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ACADEMIC

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The Allegory of Site and Resettling of Smith Cove University of Washington

Capitol Hill Culture Collective University of Washington

Garbage Urbanism in Rainier Valley University of Washington


PROFESSIONAL

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Neighborhood Greenways Bicycle Urbanism GEHL Architects

Urban Quality Consultants GEHL Architects

Live Work Units Residential Townhomes Johnston Architects

JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

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JENNIFER C HEN RICHTER

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01 Academic Project

THE ALLEGORY OF SITE AND THE RESETTLING OF SMITH COVE

Location Smith Cove, Seattle, WA

Client University of Washington

Status Completed Dec. 2012

A Gambled Land and an Engineered Means This thesis is inspired by an interest in the historical underpinnings of site, the pressing concern of climate change and the role of architecture in the genre of magical realism. The goal of this project is to add to discourses of today and the ways in which we speak about the future. The chosen site is Interbay, a rail yard situated in a valley between Magnolia Hill and Queen Anne Hill. Touching both the salt water of the naturally made Puget Sound and the brackish water of the man-made Lake Washington Ship Canal, this site was selected for its embodied magical qualities- forces on the site that can be felt but not seen.

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Early settlers brought to the site their pioneering attitude, overlaying the notion of risk taking and modern engineering on the land. The ghosts of these forefathers still exist as forces on the site, the relics of the past, and the embodied character of gambling and engineering the landscape. These forces permeate the site, spanning across space and time. Given the scientific prediction of rising sea levels, we will most likely encounter a new frontier in the next 300-500 years, once again facing an uncharted territory that will require resettlement. The settler will return to address these high stakes and to construct this new infrastructure. This project proposes both an engineered and gambled solution—this is the role of the architect.


Smith Cove Disappearing Breakdown

5ft

1863

1934

1947 - 2013

100 - 300 Years

Data taken from “What Could Disappear,” New York Times, Nov. 2012

12ft

by 2300

25ft

300 - 500 Years


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JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

A GAMBLE OF HENRY SMITH

In 1853, Henry Smith took a gamble as the first settler to stake claim to the southern region of the site. Smith envisioned this former cove as a city center and gambled on building the rail yard in this location. This was a dramatic undertaking and in the dream of making this a reality, the settling of Smith Cove was a magical feat.

Henry Smith - 1904

Interbay, Seattle Municipal Archives

Composite Overlay

“So they idled their way up the broad, fertile valley, so happy that they forgot that work was ever necessary, while the valley of the moon was a golden dream, remote, but sure, some day of realization.” ŽŽ Jack London, T h e Va l l e y o f t h e M o o n

Composite Overlay - Wax Studies and SLR Photograph

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A PIONEERING SPIRIT & AN ENGINEERED LAND

Interbay is the industrial switching yard of Seattle. A single train track in the late 19th century, has grown to 20 tracks today. In 1911, the former tidelands were filled in with debris from the Lake Washington Ship Canal dredging. Today, 150 acres of waterways stand capped by parking lots, structures and minimal landscape. The site as it exists today, is an engineered landscape, a relic of Seattle’s industrial past.

Smith Cove - 1984

Given the notion of rising sea levels and the subsequent encountering of a new frontier an imagined resettlement of Smith Cove is proposed. The persona of the early settler is developed as two characters on the site: the gambler and the engineer.

“Architecture is the meditation of finitude… the symbolic redistribution of desire… the execution of exquisite barriers…the history of a place told in broken code…” ŽŽ Douglas Darden, Condemned Buildings

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The Gambler The gambler takes risks without probable stakes, all the while hopeful of a positive payoff. A primary example of gambling the landscape is building a railroad on a mudflat, a precarious proposition for water turned into land.

The Engineer The engineer methodically calculates ways to bring dreams into reality. He builds and builds—the railway and the infrastructure to create the modern world; a grand vision of the ‘future’. He doesn’t like to leave things up to chance. Collected artifacts found throughout Seattle combine in first expression of the gambler and engineer. Welded steel, bronze and mahogany self-constructed stands.

Smith Cove - 2013

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JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

THE WATER RETURNS

Photo - Heikki Alanen

The first task is to address how the water will reenter the site. The initial response– an engineered response– is to redirect the water building up the site as finger-like islands. The water is funneled & canyons are formed. This approach was inspired by the spatial experience of being between the trains.

Build Up the Site as Islands and Control the Flow of Water

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Site Plan - 1:4000


A TOWER

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A tower acts as a compass, always orienting one in relation to the center. The tectonics of the tower also merge the characteristics of the gambler and engineer. It is a precarious structure where the highly efficient engineer’s truss has been played upon by the gambler.

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JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

BRIDGES

Bridges are necessary to span from land to land, to cross the valley, and to connect the new landform with the old. The bridges merge two tectonic languages, each representing the character of the engineer and the gambler—two solid anchoring structures and a tenuous spanning element.

3D Rendering of Bridge

“ West they had fared until the Pacific itself had stopped them, and here they had made their clearing, built their rude houses, and settled. In them Farthest West had been reached.” ŽŽ Jack London, T h e Va l l e y o f t h e M o o n

Rendering of Bridge

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SHELTER

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Shelter is the final expression where one observes the character, quirks, and tectonics of each character. The gambler and the engineer are separated into individual dwelling spaces yet they are essentially connected.

