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PLAY. LEARN. GROW.


Copyright Š 2013 Jeremy C. Hoffman & Amanda D. Rowlee All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system without the written permission of the author, except where permitted by law. Published by Jeremy C. Hoffman & Amanda D. Rowlee Distributed by Lulu Press, Inc. Printed in the United States of America Third Edition ISBN-13: 000-0-0000000-0-0


play. learn. grow. By Jeremy C. Hoffman & Amanda D. Rowlee

Professor Sandy Stannard 2012-13 Fifth Year Thesis Studio California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, California


We would like to dedicate this book to everyone who has supported us throughout our educational careers, and always encouraged us to push on! We could have never done it without our friends and family!


about us Jeremy Hoffman was born in Sacramento, California and raised in the nearby town of Folsom. After graduating from Folsom High School he enrolled in a nearby community college. After completing his first year of college in Northern California he moved down to the Central Coast to attend Cuesta College with the intent of transferring to California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo. After earning an A.S. in Architectural Technology and an A.A. in Transfer Studies, Jeremy was accepted into the architecture program at Cal Poly. At the time of printing, Jeremy was a fifth year architecture student just weeks away from earning his Bachelor’s of Architecture degree with a minor in Sustainable Environments.

jeremy c. hoffman

After graduation, Jeremy intends to move to the San Francisco bay area where he plans to pursue a career in the field of architecture as he aspires to become a licensed architect focusing on sustainable design.


Amanda Rowlee was born and raised in the San Luis Obispo area. She attended Cuesta College after graduating from Morro Bay High School, to pursue her dreams to attain a Bachelor’s of Architecture from Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo. Amanda has received two Associates Degrees from Cuesta College, A.A. Transfer Studies and A.A. General Studies, and her LEED Associates. At the time of printing, Amanda was a fifth year architecture student on track to earn her Bachelor’s of Architecture degree with a minor in Sustainable Environments. After graduating, she plans to move to the San Francisco Bay Area to pursue architecture, as well as becoming licensed and LEED AP.

amanda rowlee


contributors

Thank You: Sandy Stannard | Cal Poly Professor Kiley MacLoed | Bishop’s Peak Kindergarten Teacher Elaine Hill | Bishop’s Peak Kindergarten Teacher Dan Block | Bishop’s Peak Principal


We would like to take this opportunity to thank everyone that has helped contribute to our thesis project and the creation of this book. Without the help and input from the teachers and parents of Bishop’s Peak Elementary School this project would not have been possible. We would like to specifically thank our thesis studio teacher, Sandy Stannard, for all of her help and guidance. We would not have been able to accomplish all that we set out do without your stewardship and thoughtful guidance! Thank you all very much!


introduction 17

21

thesis san luis obispo overview school district

25

bishop’s peak

19

climate

issue

39

climate

57

47

design solutions

63

problem existing conditions

49

flora | fauna

67

site access

51

local services

precedents 75

building precedents

85

playground precedents shade structure precedents

87


design

systems 93 97 99 101

roof systems floor systems

107

proposal

109

program

sustainable systems

111

process | explorations

materials

127

final design floor plans sections materials diagrams greenroof

147

sustainability overview

151

building calculations

conclusion 157

final thoughts

appendix 163

vellum competition

165

human sundial

173

in-class projects

177

sources


introduction

13


introduction overview 17 thesis 19 san luis obispo overview 21 school district 25 bishop’s peak location surrounding conditions site photos


15

“You can teach a student a lesson for a day; but if you can teach him to learn by creating curiosity, he will continue the learning process as long as he lives.� -Clay P. Bedford


thesis overview The San Luis Coastal Unified School District (SLCUSD) is situated among the beautiful volcanic peaks and valleys of the California central coast. The district was founded in 1964 with a mission “to educate students to become self-sufficient individuals who are capable of making significant contributions to society.” Bishop’s Peak Elementary is located in the City of San Luis Obispo and is one of nine elementary schools that make up the San Luis Coastal Unified School District. The school is approaching its max operating capacity of students and has no viable plans to accommodate its expected future expansion at this time. The school currently utilizes seven portable classroom buildings and may consider adding even more to accommodate this future grown. We are firm believers that portable classrooms are not effective learning environments, especially for young children. Therefore, our first step was to remove them from the campus entirely. They were replaced with a new cluster of efficiently designed and sustainably built educational ‘wings’. These will provide flex classroom space to accommodate future expansion as well as to provide a centralized location for enrichment activities and counseling services to be grouped. Throughout this process, our goal was...

...to transform Bishop’s Peak Elementary into an environment where the students’ education extends beyond the classroom, creating an atmosphere that encourages them to PLAY, LEARN and GROW.


17


project city San Luis Obispo sits on the Central Coast of California, roughly midway between Los Angeles and San Francisco. It is located at 35°16’27” North 120°39’47” West, and encompasses a total area of approximately 12.93 square miles. The Pacific Ocean lies roughly 11 miles west of the city while the Santa Lucia Mountains sit just to its east. In addition, the town lies in a seismically active area of California as a result of its close proximity to several nearby fault lines.

united states

San Luis Obispo is known for a string of hills that partially run through the city as they follow along the central coast. These are known as the ‘nine sisters’ and are geologically noteworthy for being volcanic plugs. Six of these hills are open to the public and are quite popular for their many hiking and walking trails.

 


california

n

san luis obispo

 

San Luis Obispo, or ‘SLO’ as it is commonly referred to by the locals, is one of the oldest communities in California. It began in 1772 with the founding of Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa by Father Junipero Serra. This was the fifth mission to be established in California of what would eventually become a chain of 21 missions situated along the coast stretching from San Diego to San Francisco. San Luis Obispo serves as the county seat in addition to being home to California Polytechnic State University and Cuesta College. The city’s population was 45,119 at the 2010 census.

19


school district The San Luis Coastal Unified School District (SLCUSD) is nestled among the beautiful volcanic peaks and valleys of the California central coast. The district was founded in 1964 with a mission “to educate students to become self-sufficient individuals who are capable of making significant contributions to society.” SLCUSD is composed of 15 pre-school through 12th grade schools with 425 teachers, 320 support staff and 36 management staff serving nearly 7,300 students. Within the city of San Luis Obispo itself, there are seven elementary schools, one middle school, and one high school. There are also two private elementary schools and one private high school, Mission College Preparatory. In addition, the school district operates one Adult School to provide quality classes and opportunities for lifelong learning to the community at large. Shown at right are the locations of all Elementary Schools located within the San Luis Coastal Unified School District. Our project location has been shown in red.

1

2

3 4 5

n

6 San Luis Obispo, California

 


21

7

9

8

n

Los Osos, California

SLCUSD Elementary Schools: Bishop’s Peak/Teach Elementary (1) Pacheco Elementary (2) Hawthorne Elementary (3) Sinsheimer Elementary (4) C.L. Smith Elementary (5) Los Ranchos Elementary (6) Baywood Elementary (7) Monarch Grove Elementary (8) Del Mar Elementary (9)

 

n

Morro Bay, California

 


Cuesta Grade

California Polytechnic State University Campus


Bishop’s Peak Elementary

Downtown San Luis Obispo

Cerro San Luis

23


san luis obispo

 

location | context


25

bishop’s peak elementary

latitude: 35.3° N | longitude: 120.7° W

Bishop’s Peak is an Elementary School located in San Luis Obispo, California that serves 290+ students in grades K-6. It is a public elementary school that is one of 15 schools in the San Luis Coastal Unified School District. The school is situated at the base of Bishop Peak, the tallest of a chain of nine similar peaks in the area, and surrounded by a residential neighborhood. Bishop’s Peak is a unique school in that it shares a portion of this site with Charles E. Teach Elementary, a separate school for highly motivated students in grades 4-6 only. Teach is an open enrollment choice school for families in SLCUSD that serves exceptionally high achieving students with advanced skills and highly motivated parents.


surrounding conditions

lo bril ca ay

hw hig t

foothill boulevard

e tre

os

orr ch

patricia drive

highland drive


As you can see from the map at left, Bishop’s Peak & Teach Elementary, lie within a mostly residential neighborhood. Several blocks down the road to the east lies another K-12 school, Pacheco Elementary (shown in purple), that also serves children in this area.

27

highland drive

The school itself is entirely surrounded by residential, single family housing. The housing occupants here are a diverse mix of mostly small families, retired adults, and some converted rental units for college students. This creates a fairly quiet and relaxed community atmosphere. This neighborhood is also fortunate to be surrounded by a large amount of open space land: Bishop’s Peak lies to the West and Cal Poly’s orchard and farming areas to the East. To the southeast is a small commercial area that includes necessities such as restaurants, coffee houses, a grocery store, and more. This area (shown in red) serves the surrounding areas as well as many of the Cal Poly students living on-campus.

residential

schools

commercial

green space farming


site photos

The map at left gives a good overview of how the Bishop’s Peak campus is organized. The seven portable buildings to the far east make up the main Teach Elementary classrooms, while the portables to the north of the site are used primarily by Bishop’s Peak. The campus is organized around a long north/south ‘spine’ that includes most of the school’s support functions, such as: cafeteria, multipurpose room, library, and office. All classrooms are extruded off of this spine in ‘wings’.

