nonverbal cues for precorrections and re-directions. Sign language is a great asset for this. • Praise publicly using process-oriented praise that include the child’s name and is contingent to the event’s occurrence. • Reprimand privately, framing inappropriate behavior in terms of rules and stating consequences clearly. Reestablish rapport with the child when needed.

• Validate students’ feelings - know student interests, strengths, needs, and triggers • Reflect on teacher behavior first. Ask yourself…. Did I plan? Did I prep? Am I engaging? Is this activity fun? Have I considered the length and/or difficulty of this lesson? Have I stated expectations? Did I teach and model appropriate behavior? With a partner at your table, take turns communicating two of the messages on the sentence strips without using your voice. Partners should write down the message they think is being communicated.

•  Tier One Behavior Strategies Best Practices

•  Address teachers and students by name. •  Work with students at eye level; active supervision and teacher proximity are key. •  Teach and model appropriate behaviors. •  Save ‘teacher talk’ for break times; communicate honestly and frequently with team members. •  Create developmentally-appropriate schedules that minimize transitions and maximize learning. •  Organize the classroom to maximize the fluidity of classroom routines and procedures. •  Be cognizant of the appropriateness of your touch and how touch affects students. •  Develop formal and informal management systems with your team and use them consistently. •  Make the use of less intensive strategies such as praise and nonverbal re-direction the classroom norms. •  Do not attempt to manage the classroom alone.

RESOURCES •  Teaching Team •  Other colleagues •  RTI Coordinator •  Principal •  Tier One Binder •  Books referenced in this PPT •  Internet

REFERENCES •  Essential Touch: Meeting the Needs of Young Children by Carlson, F.M. •  The Inclusive Classroom: Strategies for Effective Instruction by Mastropieri, M. A. and Scruggs, T. E. •  Effective School Interventions: Evidence-Based Strategies for Improving Student Outcomes, 2nd edition by Rathvon, N. •  How to be an Effective Teacher the First Days of School by Wong, H.K. and Wong, R.T. •  The Anti-Bullying and Teasing Book for Preschool Classrooms by Sprung, B., Froschl, M., and Hinitz, B.

Once upon a time there was a preschool classroom operating in a constant state of chaos and confusion. The teachers used strategies from the Tier One Behavior Management fairy and saw dramatic changes in themselves and their students. They learned and played happily ever after. •  Questions? •  Comments? •  Concerns? THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION THIS FRIDAY MORNING AND PLEASE FILL OUT THE SURVEY HONESTLY AND THOROUGHLY TO HELP IMPROVE FUTURE PRESENTATIONS. Special thanks to Carrie Field and Lydia Carlis for their editing support! REMEMBER TO SMILE… THE WEEKEND IS ONLY A FEW HOURS AWAY 

Behavior Management Presentation