The Gambler

The Engineer

ƒƒ ƒƒ ƒƒ ƒƒ

ƒƒ ƒƒ ƒƒ ƒƒ

Sunken, reaching towards the unknown water Heavy structure, yet hides behind a warm wood facade Dreams towards the sky to relate to her world Always ready to float away

suspended steel aiming for ever greater heights regular grid pattern and custom fasteners looks to the earth, grounded in physical observations travels via a cantilevered walkway

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02 Academic Project

CAPITOL HILL CULTURE COLLECTIVE

Location Capitol Hill, Seattle, WA

Client University of Washington

Status Completed June. 2012

Embracing Vibrant Expression of the Neighborhood Culture Collective builds upon the diversity of expression found in Capitol Hill. This distinct neighborhood thrives on the unique energy of each of its residents creating an experience of place that is invigorating and inspiring. The primary design strategy is based upon a central and unifying vertical circulation, held together on each side by the dynamic programmatic elements. Like each individual resident of Capitol Hill, the site exhibits its own character embodied in an island siting with tapered

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parcel edges. The form of the building works both with the uniqueness of the site holding true to its island nature, as well as, establishing its outline based on parallel lines to the parcel edges. The space between is then connected with a central atrium that allows for visual connections throughout the building’s primary circulation.


Intersection of Madison St. and 12th Avenue


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JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

URBAN STRATEGY

The main entrances of the building pull back and gesture to the university to the south, to the alleyway to the north-west and towards an urban park to the north-east. Public space ensues that is accessible directly from the cafe in both morning and afternoon. With an open ground floor plan the building allows for clear sight lines throughout the main floor and to the urban spaces beyond.

MADISON AND 16th MADISON AND 16th

The Facade The building’s facade is inspired by the “bulletin-board” postering found throughout the neighborhood coupled with local textures & patterns. MADISON AND 16th

MADISON AND 16th

Site Plan - 1:500

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MADISON AND 16th


JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

URBAN STRATEGY

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Madison Street & Locations in Seattle

Lake Washington

Elliott Bay

EAST PINE STREET

SENECA STREET

EAST PINE STREET EAST PINE STREET

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16th AVE

10th AVE

10th AVE

10th AVE

EAST PINE STREET

10th AVE

BROADWAY COURT

BROADWAY COURT

BROADWAY COURT

BROADWAY COURT

SENECA STREET

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JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

DAYLIGHTING

9:00

12:00

18:00

East Madison St. & 10th Ave. IHOP Site December 21st

December 21st March 21st June 21st March 21st

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N June 21st

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DAYLIGHTING

9:00

12:00

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18:00

East Madison St. & East Pine St. 7-Eleven Site December 21st

December 21st March 21st June 21st

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March 21st

June 21st

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JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

SITE PATTERNS

PEOPLE MOVEMENT Weekday in the Morning (30min. Observations)

Weather Heavy Rain | Cold | Windy

Dominant Noises Cars | Buses | Rain Pedestrians Bicycles

IHOP Lots of Movement Along South Side of Madison | Dominant Vehicle Traffic | IHOP Very Busy | Mostly SU Students, Working Individuals

12th Ave. No Dead Moments | Mostly High School Students, Individuals, Few Pairs, One Family | Lost of Runners | Heavy Vehicle Traffic | Lost of Bicycles Going North-South

7-Eleven Dominant Vehicle Traffic Along Madison | Lost of People Waiting for Bus | Congregation in Front of Co-op

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SITE PATTERNS

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PEOPLE MOVEMENT Weekday in the Afternoon (30min. Observations)

Weather Rain | Cold

Dominant Noises Cars | Buses Pedestrians Bicycles

IHOP Lots of Movement on Both Sides of Madison | Dominant Vehicle Traffic | IHOP Very Busy | 10th Ave. Becomes an Unmarked Crosswalk

12th Ave. Very Busy | Mostly High School Students, Individuals, Few Pairs, One Family | Construction Workers | Heavy Vehicle Traffic

7-Eleven Dominant Vehicle Traffic Along Madison | Picked Up Pedestiran Activity | More Congregation in Front of Co-op

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JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

NEIGHBORHOOD FABRIC

2003 1997

CAPITOL HILL

1990 1987 1969 1967

1950

1928 1926 1920 1908 1902 1900 1890 1883 1872 1856 1852

FIRST HILL

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CENTRAL DISTRICT


SURROUNDING AREAS

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The area surrounding the two sites is characterized by varied building scales and porosity. Alleys, parking lots, construction sites, and throughways cut through the city block, revealing changes in scale, use, material and typology.

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JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

CAR NETWORK

Madison St. Prominence Historical Street Car Network

HISTORICAL STREET CAR NETWORK

1896

1896 02

MADISON ST. PROMINENCE

1933

1933


NEIGHBORHOOD EVOLUTION

Years

Residents

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NEIGHBORHOOD NEIGHBORHOOD NEIGHBORHOOD EVOLUTION EVOLUTION EVOLUTION

Business Institution

Housing Types

1905

1930

1950

1970

2000

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JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

Building Uses 7-Eleven Site

Site Apartments/ Residential Office

Commercial

Institutional Religious Institution

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BUILDING USES


JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

BUILDING USES

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Building Uses IHOP Site

Site Apartments/ Residential Office

Commercial

Institutional Religious Institution Health

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JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

BUILDING TYPOLOGY

Building Typology 7-Eleven Site

Site Multistory Ground | Floor Storefront Multistory Residential Single Story House Store Front Religious Buildings Multistory Office Building

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BUILDING TYPOLOGY

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Building Typology IHOP Site

Site Multistory Mixed Use Multistory Residential Single Story Commercial Storefront Commercial Religious Building Auto Repair or Auto Show Room

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JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

RACIAL/ETHIC DISTRIBUTION

RACIAL ETHNIC

Census Track 79

Distribution

Other

Multiracial Census Track 75 Native American Asian

Hispanic African American Caucasian

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DEMOGRAPHICS

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GROWTH

GROWTH 2000 - 2010 University District

The Static North Not many changes. Caucasian population static. Hispanic & Asian populations grew but continue to make up less than 10% of any census block in Capitol Hill.