B

E

F D

A C

As you can see from the map, all of the classrooms (excluding portables) are laid out in an east/west orientation to allow for maximum daylighting of indoor spaces as well as control of solar gain. You can see from the photos at right that all of these classroom ‘wings’ include large overhangs on their south side. This allows the classrooms to be protected from the intense summer sun while still allowing the winter sun to penetrate for warmth. This creates a nice covered circulation corridor to connect all of the classrooms and protect the from inclement weather.


29

A

B

C

D

E

F


site photos


31


outdoor classroom | garden


Located behind the Teach Elementary portables on the far west side of the campus, is a beautiful school garden as well as a fantastic new outdoor teaching space. This garden (shown below) is maintained entirely by the students with the assistance of a few dedicated parent volunteers. This gives the students of both schools an opportunity to ‘get their hands dirty’ while learning valuable lessons such as how and why to eat healthy, how plants grow, the benefits of composting, and much more. This outdoor classroom (shown at left) also provides an opportunity for teachers to move their classes outside so the children can experience a more hands on and active approach to learning while taking advantage of the beautiful weather.

33


climate

35


climate overview 39 climate temperature precipitation wind psychrometric chart/analysis 47 design solutions 49 flora | fauna 51 local services


“The happiest town in the whole USA is surrounded by lush hills that at this time of year are so intensely green, they practically sparkle.� -USA Today

37


climate San Luis Obispo has a relatively mild Mediterranean climate, with consistent temperatures all year long. The summers are delightfully mild, with daytime highs usually in the low 80’s and cool evenings. The winters in San Luis Obispo are even better, featuring daytime highs in the 60’s and 70’s with crisp, clear nights. On average, it rains only about 50 days out of the year. Storms of any kind are rare here, as is frost, and snow is almost unheard of. Due to this very mild climate and cool coastal breeze, air conditioners are rarely needed and most homes do not have them at all. And while most homes do have heaters, they are seldom used.


Average Monthly Temperature 80˚f

39

76

75˚f

77 74

69

65˚f

64 61

67

66

62

61

55˚f

55 52

50˚f 45˚f

77

73

70˚f

60˚f

Average Low

Average High

44

jan

45

46

47

55

54

52

49

47 43

feb

mar apr may

jun

jul

aug sep

oct

nov dec


climate

Average Precipitation 6 in 5 in 4 in 3 in 2 in 1 in jan

feb

mar apr may

jun

jul

aug sep

oct

nov dec


Average Cloudy Days 100%

41 clear

90%

partly cloudy

80% 70% 60%

cloudy

50% 40%

precipitation

30% 20% 10% jan

feb

mar apr may

jun

jul

aug sep

oct

nov dec


climate As you can see from the wind roses below, the prevalent winds in san Luis Obispo come from the Northwest and Southwest. The wind is greatest from may to july with an average speed of 9 mph. The wind in San Luis Obispo is greatest along a stretch of road known as Los Osos Valley Road. As the name implies, this road follows along at the base of the los osos valley. This valley acts as a wind tunnel than can greatly intensify the wind speed. This is especially problematic for any schools and parks in this area.

N

N

March

June


Average Wind Speed

12 mph 8 mph 4 mph 0 mph

6

5

jan

feb

7

8

9

mar apr may

9

jun

9

jul

8

7

aug sep

6

oct

N

N

September

December

43

5

5

nov dec


climate With San Luis Obispo’s relatively mild climate, the best design strategies include the use of passive solar heating and natural ventilation. SLO’s comfortable climate allows occupants to rarely need to turn on heaters in the winter or air conditioners in the summer. A well-designed passive building here should not require either unit at all.

Air Pollution and Air Quality Trends (lower is better) 65

SLO

US

52

39

26

13

0

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

San Luis Obispo has quite clean air compared to the rest of the country. Therefore, residents are encouraged to enjoy the outdoors as much as possible!


Psychrometric Chart jan

jul

feb

aug

mar

sep

apr

oct

may

nov

jun

dec

45


design solutions Due to the climate of San Luis Obispo, sun, wind and shade should be well planned out in order to maximize the comfort levels of the outdoor areas.

Sunny, wind-protected outdoor spaces can extend social areas in cool weather Trees should not be planted in front of passive solar windows, but rather beyond 45 degrees from each corner

On hot days ceiling fans or indoor air motion can make it seem cooler by at least 5 degrees F, requiring less AC

Shade to prevent overheating Open to breezes in the summer Use of passive solar gain in winter

Lower the indoor comfort temperature at night to reduce heating energy consumption

Glazing should minimize conductive loss and gain


47

Small, well-insulated skylights reduce daytime lighting energy and cooling loads Organize floor plan so winter sun penetrates into daytime use spaces with specific functions that coincide with solar orientation

Design low pitched roofs with wide overhangs for this temperate climate

For passive solar heating, face most of the glass south for winter sun, but design overhangs to fully shade in the summer Natural ventilation can store nighttime ‘cool’ in high mass interior surfaces, reducing the need for AC use during the day

Window overhangs or operable sunshades can reduce AC

Design a well insulated building to keep heat gains within to reduce heating needs


flora | fauna


49


local services Water Supply: San Luis Obispo’s water comes from three sources: Salinas Reservoir (Santa Margarita Lake), Whale Rock Reservoir and ground water. Salinas Reservoir is our primary source of water. Whale Rock is our backup supply. Groundwater supplies a very small percentage (about five) of the City’s demand for water. Waste: The City of San Luis Obispo’s wastewater collection system consists of one hundred and thirty miles of sewer pipe, over 2,500 manholes, and eight sewage pump stations. This system conveys approximately 4.5 million gallons of wastewater per day to the City’s Water Reclamation Facility where it is cleaned and treated Solid waste is picked up on a weekly basis and trucked to one of three dump sites within the county. San luis Obispo operates a three can garbage service where each resident is given a garbage bin, recycle bin, and green waste bin. All solid waste from the residents of San Luis Obispo ends up in the nearby Cold Canyon Landfill where it dumped and buried into the earth. Electricity: San Luis Obispo’s electricity is provided by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E). As of September 2011, PG&E’s power mix came from the following sources: 25% Natural Gas, 22% Nuclear Power, 19% Renewable Energy, 18% Large Hydro, 15% Unspecified, and 1% Other. Natural Gas: Natural Gas service in San Luis Obispo is provided by The Gas Company of Southern California and is transported and distributed through the city through the use of transmission lines and high pressure distribution lines.


51


issue

53


issue overview 57 problem demographics 63 existing conditions 67 site access


“About a third of our schools use portable classrooms and about one fifth use temporary instructional space such as cafeterias and gyms, etc.” -John B. Lyons

55


problem The number of enrolled students at Bishop’s Peak is currently on the rise. School officials are currently projecting an increase of between 2-4 full classes of students over the next few years. The school is already close to its maximum capacity and has no plan in place for how it will accommodate this future growth. Bishop’s Peak has been in this situation before and at that time was only able to handle the increase by installing portable classrooms, these are the same classrooms we are now trying to rid the campus of. This time around though, the school cannot simply add more portables because they have run out of viable space to even locate temporary classrooms. If a solution is not found soon, a course of action that may be considered is to have Teach Elementary move to a different location so that Bishop’s Peak can utilize that space. Forcing a great school like Teach to move just so space can be used to accommodate more portable classrooms to handle the growth of Bishop’s Peak is not an acceptable solution. Trading one set of portables for another is not a solution. Bishop’s


Peak needs to start looking at their long term growth as well as the quality of learning spaces to see that what they require is a new, permanent class room wing designed around 21st century teaching principles. Another problem, albeit smaller in scale, is the lack of a prominent secondary entrance to the campus. There are currently two pathways that serve as access from the northern side of the campus and both of them are not doing the school any justice in terms of prestige. Both of these ‘secondary entrances’ could use improvement and deserve to be redesigned to create a new, grand entrance to the campus; one that students, parents, and the community can be proud of. This includes making it much more of a grand entrance as well as incorporating multiple functions into the space. This grand entrance area can double as outdoor classroom space, a playful area for students, as well as a place where nature is reintroduced to an otherwise man-made area.

