TISC

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MASTER IN ADVANCED ARCHITECTURE

TISC TEXTILE INNOVATION STARTUP CENTER SELF-SUFFICIENT BUILDINGS By: Juan Diego Ardila Taruni Aggarwal Diego Diaz Dulce Luna Dirce Medina Tutors: Enric Ruiz Geli Mireia Luzรกrraga

Self - Sufficient Buildings Master in Advanced Architecture_01 2012-2013 IAAC -Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia in Barcelona



INDEX INTRODUCTION

5

I RESEARCH

7

PROBLEMS

9

ENERGY ECONOMY ENVIRONMENT DELOCALIZATION

INDUSTRY

41

FOOD TEXTILE

II CONCEPT

65

ACTIVISM

77

TEXTILE

87

BUILDING

107

III DESIGN

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INTRODUCTION TEXTILE INNOVATION STARTUP CENTER (TISC) is the future of the textile industries. This future Textile Industry is a true iconic gesture that responds to its renewal in terms of ETHICS, INNOVATION and SUSTAINABILITY. Retrofitting the industry, the “Urban Fabric” is a three-dimensional mesh envelope based on cell organisation in plants that combines farming, photovoltaic panels, metal, fibers, water and technology. This modulation from structure to plants, insulated to uninsulated, skin to nature, adapts to the seasons and reflects the environments of future activities. The radicalness of the project marks the starting point of a new revolution in this industry. The concept of building as a cycle is a new design language. The metal skeleton and the chimneys reflect the industrial history of the site. Variety and fluidity in the landscape offers different experiences in the site. The Urban Fabric gives maximum space in minimum architecture to express variations in use of the space. Its all about particles. Cells as nano particle, Seeds as particles, Water as particles and Fibers as particles >> All these particles play an important role in the “Building Design Cycle”. Cell organisation is the starting point of the mesh envelope design. Seeds are the points on the mesh that gradually forms the skin of the mesh. Water controls the micro climate and fibers become a part of the structure. The book is divided into two sections. Section 1 is “Research” that lead us to TISC and Section 2 is “Concept and Design” that lead us to TISC Building. IaaC MAA_01

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I

RESEARCH

Energy Crisis, Environment Crisis, Economy Crisis...... We are in a era of Global Crisis. This section of the book explains “The Problems” related to Energy, Environment, Economy and Delocalization. Energy problems in terms if international transfers and consumption by different sectors and specially industries and the impact of energy consumption and production on the environment. Co2 emissions, air pollution, water pollution, global warming..... are just a few environmental problems. The price of energy and food is climbing, unemployment remains high, the housing market has tanked, consumer and government debt is soaring, and the recovery is slowing. Facing the prospect of a second collapse of the global economy, humanity is desperate for a sustainable economic game plan to take us into the future. The concept of Delocalization for lower costs is keeping the World away from innovation and worsening the problems related to energy, environment and economy. There is a need to create a new economic paradigm that can transform the world. “The Third Industrial Revolution” by Jeremy Rifkin is that paradigm.[Details on page 16] IaaC MAA_01

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ENERGY


I

PROBLEMS ENERGY

“LATERAL POWER” will ensure that we enjoy our future and prepare a happy one for our children. To get energy into any kind of building it has to go to a whole process of transfer and distribution. While its being produced in big scale in centralized plants it has to be converted into useful quantities for the population. This process makes it difficult to know where the energy that you are consuming is coming from, and how is it being produced. There is an aparent measure of your consumption of energy that will never accord to your real consumption, because it has to go into so many procedures that it is raising and the price to get into your home, and you end paying the whole chain of events. The Third Industrial Revolution infrastructure, is a ‘renaissance’ of small and medium-size enterprises, and producers and consumers cooperatives. The big companies that survive, they will transform their role and they will be aggregates of networks, because they have the logistical reach..

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CONSUMPTION (Quadrillion Btu)

97.301

ENERGY CONSUMPTION PER CAPITA 0 - 1.5 TOE 1.5 - 3 TOE 3 - 4.6 TOE 4.5 - 6 TOE > 6 TOE

PRODUCTION (Quadrillion Btu)

78.096

ENERGY PRODUCTION 0 - 900 KTOE 900 - 1100 KTOE 1100 - 1300 KTOE 1300 - 1500 KTOE 1500 - 1600 KTOE > 1700 KTOE

Global energy consumption and production

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Energy Consumption - Energy Production (kton) 2,417,125.93

China

2,208,962.14 2,216,323.99

United States

1,724,510.76 701,523.20

Russia

1,293,048.65 692,689.00

India

518,670.54 579,142.65

Arab

1,678,365.95 496,849.12

Japan

96,791.26 327,374.66

Germany

131,349.32 265,624.19

Brazil

246,373.27 262,288.15

France

135,569.10 251,838.45

Canada

397,832.49 0

2,000,000

1,000,000

3,000,000

Consumption Production

Primary Energy Overview (Quadrillion Btu) Consumpion - Production - Imports

Consumpion Production

Imports

Energy transactions

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Energy Demand 100 %

<1%

100 %

Oil RENEWABLE Wind, wind Oil 68% Nuclear 65% THERMAL

Natural Gas 54% Coal 41%

Sources of Energy

100 %

Production

Energy Loss

31% After production

Energy Consumption Subdivision

The future of energy is where consumption will be the energy produced and needed, there will be no middle-process in between, so that will guarantee a better, local and sustainable consumption. Columns for the 3rd industrial revolution: 1)Transition to renewable energy. 2) Transformation of buildings into micro power plants that bring and empowered the energy in each site. 3) hydrogen technology and others systems of energetic storage in every building and in the infrastructure. 4)Internet energy shared network system. 5)Transition to motorized vehicles with electric power or batteries that are part of the network.

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Industry

Transportation

52%

35%

Comercial 5%

Cooking

6%

Hot water

14%

Heat

75%

Lighting

13%

100 % 64% Non - domestic

36%

100 %

Electricity customers

Electricity use

“In 25 years, millions of buildings (homes, offices, malls, industry parks and technological facilities) would become or have been rebuilt to function as electric power plants and as habitats at the same time� Jeremy Rifkin The third industrial Revolution

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Asturias

Cantabria

País Vasco Navarra

Galicia LaRioja

Cataluña

Castilla y León Aragón

Madrid

Castilla - La Mancha

Comunidad Valenciana

Extremadura Baleares

Murcia Circuits

Lines Future

Tension

Installed

Service

Andalucía

Under construction Cable Subtarranean / Underwater

In Service Contruction / Programmed

High Tension In Service

Contruction / Programmed

Substation

National energy connections. Spain

Internet revolution converges with the new distributed energy revolution to create a nervous system for this infrastructure. So when millions and millions of buildings in Europe are collecting their own green energy on-site, storing it in hydrogen, like we store media in digital, then if you don’t need some of that electricity, your software can program it so you can sell your electricity across the electricity Internet, (with what we call) a smart grid, from the Irish sea to the edge of eastern Europe. Just like we create our own information, store it in digital, share it online.

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Total Demand Residential

Summer Peak

Winter Peak

Energy demand - Total, Residential Summer / Winter

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Asturias

Cantabria

País Vasco Navarra

Galicia LaRioja

Cataluña

Castilla y León Aragón

THERMOELECTRIC COAL Madrid

THERMOELECTRIC FUEL/GAS

Comunidad Valenciana

Castilla - La Mancha Extremadura

THERMOELECTRIC COMBINED

Murcia

NUCLEAR Andalucía

Energy Production Spots

FRANCE

INCINERATORS

AND.