Elbow Room Vacant housing increases by 242% Number of housing units increase by 7%

Hot Spot Most growth Population increased by 13%. Most new residents are white, Hispanic, Asian or Multiracial

Transition Zone Most change The biggest changes occurred along Madison in areas where Capitol Hill historically meets the Central District. While these areas just north of Madison saw some of the biggest growth in population, the black population declined by about a quarter in the same time period.

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Cascade

Downtown

Central District


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AGE

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Census Track 79

AGE Distribution

65+

Census Track 75

50 - 64

35 - 49

25 - 34

20 -24

Under 18

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30000

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JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

20000

INCOME

10000 0

INCOME Median Income Per Household

60000

Census Track 79

50000 40000

$43,393

30000 60000 20000

Hispanic

50000 10000 40000

0

30000

2 or More

20000 10000

Asian Native American African American

0

Census Track 75

60000

$46,743

50000 40000 30000 60000 20000 50000 10000

Caucasian

40000 30000 20000 10000 0

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LINK LIGHT RAIL

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LINK LIGHT RAIL Construction

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Completed (2009) stretch of light rail from SEATAC to Westlake Station in Downtown

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The biggest changes occurred along Madison in areas where Capitol Hill historically meets the Central District. While these areas just north of Madison saw some of the biggest growth in population, the black population declined by about a quarter in the same time period.

Section currently under construction, scheduled completion and service beginning 2016 Voter approved (2008) northern extension currently in final planning phase, geo-tech drilling commenced March 27, 2012, Voter approved (2008) line to Bellevue, currently in final design phase, service beginning 2023

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JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

METRO BUS LINES

19th Ave E

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15th Ave E

METRO Bus Lines

Downtown to Interlaken Park via Madison

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SODO to Madison Park via Madison

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North-South Buses via Broadway

43 49 60

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14th Ave E

12

E Pine St 13th Ave E

SODO to Madison Park via Madison

Broadway

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BIKE ROUTES

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E Howell St

E Olive St EM

E Pine St

ad

n iso

St

BIKE ROUTES Routes & Lanes

14th Ave E

12th Ave E

Broadway

Bike lane

E Pike St

E Union St

Sharrow with bike lane on uphill side

Sharrow

Direction of incline on hill (arrow points up) Unmarked arterial connectors

Bike shop

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JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

PUBLIC PARKS

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PUBLIC PARKS Locations

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Cal Anderson Park

1

Spring St. Mini Park 2

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T.T. Minor Park

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3

McGilvra Place Park

Cal Anderson Park is the most vibrant park in the vicinity of the two sites. It is home to many neighborhood events throughout the year: day & night. McGilvra, Seven Hills and Spring Street Parks seem to be comprised of “left-over” spaces in the urban fabric.

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Seven Hills Park 5

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EVENTS

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03 Academic Project

GARBAGE URBANISM IN RAINIER VALLEY

Location Rainier Valley, Seattle, WA

Client University of Washington

Status Completed June. 2011

Treasured Trash and Trashed Treasure This studio began as an investigation into the 21st century challenge of an overabundance of waste and students were free to choose his or her own program and site. For this project, the building’s program proposes to address all stages of a material object’s life. The chosen site is the Mount Baker Light Rail station located in Seattle’s Rainier Valley. In addition to space for upcycling and appliance shares, there is also a memorial wall, or an urban graveyard, for once beloved items.

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JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

UTILIZING RESOURCES

Once I saw my grandmother drinking out of an old yogurt container, though she could easily afford glassware, she chose to reuse the vessel for its entire life. The yogurt container may even outlive her. Across the globe, waste is accumulating at exponential rates, while at the same time, others dig through the discarded remains in search of the smallest unit of value left.

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GLOBAL

L

MICROSOFT MICROSOFT NCCC UW UW SPU

SCCC ANTIOCH NW SCHOOL SEATTLE U

NA

CORNISH

The site selected is home to the most diverse zip code in the country but lacks the presence of large-sized business, SAM educational and artistic institutions. The program of the building seeks to embraces diversity as a resource and facilitates connection to larger global institutions through a collection center for usedFRYE electronics and packaging waste. UW PRATT BOEING

L LO CA L

GAGE AMAZON

REG IO

GLO BA

THE MOST DIVERSE ZIPCODE

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JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

MATERIAL DECOMPOSITION

VISTA

preserve

COLLABORATIVE DESIGN in

spir

e s h

are

u

pcy

le c le ar n

c

olla

LIBRARY

rate e o g b e nga

SHARE STORIES PLAYED

exchange

EXCHANGE MARKET/COLLECTION HUB cell phones

packing peanuts

bike parts

computers

clothing/shoes

Program Moving up the building, material goods begin to break down. The ground floor is for the exchange of goods and collection bins for corporations to pick up byproducts of their industries. The second floor is dedicated to re-purposing materials and features a tool and appliance library. The third floor focuses on the exchange of ideas and stories as the material object takes less of a role. The top floor lays goods to rest in an immigration museum celebrating local residents. At the top there is a panoramic view where one can see out onto all of Rainier Valley. The whole building is held vertical, with a sold core that doubles as a collection wall for once beloved items.

Structure The structural system for the building consists of double skinned concrete filled steel tubular (DSCFT) columns supporting the large floor plates. Floor to ceiling trusses support an open floor plan, lateral stability and cantilevers. The columns are carefully placed taking into consideration vertical loads as well as geometric alignment. Cross-bracing provides additional structural support.

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MT. BAKER TRANSIT STATION

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04 Professional Project

NEIGHBORHOOD GREENWAYS BICYCLE URBANISM

Location Seattle, WA

Client GEHL Architects

Status Completed TBD

A Network of Inviting and Safe Streets Neighborhood Greenways are a step towards creating safer and more inviting streets for people to walk and bike. Neighborhood Greenways provide new options for mobility and public spaces that will enhance Seattle’s overall transportation network. Prior street planning efforts have focused too heavily on the movement and storage of motor vehicles, and in turn, many residential streets are currently overdesigned and over- prioritized for cars.