57


demographics

Number of Enrolled Children per Grade (11-12) 59

60

number of kids

50

25 20

25 22 19

20

19

55 47 41

40

35

30

31

20 10

-12 11 20

-11 10 20

-10 09 20

-09 08 20

07

-08

15

20

number of kids

Average Class Size

51

k

1

2

3 4 grade

5

6


year 13

20

12

-14

-13

375

20

-12

296

11

-11

325

20

10

-10

292

20

09

-09

287

20

08

-08

289

20

07

289

20

-07

300

06

-06

-05

303

20

05

20

04

-04

299

20

03

-03

300

20

02

-02

-01

300

20

01

20

00

-00

343

20

99

-99

340

19

98

-98

350

19

97

-97

400

19

96

19

enrollment

Enrollment over the Years

425 409

59

393 ???? ????

356 333 319

275

250


problem


As you can see from the photos, these portable classrooms are an eye sore on the Bishop’s Peak campus. Their portable design and lack of integration with existing buildings, or even to one another, makes them stand out as awkward and unnatural. They are typically manufactured with only cost and portability in mind and therefore the design greatly suffers. In addition, these portables have been poorly placed on the site with no consideration given to proper orientation or view shed. Their window placement, sizing, and overhangs have not be properly designed for this climate or geographic location and therefore can not preform optimally. A 2012 study in the United Kingdom found as much as a 25% improvement in academic achievement for students in a “well-designed learning environment.� No part of these portable classrooms have been well designed for student learning so it can be assumed that any students taught in these spaces are learning at a measurable decreased capacity. There can be no other solution here than to remove these portables in their entirety and replace them with a new building designed specifically for this location and for these users.

61


As you can see from the maps at right, these portable buildings have been laid out in a very haphazard way. The were orientated and placed on the site purely to minimize the amount of space they would require with no thought given to their solar orientation or connections. Therefore, there is a lack of correlation between these classrooms as well as a lack of connection to the adjacent playground and the rest of the campus. The four units on the right are all facing inward towards each other while the next two are flipped 90 degrees to face out towards the blacktop. Yet another classroom is tucked into the northwest corner hidden behind a ‘restroom’ unit and facing the backside of another classroom with essentially no view to speak of. Even the Teach elementary classrooms on the far west of the campus have been better orientated so that they all face inward to a common circulation corridor.

bishop’s peak elementary

existing conditions


63


existing conditions Classrooms - Bishop’s Peak (14) Kindergarten (2) Kindergarten/1st Grade (1) First Grade (2) Second Grade (3) Third Grade (2) Third/Fourth Grade (1) Fourth/Fifth Grade (1) Fifth Grade (1) Sixth Grade (1) Classrooms - Teach (6) Shared Spaces Multi Purpose Room Office Library Science Lab Music Room Computer Lab After school Program Speech and Counselors Reading Recovery Resource Teacher EL Reading Restrooms

Bishop’s Peak Elementary Teach Elementary Shared Spaces

N


65


 

site access

highland drive

B

front entrance

pedestrian traffic

A

Since Bishop’s Peak lies in the midst of a residential neighborhood, the streets around the school are quiet and traffic is fairly slow moving for most of the day. Patricia and Highland Streets are the most traveled of the roads in the immediate surrounding area, but still much less busy than many of the other main roads nearby, such as Foothill Boulevard. However, when school starts and ends each day, this seemly quite neighborhood becomes packed with cars stuck in bumper to bumper gridlock. Many parents use the front entrance to the school (yellow loop to the east), and simply wait in their cars until it becomes their turn. This makes it quite difficult for people living in the neighborhood to come and go from their homes during these times. Highland Drive is a less busy area for student drop off/pick up by comparison, although this is also where the school buses load and unload.

vehicular traffic

bus drop off


Secondary Entry from Highland Drive

67

A

Tertiary Entry from Playground

B


site access Tertiary Entry from Playground


Secondary Entry from Highland Drive

69


Precedents

71


precedents overview 75 building precedents 85 playground precedents 87 shade structure precedents


“Studies show that in naturally lit spaces students learn 26% faster in reading and 20% faster in math. Large view windows also increase performance by 5-10%.� - California Board for Energy Efficiency

73


building precedent Chartwell School Seaside, California

The vision for the new Chartwell School campus was to create an exceptional, high-performance learning environment for children with learning variations. The result of a collaborative effort between the users and the design team at EHDD was a campus that takes full advantage of its hillside site overlooking Monterey Bay, integrates proven strategies to improve learning, and functions as a teaching tool about sustainability – all while dramatically reducing environmental impacts. Completed in 2008, Chartwell School achieved status as the first LEED-platinum school campus in the nation.

The school’s design enhances learning by making wayfinding intuitive, clean, and aesthetically pleasing. The facility is organized around two connected courtyards with outdoor circulation space. Shapes and forms underscore the ideals of play, study, and collaborative learning. The building accommodates active spaces, quiet spaces for large and small group education, outdoor art spaces, a science garden, and trails through the native coastal oak woodland. This LEED Platinum building uses photovoltaics to generate as much energy as it consumes – resulting in a zero-energy building. Extensive daylight monitoring ensures that every room is fully day-lit whenever possible, greatly reducing the need for electric lighting. Additionally, rainwater is collected on-site and stored in a large cistern that acts as the main water source for the entire school.


Goals of the project were ambitious and included: 1. to create the best possible learning environment by providing exceptional daylighting, views, indoor air quality, and thermal comfort; 2. to make the sustainable design strategies a visible part of the students’ education by developing the site as a teaching tool with natural drainage and native and food-producing plants; 3. to inspire and excite the community about the possibilities of sustainable design and in turn generate support and private funding; 4. to reach net-zero electricity use through exceptional efficiency and adding photovoltaic (PV) capacity to meet the remaining electrical demand; and 5. to reach these goals with only a modest cost premium.

75


building precedent Thurston Elementary School Springfield, Oregon

The Thurston Elementary School in the Springfield Public School District was completed in August 2009 to replace an existing school on the same site. The gentle sloping silhouette of the two-storey classroom wings mirror the tree lined hills to the south and north of the site. Large sheets of exposed, tilt-up concrete underline the scale of the hills and proved to be the most economical local construction method. The students, parents, and the community as a whole approach the school from the west side while the east side offers access to outdoor learning

spaces and a protected wetland. To promote student understanding of the natural systems, rainwater collected from the roof is put on display by directing flow into open concrete runnels that distribute into landscaped bioswales. The classroom wings are connected by one-storey public zones with low roof lines which embrace the K-5 population. Large wood framed glass walls on each side allow the outdoors to come inside and flow through these transparent connectors which house the entry, library and commons. Wood windows, benches, wall paneling and ceilings offer a welcoming, warm invitation to gather. The richly colored


wood work reflects the historic importance of the Springfield timber industry and the execution of the detailing showcases the local talent of woodwork craftsmanship. The continuation of the exposed concrete on the inside creates a clear breakpoint with the classroom wings, where the neutral color palette serves as a backdrop for the creativity of the students. Four classrooms are grouped around one break-out space with direct access to the outdoors. The internal transparency allows teachers to observe students at all times.

77


building precedent Samuel Brighouse Elementary School Richmond, British Columbia

Working together with students, the community, and the city of Richmond, Perkins+Will was able to incorporate principles of environmental stewardship, diversity, and inclusion into their design solution. The architects developed the site plan around saving the existing gym. They adopted an L-shaped format, with the long, double-loaded corridor of the new classroom wing running eastwest and the gym to the south. The east side of the glu-lam post-and-beam structure, which includes the gym and the district’s adult literacy center, is open to the community. A stair in the main corridor of the academic wing marks the transition from

public space to private. As students enter the building, they pass under the concrete landing of the stair, whose low height suggests an entrance to a more intimate space. The second story of the academic wing is faced with a curtain wall that spans the length of the building and brings light into the corridor. The architects clad the school primarily with a cementitious panel, but used bands of brick (for durability) around the outdoor areas where students play. The building’s signature feature is its wavy roof, made from two-by-fours joined side by side to produce gentle slopes. The roof also allows for passive ventilation, through windows at the peaks of the wave. Exposed wood roof decking throughout the interior forms the ceilings, and the floors of the ground level are concrete to convey heat from the school’s geoexchange system.


79


building precedent Ballard Library & Service Center Seattle, Washington

A multiple award winner for design excellence and sustainability, the Ballard Library and Neighborhood Service Center offers a dramatic view along the street and creates an extended front porch gathering space for the neighborhood. Designed by Bohlin Cywinski Jackson, the building is located on a gently sloping site diagonally across from a new city park and leads toward Ballard’s center one block away. Tapered steel columns support a curved roof that extends beyond the entrance and unites the library and service center components. The planted roof turns upward at the north, allowing light into the building, its edges softened by wood purlins that extend beyond its perimeter.