CEMENT INDUSTRY Figueras

WASTE

ARAGÓN Girona

QUEMISTRY INDUSTRY Manresa Lérida

OIL PLATFORM

Igualada

Lloret de Mar Granollers

ENERGY MAP Tarrasa

Mataró

Badalona

Villafranca del Panadés

ANIMALS BREEDING

Villanueva y Geltrú Reus

Tarragone

Cambrils

PAPER INDUSTRY

Amposta

OTHER INDUSTRY

Contamination black spots - Spain

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Barcelona


International Energy Transfer 1000

1400

France

Errondenia 2

Argia

463

306

0

5

1.684

1

497

892

1.785

607

340

48

Pocinho 2 444

Aldeadávila 220 kV Madrid

48

Pocinho 1 448

Aldeadávila 220 kV 19

Pocinho 495

Saucelle 220 kV 877

Falagueira 733

Comunidad Valenciana

Castilla - La Mancha

Extremadura

Cedillo 400 kV 0

Alcáçovas 59

Badajoz 66 kV

Murcia

1.300 346 0 0

Melloussa (Marruecos)

900

Encinasola 15 kV

P. Cruz 400 kV

000 000

1400

Barrancos

Brovales 400 kV Andalucía

16

Alqueva

4.510

2300 2300

0

0

Lindoso Lagoaça

Portugal

Asturias

173

Galicia

Argia

Pragnéres Lac D’oo Cantabria Margineda (Andorra) País Vasco Irún 132 kV Baixas Arkale 220 kV Navarra Hernani 400 kV Biescas 220 kV LaRioja Lindoso Benós 110 kV Adrall 110 kV Cataluña Castilla y León Vic 400 kV 1.478 Aragón Aldeadávila 400 kV 447 Conchas 132 kV

0

159 3.772

Cartelle 400 kV

Morocco

000 000

Total Capacity Actual Physical Exchange

Energy transactions. Portugal, Spain, Morocco, Andorra, France 12.000

Import

10.000 8.000 6.000 4.000 2.000 0 -2.000 -4.000 -6.000 -8.000 -10.000

Export

-12.000

2007

2008

2009

France

Portugal

2010

Andorra

2011

Morocco

Total Balance

Energy Balance

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New Energy Production - Transactions

Geothermal energy

Wind energy farm

Recollection of rain water

Storage energy to Neighbourhood

Storage with Hydrogen

Building

Energy from the Neighbourhood

Biological energy

Energy from the river and the sea

Photovoltaics

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ENVIRONMENT


PROBLEMS ENVIRONMENT

The several enviromental desasters caused by human has been underestimated, pretending they were always there and that the human hand have nothing to do with them. Also letting them happend without any strict and rigourus supervision. Many of the biggest and rihest business in the globe are involved in practices that causes several damaged to the health of the enviroment and all the spiecies living on it. By understanding the greatest enviromental problems, we can make the relation between the cause and the effect so that the way of thinking the project is in total relation with the local and global problems. A series of enverimental damages were studied included co2 emisions, pollution in soil and water.

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Mayor contributors to co2 emissions

Africa Central / South America 1,145,160,030 1,785,932,690 Middle East 1,785,932,690

Asia / Oceania 14,161,441,000

Eurasia 2,454,132,000

Europe 4,370,287,140

North America 6,605,667,090

CO2 EMISSIONS

(million metric tons) China

8,320,963

United States

5,610,108 1,695,623

India

1,633,804

Russia

1,164,466

Japan

793,655

Germany

578,973

South Korea

560,335

Iran

548,754

Canada

532,442

United Kingdom

478,407

Soudi Arabia

465,097

South Africa

453,870 445,283 416,373

Brazil Mexico Italy

405,342

Australia

395,195

Francia

389,428

Indonesia

316,426

Spain

305,379

Taiwan

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Pollution -10°

10°

20°

30°

40°

40°

40°

Pollution hot spots along the Mediterranean coast

30°

30°

10°

20°

30°

Hot spot

Hot spots along the Mediterranean coast.

Water pollution causes approximately 14,000 deaths per day, mostly due to contamination by drinking water from untreated sewage in developing countries. Greece Malta Switzerland Romania Lithuania Bulgaria Serbia Czech Republic Croatia Hungary Norway Latvia Slovakia Estonia FYR of Macedonia Italy Belgium Austria Sweden Spain Denmark Finland Luxembourg

Industrial production and commercial services Municipal waste treatment and disposal Industrial waste treatment and disposal Mining Oil industry Power plants Military Storage Transport spills on land Others

0

20

Military Mining 1 % 2% Transport spills on land 3 % Storage 4 %

40

60

80

100%

Others 9%

Industrial production and commercial services 36 %

760,000 PEOPLE DIE each year in China because of AIR AND WATER POLLUTION

Power plants 4% Industrial waste treatment and disposal 9%

Municipal waste treatment and disposal 15 %

-Wold Bank Report. 2010 Oil industry 17 %

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CO

Primary PM2.5 Waste Energy production Agriculture 2 % and distribution 4% 8% Solvent and Other product use 0.3 % 1% Energy use in industry Industrial 11 % processes 13 %

Agriculture 2%

Waste Energy production and 2% distribution 3%

Industrial processes 9%

Energy use in industry 12 %

Road transport 15 % Non-road transport 3%

Commercial, institutional and households 43 %

Road transport 34 %

Commercial, institutional and households 36 % Non-road transport 2%

NOX

SOX Commercial, institutional and households 8%

Industrial processes 5%

Agriculture Waste Industrial processes 2 % 0.2 % 2% Commercial, institutional and households 15 %

Non-road transport 3% Road transport 1%

Energy production and distribution 21 %

Non-road transport 7%

Energy use in industry 13 %

Energy use in industry 14 %

Road transport 39 %

Energy production and distribution 70 %

NMVOC

NH3

Agriculture 6%

Waste 1%

Road transport 2% Industrial processes 1%

Non-road transport 2%

Solvent and product use 35 % Industrial processes 14 %

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Energy use in industry 2% Road transport 17 %

Waste 2%

Agriculture 95 %

Energy production and distribution 9%

Commercial, institutional and households 14 %


SAVE

IF EVERYONE IN THE UK BOUGHT ONE RECLAIMED WOOLEN GARMENT EACH YEAR

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371 MILLION GALLONS ( THE AVERAGE UK RESERVOIR HOLDS ABOUT 300 MILLION GALLONS )

480 TONNES OF CHEMICAL DYESTUFFS

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$32 billion =

CULTIVATED BY PEOPLE IN MISERY

GLOBAL COTTON PRODUCTION

< 1% IS ORGANIC COTTON OR FAIRTRADE

1 T-SHIRT

=

2,720 LT’S

=

AVERAGE PERSON MIGHT DRINK OVER 3 YEARS.

3 OUT OF 5 DOESN’T HAVE A FORMAL CONTRACT OR SOCIAL RIGHTS. THEIR SALARIES IT’S AS MUCH AS 5% OF THE FINAL COST OF THE GARMENT.

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= 54% OF ALL PESTICIDES

TEXTILE DYEING AND FINISHING MILLS USE CONSIDERABLY MORE WATER THAN MOST INDUSTRIES AS MUCH AS 200 TONNES OF WATER FOR EVERY TONNE OF TEXTILES PRODUCED.

85% 13.1 MILLION TONS ACCORDING EPA (2010) TEXTILES DISCARDED BY AMERICANS

15% 2012-2013

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ECONOMY


PROBLEMS ECONOMY

Our oil deppendant industry and economy is driving big business into unethical and pollutant practices in order to get more profits. The understanding of the economy helped us define the way the project should be thought about. By research the economical factors that driven europe and the world not only in a late economic crisis but also understandig that many of the practices that we take for granted have been commited for many years and still, beside the impact in the planet we, as a human species, still make things in the wrong way. One of the site greatest fact in hsitory is the one that it used to be a strong textile factor, what happened to the industry? By crossing information between innovation, employement, payments etc.. we can understand what has happened in the last decades.