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Many drivers have developed the sense that vehicles have ownership over the roadways and as consequence, far too many neighborhood trips are made by car. There is an opportunity to transform residential roads into comfortable and safe places to walk, cycle and enjoy.


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JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

BIKE CLASSIFICATION

Central Waterfront

Route D

Route B

Ballard

8.2 Miles, 59 Minutes (est.)

7.3 Miles, 44 Minutes (est.)

CSO Outflow

Public + Private Schools

CSO Basin

Public + Private Schools

Designated Bicycle Route Route Options

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Bike Class Percentage

Bike Class Percentage


BIKE CLASSIFICATION

bicycle path

neighborhood connector urban connector

neighborhood connector bicycle lane

bicycle lane path

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neighborhood connector bicycle lane

bicycle lane bicycle path

City of Seattle Bike Classification

bicycle path

JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

Bicycle Path

Neighborhood Connector

Bicycle Lane

Urban Connector

Route C 7.6 Miles, 51 Minutes (est.)

Bike Class Percentage

04


NEIGHBORHOOD r a neighborhood, 48

JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

Safe crossings at

Links to local

key intersections

business districts

Consistent wayfinding Routes avoid potentially dangerous areas with

Streets have less than 1,000

high traffic congestion

cars a day and an average speed of less that 20 mph

Direct connections to libraries, schools, parks and local destinations

Routes that parallel arterial roads Traffic calming where needed Abundant trees and vegetation

Frequent places to stop and linger

Variety of natural systems to manage stormwater

Links with bike and

Connects to

pedestrian paths,

public transit

trails and networks

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Route respect existing topography


or a street,

JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

STREETS

Protects existing trees

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and vegetation Street and sidewalk lighting Appropriately placed Residents living in adjoining houses provide ‘eyes on the street’ at all times of the day

and pedestrian-

Seating and public

scaled signage

places to stop

Opportunities for physical activity and play

Sense of ownership

Retains service and emergency vehicle access

Continuous sidewalks

Natural systems to manage Travel lanes

stormwater

wide enough for bicyclists to travel comfortably

Integrated vehicle flow and parking

Attention at all cross streets

More people interacting on the streets

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JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

QualityCOLLISION Criteria OCCURS Quality Criteria Quality Criteria Quality Criteria Connections

Links Neighborhood

HIGH POINT DRIVE SOUTHWEST, WEST SEATTLE NEIGHBORHOOD

HIGH POINT DRIVE SOUTHWEST, WEST SEATTLE NEIGHBORHOOD

• Connects to regional trails and other bicycle facilities • Route travels close to local business activities • Connect schools, public spaces and neighborhood amenities

Connections

HIGH POINT DRIVE SOUTHWEST, Links Neighborhood WEST SEATTLE NEIGHBORHOOD • Connects to regional trails and other bicycle facilities • Route travels close to local business activities • Connect schools, public spaces and neighborhood amenities

HIGH POINT DRIVE SOUTHWEST, Safety and Protection WEST SEATTLE NEIGHBORHOOD Deterrent of Crime and Violence

• Active residential buildings provide passive surveillance and eyes on the street • Overlapping functions and use throughout the day Deterrent Crime and hours • Appropriateoflighting in evening

Safety and Protection High Point Drive Southwest, West Seattle Neighborhood Violence

• Accessible from nearby residences • Maintains adequate street parking • Street layout that allows emergency vehicle and delivery access • Heavier traffic routed to arterials

Integration with Street Hierarchy

• Accessible from nearby residences • Maintains adequate street parking • Street layout that allows emergency vehicle and delivery access • Heavier traffic routed to arterials

WEST EWING STREET, INTERBAY / MAGNOLIA NEIGHBORHOOD WEST EWING STREET, INTERBAY / MAGNOLIA NEIGHBORHOOD

• Defined and protected arterial crossings • Reduced motor vehicle speed • Dry surface that drains water • Clear sight lines • No impeding obstacles Protection Against • Visibility and small scaled lighting on paths and obstacles

Collisions

• Fun and playful experiences dispersed throughout a route • Overlapping activities • Protection against weather • Bicycle parking close to destinations • Appropriate furniture for activities • Variety of places to sit with street furniture that encourages conversations

• Spaces for spontaneous activities to encourage ‘getting to know your neighbor’ • Opportunities for art and local activity • Street designs that reflect natural and historic character • Sense of ownership and responsibility

Enjoyable Spaces WEST EWING STREET, INTERBAY / MAGNOLIA NEIGHBORHOOD

WEST EWING STREET, INTERBAYComfortable / MAGNOLIA NEIGHBORHOOD Movement

Ease in Finding and Understanding a Route

This ‘multi- use trail’ is an• integral link to regional bike •and walking Travel lanes wide enough for bicyclists to Recognizable street designs at the travel comfortably pedestrian trails but receives a veryComfortable poor rating in most areas covered inscale the list Movement • Visual and interesting experiences placed • Clear signage at gaps between links at regular intervals • Legible wayfinding to nearby of ‘Quality Criteria.’