Glazed walls and skylights provide transparency deep into the public areas of the building. The glass skin bends around the corners, marking the children’s area and service center lobby as special places. A public meeting room clad in galvanized shingles anchors the northwestern corner of the site. Rectangular, colorstained cedar boxes containing support spaces are aligned on east-west axes. A periscope integrated into a wall adjacent to the circulation desk offers patrons views to the green roof. By giving careful consideration to building systems and components, and seeking multiple functions for each of the program elements, the Ballard Library and Neighborhood Service Center demonstrates that green building can be feasible within a modest budget. The library’s mission and use offer an opportunity to educate the community in the richness and benefits of combining sustainable design and extraordinary architecture.

81


building precedent Marin Country Day School Corte Madera, California

The Marin Country Day School is located about 10 miles from the San Francisco Golden Gate Bridge and sits on 35 naturally beautiful acres of land which begin at the Bay and run up the hills of Ring Mountain. The mild California climate, along with the school’s emphasis on a connection to nature, provided inspiration for many of the sustainability strategies that were incorporated into the campus. The school has been recognized as the first zeroenergy classroom building in North America and received LEED® Platinum certification from the U.S. Green Building Council in April 2010.

MCDS’s vision was to create a library and classrooms that would not simply be a structure for learning, but that would themselves become a part of the curriculum. During an annual sustainability day on campus, initiated by the renovation, students inform the broader community about the school’s green building initiatives. Passive techniques employing natural ventilation and daylighting were used in more than 90 percent of the spaces. Sunshading, landscaping, thermal mass, and air movement provide comfort without sealing students off from the outdoor environment. Strategically located overhangs shade the buildings, while thoughtful building orientation and operable windows enable the building to be naturally ventilated and passively cooled. All


these natural systems are the result of careful engineering to provide exceptional comfort while maintaining connection to the outdoors. Rainwater is collected from the roofs and stored in an underground cistern that feeds greywater to toilets while also acting as a heat sink to cool the building. Energy use may be computermonitored in real time to both improve building operation and provide students with information on their own environmental footprint. Exceptional daylighting, natural ventilation, and healthy indoor air quality all help create a high performance learning environment in support of the educational mission of MCDS.

83


playground precedents Garden City Park, Richmond, Canada Problem: To develop a site-specific solution for a play environment that encourages creative play. Outdoor play spaces have the potential to establish a connection with natural systems and living organisms that change with the seasons. This contact can enhance physical and cognitive development, and encourage imaginative and spontaneous play and exploration.

Type: Public Park Location: Richmond, Canada Client: City of Richmond Completed 2008 Site: Garden City Park is a new park located near Richmond City Hall in BC, Canada. The Play Environment is in close proximity to several public schools and is adjacent to a forest, an arboretum and a new pond.


Design Solution: ‘space2place’ undertook a collaborative design approach for the play environment at Garden City Park. Many workshops and design exercises were used to gain a clear understanding of the specific needs of the project, and to promote awareness of the findings among child-care professionals and decision makers. This approach gave them a unique ability to create and inspire change in outdoor play spaces, resulting in site-specific designs that foster healthy development of children and strong connections to the outdoor world.

85


shade structure precedent ‘Boardwalk’, Myrtle Beach, SC This structure by Shade Systems Inc. provides a refuge from the South Carolina heat during the day and is uplit at night to highlight the sails against the evening sky. The shade structure is located along the central Myrtle Beach Boardwalk and covers portions of both the scored concrete and southern yellow pine planks of Plyler Park. Tree grates were used to allow the shade sail poles to pierce through the wooden deck and the entire structure was designed to frame the ocean view as seen from the boardwalk.


‘Place for Rest’, Talca, Chile In Chile, the architecture firm Grupo Talca deconstructed over 50 used French oak wine barrels and reassembled them to create the ceiling for an open-air pavilion in the grape-growing region of Maule Valley. Completed in 2007, this pavilion was envisioned as a ‘place of rest’ where tourists and locals alike could learn about the process of wine preparation. Beneath the undulating roof, vineyard workers can seek relief in the shaded area and relax on furniture also made from sections of used wine barrels.

87


systems

89


systems overview 93 roof systems 97 floor systems 99 sustainable systems 101 materials


“By promoting the design and construction of new green schools and by greening existing schools, we can make a tremendous impact on student health, school operational costs and the environment.�

-USGBC

91


roof systems Green Roofs provide...

Reduce the heat island effect

Reduce noise level

Keep a building cool during hot days, and keep the warmth in during cold days due to its thermal mass

Provide another natural environment for animals and insects

Reduce the amount of mechanical systems needed due to its thermal mass

Create a learning environment for children and adults

Absorb pollutants Catch rainfall

More attractive than a standard roof

A garden area in dense, built-up area Chicago City Hall


Types of Green Roofs

Extensive Green Roofs

Intensive Green Roofs

Simple, lightweight system

Complex system

Plants usually require minimal water

No limit on type of plant

Shallow soil depth (1-6�)

Deeper soil depth (6-15�)

Little maintenance

Requires a lot of maintenance

Usually non-accessible

Designed for human interaction

Small amount of structural support needed

Large amount of structural support needed

Low initial cost (for a green roof)

High initial cost (for a green roof)

Can be used on roofs with 7:12 slope and greater

Relatively flat

Academy of Sciences, San Francisco

Irrigation system may be implemented 93


roof systems Types of Solar Panels

Produces the most electricity

Produces the most electricity

Produces the most electricity

Size: 4kW = 20m2

Size: 4kW = 25m2

Size: 4kW = 30m2

Produces the least electricity

900kWh/kWp

800kWh/kWp

750kWh/kWp

Size: 4kW = 50m2

Amorphous and Crystalline cells

Crystalline cells

Crystalline cells

850kWh/kWp

More expensive

Highly efficient

Lower annual output

Lowest annual output

Dependable

Less expensive

Good Performance

Limited roof space Best kWh generation = quicker payback

Also known as Thin Film

Low Efficiency More Space More Expensive Works on curved roofs


Hybrid Solar Panels

Monocrystalline Solar Panels

Polycrystalline Solar Panels

Amorphous Solar Panels

95


floor system Radiant Heating...

Provides heat directly into the floor of a room Relies on convection More efficient than forced heating Requires no ducting Does not distribute allergens Uses little electricity Can use a wide variety of sources Quiet Operation Flexible room layout

Types of Radiant Floor Heating Air-Heated Floors

Electric Radiant Floors

Hydronic Radiant Floors

Cannot hold a large amount of heat

Only cost effective when used with thermal mass

Most popular

Can be combined solar air heating

Can also provide cooling

Installation cost can differ based on materials used

Not recommended for residential construction

Cost Effective


Sustainable Cork Flooring

Sustainable Bamboo Flooring

97


sustainable systems Characteristics of a Green School... Conserves energy and natural resources Saves taxpayer money Improves indoor air quality Removes toxic materials from places where children learn and play Employs daylighting strategies and improves classroom acoustics Employs sustainable purchasing and green cleaning practices Improves environmental literacy in students Decreases the burden on municipal water and wastewater treatment Encourages waste management efforts to benefit the local community and region Conserves fresh drinking water and helps manage stormwater runoff Encourages recycling Promotes habitat protection Reduces demand on local landfills


Water Harvesting... Provides inexpensive water supply Reduces stormwater runoff and pollution Reduces erosion in urban environments Provides water that needs little treatments for irrigation and non-potable indoor uses Helps reduce peak summer demands Creates a teaching tool for children

Chesapeake Bay Foundation

Chartwell School 99


materials Agriboard Panel System Compressed wheat straw panels No job site waste Uses local and regional materials May reduce the construction time “Blast Resistant� Insect and mold resistant 2 1/2 hour fire rating Certified for F5 wind High thermal mass 7x more air-tight


Acoustical Panels Limits noise reverberations

101


design

103


design overview 107 proposal 109 program 111 process | explorations 127 final design floor plans sections materials diagrams greenroof 147 sustainability overview 151 building calculations


“Thoughtful, sustainable architecture, no matter how basic, and public outreach are equally essential elements in the development of the ‘master plans.’” 105

- Linda Lentz, Architectural Record


proposal Classrooms - Bishop’s Peak (16) Classrooms - Teach (6) West Building Computer Room Computer Storage Music Room Music Storage After School Room Resource Offices (4-5) Bathrooms East Building Art Room Art Storage Science Room Science Storage Classroom (2) Bathrooms Parent Overlook

Bishop’s Peak Elementary Teach Elementary Shared Spaces

N


Our vision is to transform Bishop’s Peak Elementary into an environment where the students’ education extends beyond the classroom, creating an atmosphere that encourages them to play, learn and grow.

