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Literature Review CEP 822 Introduction 

The topic: My literature review is based upon two questions. Do iPods have a positive impact on ESL (English as a Second Language) learners‟ language acquisition? If so, how or why do iPods affect ESL learners‟ outcomes?

General overview of the literature: There are basically two opposing views of the use of iPods in education. A lot of research indicates that the majority of people (students, educators, and very occasionally parents) consider iPods a major educational tool that impacts learning. While advocates of the use of iPods in education can give you an endless number of ways students benefit from iPods, critics only touch on one main area: attendance, which affects the quality of learning, student interaction, and prioritization principles. I‟ve used a theoretical research for three purposes:

1. To elicit the fact that the issue has been in the public eye and that some people need further research on the use of iPods in education (skeptics). 2. To show that some people already encourage incorporating iPods in education (proponents). 3. To reveal why some people deter the incorporation of iPods in education (critics). However, the conclusion relies on empirical research to explain people‟s attitude toward the use of iPods in education, and in particular with ESL learners. 

My rationale: My rationale addresses the need and efficiency of iPods in education. The review starts with the need for researching the use of iPods in education by drawing on people‟s need to „see‟ more tangible proof that iPods do in fact impact learners‟ outcome.

Created by: Jean-Claude Aura

Date: October 2009

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Literature Review CEP 822 The second part of the review discusses the pros and cons of iPods in education, with emphasis on ESL language acquisition. Body 

Kinds of work reviewed: The research studies have been grouped according to purpose. The first group consists of resources aiming to prove that the issue of iPods in education as been in the public eye for some time. It shows how a lot of people are eager to see more research done on this topic to make sure that iPods have a positive impact on education. The second group of resources provides arguments both in favor of and against the use of iPods in education. The two groups of resources are listed below, along with their relative importance to the research. Group 1: The need for more research on the impact of iPods on education.

Baker, R., Harrison, J., Thornton, B., & Yates, R. (2008, March). An analysis of the effectiveness of podcasting as a supplemental tool: A pilot study. College Teaching Methods & Styles Journal, 4 (3). A mini empirical study on the benefits of podcasting in education. The results are from a small sample, and this study calls for further research into the benefits of podcasting. French D.P. (2006, September). IPods: Informative or invasive? Journal of Science College Teaching, 36 (1), 58-59. In this peer-reviewed journal article, French tries to establish the need for further research on the use of iPods in education. This article is crucial for the first part of my research, which is recognizing the need to research the impact of iPods on ESL learners.

Created by: Jean-Claude Aura

Date: October 2009

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Literature Review CEP 822 Gach, H. (2007, March 27). iClass. Statesville Record & Landmark (Statesville, NC), p. NA This article describes a pilot study on the use of iPods conducted on school children at South Iredell High School. It emphasizes iPodsâ€&#x; prevalence over other devices, such as VCRs, and the futuristic trend toward textbook-free education, with a heavy reliance on iPods. Gordon, J. (2008, March 27). BRIEF: Grant to provide iPods for elementary students. Tribune Business News. Washington: McClatchy. As the title suggests, this article highlights the work of teachers to get a grant for iPods in Macon State College. This is a clear indication of teachersâ€&#x; continuous effort to implement iPods in education, which will be the starting point of my research. Read, B. (2006, May 12). Duke stops giving students free iPods but will continue using them in classes. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 52 (36), A39 An attempt to distribute iPods to students (free or paid). Due to positive results, Duke University incorporated iPods in 47 courses. Roach, R. (2004, November 18). Incoming Duke freshmen receive Apple iPods. Black Issues in Higher Education, 21 (20), 46. A pilot program supposed to measure the effectiveness of iPods in education. Free iPods were distributed and 5 different programs implementing iPods were conceived for the purpose of evaluating the impact of iPods on education. Shannon, S.J. (2006). Proceedings of the 23rd annual ascilite conference: Whose Learning? Whose Technology? School of architecture, landscape architecture and urban design: The university of Adelaide.

Created by: Jean-Claude Aura

Date: October 2009

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Literature Review CEP 822 This empirical study highlights the importance of iPods among learners, especially those who can‟t attend lectures. Even those not using iPods agreed to some extent to the benefits of iPods in education. Group 2: Pros and cons of incorporating iPods in education. Carnegie Mellon University, (2007, June 4). A deal – Teaching with technology papers. Pennsylvania: Deal, A. This article discusses both the pros and cons of podcasting. Critics indicate that students‟ lack of accountability, an important factor for the workplace ethics, and quality learning, are at stake. This may affect culture in general and lead to social isolation. Lacina, J. (2008). Learning English with iPods. Copyright Association for Childhood Education International Summer, 84 (4), 247-249. Another article that sheds light onto the importance of iPods for ESL learners. Lacina argues that teachers as well should be initiated to the use of iPods for better outcomes of the use of iPods with ESL learners. She also explains the advantages iPods have over their counterparts. Novit, R. (2008, August 2004). Teachers turn to iPods in classrooms. Tribune Business News. Washington: McClatchy. A descriptive article pinpointing the advantages of using iPods at South Aiken County School District. Another attempt by educators to implement iPods in school curricula, which is reflective of the need teachers feel towards iPods in education. Patten, K.B., & Craig, D.V. (2007, June). iPods and English-language learners: A great combination. Teacher Librarian, 3 (5), 40-44.

Created by: Jean-Claude Aura

Date: October 2009

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Literature Review CEP 822 This article compares the results of a research conducted on four groups of students in lementary and middle schools. Although the end result advises leaving a “small window” for the possible use of iPods with ESL learners, the study itself concludes that students‟ results in some areas improved significantly. The question remains whether iPods were indeed the cause of such improvement. Rosell-Aquilar, F. (2007, December). Top of the pods - In search of a podcasting "podagogy" for language learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 20 (5), 471-492. doi: 10.1080/09588220701746047 This article provides an extensive description of how iPods and learning in general are connected. Rosell draws a clear picture of why iPods enhance the learning process (easy to handle, quick to download and retrieve information…). This quantitative, nonexperimental, and descriptive research is valuable for the part of my research where I will indicate how iPods act upon ESL cognitive skills. Schneider, R. (2006, December 8). The attack of the Pod people. The Chronicles of Higher Education, 53 (16). Robert Schneider is an assistant professor of theater and dance at Northern Illinois University. In his article, he presents a fierce attack against teachers and students who find iPods a great susbstitute to teachers. He also criticizes students for opting for iPods. His argument is that iPods can‟t replace classroom liveliness and participation. Conclusion This literature review serves my research in many ways. First, I am trying to present my case to the school administration so they start allowing students to bring iPods to school. By reviewing the work of others, I realize that I am not the only one facing such an issue. Created by: Jean-Claude Aura

Date: October 2009

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Literature Review CEP 822 It reassures me a lot when I discuss the issue of iPods with the school admin in that I have at least a body of researchers working on the same issue, and that makes my case more plausible. The other aspect of my work this literature review helps me with is when I want to submit my case to the admin. I can very confidently discuss the results of the findings with the admin, bearing in mind that I will be presenting both sides of the issue. I wonâ€&#x;t hide the fact that iPods can be misused, nor the fact that they can be educationally distracting. However, I will show the admin that I am aware of such consequences, but that the benefits of incorporating iPods in education remotely outweigh the drawbacks. From there, it will be relatively easy to start implementing iPods with ESL learners.

Created by: Jean-Claude Aura

Date: October 2009

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Literature review