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Innovation and Employment INNOVATION IN THE SECTOR (% OF COMPANIES) Electricity - TIC Transport AeroSpatial Chemistry - Pharmaceutics Metal Vehicules Electric Machinery Equipment TOTAL MANUFACTURE INDUSTRY Plastics Navy Paper-Graphics Food - Tabacco Furnature Textile - Confection Metal Products Minerals Wood 0

20

10

30

40

50

60

70

COMPENSATION PER EMPLOYEE THOUSANDS EUROS

Railway AeroSpatial Chemistry Metal Navy Vehicules Electric Machinery Electronics - TIC Equipment Minerals Plastics TOTAL MANUFACTURE INDUSTRY Paper-Graphics Metal Products Food - Tabacco Wood Furniture Textile - Confection

55.0 54.0 51.7 45.3 45.1 41.2 40.4 40.0 39.6 36.5 35.8 35.5 34.8 32.6 31.0 26.5 26.0 25.6 0

15

30

45

60

75

Relationship between the innovative companies and the economic compensation for its employees. The low payments in the textile industry are related to the lack of innovation, while in more innovative sectors the situation for its employees is satisfactory.

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Textile Economy 13.793M

1.408M

INDITEX

MANGO

936,9M 560M 353M 200M CORTEFIEL

While the payment and labour conditions in the textile industry are mediocre, the aport to the GDP is low, the number of employees decreasing, still is an industry that moves millions of euros and has one of the richest men in the world

DESIGUAL

PEPE JEANS CAMPER

Spain GDP Service- 71% Industry- 25% Agriculture- 2.8% Textile Industry- 5% Industrial production growth rate- -1.4%

TEXTILE OCCUPATION (million workers)

600.000

1976-80 Restructure

Plan

500.000

1986-90 Recovery 400.000

1992-93 Crisis 2001-02 Globalization

300.000

200.000

1986 EU

Entry

100.000

‘76

‘78

‘80

‘82

‘84

‘86

‘88

‘90

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‘94

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+ With the detox campaign by GREEN PEACE and public pressure some companies as Limited Brands (Victoria’s secret), Mango, Zara, Levi Strauss & Co.,Benetton, Marks & Spencer, between some others are committed to eliminate all hazardous chemicals from its supply chain and products by 2020. + total sales in 2010 of between 150,000 and 200,000 tonnes of textile products.

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DELOCALIZATION

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PROBLEMS DELOCALIZATION

In the 80’s the global management consulting firm McKinsey made a new territorial reorganization to canalize the productive delocalisation, as part of a research for a number of multinational companies that were facing de decrease of their benefits and needed to extend to other territories. This new reorganization included Pacific-Asia, Oceania, Middle East (mainly oil producer’s countries). But it became relevant in the 90‘s and is one of the pillars of the globalization process. * Low cost of labor force. * Less strict laws for the protection of the environment, com bating pollution, disruption of land, etc. * Flexible work conditions, that allow less security regulations, increased working hours, etc.

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Consequences * Rising unemployment in the country of origin. * Creation of low quality employment in the destination country. * Pollution and destruction of the environment, caused by the lack environmental regulations and sensibility to evaluate properly the damage. Resulting in droughts, desertification, abuse in exploitation of resources, waste increments, etc. * “Domino effect� between companies, in order to compete with the delocalized company must imitate the method. * Quality reduction in the final product, made by low-qualified workers or under bad labor conditions. * Decreasing of the product price in the inner market and possibility of wages increment due to the cost reduction. * Labor exploitation.

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Textile Economy

DELOCALIZATION OF ACTIVITIES IN SPANISH INDUSTRY (2000-2005) Textile and Clothing manufacture Leather and Footwear Furniture and others Transport Material Optic and electric material 0

20

10

30

40

50

60

JOBS AFFECTED BY DELOCALIZATION IN CATALONIA Food & beverages Textile & Clothing Manufacture Leather & Footwear Metallurgy Furniture & others Chemical industry Rubber & Plastic Machinery & equipment Transport equipment Machinery & electrical appliances Electronic material & communications Office & computer equipment 0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

TOTAL = 21, 205

Migration of jobs and production to other parts of the world, mostly poor(er) developing countries.

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6000

7000


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Catalunya Affected by Delocalization Andalucia

Valencia

Catalu単a

181 206

Madrid

Basque Country Rest of Espa単a 0

100

200

1990 - 1994 1995 - 1999 2000 - 2008 TOTAL

60 50 40 30 20 10

European U./Asia/Latin America European Union/Others

European U./Africa/Latin America

European U.7Asia

European U./Africa

European Union

European U./ East Europe

East Europe/Africa

East Europe/Asia

Asia/Latin America

East Europe

Africa/Asia

Africa/Latin America

Asia

Latin America

Africa

0

DESTINATION COUNTRIES FOR SPANISH DELOCALISATION (2000-2007)

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Catalunya y Affected byy Delocalization

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INDUSTRY

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INDUSTRY

Industries are the driving forces of our Nation. The above studies drove our attention to “Industries�. All the industries are facing problems related to energy, environment, economy and delocalization. There is a need for innovation and the shift of industries to knowledge based economy has become mandatory. We studied two main industries- Food and Textile Industry. Taking the case specific of our site located in Poblenou district of Barcelona, Spain we made deeper studies for textile industry and decided to retrofit this Industry.

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FOOD

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INDUSTRY FOOD

“IF WE FAIL TO PROTECT THE FARMING PROFESSION, IT WILL BECOME EXTINCT.” -SLOW FOOD SPAIN

IN THE NAME OF PRODUCTIVITY, OUR LIVES HAS BEEN MODIFIED, REPRESENTING IN MANY CASES A THREAT TO THE ENVIRONMENT AND LANDSCAPE. AND IT IS THROUGH THE CULTURE AND NOT THROUGH ITS IMPOVERISHMENT, THAT THE PROGRESS COULD BEGIN WITH AN INTERCHANGE OF HISTORY, KNOWLEDGE AND PROJECTS. THE INDUSTRIAL AGRIFOOD MODEL THAT HAS ASSERTED ITSELF OVER THE LAST FIFTY YEARS IS ONE OF THE CAUSES OF THE MOST SERIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL AND CLIMATE CRISES EVER EXPERIENCED BY HUMANITY.

ON THE ONE HAND, INSOFAR AS THEY WERE CONSIDERED INEXTINGUISHABLE, NATURAL RESOURCES SUCH AS WATER, LAND, FORESTS AND WOODS HAVE BEEN EXPLOITED INDISCRIMINATELY, AND HAVE HENCE DETERIORATED IRREVERSIBLY. ON THE OTHER, INDUSTRIAL FARMING HAS MADE AN INCREASINGLY UNBRIDLED USE OF INPUTS OF FOSSIL ORIGIN, SUCH AS CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS, PESTICIDES AND PLASTICS.