Existing Structures vs Area of Change

We are proposing the removal of all portable buildings from the northern edge of the campus and replacing them with a new ‘enrichment wing.’ This new wing will allow us to create a permanent home for activities such as Music, Computers, Science and Art. It will also provide a unified space for all individual counseling offices to be grouped together, in addition to providing flex classroom space to accommodate for future expansion of the school. This new building will be constructed with many passive design strategies in mind as well as sustainable building techniques. When completed, it will be a healthy environment to educate students, and also serve as a learning tool. The building will be designed to provide educational learning opportunities in every way possible. A green roof, water catchment system and solar panels will be some of the components that children will be able to learn about, in addition to the use of recycled, re-purposed, and sustainable materials used throughout the building.

Area of Change

(E) Structures to Remain

We will also be creating a new secondary entrance to the campus from Highland Drive. This will enhance the experience of entering the site through this heavily used access corridor and include a ‘look out’ area above. This area situated half way up the hill will create an opportunity for parents to sit and relax while waiting to pick up their children. This will get people out of their cars and allow them to experience a bit of nature and enjoy the beautiful views while waiting.

107


program Stor.

Building #01 Program Computer Room

Music Room Stor.

Break Out

Additional Classrooms

Bath

Music Room

Computer Room

Additional Classrooms

1200 sq. ft.

1200 sq. ft.

1000 sq. ft.

good acoustics

limited natural and artificial lighting

natural lighting

lots of natural lighting


Stor. Arts Room

Building #02 Program

Science Room Stor.

After School Program

Break Out

Bath

Counsel. Offices

Bath

Science Room

Arts Room

After School Program

Counseling Offices

1200 sq. ft.

1200 sq. ft.

1000 sq. ft.

1000 sq. ft.

good acoustics

lots of natural lighting

natural lighting

natural lighting

lots of natural lighting

109


process

nature

built

The basis for this design was to create a place in which children can play, learn and grow. To accomplish this, the intersection between the built and natural environments was explored. This is reflected in the design with how the building in pressed into the hill while at the same time the hill pushes back into the negative space between the two buildings.


Kindergarten 1st to 3rd Grade 4th to 6th Grade

111

New Playground/Classroom Relationship


process Layout Exploration

New Classrooms Playground Expansion


As you can see from the explorations at right, we tried several different approaches to how the new building would be laid out. Ultimately, it was decided that the best approach was to lay the rooms out side by side on an East-West axis to obtain the best the solar orientation and views possible. This also allowed us to create a single common circulation axis that would pass by the front of each classroom while also serving as an overhang to protect from the harsh summer sun. We also felt that this design best reflected the current character and function layout of the school which is that of a spine of service functions with classroom ‘wings’ projecting out from this spine. We also explored the pros and cons of pushing the new building back into the hill to the north. In the end, we found this to be a very wise decision as it allowed us to engage the hill at the roof level and allow it to ‘bleed’ right into our vegetated green roof. This also provided us a benefit at the base level where the entire hill would now provide us with thermal mass. Additionally, this pushing into the hill created a large amount of open space in front of the classrooms that will provide teachers with an opportunity to extend the learning experience out of the classroom and back into the outdoor environment.

113


process The new Enrichment Wing is split roughly in half to form two distinct buildings. This allows us to better organize the functions of each building as well as creating a new location for the secondary entrance to the campus. Due to the elevation change of roughly 30 feet from the playground to the drop off area above, we have physically pushed our new buildings back into the hill to create more playground and outdoor learning space for the students. This allowed us to create a ‘grand staircase’ of steps leading from the drop off area to the campus. To break up this otherwise long set of steps, we created a flat ‘look-out’ area roughly halfway between the playground and top of the hill. This area will allow parents to have a nice place to sit and relax while waiting to pick up their children as well as creating a peaceful observation area with stunning views of Bishop’s Peak Mountain and the city of San Luis Obispo. This look-out area will also feature a path leading up and onto the extensive green roof so that classes of children may physically walk out onto the roof to learn more about nature and sustainability principles.


To Observation Deck and Highland Drive

Proposed Floor Plan Music Storage

Computer Storage Stor.

Girls

Boys

Computer Lab 950 sq. ft

Mens

Music Room 1500 sq. ft

After School Classroom

Womans

1500 sq. ft

Break Out Space

Counseling Offices

Section Model

Stor. Boys

Boys

Girls

Science Classroom

Art Classroom 1200 sq. ft

Break Out Space

1200 sq. ft

Classroom 1100 sq. ft

Girls

Classroom Break Out Space

1100 sq. ft

1000 sq. ft

To Playground

115


process Preliminary Energy Analysis


117


process section show model


119


process exploded section model The roof design was influenced by the silhouette of the surrounding mountain range. The hill behind this proposed wing gradually flows onto the upper roof, turning into an extensive green roof, thus grabbing a hold of the built environment. The lower roof is clad in standing seam metal panels with an integrated thin film PV system. This allows the entire roof to act as a rainwater harvesting system, which leads to an exposed cistern below, while generating power. The building was aligned due south for maximum solar exposure. To get evenly dispersed natural light, large south facing windows and clerestory windows, as well as north facing skylights were used. Operable windows in the glazing system allow the building to be naturally ventilated, and give each classroom the ability to be individually adjusted for thermal comfort.

extensive green roof

metal decking plywood structural support FSC glulam beams

standing seam metal clad panel system with integrated thin film PV


121


process entry stair exploration Museum of Liverpool

The stairs were designed to further emphasize this intersection through the topographic nature of the plateaus, juxtaposed against the rigidness of the poured-in-place concrete stairs, while also serving multiple functions. Primarily, they act as a main entry corridor of the campus, in addition to providing an outdoor learning environment for class interaction.


123


process parent lookout exploration Anza Borrego Visitor Center

Midway between Highland Drive and the top of our vegetated green roof is where we are planning to locate the parent lookout. This will be an area where parents can sit and relax while waiting to pick up their children after school. The area has amazing views of the city as well as of Bishop’s Peak itself. We separated the lookout space from the road a bit to reduce noise and to create its own relaxing atmosphere. This area can also be easily accessed by residents of the surrounding neighborhood and will be park-like in nature. The images above are from the Anza Borrego Visitor Center in California and are a good representation of how we imagine our ‘parent lookout’ will function.


Green Roof Skylights

Designed by Caliper Studio

highland drive 125

look out

sun and wind diagram

north

south


final design


127


design solution

nature

The basis for this design was to create a place in which children can play, learn and grow simultaneously. To accomplish this, the built intersection between the built and natural environments was explored. This is reflected in the design in how the buildings are pressed back into the northern hill while at the same time the hill pushes back into the negative space between and around the buildings. The curved roofs of the buildings were also specifically designed to reflect the rolling hills of the central coast that San Luis Obispo is well know for. The first floor of this new enrichment wing is connected directly to the asphalt playground of the existing site on its southern face while its northern end is buried into the hill. At the second floor, the classrooms now open up directly to the walkable greenroof of the first floor. The roof of the second story buildings now connects directly to the sidewalk of Highland drive and allows for community interaction at the street level to our new buildings. The stairs of our new entrance were also designed to further emphasize this connection through the topographic nature of the plateaus juxtaposed against the rigidness of the poured in place concrete stairs; while also serving multiple functions. They act primarily as a main entry corridor to the campus while also creating an area that can be used as an outdoor classroom. The hill behind these proposed wings gradually flows onto the upper roof, becoming an extensive green roof. Thus, nature has grabbed a hold of the built environment. The lowest roof is clad in standing seam metal panels with an integrated thin film PV system. This allows the entire roof to act as a rainwater harvesting system while also generating some power for the building.


The buildings were all aligned along an East/West axis with their long side facing due South to ensure they would receive maximum solar exposure. To get evenly dispersed natural light, large south facing windows and clerestory windows, as well as north facing skylights were used. Manually operable windows were placed in the southern glazing system while mechanically operated windows were used in the clerestory and skylights. These allow every room to be naturally ventilated and independently adjusted to allow for optimum occupant thermal comfort.

Ex

Instructional Spaces

is C ting on N dit ew io ns C on di tio ns

A large driving force behind our design proposal was also the need for more instructional space at Bishop’s Peak Elementary. As the school is fast approaching its maximum operating capacity, it has been in desperate need of additional instruction space. Through our new design we were able to not only provide additional flex classroom space for the school, but we were also able to accomplish our goal of completely removing the exiting portable units from the site. Our end design was able to add an additional four classrooms to the campus, provide three new dedicated spaces for counselors and other support services, remove existing portables, and provide a permanent home for enrichment activities including art, science, music and computers. We feel this design proposal is a major leap forward for Bishop’s Peak Elementary and will provide them with outstanding educational and instructional spaces for years to come.

Permanent

14

23

Portables

8

0

14

18

In Portables

6

0

Enrichment Rooms

3

4

Occupied Classrooms

Added 4 Classrooms for student learning Eliminated Portable classrooms completely Enrichment Activities given a permanent space

129


site & floor plans

HIGHLAND DRIVE

KINDERGARTEN PLAYGROUND

1-3 GRADES PLAYGROUND

JAYCEE DRIVE

PLAY STRUCTURE

GARDEN

OUTDOOR CLASS.