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• Connections from one neighborhood to another (may need to use other bicycles facilities) • Removes barriers and detours for efficient bicycle and pedestrian flow • Connects to transit stops and other modes of transportation

Protection from Unpleasant Sensory Experiences • Reduction of vehicles cutting through neighborhood and accompanied pollution, noise, and dust • Protection from ambient noise • Clean environment without trash or litter

Protection from Unpleasant Sensory Experiences

• Reduction of vehicles cutting through neighborhood and accompanied pollution, noise, and dust • Protection from ambient noise • Clean environment without trash or litter

• Connects to regional tr bicycle facilities • Route travels close to l activities • Connect schools, publi neighborhood amenitie

Connections

Links Neighborho

• Connects to regional tr bicycle facilities • Route travels close to l activities • Connect schools, publi neighborhood amenitie

Opportunities to Interact and Exercise

destinations Ease in Finding and Understanding a Route

• Travel lanes wide enough for bicyclists to travel comfortably • Visual and interesting experiences placed at regular intervals

• Recognizable street designs at the pedestrian scale • Clear signage at gaps between links • Legible wayfinding to nearby destinations

Deterrent of Crim Violence

• Active residential build passive surveillance an street • Overlapping functions throughout the day • Appropriate lighting in

Safety and Prot

Deterrent of Crim Violence

• Active residential build passive surveillance an street • Overlapping functions throughout the day • Appropriate lighting in

Enjoyable Space Visually Appealing Landscape

Neighborhood Identity • Spaces for spontaneous activities to encourage ‘getting to know your neighbor’ • Opportunities for art and local activity • Street designs that reflect natural and historic character • Sense of ownership and responsibility Neighborhood Identity

and Exercise

A City-wide Network

Links Neighborho

Safety and Prot

• Fun and playful experiences dispersed throughout a route • Overlapping activities • Protection against weather • Bicycle parking close to destinations • Appropriate furniture for activities • Variety of places to with street Opportunities tositStop furniture that encourages conversations

West Ewing Street, Interbay / Opportunities to Interact Magnolia Neighborhood

• Connections from one neighborhood to another (may need to use other bicycles facilities) • Removes barriers and detours for efficient bicycle and pedestrian flow • Connects to transit stops and other modes of transportation

Protection Against Collisions

This street is not designated as a special route but produces many • Active residential buildings provide • Defined and protected arterial crossings passive surveillance and eyes on the good quality • Reduced motor vehicle good (smile) ratings due to the thoroughly based onspeed street • Dry surface that drains water all ‘Quality Criteria.’ By adding legible and •signage, • Overlapping functions andwayfinding use Clear sight lines this • No impeding obstacles throughout the day street can easily be transformed into a high • Visibility and small scaled lighting on • Appropriate lighting in evening hours quality Neighborhood Enjoyable Spaces paths and obstacles Greenway. Opportunities to Stop

Connections A City-wide Network

Integration with Street Hierarchy

• • • •

Interesting views and vistas Abundant trees and vegetation Spaces designed for a full range of ages Trees to protect from wind and adverse climate Visually Appealing • Delineation between private and public spaces Landscape • • • •

Interesting views and vistas Abundant trees and vegetation Spaces designed for a full range of ages Trees to protect from wind and adverse climate • Delineation between private and public spaces

Comfort to Walk, and Bike • Route responds to existing topography • Continuous routes and minimization of obstacles • Smooth and comfortable pavement • Guaranteed pedestrian paths that especially consider the needs of children, elderly,to andWalk, the disabled Comfort and Bike • Route responds to existing topography • Continuous routes and minimization of obstacles • Smooth and comfortable pavement • Guaranteed pedestrian paths that especially consider the needs of children, elderly, and the disabled

Opportunities to

• Fun and playful exper throughout a route • Overlapping activities • Protection against we • Bicycle parking close • Appropriate furniture • Variety of places to sit furniture that encoura

Enjoyable Space

Opportunities to

• Fun and playful exper throughout a route • Overlapping activities • Protection against we • Bicycle parking close • Appropriate furniture • Variety of places to sit furniture that encoura

Comfortable Mo

Opportunities to and Exercise

• Travel lanes wide enou travel comfortably • Visual and interesting at regular intervals

Comfortable Mo

Opportunities to and Exercise

• Travel lanes wide enou travel comfortably • Visual and interesting at regular intervals


JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

QUALITY CRITERIA

51

What a Neighborhood Greenway Means to People Pedestrians, cyclists, and vehicle drivers each experience a street differently based on the scale and speed they travel. An average adult walks roughly 3 mph with an average eye level height of 5’7” while a cyclist generally sits lower and travels an average 7 mph. Attention to these details affect the perceived distances and general enjoyment of a route.

Connections Links Neighborhood • Connects to regional trails and other bicycle facilities • Route travels close to local business activities • Connect schools, public spaces and neighborhood amenities

For the ideal experience a Neighborhood Greenway should provide connections, safety, enjoyable spaces and comfortable movement. A checklist, the ’Quality Criteria’ has been developed to ensure the best possible conditions for pedestrians and cyclists. This can be used to evaluate pre- and post-design and during all stages of the public engagement process.

Enjoyable Spaces Integration with Street Hierarchy • Accessible from nearby residences • Maintains adequate street parking • Street layout that allows emergency vehicle and delivery access • Heavier traffic routed to arterials

A City-wide Network

Opportunities to Stop

Neighborhood Identity

• Connections from one neighborhood to another (may need to use other bicycles facilities) • Removes barriers and detours for efficient bicycle and pedestrian flow • Connects to transit stops and other modes of transportation

• Fun and playful experiences dispersed throughout a route • Overlapping activities • Protection against weather • Bicycle parking close to destinations • Appropriate furniture for activities • Variety of places to sit with street furniture that encourages conversations

• Spaces for spontaneous activities to encourage ‘getting to know your neighbor’ • Opportunities for art and local activity • Street designs that reflect natural and historic character • Sense of ownership and responsibility

Visually Appealing Landscape • • • •

Interesting views and vistas Abundant trees and vegetation Spaces designed for a full range of ages Trees to protect from wind and adverse climate • Delineation between private and public spaces