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Food travelling around the world

2439 km 2380 km 1339 km

6787 km 4234 km 5034 km 3216 km 6227 km 7901 km 1937 km

The graphic shows the different places around the world where the food that is being consumed in Spain is coming from. This kind of consumption economy is not sustainable, and is one of the first activities that produce landscape and water pollution. The data is the average of km during a year that the different products travel before being consumed. 44

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United States France Italy Chile Argentina Brazil Costa Rica Portugal Germany Belgium

516.962.127

341.131.055

33.760.421

447.897.533

181.422.496

268.145.156

208.077.512

187.751.803

222.970.607

90.890.091

214.629.252

214.087.051

146.745.744

170.363.465

63.924.728

197.690.010

142.652.031

131.491.546

150.747.558

20.672.797

178.487.117

87.592.507

103.304.483

93.461.880

6.058.439

140.004.022

85.811.274

99.063.871

88.158.599

40.680.354

114.405.641

66.482.289

73.068.078

97.875.788

38.839.150

82.604.397

64.426.315

94.771.434

107.997.061

42.868.395

105.553.054

58.250.975

60.354.566

62.028.273

33.799.473

98.171.221

49.025.340

65.176.451

75.982.508

19.444.432 / TON

Imported fruits and vegetables

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TEXTILE

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INDUSTRY TEXTILE

DEPENDING ON THE AREA, YOU CAN FIND A HUGE VARIETY OF INDUSTRIES IN CATALUNYA. DURING THE 20TH CENTURY, OBE OF THE MOST POPULAR INDUSTRIES WAS TEXTILE, BUT NOW IT HAS ALMOST DISAPPEARED TEXTILE INDUSTRY HAS BECOME A FOCAL POINT IN MANY COUNTRIES IN NOWADAYS. SPANISH ACTIVITY IN THE TEXTILE-CLOTHING INDUSTRY SECTOR REPRESENTS A TENTH OF THE WHOLE OF EUROPE AND ITS THE FIFTH AMONG THE COUNTRIES OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. IN SPAIN, THE ARE 7,500 COMPANIES IN THIS SECTOR, PROVIDING AROUND 5 PERCENT OF THE GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT. THE TEXTILE SECTOR HAS A PARTICULARLY SIGNIFICANT WEIGHT IN CATALAN INDUSTRY. IT IS ESTIMATED AS REPRESENTING 8% OF INDIVIDUAL PRODUCTION AND 14% OF THE INDUSTRIAL OCCUPATION. IN RECENT YEARS. THE CATALAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY HAS EXPERIENCED UPHEAVAL.

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Local industrial production systems in the textile, clothing and leather industry in Catalonia NARROW FABRICS BAGES

COTTON SPINNING BAGES BERGUEDA OSONA

RECYCLING COTTON SPINNING GARROTXA

BOVINE LEATHER ANOIA KNOTTED FABRICS ANOIA

SHEEPSKIN VALLES ORIENTAL

KNITTED FABRICS MARESME

CLOTHING BARCELONA WOOL SHIPPING VALLES OCCIDENTAL

NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS

EMPLOYEES

UP TO 50

UP TO 1.000

50 - 100

1.000 - 3.000

MORE THAN 100

MORE THAN 3.000

TEXTILE INDUSTRY (million euros) 13.420

13.682 13.305 Imports

12.396 11.795 11.011

-4.761

10.031

-5.645

9.431

-5.662 -3.974

-5.093 -4.352

-2.994

Exports

-3.404 8.544 7.775

8.020

7.821

7.303 6.437

2003

50

6.627

6.659

2004

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2008

2009

2010


Enric

Mireia

Taruni

Urte

Dulce

Dori

Stuart

Moe

Surag

Angeliki

Juan Diego

Dirce

Diego

Aldo

Alejandra

Konstantina

Robert

Mauricio

Maria

Giorgios

Diego

Zeynep

Roopa

Elif

Marjan

Miguel

Chirag

Joe

Anca

} 1 day clothes 29 tshirts / blouses 58 socks 29 underwear 18 jeans

16 trousers or skirts 25 sweater or jackets 29 footwear

254,100 liters water for the growth of cotton

315,060 liters water for production and manufacturing

22,630 gr Pesticides

97,500 ppm NPES in our clothes Only 10% of us will recycle or donate our garments before leaving IAAC

5,085 kg CO2 emmisisons

[

Water needed to produce 2.40 tons of steel

2108 bathtubs

Enough to kill 9,052 rats

Cancer and several diseases

245 kg of waste in the landfill by the end of this school-year

29, 392 km by car

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SIMPLIFIED CONTRACTING CHAIN OF A BRANDNAME

BRAND NAME- INDITEX, GAP, NEXT

BRAND’S MAIN SOURCING OFFICE

BRAND’S NATIONAL SOURCING OFFICE

TIER 1 LARGE TRANS-NATIONAL MANUFACTURER

TIER 2 MEDIUM MANUFACTURER

TIER 3 SMALL / HOME BASED UNIT

TIER 3 HOME WORKERS

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THE TEXTILE CHAIN ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND LOSS AT VARIOUS LEVELS CHEMICAL INDUSTRY

AGRICULTURE

NONWOVENS

CROP SHEARING

SPINNING

FIBER

FIBER

SPINNING TWISTING TEXTURING

DYED FIBER

YARN

YARN

WEAVING KNITTING TUFTING NONWOVENS

DYED YARN

GREY FABRIC PRETREATMENT DYEING PRINTING COATING FINISHING

FABRIC FINISHING

FINISHED GOOD GARMENT DYEING

MAKING-UP

DYED GARMENT

READY-MADE TEXTILE WHOLESALE RETAIL SALE CONSUMER USE

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Company Center Design Transportation Production Raw Material Source

Workshops Finishing Transportation Distribution

Factory Sourcing Cheap labor

Collection Avaliable to public Consumer Waste

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300 million

COTTON INDUSTRY one of the largest agriculture industries

13 hrs a da y

200,000 IN USBEKISTAN 100,000 ANDHRA PRADESH

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THE RELEASES OF NPES FROM THE WASHING OF CLOTHES AND OTHER FABRIC PRODUCTS CONTRIBUTES TO ONGOING INPUTS OF NP TO RIVERS. THE SPANISH NATIONAL PRTR REPORTS SOME 1.19 TONNES OF NP/NPE DISCHARGES IN 2008, OF WHICH 1.18 TONNES WERE RELEASED FROM 12 URBAN WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS (UWWTPS). NINE OUT OF THESE 12 ARE LOCATED IN CATALONIA, WHICH CONTRIBUTED 1.09 TONNES.

1 MILLION TONNES / YEAR UK & GERMANY

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IMPORTS HAVE CAPTURED MORE THAN HALF OF THE MARKET AND SERIOUSLY THREATEN OTHER LARGE SEGMENTS OF THE INDUSTRY. CATALUNYA IS ONE OF THE REGIONS THAT HAVE BEEN PUNISHED MOST BECAUSE OF THE COMPETITION FROM LOW COST COUNTRIES, SPECIALLY FROM CHINA, WHICH RESULTED IN CLOSING UP OF MANY COMPANIES AND UNEMPLOYMENT. A RESPONSE TO THESE CHALLENGES CALLS FOR A MAJOR LEAP FORWARD IN INNOVATION BY PRIVATE ENTREPRENEURS AND ADVANCES IN THE QUALITY OF THE INFRASTRUCTURE OF PUBLIC ASSETS DEDICATED TO EXISTING AND POTENTIALLY EMERGING LOCAL INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

PUBLISHED BY: MINISTRY OF EMPLOYMENT AND INDUSTRY OF THE AUTONOMOUS GOVERNMENT OF CATALONIA DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRY.

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80 billion garments = 11 Garments / person a year

BUT In Germany alone (2011) 5.97 billion garments = 70 garments / person

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The Third Industrial Revolution Here, Jeremy Rifkin explores how Internet technology and renewable energy are merging to create a powerful “Third Industrial Revolution.” He asks us to imagine hundreds of millions of people producing their own green energy in their homes, offices, and factories, and sharing it with each other in an “energy internet,” just like we now create and share information online. Rifkin describes how the five-pillars of the Third Industrial Revolution will create thousands of businesses and millions of jobs, and usher in a fundamental reordering of human relationships, from hierarchical to cpower, that will impact the way we conduct business, govern society, educate our children, and engage in civic life. Rifkin’s vision is already gaining traction in the international community. The European Union Parliament has issued a formal declaration calling for its implementation, and other nations in Asia, Africa, and the Americas, are quickly preparing their own initiatives for the transition into the new economic paradigm. The Third Industrial Revolution is an insider’s account of the next great economic era, including a look into the personalities and players — heads of state, global CEOs, social entrepreneurs, and NGOs — who are pioneering its implementation around the world.