4-6 GRADES PLAYGROUND

N Scale: 1”=30’


second floor

A

STOR.

STOR.

CLASS

OUTDOOR MEETING AREA

CLASS

COUNSELORS

OUTDOOR CLASSROOM

B

READING RECOVERY

WORK AREA

JAN. MECH

RESOURCE

B

GARDEN SOLAR PANEL

ACCESSIBLE GREEN ROOF

WEATHER STATION

ACCESSIBLE GREEN ROOF

KINDERGARTEN PLAYGROUND

A 1-3 GRADES PLAYGROUND

first floor

EXISTING CLASSROOMS A

MECH

SECOND FLOOR ABOVE

131

MECH

B

B MUSIC

SCIENCE

AFTER SCHOOL

CLASS

BREAK OUT

CLASS

COMPUTER

ART VESTIBULE

VESTIBULE

N Scale: 1”=20’

KINDERGARTEN PLAYGROUND

A 1-3 GRADES PLAYGROUND

EXISTING CLASSROOMS


section ‘A’ (north/south)


133


section ‘B’ (east/west)

HIGHLAND DRIVE

A

B

B A

PLAY STRUCTURE

Section B | Scale: 3/32” = 1’-0”

1-3 GRADES PLAYGROUND

KINDERGARTEN PLAYGROUND


135


subsection name


137


materials


FSC Certified Glu-Lams

Standing Seam Metal Roof with Thin Film PV

Sustainable SIP Panels

NanaWall Folding Glass Wall System

Bamboo Flooring

Radiant Floor Slab

Intensive Green Roof

Materials were chosen primarily with sustainability, recycled content, and durability in mind. Specific attention was given to ensure that our end result would be ‘healthy’ classrooms that were environmentally responsible and would create the best possible learning environment for the students. Polished Concrete Flooring

139


diagrams classrooms

student resources and counseling


141


diagrams exits and egress

mechanical rooms


vestibules and breakout spaces

restrooms and janitorial 143


green roof experiences The vegetated green roofs of these new enrichment wings are an integral part of the design and use of these buildings. They serve multiple functions while providing many benefits to the students, the building itself, and the environment.

HIGHLAND DRIVE

N

KINDERG PLAYGR

The thickness of the vegetation, soil substrate and sub-structure provide superior insulation and thermal mass qualities to the building. This combination of vegetation and soil also helps to reduce the quantity and speed of runoff rain PLAY water falling on the site as well as serving as a natural filtration medium. As you can see from ourSTRUCTURE calculations, these green roofs also serve to reduce the heat 1-3 GRADES island effect. PLAYGROUND In addition to the many environmental benefits, these green roofs will provide multiple different handson learning and playful experiences for the students of Bishop’s Peak. Some of these experiences will include a student garden, decomposed granite walkable paths, classroom meeting spaces, a weather station, and several experimental photovoltaic panels. The green roofs on top of the second story buildings were programmed specifically as public park space and were designed to connect directly to the public sidewalk adjacent to Highland Drive. This creates a beautiful open space area for the local residents to enjoy while also providing a GARDEN relaxing area for parents to enjoy while waiting to pick up their children after school.

OUTDOOR CLASS.


PLAY - walkable experiences

PLAY - student artwork

LEARN - gathering spaces

GROW - native plants

LEARN - weather station GROW - gardening

PLAY - movement

145


sustainability Designing very sustainable educational buildings was one of our primary concerns from the beginning of this project. Our goal was to design them as close to passive as possible in order to greatly reduce their energy demands. Sustainable design, materials, and building practices were pursued in order to create an environment that would maximize occupant health and comfort. Additionally, we wanted the entire building to become a teaching tool that could be used to showcase sustainable building practices to the students and be easily incorporated directly into their learning curriculum.

sustainable Building Techniques: • Optimum Building Orientation We aligned our buildings on an East-West axis to maximize our southern exposures while minimizing harsh East/West light. This allowed us to ‘daylight’ all of our buildings with both direct southern and indirect northern light. • Tight Building Envelope Through the use of Agriboard sustainable Structurally Insulated wall Panels (SIPS), a thick vegetated roof, and triple pane windows we were able to create a very tight building envelope to minimize heat gain/loss. This was a critical step in helping to create a passive building. • Natural Ventilation All four buildings are naturally ventilated through the use of operable windows and cross ventilation principles. Manually operable windows were installed at the southern side of all classrooms with mechanically operated windows located in the clerestory and northern skylights. This allows all spaces to be individually adjusted by its occupants to achieve ideal thermal comfort. • Reduce Water Demand Through the use of low-flow fixtures and reusing captured roof run-off rainwater we were able to reduce our building’s water consumption by 62.7% when compared to a baseline building of similar size and occupancy.


• Alternative Energy Generation Thin Film photovoltaic panels were utilized to help offset some of the building’s energy requirements. Thin Film was chosen over traditional PV panels for its ability to be easily integrated directly into our standing seam metal roof while also not obstructing the aesthetic ‘lines’ of our curved roofs. • No/Low-VOC Materials All materials were chosen to ensure they contained No or very Low-VOC content to provide optimum occupant comfort and health. Specifically, bamboo flooring, polished concrete, and SIP panels made of compressed hay were used for their Low-VOC content.

147


sustainability

This project is on the path to receive

LEED Gold Certification with a total of

72 points

out of a possible 100 points in LEED-NC for Schools 33

Sustainable Sites Water Efficiency

24 19 14

11 7

Energy and Atmosphere

19 13 8

Material and Resources

18

Indoor Environmental Quality Innovation in Design

6 2

4

Regional Priority


LEED 2009 for Schools New Construction and Major Renovations

Project Name

Project Checklist

Sustainable Sites

14 Y

?

Date

Y Y 1

Y Prereq 1 Prereq 2 Credit 1

x x 4

Credit 2 Credit 3 Credit 4.1

x x 2

Credit 4.2 Credit 4.3 Credit 4.4

x 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Credit 5.1 Credit 5.2 Credit 6.1 Credit 6.2 Credit 7.1 Credit 7.2 Credit 8 Credit 9

x

Credit 10

Construction Activity Pollution Prevention Environmental Site Assessment Site Selection Development Density and Community Connectivity Brownfield Redevelopment Alternative Transportation—Public Transportation Access Alternative Transportation—Bicycle Storage and Changing Rooms Alternative Transportation—Low-Emitting and Fuel-Efficient Vehicles Alternative Transportation—Parking Capacity Site Development—Protect or Restore Habitat Site Development—Maximize Open Space Stormwater Design—Quantity Control Stormwater Design—Quality Control Heat Island Effect—Non-roof Heat Island Effect—Roof Light Pollution Reduction Site Master Plan Joint Use of Facilities

7

Water Efficiency

Y 3 2 2

Prereq 1 Credit 1 Credit 2 Credit 3

x

Credit 3

?

N

x 1 4 1 4 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Possible Points: 11

Water Use Reduction—20% Reduction Water Efficient Landscaping Innovative Wastewater Technologies Water Use Reduction Process Water Use Reduction

Energy and Atmosphere

19

Materials and Resources, Continued

Possible Points: 24

N

2 to 4 2 2 to 4 1

Possible Points: 33

2 2 1 1 18

Credit 3 Credit 4 Credit 5 Credit 6 Credit 7

Prereq 1 Prereq 2 Prereq 3 Credit 1 Credit 2 Credit 3 Credit 4 Credit 5

x

Credit 6

Fundamental Commissioning of Building Energy Systems Minimum Energy Performance Fundamental Refrigerant Management Optimize Energy Performance On-Site Renewable Energy Enhanced Commissioning Enhanced Refrigerant Management Measurement and Verification Green Power

Prereq 1

2

Innovation and Design Process

Prereq 2 Prereq 3 Credit 1 Credit 2 Credit 3.1 Credit 3.2 Credit 4 Credit 5 Credit 6.1 Credit 6.2 Credit 7.1 Credit 7.2 Credit 8.1 Credit 8.2 Credit 9 Credit 10

8

Materials and Resources

Y

Prereq 1

x x 2

Credit 1.1 Credit 1.2 Credit 2

Credit 1.3 Credit 1.4

Possible Points: 13

Storage and Collection of Recyclables Building Reuse—Maintain Existing Walls, Floors, and Roof Building Reuse—Maintain 50% of Interior Non-Structural Elements Construction Waste Management

1 to 2 1 1 to 2

Credit 2

4

Regional Priority Credits

1 1 1 1

Credit 1.1

72

Total

Credit 1.2 Credit 1.3 Credit 1.4

Regional Priority: Regional Priority: Regional Priority: Regional Priority:

Certified 40 to 49 points

Specific Specific Specific Specific

1 1 1 1 1 to 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 to 3 1 1 1

Possible Points: 6

Innovation in Design: Specific Title Innovation in Design: Specific Title Innovation in Design: Specific Title Innovation in Design: Specific Title LEED Accredited Professional The School as a Teaching Tool

1 1

Credit 3

Possible Points: 19

Minimum Indoor Air Quality Performance Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control Minimum Acoustical Performance Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring Increased Ventilation Construction IAQ Management Plan—During Construction Construction IAQ Management Plan—Before Occupancy Low-Emitting Materials Indoor Chemical and Pollutant Source Control Controllability of Systems—Lighting Controllability of Systems—Thermal Comfort Thermal Comfort—Design Thermal Comfort—Verification Daylight and Views—Daylight Daylight and Views—Views Enhanced Acoustical Performance Mold Prevention

Y Y Y 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1

Credit 1.2

1 to 19 1 to 7 2 1 2 2

1 to 2 1 to 2 1 to 2 1 1

Indoor Environmental Quality

Credit 1.1

Y Y Y 10 4 2 1 2

Materials Reuse Recycled Content Regional Materials Rapidly Renewable Materials Certified Wood

1 1 1 1 1 1

Possible Points: 4 Credit Credit Credit Credit

1 1 1 1

Possible Points: 110 Silver 50 to 59 points

Gold 60 to 79 points

Platinum 80 to 110

149


co n roo ven f tio na gr l een ro of

building calculations

Green Roof Water Runoff Water Runoff (in) Precipitation Evapotranspiration Net Runoff

7.7

7.7

0

6.9

7.7

2.3

This green roof will reduce water runoff by 30%

Annual Average

79

ro gr of ee n ro of

hi te

w

rk da

Sensible Heat Flux (W/m2)

ro of

Green Roof Heat Flux

18.8 33.7

These green roofs will radiate 43% less heat back into the environment versus a typical dark roof

Solar Power

This building has been designed to consume 70% less energy than a typical school. Based on Energy Star’s Target Finder, this building will require roughly 11.24kw. The lower roofs have been designed with direct solar panel integration in mind. This provides a total of 2,730 square feet of possible PV installation space. Through the use of a thin film solar array, solar energy can provide up to 13% of our building’s total energy use. If traditional photovoltaic panels are used, solar energy can fulfill close to 51% of the building’s energy demands.


Water Catchment Average Annual Rainfall Design Rainfall (2/3 x Avg. Annual) Roof Catchment Area

Total Catchment Yield:

23.28 inches/year x 2/3 6,270 square feet

2,376 gallons/yr

6,270 sq ft of roof space has been dedicated for water catchment. This will allow us to capture 2,376 gal/yr of rainfall for recycling purposes.

Water Use Reduction Baseline Case - Annual Water Consumption (gal):

49,764 gal/yr.

Design Case - Annual Water Consumption (gal):

20,955 gal/yr.

Total Annual Non-Potable Water Consumption (gal):

2,376 gal/yr.

Total Water Savings:

62.7 %

This building will use 62.7% less water than an average building of similar size and usage

151


energy analysis Comparison - Room Sizes

30’x40’ 80% glazing 5’-0” overhang

40’x40’ 80% glazing 5’-0” overhang

40’x30’ 80% glazing 5’-0” overhang

Life Cycle Energy Use (30 years): 330,109 kWh

Life Cycle Energy Use (30 years): 447,026 kWh

Life Cycle Energy Use (30 years): 346,333 kWh


Comparison - Openings

30’x40’ 80% glazing 5’-0” overhang

30’x40’ 50% glazing 5’-0” overhang

30’x40’ 80% glazing no overhang

Life Cycle Energy Use (30 years): 330,109 kWh

Life Cycle Energy Use (30 years): 303,611 kWh

Life Cycle Energy Use (30 years): 381,070 kWh 153


conclusion

155


final thoughts Looking back on our finished thesis project, we are both very pleased and satisfied with the work we were able to accomplished over the course of the last nine months. In that time, we were able to design a building that would meet the needs of its users while accomplishing our goal of encouraging students to play, learn, and grow. Another goal of ours was to design the building to be as passive as possible by utilizing many sustainable design principles and techniques. We feel that we were able to accomplish this goal and were even able to verify some of these techniques through our building calculations and energy analysis that we preformed. Increasing the amount of educational space available on the Bishop’s Peak campus was the central problem that our project aimed to solved. Through our design we were able to increase the total number of instructional spaces from 14 to 23, while also completely ridding the school of its portable classrooms. Our design also created a new space for counseling offices to be grouped and provided a new home for all enrichment activities to be located. Had we a bit more time to work, we would have liked to dug a littler deeper into more of the building calculations as well as the LEED analysis work we started. We designed these buildings be passive structures and would, therefore, liked to have had more time to verify that our designs worked as planned. We also agree that it would have been interesting to have explored a little deeper into how the surrounding area was landscaped. Our only other regret was that we were not able to more fully design and layout the interiors of the different classroom spaces. Overall, we were extremely pleased with the outcome of our project and especially with the overall design of the school itself. We both agree that our project feels very complete and we are happy that in the end we were able to spend time working on a little bit of all different parts of the real life design process. Additionally, our thesis project was chosen by the AIA Central Coast Chapter along with five others as student finalists for their 2013 Design Awards from a pool of over 150 other thesis projects. We were very pleased to be nominated and felt honored that our project was recognized especially by a professional organization of our peers.


157


appendix

159


appendix overview 163 vellum competition 165 human sundial 173 in-class projects 177 sources


161


vellum FLIP IT, PLAY IT! “In 2004, Vellum Design Build and the College of Architecture and Environmental Design (CAED) initiated a design competition and exhibition that encourages participants - mostly students, from the California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo - to create original furniture designs and have their submissions juried by a panel of experts in their field. Intended to inspire creative thought and challenge participants to press the boundaries of design, the Vellum Competition offers a tangible experience and exposure to the industry.” Flip It, Play It is a re-imagining of the traditional coffee table. This 4’ x 2’ table serves all of the same basic needs as your typical coffee table in addition to having several unique features. Removing the center square of this table reveals a hidden compartment below that can be used for all kinds of storage; books, magazines, remote controls, and even game pieces. Why might you want to store game pieces in your coffee table, you might ask? Because upon flipping the center square of this table you will reveal a built-in SCRABBLE game board! The Flip It, Play It game table is perfect for those who like to play board games often but hate having to store them away in the closet. Also, since the center board is completely removable it gives the user the freedom to change out the featured game for another. Currently the construction of a Chess/ Checkers board is planned.


The Flip It, Play It game table is also a very sustainable piece of furniture. The entire oak tabletop is made from a reclaimed fireplace mantle while the legs, trim, and storage compartment were constructed from reclaimed garage shelves. Finally, the dark wood of the center square piece is scrap wood left over from another student’s project that was diverted from the landfill.

163


human sundial Human Sundial A human sundial is a way to tell time using the sun and a human’s shadow. Bishop’s Peak and Teach Elementary are interested in investing into a human sundial for the students to learn from.

A student from Bishop’s Peak learning how to tell time with our preliminary chalked sundial.


Ways of implementing a human sundial

Landscaped Human Sundials

Poured Concrete Human Sundials

Painted Human Sundials 165


human sundial

Designed Mosaic Tiles...


Poured the concrete forms...

167


human sundial

Built the trench...


Got some money!...

169


human sundial

Installed the forms, and added rock...


Completed human sundial!

171


in-class projects

Project Words

PLAY

Prompt: to find words and images that relate to our thesis project by expressing possible themes and types of activities. > actions being taken place within spaces > describing spaces PLAY, LEARN and NATURE are the words that we felt best described the playground. We then began to think of other expressive words and actions that would or could occur in the playground environment.