Comfortable Movement

Safety and Protection Deterrent of Crime and Violence

Protection Against Collisions

Protection from Unpleasant Sensory Experiences

Opportunities to Interact and Exercise

Ease in Finding and Understanding a Route

• Active residential buildings provide passive surveillance and eyes on the street • Overlapping functions and use throughout the day • Appropriate lighting in evening hours

• • • • • •

• Reduction of vehicles cutting through neighborhood and accompanied pollution, noise, and dust • Protection from ambient noise • Clean environment without trash or litter

• Travel lanes wide enough for bicyclists to travel comfortably • Visual and interesting experiences placed at regular intervals

• Recognizable street designs at the pedestrian scale • Clear signage at gaps between links • Legible wayfinding to nearby destinations

Defined and protected arterial crossings Reduced motor vehicle speed Dry surface that drains water Clear sight lines No impeding obstacles Visibility and small scaled lighting on paths and obstacles

Comfort to Walk, and Bike • Route responds to existing topography • Continuous routes and minimization of obstacles • Smooth and comfortable pavement • Guaranteed pedestrian paths that especially consider the needs of children, elderly, and the disabled

04


52

JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

ECONOMICS

688 204 144 136 96 0 0

CO2 Emmisions (KG/CO2/Year Based on a 6 Mile Commute)

CAR LOCAL BUS RESIDENTS LIVING IN WALKABLE URBAN COMMUNITIES USE HALF AS MUCH ENERGY IN BTU’S PER CAPITA AS THEIR SUBURBAN COUNTERPARTS.

PUBLIC TRANSPORT LOCAL TRAIN/METRO REGIONAL TRAIN CYCLING WALKING

Farr, Douglas Sustainable Urbanism , 2008.

Gehl Architects, 2011.

If I walk an average of .6 miles a day whil growing up, I am 10% less likely to be obes

CAR

RESIDENTS LIVING IN WALKABLE URBAN COMMUNITIES USE HALF AS MUCH ENERGY IN BTU’S PER CAPITA AS THEIR SUBURBAN COUNTERPARTS.

Farr, Douglas Sustainable Urbanism , 2008.

011.

04

$$$

10% OF ALL MILES BIKED IN PORTLAND OCCURRED ON GREENWAYS....

PORTLAND GREENWAYS COST ROUGHLY $250,000 PER MILE

$$$

Raisman, Greg. Portland Bureau of Transportation, 2011.

....ONLY 1% OF PORTLAND’S BICYCLE INFRASTRUCTURE IS GREENWAYS

Dill, Jennifer. Journal of Public Health and Safety, 2009.

Frank/Andresen/Schmid, Journal of Preventive Medicine

American , 2004.


SAFETY

53

WHETHER A TRAFFIC ACCIDENT OCCURS AND HOW SEV ARE, IS DIRECTLY CONNECTED TO SPEED. WITH LOWER S ACCIDENTS CAN BE AVOIDED AND INJURIES ARE LIKELY WHETHER A TRAFFIC ACCIDENT OCCURS AND HOW SEVERE THE INJURIES 19 mph ARE, IS DIRECTLY CONNECTED TO SPEED. WITH LOWER SPEEDS SOME ACCIDENTS CAN BE AVOIDED AND INJURIES ARE LIKELY TO BE LESS SEVERE.

19 mph

26 FT

85 42 FT

30 mph 26 FT

16 FT

42 FT

30 mph

REACTION DISTANCE 46 FT

100

16 FT

FATALITY RISK (%)

19 MPH = 5% or Less Risk of Fatal Injury

46 FT

43 FT

45

89 FT

5

BRAKING DISTANCE TOTAL STOPPING DISTANCE 0

43 FT

+ 89 FT

19

30

“Cal

BRAKING DISTANCE + TOTAL STOPPING DISTANCE

“Calm Down”.

100

THE DAILY ACTIVITY MOST INJURIOUS TO HAPPINESS IS COMMUTING (BY CAR).

FATALITY RISK (%)

85

45

5 0

19

30

40

SPEED (MPH)

The Economist

, 2011.

“Calm Down”.

The Economist

, 2011.

Brooks, David.

40

SPEED (MPH)

REACTION DISTANCE

THE INJURIES EDS SOME BE LESS SEVERE.

wn”.

JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

The New York Times

. March 29, 2010.

The Economist

, 2011.

“Calm Down”.

TREES IN THE PUBLIC RIGHT OF WAY ARE ASSOCIATED WITH LOWER CRIME RATES. THE EFFECT OF TREES ON A HOUSE'S LOT IS MORE MIXED. LOT TREES SMALL ENOUGH TO BLOCK THE VIEW FROM A FIRST-FLOOR WINDOW INCREASE CRIME OCCURRENCE, WHILE LARGER LOT TREES DECREASED CRIME OCCURRENCE.

The Economist

Donovan, Geoffrey and Jeffery Prestemon. Environmental and Behavior , 2010.

04

,2


54

JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

GREENWAYS NEIGHBORHOOD

TODAY’S CHALLENGES Greenways Neighborhood

Safety

The Stranger, 2011

Between 2000 and 2009 in King County, 19 cyclists and 238 pedestrians lost their lives to cars, while injuries sent another 423 cyclists and 1,656 pedestrians to our hospital wards for two days or more after being hit by cars.

Enviroment

City of Seattle, Seattle Public Utilities, 2011

During rainfall, the combination of sewage and stormwater may exceed the capacity of Seattle ’ s drainage system and overflow into waterways.Though annual overflows have been drastically reduced it is still not enough to protect Seattle’s waterways and to comply with the Clean Water Act.3.

Health

What a Neighborhood Greenways Means for Seattle Eighty percent of Seattle’s publicly owned land is used for streets. Historically, streets have been dominated by the movement of vehicles but as more people choose to bike, the Seattle Department of Transportation (SDOT) has made improved bicycle facilities. The introduction of Neighborhood Greenways in the Bicycle Master Plan update represents a shift of focus from arterials to one that emphasizes shared and multi- functional local streets.