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The five pillars Third Industrial Revolution infrastructure are: Shifting to Renewable Energy: Renewable forms of energy— solar, wind, hydro, geothermal, ocean waves, and biomass— make up the first of the five pillars of the Third Industrial Revolution. While these energies still account for a small percentage of the global energy mix, they are growing rapidly as governments mandate targets and benchmarks for their widespread introduction into the market in spite of an almost total absence of cost-effectiveness or broad applicability, and their falling costs (due almost entirely to government tax-funding to hide costs) make them increasingly competitive in a political environment focused on believing in GREEN. Buildings as Power Plants: New technological breakthroughs make it possible, for the first time, to design and construct buildings that create all of their own energy from locally available renewable energy sources, allowing us to reconceptualize the future of buildings as “power plants”. The commercial and economic implications are vast and far reaching for the real estate industry and, for that matter, Europe and the world. In 25 years from now, millions of buildings – homes, offices, shopping malls, industrial and technology parks – will be constructed to serve as both “power plants” and habitats. These buildings will collect and generate energy locally from the sun, wind, garbage, agricultural and forestry waste, ocean waves and tides, hydro and geothermal– enough energy to provide for their own power needs as well as surplus energy that can be shared. Deploying Hydrogen and other storage technologies in every building and throughout the infrastructure to store intermittent energies. To maximize renewable energy and to minimize cost it will be necessary to develop storage methods that facilitate the conversion of intermit-

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tent supplies of these energy sources into reliable assets. Batteries, differentiated water pumping, and other media, can provide limited storage capacity. There is, however, one storage medium that is widely available and can be relatively efficient. Hydrogen is the universal medium that “stores” all forms of renewable energy to assure that a stable and reliable supply is available for power generation and, equally important, for transport. Using Internet technology to transform the power grid of every continent into an energy sharing intergrid that acts just like the Internet. The reconfiguration of the world’s power grid, along the lines of the internet, allowing businesses and homeowners to produce their own energy and share it with each other, is just now being tested by power companies in Europe. The new smart grids or intergrids will revolutionize the way electricity is produced and delivered. Millions of existing and new buildings—homes, offices, factories—will be converted or built to serve as “positive power plants” that can capture local renewable energy—solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, hydro, and ocean waves—to create electricity to power the buildings, while sharing the surplus power with others across smart intergrids, just like we now produce our own information and share it with each other across the Internet. Transitioning the transport fleet to electric, plug in and fuel cell vehicles that can buy and sell electricity on a smart continental interactive power grid. The electricity we produce in our buildings from renewable energy will also be used to power electric plug-in cars or to create hydrogen to power fuel cell vehicles. The electric plug in vehicles, in turn, will also serve as portable power plants that can sell electricity back to the main grid.

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II

CONCEPT

Architecture is not only about buildings, is about a structure in behaviour, in mind-shaping, in social spaces, designing systems in activities and innovation. That is why we decided to embrace multidisciplinary actions in this project. ACTIVISM We are architects/activists, we want people to know what is going on, we want to be part of the era of information, we want to communicate the problems of the world and to collaborate to find solutions. TEXTILES We’ll explain the actual toxic situation of textiles, highlighting the toxic components that we are using and that are contaminating our bodies, our environment and our society. BUILDING In this part we want to show you the conception of the project, where we summarize the theoretical part with the physical space.

It's not a faith in technology. It's faith in people. Steve Jobs IaaC MAA_01

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SOCIAL

ACTIVISM

LOCAL THEORETICAL-MANIFESTO

GLOBAL ACTIONS

ACTUAL SITUATION

TEXTILES

TISC

FIBERS CATALOGUE PARAMETERS

SITE PROGRAM

BUILDING

CONCEPTION SYSTEM

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CONSCIOUSNESS CAMPAIGN IAAC

FACEBOOK TWITTER TUMBLR

BARCELONA PROPOSALS LIFESTYLE ACTIVISTS INVOLVED

LIST POSION PARTICLES GREEN ECO FIBERS BLACK TOXIC FIBERS FARM DESIGN FARM CELLS PATTERNS

HISTORY

INDUSTRY IN POBLENOU

ACTUAL SITUATION

BUILDINGS LANDUSE WATER SURROUNDINGS

CYCLES FUNCTIONS AND ACTIVITIES

TECHNICAL BIOLOGICAL SOCIAL ECONOMICAL

DISTRIBUTION AREAS FUNCTION DIAGRAMS ITS ALL ABOUT PARTICLES WATER CYCLE PATTERNS BUILDING DESIGN LIIFELINE

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BUILDING FRAMEWORK The links show different connections of the cycles with the functions/activities and physical spaces in the building.

Experimantal Farms

Farms

Production

Processing Fibers

Fab lab

Harvesting

Composting

CYCLES Natural Urban Farming Biodegradation

Technical Fibers Textiles Water Energy

Social Multi-Disciplinary Knowledge Sharing Innovation Bulding TISC Art Movement

Economic Local Economic Stimulation Job Opportunities Textile Innovation Km 0 Material Networking Companies

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Storage

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Workshops

Training Farm

Material Eperimentation

Education Farm

Offices

Accommodation

Collaboration Farm


Laboratories

Design Farm

Conception farm

Exhbitions Art Farm

Solar Farm

Label

Installations

Chimneys

Wind Farm Farmers Market

Clean Water Storage Designer Market

Distillation

Water lake

Filtration

Component

Community Garden

TISC ECO UNIQUE

BIODEGRADABLE- ____ % Place of Production- TISC Place of Innovation and Design- TISC People Involved (TISC): Designer Researchers Scienticsts Students Ethical Labour materials: Algae, moss, plants, recycled material (everything is grown and recycled inside TISC) Material Composition: Algae- ____ % Cotton- ____ % Agrotextiles- ____ % Recycled- ____ % Plant fibres- ____ % Techno logy Used: Nano-technology- ____ % Biotechnology- ____ % TIC- ____ % Ecological Footprint - 0 CO2 emissions - Absorbed ____ % Water - Recycled & Reused ____ % Ene r gy: Resources- Renewable Wind- ____ % Water- ____ % Algae- ____ % Consumption- ____ /piece

FUNCTIONS / ACTIVITIES 2012-2013

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Cradle to Cradle Theory Cradle to Cradle design (also referred to as Cradle to Cradle, C2C, cradle 2 cradle, or regenerative design) is a biomimetic approach to the design of products and systems. It models human industry on nature’s processes viewing materials as nutrients circulating in healthy, safe metabolisms. It suggests that industry must protect and enrich ecosystems and nature’s biological metabolism while also maintaining a safe, productive technical metabolism for the high-quality use and circulation of organic and technical nutrients. Put simply, it is a holistic economic, industrial and social framework that seeks to create systems that are not only efficient but also essentially waste free. The model in its broadest sense is not limited to industrial design and manufacturing; it can be applied to many aspects of human civilization such as urban environments, buildings, economics and social systems. In the cradle to cradle model, all materials used in industrial or commercial processes—such as metals, fibers, dyes—fall into one of two categories: “technical” or “biological” nutrients. Technical nutrients are strictly limited to non-toxic, non-harmful synthetic materials that have no negative effects on the natural environment; they can be used in continuous cycles as the same product without losing their integrity or quality. In this manner these materials can be used over and over again instead of being “downcycled” into lesser products, ultimately becoming waste.

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Biological Nutrients are organic materials that, once used, can be disposed of in any natural environment and decompose into the soil, providing food for small life forms without affecting the natural environment. This is dependent on the ecology of the region; for example, organic material from one country or landmass may be harmful to the ecology of another country or landmass.