WALK

CRAWL

RUN

RIDE

DANCE

DIG

JOKE

TALK

SCREAM

SKIP

KICK

LAUGH

SWING

WHISPER

JUMP

CLIMB


LEARN NATURE STUDY

EXPLAIN

ILLUSTRATE

SUN

WARMTH

FLOWERS

TEACH

WATCH

MOTIVATE

TREES

ENVIRONMENT

SHADE

TRAIN

COMMUNICATE

GUIDE

EARTH

GARDEN

AIR

INFORM

ENCOURAGE

OBSERVE

INSECT

OUTDOORS

ENERGY

SHOW

EDUCATE

INSPIRE

SOIL

SURROUNDINGS NATIVE

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Expressive Structure

Sun, Wind, Light

in-class projects


175

Suspension

Biomimicry


sources Unless otherwise noted below, all text and photographs are original works provided by Jeremy C. Hoffman and Amanda D. Rowlee

introduction

“City of San Luis Obispo - Photo Gallery.” City of San Luis Obispo - Photo Gallery. 2012. Web. 01 Dec. 2012. <http://www.slocity.org/photogallery.asp>. Edberg, Henrik. “21 Inspirational Quotes on Education.” Practical Happiness Awesomeness Advice That Works The Positivity Blog RSS. 2007. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://www.positivityblog.com/ index.php/2007/04/20/21-inspirational-quotes-on-education/>.

climate

“A Trip to Cold Canyon.” Rivenrock Gardens Cactus Blog. Web. 01 Dec. 2012. <http://www.nopalcactusblog.com/2009/09/28/a-trip-to-cold-canyon/>. “Bones of Extinct Flightless Duck Discovered In Central California.” Bones of Extinct Flightless Duck Discovered In Central California. Web. 01 Dec. 2012. <http://www-csgc.ucsd.edu/NEWSROOM/NEWSRELEASES/TerryJonesExtinctDuck.html>. Clark, Jayne. “San Luis Obispo: The Happiest Place in the USA.” USATODAY.COM. USA TODAY, 08 Apr. 2011. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://travel.usatoday.com/destinations/story/2011/04/ San-Luis-Obispo-Its-the-happiest-place-in-the-USA-/45900412/1>. “Climate Consultant.” Energy Design Tools. Web Downloaded Program. 05 Nov. 2012. <http://www.energy-design-tools.aud.ucla.edu/>.


“Environmental Leadership Academy.” Cal State San Marcos at Temecula Environmental Leadership Academy. Web. 01 Dec. 2012. <http://www.csusm.edu/temecula/ela/index.html>. Forbes. Forbes Magazine. Web. 01 Dec. 2012. <http://www.forbes.com/pictures/efel45ehhm/san-luis-obispo-california/>. “Gas Transmission and High Pressure Distribution Pipeline Map - San Luis Obispo.” SoCalGas.com. Web. 30 Nov. 2012. <http://www.socalgas.com/safety/pipeline-maps/san-luis-obispo.shtml>. “Google Maps.” Google Maps. Web. Nov. 2012. <https://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en>. “San Luis Obispo, California.” (CA) Profile: Population, Maps, Real Estate, Averages, Homes, Statistics, Relocation, Travel, Jobs, Hospitals, Schools, Crime, Moving, Houses, News, Sex Offenders. Web. 05 Nov. 2012. <http://www.city-data.com/city/San-Luis-Obispo-California.html>. “Santa Margarita Lake.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 11 Nov. 2012. Web. 01 Dec. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa_Margarita_Lake>. “September 2012 Bill Inserts.” Pacific Gas & Electric - PG&E. Web. 29 Nov. 2012. <http://www. pge.com/myhome/myaccount/explanationofbill/billinserts/previous/2012/september.shtml>. “Water And Wastewater Plant Directory: San Luis Obispo Water Treatment Plant.” Water And Wastewater.com. Web. 29 Nov. 2012. <http://www.waterandwastewater.com/plant_directory/Detailed/284.html>.

177


sources “WeatherSpark Beta.” Average Weather For San Luis Obispo, California, USA. Web. 05 Nov. 2012. <http://weatherspark.com/averages/31562/San-Luis-Obispo-California-United-States>.

issue

Block, Dan. “Our Schools: Bishop’s Peak Elementary.” San Luis Coastal Unified School District. 22 Aug. 2012. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <http://www.slcusd.org/schools?school_id=6>. “Enrollment by Grade for 2009-10.” Statewide Enrollment by Grade (with County Data) -. California Department of Education Educational Demographics Unit, 26 Sept. 2012. Web. 29 Jan. 2013. “K-12 Public School Enrollment.” Enrollment over Time. California Department of Education, n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2013. <http://dq.cde.ca.gov/dataquest/DQ/EnrTimeRptSch.aspx?cYear=2011-12>. Lyons, John B. “Do School Facilities Really Impact A Child’s Education ?” Do School Facilities Really Impact A Child’s Education ? Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://sdpl.coe.uga.edu/articlesandpapers/lyons.html>. “Skin Cancer Info.” Shade Foundation.org: Skin Cancer Education, Melanoma Prevention Melanoma Prevention. SHADE Foundation of America, n.d. Web. 08 Oct. 2012. <http://www.shadefoundation.org/skin-cancer-info.php>. Additional Information provided by: Sandy Stannard (Architecture Professor, California Polytechnic State University) Elaine Hill (Kindergarten Teacher, Bishop’s Peak Elementary School) Kiley MacLeod (Kindergarten Teacher, Bishop’s Peak Elementary School)


precedents

Alter, Lloyd. “Chartwell School Beats Energy Standards by 60%.” TreeHugger. 11 Sept. 2009. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://www.treehugger.com/sustainable-product-design/chartwell-school- beats-energy-standards-by-60.html>. “A Sustainable Way of Learning.” World Architecture News. 08 Feb. 2010. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. < http://www.worldarchitecturenews.com/index.php?fuseaction=wanappln. projectview&upload_id=13373 >. “Ballard Library and Neighborhood Service Center / Bohlin Cywinski Jackson” 04 Jan 2011. ArchDaily. Accessed 15 Mar 2013. http://www.archdaily.com/100821 “Celebrating Water at Chartwell School.” Architects and Artisans. 26 Jan. 2010. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://architectsandartisans.com/index.php/2010/01/celebrating-water-at-chartwell- school/>. “Chartwell School.” EHDD. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://www.ehdd.com/work/chartwell-school>. Daylighting in Schools: An Investigation into the Relationship Between Daylighting and Human Performance. California Board for Energy Efficiency Third Party Program, 20 Aug. 1999. Web. <http://www.centerforgreenschools.org/docs/heschong-mahone-daylighting-study.pdf>. “Garden City Play Environment.” Space2place. Web. 06 Nov. 2012. <http://space2place.com/ play-garden-city-caption/>. Novitski, B.J. “Thurston Elementary School | Schools of the 21st Century.” Architectural Record. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://archrecord.construction.com/schools/2011/projects/11_Thurston_ Elem_School.asp>.

179


sources “’Place of Rest’ Talca, Chile by Macarena Avila Burdiles.” Designboom. Designboom.com, Web. “Samuel Brighouse Elementary School.” Perkins + Will. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://www.perkinswill.com/work/samuel-brighouse-elementary-school.html>. “Samuel Brighouse Elementary School |Schools of the 21st Century.” Architectural Record. Jan. 2012. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://archrecord.construction.com/projects/building_types_ study/k-12/2012/Samuel-Brighouse-Elementary-School.asp?bts=K12>. “Thurston Elementary.” Mahlum. Web. 15 Mar. 2013. <http://www.mahlum.com/projects/ThurstonElementary/index.asp>.

systems

“Agriboard Industries.” Agriboard Industries. 2010. Web. 17 Mar. 2013. <http://www.agriboard.com/index.html>. California Academy of Sciences. Digital image. Tumblr. Tumblr. Web. 17 Mar. 2013. <http://www.tumblr.com/tagged/living%20roof>. Chicago City Hall Green Roof. Digital image. Chicago City Hall. GreenRoofs.com, 2010. Web. 17 Mar. 2013. <http://www.greenroofs.com/projects/pview.php?id=21>. Dowdey, Sarah. The Chicago City Hall green roof helps cool the building and minimize water run off. Digital image. What Is a Green Roof? How Stuff Works. Web. 17 Mar. 2013. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/green-rooftop.htm>.


Kloss, Christopher. “Managing Wet Weather with Green Infrastructure.” EPA. EPA, 2008. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. <http://water.epa.gov/infrastructure/greeninfrastructure/upload/ gi_munichandbook_harvesting.pdf>. “Not All PV Panels Are Created Equal!” Types of Photovoltaic Technology. Horizon Renewables, 2010. Web. 17 Mar. 2013. <http://www.horizonrenewables.co.uk/solar-photovoltaics/solar-pv-technology.html>. “Radiant Heating.” Energy.gov. Energy.gov, 24 June 2012. Web. 17 Mar. 2013. <http://energy.gov/energysaver/articles/radiant-heating>. “Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of Strategies.” Environmental Protection Agency. Environmental Protection Agency’s Ofice of Atmospheric Programs. Web. 17 Mar. 2013. <http://www.epa.gov/heatisland/resources/pdf/GreenRoofsCompendium.pdf>. Roof Garden. Digital image. Golden Gate Park: Views from the Thicket. 11 Mar. 2011. Web. 17 Mar. 2013. <http://fromthethicket.wordpress.com/2011/03/11/academy-roof-garden hosts-diverse-species/>.

appendix

“Vellum/CAED Furniture Competition & Exhibition.” Cal Poly Architecture Department. Web. 26 Nov. 2012. <http://www.arch.calpoly.edu/exhibitions/vellum/vellum.html>.

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By Jeremy C. Hoffman & Amanda D. Rowlee 2012-13 Fifth Year Thesis Studio California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, California


5th Year Architecture Thesis Project