City of Seattle Planning Efforts

Safety, Enviroment, Health and Quality

Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

In 2010, no state had a prevalence of obesity less than 20%. Nunes-Ueno, Paulo, Seattle Children’s Hospital, 2008

#1 reason to go to Seattle Children’s Hospital: obesity.

Quality

The Atlantic, 2011

Cycling to work also goes together with happiness . The percentage of cycling commuters is positively associated with levels of happiness and well-being.

04

Car Dominated

Recreation and Bike Commuter

Neighborhood Greenways


JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

GREENWAYS NEIGHBORHOOD

55

≤ 2 mi Nearly 70% of all trips in America are two miles or less ...

2 MI 40 MIN WALK

...90% of them are by car

2 MI 15 MIN BIKE

10 Minute Walk | Bike Within Seattle’s Neighborhoods The more cyclists and pedestrians are on the roadways, the less likely they are to be hit by a motorist. An individual’s risk while cycling in a community with twice as much cycling will reduce to 66%.

Improving bicycle infrastructure and walking environments near Seattle’s Neighborhoods could significantly improve connectivity to neighborhood amenities across all of the city.

04


56

04

JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

PHYSICAL INFASTRUCTURE


GREENWAYS NEIGHBORHOOD

JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

57

Gradual curb extension eases cyclist into the cycle sidepath while also slowing the speed of turning vehicles.

User scaled lighting increases safety and usage during evening hours .

One way sidepath on both sides oft he street direct cyclists to safe crossing across arterial. Filtration strip creates a buffer to protect bicyclists from vehicle traffic.

Sidewalks resurfaced with permeable pavement to soak up rainwater.

A striped bike lane and a highly visible crosswalk increase crossing safety.

d

SEATTLE AVG 45TH sT SW

Strictly enforced speed limits increases the safety of non-vehicle traffic.

Legible and consistent city-wide wayfinding indicates travel path.

Existing green strip separates pedestrian and bicycle movement.

Curb cut realigned and ADA crossing marks.

04 Putting it Together Action PuttingTake it Together

Take Action

Vision Vision

NeighborhoodGreenway? Greenway? Neighborhood

PhysicalElements Elements Physical

Putting it Together Action PuttingTake it Together

Take Action

43


JENNIFER C HEN RICHTER

58

05 Professional Project

GEHL ARCHITECTS URBAN QUALITY CONSULTANTS

Location Copenhagen, Denmark

Client GEHL Architects

Status Completed December 2011

Global Urban Design for Cities

Asked by the Energy Foundation in Beijing to provide a pathway for sustainable city development, Gehl Architects saught to invigorate the Panlong River by creating a pedestrian and bicyle network alongside the river. This link would connect new town development outside the city limits with the city center.

05

Responsibilities included: creating visioning collages (above) and axonometric diagrams of street level strategie (Ring Road 1). (Additional axonometric diagrams and layout (right) provided by colleague).


60

JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

PANLONG RIVER

First 8 Steps Towards a More Livable, Green, Sustainable, Efficient, Friendly, and Well Connected Kunming

Strategy 01 - LIFE Movement, Convenience, Invitation

Strategy 02 - SPACE Programme, Activities, Design

Strategy 03 - BUILDINGS Access Links, Edges, Functions

University Area Bicycle Lanes, Public Place, New Entrance

Ring Road 1 Zebra Crossing, Bicycle Lanes, New Bridge

Ring Road 2 Zebra Crossing, Bicycle Lanes

05


EIGHT STEPS

4

JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

61

AD D NEW PROG RA M S TO THE PU B LIC REA LM

San Francisco’s Market Street Lead designers and project managers for San Francisco’s Market Street redesign. Work included: existing conditions illustrations and beginning schematic design guidelines. (Text and hand drawings by colleague).

2

INTEG RATE WAITING A ND LING ERING A CTIV ITI ES

5 1

PRIO RITIZE H U MA N CO M FO RT

7 3

CO NSID ER B ICYC LISTS PART O F P U B LIC LIFE

AD D U NEXP ECTED CATALYSTS FO R A M O RE D IV ERSE U RBA N LIFE

CO NC ENTRATE ALL STREET LIFE AT SID EWALK G RA D E

6

INV ITE FO R M O RE D IV E RSE USER G ROU PS A ND A CTIV ITI ES

05


JENNIFER C HEN RICHTER

62

06 Professional Project

LIVE WORK UNITS RESIDENTIAL TOWNHOMES

Location Seattle, WA

Client Johnston Architects

Status March 2013 - Present

Charleston Charlestown is a collection of 13 live-work units + 14 town homes in West Seattle. The building features high quality materials including brick and cedar. A central courtyard has lush landscaping, water feature, and a large outdoor gathering table. The client envisions a cafe and specialty grocer with seating and umbrellas spilling out in the plaza and enlarged sidewalks. A terrific place to live, work, socialize, and shop.

06


64

JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

SITE PLANNING

Site Planning SW California Ave. & Charlestown St.

06


RENDERING

JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

65

06


66

JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

RENDERED ELEVATIONS

WEST ELEVATION California Ave. SW

06


RENDERING

JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

67

06


JENNIFER C HEN RICHTER

68

MULTI-FAMILY RESIDENTIAL MICRO-UNIT APARTMENTS

06 Professional Project

Location Seattle, WA

Client Johnston Architects

Status TBD

Arion Apartments With ample bike storage and individual locker storage at the ground floor. Floor-Area-Ratio was maximized for developer efficiency, taking advantage of allowable bay window projections, permissible square foot dimensions and layout efficiency.