Structure Initially defined by McDonough and Braungart, the Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute’s five certification criteria are: Material health, which involves identifying the chemical composition of the materials that make up the product. Particularly hazardous materials (e.g. heavy metals, pigments, halogen compounds etc.) have to be reported whatever the concentration, and other materials reported where they exceed 100 ppm. For wood, the forest source is required. The risk for each material is assessed against criteria and eventually ranked on a scale with green being materials of low risk, yellow being those with moderate risk but are acceptable to continue to use, and red for materials that have high risk and need to be phased out. Grey for materials with incomplete data. The method uses the term ‘risk’ in the sense of hazard (as opposed to consequence and likelihood). Material reutilization, which is about recovery and recycling at the end of product life. Assessment of energy required for production, which for the highest level of certification needs to be based on at least 50% renewable energy for all parts and subassemblies. Water, particularly usage and discharge quality. Social responsibility, which assesses fair labor practices.

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ACTIVISM

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TISC

TISC

ECO UNIQUE

ECO UNIQUE

BIODEGRADABLE- ____ % Place of Production - TISC Place of Innovation and Design- TISC

TRANSPARENT COSTS: Production Raw materials Factory Operation labour Taxes Company profits

People Involved (TISC): Designer Researchers Scienticsts Students Ethical Labour MATERIALS: Algae, moss, plants, recycled material (everything is grown and recycled inside TISC) Material Composition: Algae- ____ % Cotton- ____ % Agrotextiles- ____ % Recycled- ____ % Plant fibres- ____ % TECHNOLOGY USED: Nano-technology- ____ % Biotechnology- ____ % TIC- ____ % Ecological Footprint - 0 CO2 emissions - Absorbed ____ % Water - Recycled & Reused ____ %

Sustainability Certifications: LEEDS- Platinum LEEDS- Gold MULTIFUNCTIONAL TEXTILES: Antibacterial Scented Deodorant UV resistent Energising Customised Antimicrobial Bioactive

ENERGY: Resources- Renewable Wind- ____ % Water- ____ % Algae- ____ % Consumption- ____ /piece Workforce: Machinery Manufacturing (ethical) Fabrication time SUSTAINABLE: Recycle- 100% Water Treatment Cycle Waste- ____ %

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No wastage of water

No use of toxic chemicals

RENEWABLE ENERGIES

No waste

+

100% Biodegradable

Ethical labour

Innovation

Transparent Costs

Urban Agriculture

Cluster of Knowledge

Sustainable production

Buy when you need

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Clean Energy production

ENVIRONMENT

Production of own resources (materials) Ecologic production Reduce of ecological footprint Zero waste production Control of CO2 emissions Recycling CO2 absorption Stop contributing to the pollution in developing countries Consumer’s and public’s health protection

ECONOMIC

Consideration to local facts Local production - Unique Products Local investment Creation of jobs New prototype for industries Support of new technologies

KNOWLEDGE

Quality products Creation of knowledge Knowledge exchange Take textiles to a technological and knowledge phase Qualified workers Awareness of consumption

ETHICAL

No more disposable products Fair working environment Acupunctural healing system Social responsability Collective efforts in different layers

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techno logy

km zer o resour

ces pr oduction

biodiversity recy cle

mu lti-disciplinar

reuse

y

techno logy

pr ob at or y

fa ct or y ethics

jobs

local knowledge & inno vation selfsufficient r&d

responsive

symbio tic man ag ement clean

intera ctive

building expression

technol

rene wable

ogy new label

modernism power plant

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SEEDS TEXTILE INNOVATION MANIFESTO We are a Global Art movement of Architects, activists, designers, entrepreneurs and bloggers, retrofitting the Textile Industry with a sustainable approach. We want to ensure the organic status of textiles from harvesting of the raw materials through environmentally and socially responsible manufacturing all the way to labeling in order to provide credible assurance to the consumer. We believe that brands and suppliers must act immediately to stop poisoning waterways around the world with hazardous chemicals. It is our water; we have a right to know. We believe in rewarding and collaborating with honest and progressive disciplines and companies, and will encourage others to do the same for effective knowledge sharing. We promote fair trade at all levels. No to child labour and providing the best working conditions to the people is our first priority.

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Social media is a powerful tool to spread globally and to communicate directly with all users, We found out that many people is interested and that its a global concern. We know that we can change the way of thinking and to inform what is happening.

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The toxic particles in clothes conforms a list 11 principal elements like heavy metals as lead, mercury, chromium, chlorophenols, chlorinated solvents, dyes, just to name a few. Most of these chemicals has been firbidden by the European Union due to harmful effects for the enviroment and humans, causing cancer in some cases. The catalogue is the comparisson between different kinds of fibers, where we have the ones produced under toxic processes and unethical behaviors on the left side, while on the right side are the ones with organic alternatives and procedures more according to the proposed manifesto. After having a catalogue of information and images, we selected the one that can grow in Barcelona, having in mind natural cycles conditions such as climate, solar radiation, water and other cycles that create a series of open self connected loops.

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Harmful

Fibers

In-organic Cotton Nylon Rayon In-organic Silk

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Fibers

Eco-friendly y Organic Cotton Silk Bamboo Hemp Potatoes Algae

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NON-ORGANIC COTTON TYPE SOURCE ATTRIBUTES BIODEGRADABLE CHEMICALS

Plant based Shrub Lightweight, absorbent Decomposes after prolonged exposure to tempera tures of 150ËšC or over Orthophosphates, methamidophos, endosulfan, Trifluralin, Toxaphene and DDT

HARMFUL EFFECTS

Use heavy metals like chromium, copper and zinc for dying and for confection is use nickel, all of them contaminants and harmful in contact with the skin of people. DISADVANTAGES Chemicals used are highly toxic to farmers and the environment

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ORGANIC COTTON TYPE SOURCE BENEFITS BIODEGRADABLE PESTICIDES CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OTHER ATTRIBUTES

Plant based Shrub Lightweight, absorbent, reduce the effects of skin diseases Decomposes after prolonged exposure to tempera tures of 150 ยบC or over Composted tea leaves, animal manure 11-25 ยบC Reduce the use of pesticides Respectful withearth cycles Better quality Not chemical treatment

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NYLON TYPE SOURCE ATTRIBUTES

BIODEGRADABLE CHEMICALS HARMFUL EFFECTS

ENERGY CONSUMPTION

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Polyamide Thermoplastic Elongation, durability, high resistant (to chemicals, insects, fungi, mildew) , melts instead of burning, No - Hydrolisis during the molding can degrade it Diamine and a dicarboxylic acid Various nylons break down in fire and form hazardous smoke, and toxic fumes or ash, typically containing hydrogen cyanide. Incinerating nylons to recover the high energy used to create them is usually expensive, so most nylons reach the MAA_01 2012-2013 garbage dumps, decaying very slowly.


HEMP TYPE SOURCE BENEFITS BIODEGRADABLE PESTICIDES

Plant based Cannabis Strength, durability, thermical comfort Decomposes after prolonged exposure to tempera tures of 150ยบC or over Not herbicides needed

CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

Daytime high temperatures

WATER CONSUMPTION

Hemp requires a lot of moisture (10-13 in.) of rainfall equivalent Reflect 95% of UV rays Quickly grows up to 5 m Extremely versatile

OTHER ATTRIBUTES

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NON-ORGANIC SILK TYPE SOURCE ATTRIBUTES

Polymer based Chinese mulberry silkworm Smooth fabric finish with high sheen

BIODEGRADABLE

100 % biodegradable

DISADVANTAGES

UNETHICAL Worms or producing moths are sometimes injured or killed during the collection of their cocoons. Expensive Delicate

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SILK TYPE SOURCE ATTRIBUTES BIODEGRADABLE PESTICIDES OTHER ATTRIBUTES

DISADVANTAGES

Animal based Chinese mulberry silkworm Smooth fabric finish with high sheen 100 % biodegradable ETHICAL One of the strongest natural fibers Thermal comfort Expensive Delicate

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RAYON TYPE SOURCE ATTRIBUTES CHEMICALS

Plant based Manufactured cellulose fiber obtained from bamboo (Semi-synthetic) Soft, smooth, cool, comfortable, and highly absorbent Carbon disulfide

HARMFUL EFFECTS

Chemicals used are highly toxic for the environment and also for the workers Irritate the eyes, skin and the smell could generate neurological disorders

DISADVANTAGES

The process for textile is expensive, prolonged and release a high amount of toxics to the environment

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BAMBOO TYPE SOURCE BENEFITS BIODEGRADABLE

Plant based Grass pulp Lightweight, pliable fibre, antimicrobial Putting original bamboo product into the soil, it will be 100% biodegraded after 8-10 months CLIMATIC CONDITIONS Warm temperatures depending upon the species. WATER CONSUMPTION Requieres humidity OTHER ATTRIBUTES One of the fastest-growing plants on Earth High durability, stability and tenacity Not chemical process involved Thermal Regulator Respecful with Earth cycles 1 ha produces 10 times more fiber than a cotton one and with less water

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POTATO TYPE SOURCE ATTRIBUTES BIODEGRADABLE PESTICIDES CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

Plant based Grass pulp Lightweight, pliable fibre Decomposes after prolonged exposure to tempera tures of 150ยบC or over Composted tea leaves, animal manure Warm temperatures depending upon the species.

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TOXIC CHEMICALS 1) Alkylphenols Include nonylphenol (NPs) and ethoxylated octylphenol and particularly nonylphenol ethoxylates. Use: Washing and dyeing processes. Effects: Toxic to aquatic life Persistent environment bio accumulating in body tissues. May lead to a sexual hormonal disruptions in some organisms. 2) Phthalates Use: in the artificial leather in the rubber and PVC. Also in some dyes. Effects: Classified as “toxic to reproduction� in Europe and therefore its use is res`tricted. According to the European REACH, these subs tances will be prohibited by 2015. 3) Brominated flame retardants and chlorinated Use: used in textiles to reduce the flammability of the product. Effects: Persistent and bioaccumulative chemicals now present in the environment. Some PBDEs are capable of interfering with the hormone sys tems involved in growth and sexual development. 4) Azo dyes Use: They are one of the main types of dyes used by the textile industry. Effects: As part of the degraded with the use they release chemicals known as aromatic amines, some of them can cause cancer when in contact with skin. The EU has forbidden its use.

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5) Organometallic compounds Use: Has been used in products such as socks, shoes and sportswear to prevent odor caused by sweat. Effects: Persists in the environment, which accumulates in the body and can affect the immune and reproductive systems. 6) Perfluorinated Use: In the textile industry used to make leather and antistain products. Effects: They persist in the environment It can accumulate in body tissue through the food chain. Once in the body, there is evidence that affect the liver. They act as hormone disrupters alternating levels of growth and reproduction hormones. 7) Chlorobenzenes Use: In dyes and as chemical intermediates. Effects: Affections to the liver, thyroid and central nervous system. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the most toxic chemical substance and persistent in this group. It also acts as a hormone disruptor. 8) Chlorinated Solvents Is a substance that depletes the ozone layer and may persist in the environment. Use: Are used in textile fabrication to dissolve other substances during the manufacture and laundering of fabrics. Effects: Affect the central nervous system, liver and kidneys. Since 2008, the EU has severely restricted the use of ECT in both products and textile washing.

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9) Chlorophenols Use: Group of chemicals which are used as biocides in a wide range of applications, from pesticides to textiles and wood preservatives. Effects: Highly toxic to humans and can affect many organs. It is also highly toxic to aquatic organisms. The EU banned the production of products containing PCP in 1991 and now restric ting the sale and use of all products containing this substance.

10) Short-chain chlorinated paraffins Use: Are used as flame retardants for textile and leather finishing. Effects: They are highly toxic to aquatic organisms, do not readily degra de in the environment and have a high potential to accumulate in living organisms.

11) Heavy metals: cadmium, lead, mercury and chromium (VI) Use: They have been used in certain dyes and pigments. Chromium (VI) is used in certain processes in the textile and leather tanning. Effects: These metals can accumulate in the body over time and are highly toxic, irreversible effects, including damage to the ner vous system (lead and mercury) or kidney (cadmium). Cadmium is also associated with cancer diseases.

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Required daily minimum temperature germination 16c Temperature for proper vegetative growth 21c-27c It tolerate temperatures as high as 43 c but not below 21c

Temperature needed for germination 25c Vegetative growth 17 - 20 Tubertization and tuber development. Potatoes required high light intensity. Tuberization and tuber development.

During the period of vegetative growth, hemp responds to daytime high temperatures with increased growth and increased water needs. After develop some leaves it can resist daily low temperatures as -1 c for 5 days. Tuberization and tuber development.

The physiological processes of a lot of grape vines begin with temperatures of 10 c. When the average daily temperature is between 17 and 20c the vine will begin flowering. When temperatures move into the 27 c the processes are in full stride as grape clusters begin to ripen on the vine. Tuberization and tuber development.

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TEMPERATURE

Warm temperatures depending on the species.


It needs at least 1 inch of water every 10 days. To ensure that the plants have enough water, the soil needs to be soaked every 10 days, from spring to late fall. Omit watering for 10 days after heavy or prolonged rains.

Putting into soil decomposition: putting original bamboo fiber or original bamboo products into soil, it will be 100% biodegraded after 8-10months

It has been estimated that rainfall of 15 to 20 cm or an equivalent amount of irrigation is sufficient for normal crop. The optimum soil moisture for the potato crop is 65 to 80 percent the field capacity.

100% Biodegradable

It requires a lot of moisture. The crop needs 300-400 mm of rainfall equivalent. It is important to make use of early soil moisture and to obtain early ground cover to reduce surface evaporation in case of no rain. About half of this moisture is required during flowering and seed set in order to produce maximum grain yields.

100% Biodegradable

A grapevine needs around 700 mm of water for substance during the growing season.

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BIODEGRADABLE

Decomposes after prolonged exposure to temperatures of 150c or over

MOISTURE

Cotton requires an annual rainfall of at least 50 cm distributes throughout the growing season.

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BUILDING

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Location: Barcelona, Spain District: Poble Nou @22

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The site is located in Barcelona Spain, in the Poblenou District, The main street is Pere IV, we are part of the @22 district, we are near Parc Central from Jean Nouvel. It is inmersed in empty lots, abandoned buildings, irregular housing. Also in the site there is la escocesa a reminder of the activities that took place before.

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INDUSTRY IN POBLENOU INDUSTRIALIZATION 1846

1750 NATURAL LANDSCAPE

1904

1860 AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE

INDUSTRIAL LANDSCAPE

textile chimneys in relationship with our site 14 textile chimneys 14 industrial chimneys

“The chimney has become an iconic landmark of the industrial landscape”

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INDUSTRIALIZATION FALL 1965

1979

1992

1986

INDUSTRIALIZATION RESTORE 2000

2013

RESIDENTIAL AND SERVICES LANDSCAPE

SUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPE

El pueblo martinense/Barcelona 1875

Chimneys in poblenou

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EXISTING BUILDINGS IN THE SITE

Abandoned Area = 9, 269.21

Office Area = 5, 186.15 m2

Recreation Area = 2, 628.15 m2

Housing

Area = 6, 156.45 m2

Others Area = 2, 270.98 m2

Storage Area = 23, 019.05 m2

Under construction Area = 11, 853.40 m2

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TOTAL AREA = 79, 868.01 m2 REUSED BUILDINGS (area) = 15, 986.75 m2 ELIMINATED BUILDINGS (area) = 32, 543.24m2 EMPTY AREA = 63, 881.26m2