06


JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

70

PROJECT SITE

2

SITE AREA: 8,240 sf (approximately 103’ deep x 80’ wide) PARCELS: ZONING:

1142000880

4230 11TH AVE NE

4,120 sq ft

1142000885

4232 and 4234 11TH AVE NE

4,120 sq ft

Midrise (MR) University District Northwest Urban Center Village

PROJECT DESCRIPTION: Proposal for a new 7 story multi-family building and demolition of existing structures. Current development objectives include: - Approximately 95 - 101 units - Project design that enhances the neighborhood - Built Green 4-Star rating

NE 43RD ST

- Ample bike parking - No departure requests

SUMMARY OF DEVELOPMENT STANDARDS:

Parking:

No parking required and none is proposed (SMC 23.54.015)

FAR:

3.2 8,240 sf x 3.2 = 26,368 sf (SMC 23.47A.013)

Setbacks:

street setback; 3’ + 3’ setback (residential zone) front setback; 7’ avg 5’ min front setback may overlap street setback side setback - below 42’; 7’ avg 5’ min side setback - above 42’; 10’ avg 7’ min alley setback; 1’ rear setback; 10’ rear setback may overlap alley setback (SMC23.45.518) and (SMC23.53.030)

NE 42ND ST

Solid Waste: dimension) (SMC 23.54.040) 101 units = 490 sf Amenities:

06

75’ (low-income incentive) 70’ limit for Type VA over IA

12TH AVE NE

ALLEY

PROJECT SITE 11TH AVE NE

ROOSEVELT WAY NE

Height limit: 60’ (SMC 23.47A.012)

5% o

4.25 (low-income incentive) 8,240 sf x 4.25 = 35,020 sf


JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

PROJECT SITE

4 7

NEIGHBORING ZONING ENVELOPE (MR) PROJECT SITE

NEIGHBORING NEIGHBORING ZONING ZONING ENVELOPE ENVELOPE (MR)

PROJECT SITE

NEIGHBORING ZONING NEIGHBORING ENVELOPEZONING ENVELOPE (MR) (MR)

NEIGHBORING ZONING ENVELOPE (MR)

NEIGHBORING ZONING NEIGHBORING ENVELOPE (MR)

1

11th Ave NE, looking E at project site Looking E to site from 11th Ave NE

NEIGHBORING ZONING ENVELOPE (MR)

PROJECT SITE

ZONING ENVELOPE (MR)

NEIGHBORING ZONING ENVELOPE (MR)

Looking W to site from Alley

neighboring MR zone (3 story apartments)

existing utility pole

setbacks below 42’

busAve routes 11th NE, looking W from project site on-street bicycle lane

NE 43RD ST

1 story commercial

parking lot

3 story apartments

apartments

3 story apartments

1

2

2 story apartments

4 story apartments

5 story apartments

11TH AVE NE

2 story SFR 3 story apartments 2 story SFR

PROJECT SITE

3 story apartments

views to Space Needle

NE 42ND ST

4 3 ALLEY

2 story SFR 3 story apartments 3 story apartments

11TH AVE NE

Primary Resident Entry 3 story

4 story apartments

1 story SFR 1 story SFR 2 story SFR

activity hub @ new light rail station & University Way

setbacks above 42’

PROJECT SITE

3

existing surface parking

Alley, looking E from project site

NEIGHBORING ZONING ENVELOPE (MR)

NEIGHBORING ZONING ENVELOPE (MR)

1 story SFR 1 story SFR

4

PROJECT SITE

ALLEY

2

71

street/alley setback average setback minimum setback

north

NEIGHBORING ZONING ENVELOPE (MR)

dashed lines indicate required setbacks neighboring MR zone (2 story apartments) views to Mt. Rainier views to Lake Union

Alley, looking W at project site

solar exposure

SITE ANALYSIS | Constraints and Opportunities CONTEXT| Neighboring Streetscapes

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72

JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

ZONING ENVELOPE STUDIES

POTE DEVE NTIAL LOPM EN

T

parking lot (NC3-65)

3 story (MR)

TH 11

NEIG ENV HBORIN ELO PE G ZONIN

G

E AV NE

Primary Resident Entry 2 story (MR)

E

parking lot (NC3-65)

G

TH 11

Z

IN ON

V

EN

3 story (MR)

P ELO

NEIG ENV HBORIN ELO PE G ZONIN

G

E

EN AV Primary Resident Entry

2 story (MR)

11T HA VE NE SW Corner at 11th Ave NE and 42nd St looking North

06

2 story (MR)


ZONING ENVELOPE STUDIES

JENNIFER CHEN RICHTER

73

dashed line indicates required setbacks Unit #202

Unit #203

Unit #204

Unit #205

Unit #206

Unit #207

1’ alley setback

ALLEY

Unit #201

Unit #208

Unit #214

Unit #213

Unit #212

Unit #211

Unit #210

Unit #209

FLOOR 2-3 PLAN

setback

dashed line indicates required setbacks Unit #301

Unit #302

Unit #201

Unit #303

Unit #304

Unit #215

Unit #214

Unit #312

Unit #311

Unit #305

Unit #213

Unit #202 Unit Unit #314 Unit#313 #203

Unit #310

Unit #204

SITE PLAN

Unit #205

Unit #306

Unit #307 Unit #212 Unit #308 Unit #211

1’ alley setback

dashed line indicates required setbacks 1’ alley setback

ALLEY

line indicates d setbacks

Unit Unit #309 #210

Unit #209 Unit #206

Unit #207

Unit #208

FLOORS 4-7 PLAN

Alley Edge) FLOOR 2 PLAN

line indicates d setbacks

setback

dashed line indicates required setbacks Unit #301 Unit

Unit #314

Unit #313

Unit #312 Unit

1’ alley setback

06


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