TOTAL AREA = 79, 868.01 m2 OCCUPIED AREA = 48, 529.99 m2 EMPTY AREA = 31, 338.02 m2

PERE IV

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BUILDING LIFELINES ACTIVISTS DESIGNERS SCIENTISTS COMPANIES LABOUR (SKILLED & UNSKILLED) GENERAL PUBLIC AGRICULTURISTS PHYSICIANS BIOLOGISTS

MULTI DISCIPLANRY

INT ER AC TIV E

G IN SS CE

FIB ER

PR O

ADD WATER

SOWING (seeds)

TREATMENT LANDFILL

CONSUME

GERMINATION FOOD CHAIN

RETURN

PRODUCTION GROWING

AN FARMING URB

DEGRADATION BIO

FUNGE & BACTERIA

GREY WATER COMPOSTE

INTERACT CONSUMPTION REPRODUCTION

MINIRALIZATION (NH4 / NO2) DIE

USE

ORGANIC MATTER

WA

TE

GY ER

PLANTS (O2)

R

EN

SURFACE RUNOFF

DISTRIBUTE

FILTER MINIRALIZATION

GENERATE

HARVEST (storage)

EVAPORATION & CONDENSATION

N TIO VA NO IN UC OD PR

TS

TS TEN PAT

LA BE L

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WATER (SEA & RAIN)

S& M

G IN LIV

NATURAL RESOURCES (WIND & SOLAR)

CH & DEVELOPMENT RESEAR

SEPARATE FIBERS

EXHIBITION

MA

TION ORA LAB COL

ART MO VEM EN T

FINISHING

TE XT ILE

RM FO

BUILDING LANG UAGE

T AT PL

DESIGN

MILL

ING SHAR GE LED OW KN

INN OVA TIO N

FABRIC

RESOURCES ACCUMULATE

E UR CT FA NU

ETHIC

G IN AR SH

CO M M UN IT

CE UR SO

Y

OP EN


The main idea is to make this building the future of Textile Industries. This is a prototype created for Barcelona, Spain. Using the same concepts other prototypes can be created to replicate the model all around the world and retrofit the Textile Industry. Studies were made on cell organization in plants. Urban farming being the essential part of the program the building design reflects the same. The main idea is to do urban farming with natural patterns. With the cell organization we have the distribution of seeds and the points of our mesh envelope- The Urban Fabric. The form and layers of the mesh are defined by The cycles (natural, technical, social and the building design cycle). The solar analysis defines areas for the location of different crops. The end product is the new model that will bring revolution in this Industry.

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CRADLE TO CRADLE PHILOSOPHY

Dr. William McDonough & Michael Braungart. It models human industry on nature’s processes viewing materials as nutrients circulating in healthy, safe metabolisms.

INDUSTRIAL AREA

NATURAL LANDSCAPE

ABANDONED

ECOLOGICAL TEXTILE INDUSTRY

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LANDSCAPE

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BUILDING DESIGN LIFELINE

O GR

DE GR AD AB LE

SEEDSS SOWING SEE

G

IN

W UM

BIO

DI ME

NATURAL TURAL FABRIC

WATER TER

NATURAL TURAL

TECHNICAL

GR O W

G IN SS CE

IN

G

O PR

HARVEST HA

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CELL ORGANISATION

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We started to study the cell organization in plants. Urban farming being the essential part of the program we want our building design to reflect it. The main idea is to do urban farming with natural patterns. Here are some patterns that we studied in some of the plants.

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MESH GENERATION Abstraction of a cloud of points from the microscopic cotton cell, that they are translated into a cloud of seeds.

The seeds result in a mesh where the cycles take place. Natural Cycle, Technical Cycle, Social Cycle, Design Cycle

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H2O -GPS WATER FLOW PATTERNS -WATER QUALITY: TOXIC LEVELS PH VALUE NUTRIENTS

ALGAE -PRODUCTION QUANTITY QUALITY TYPES

CARBON DIOXIDE

ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING -SOURCE ULTRAVIOLET LEDS WATTS REQUIRED

-SOURCES QUANTITY QUALITY

IN THE COMPONENT water purity levels biomas crude detector

IN THE BUILDING lighting patterns

CLEAN WATER

CRUDE BIOMASS

FIBERS HARVESTING REGULAR CONSUMPTION GARDENING CLEANING

POWER PLANT ALGAE FIBERS

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“The seeds are nurtured with a compound of contemporariness, utopia, life, invention, risk, digits and intelligence� Enric Ruiz-Geli

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SEED DISTRIBUTION

Seeds as an input for distribution

Distribution based on the cell organization in plants

Seed distribution

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SOLAR ANALYSIS

Analysis executed in Galapagos solver according with the solar exposure and area required in order to develop the program.

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SHADOW ANALYSIS

WINTER SHADOW ANALYSIS

SUMMER SHADOW ANALYSIS

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WATER

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In order to make a shift in the industry, the development model has to change and so is the managment of natural resources. Right now the textile industry is one of the most water pollutants in the planet. With the project, the idea is to change the industrial process, beggenig with the raw material. This new organic materials has to be grown according to their specific natural processes and cycles, so the building has to respond directly to these requirements. The building will use water, a lot of water! But it will use it in a clever and effective way, where it recolects water from different natural resources, like rain water, where in regular building is waster; also from the sea, the planet contains a high porcentage of salt water that is not fully which we dont take advantage due to the high price of desalinization. So by using the salt water in some crops and by inserting it into the microclimates of the buiding we will be able to get water in different states and qualities, rain, grey, lake, sea, salt. WATER!

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The factory needs 40,000-60,000 ltrs of water for producing 20,000 pounds of textiles per day. There are different processes involved in producing the final piece of cloth. Each step needs water, for example processing plants into fibers, threading, bleaching, dyeing, sizing etc.

TEXTILE FACTORY

6 hectares of Agricultural land would need 150,000-240,000 ltrs of water per day. This amount is calculated taking in consideration the water requirements for Cotton, Hemp and Bamboo.

AGRICULTURE

OUR BUILDING NEEDS WATER!

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Total Water Requirement 190,000-300,000 ltrs of water per day

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In order to achieve this quantity of water the building needs to act as a water plant. The agenda is to be self sufficient. The building needs to recycle and reuse the water. CRADLE TO CRADLE is the main principle. So whatever waste the building produces it recycle and reuses that waste water. The water also that the building uses is either sea water, rain water or grey water from the surroundings.

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mediterrenean sea

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RAINWATER CATCHMENT

SEA WATER

PUMPING STATION

FILTRATION

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CO2

Biodiversity

ADDING NUTRIENTS

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NANO-FILTRATION

GREY WATER

CONSUMPTION

SURROUNDING GREY WATER

DISTILLATION

THE PROCESS

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SEA WATER DISTILLATION & CONDENSATION. AVAILABLE ALL YEAR. 1.5 KM AWAY FROM THE BUILDING.

30%

GREY WATER NANO-FILTRATION.

AVAILABLE- 318,174 lt / day

60%

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Short description of the image.

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1,400 lt /day

60p

6,048 lt /day

100p

10,080 lt /day

450p

45,360 lt /day

410p

41,328 lt /day

560p

56,448 lt /day

60p

6,048 lt /day

1635p

320p

32,356 lt /day

17,808 lt /day

280p

28,224 lt /day

26,208 lt /day

260p

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DISTILLATION SOLAR DISTILLER The principle of the solar distiller is to use the sun’s heat energy magnified by a glass or reflector into the component with a focus point. The water is evaporated and condenses to give fresh water.

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Component Fan

Water Collector

Reflector

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“Its All About Particles.” Enric Ruiz-Geli

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SEEDS 2012-2013

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WATER 142

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PLANT GROWTH 2012-2013

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THE AXIS

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THE LANDSCAPE

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URBAN FABRIC

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SITEPLAN

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