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Mining is defined as the process of extraction, exploitation and use of minerals that are over the terrestrial surface with commercials end. This process data from much time back, when the man extracted minerals, especially, metals, then were processed for constriction of various objects, as guns, machines pieces, kitchen utensils, among other, mining process has three stages, interrelated for the good use of the extracted materials. The first stage, known as like exploration, is related with the search ant detection of natural deposits. The second one is known as exploitation, which involves, the minerals extraction, analysis of their properties physicchemicals, and the transformation's process if their properties allow that. Finally, to the stage of provision proceeds, where the step of the process which will carry to the final product to the consumer begins. In Colombia, this process has been driven in the last decade by the national government, due to its economic importance, because it leaves enough royalties, for the scientific development, technical and sustainable of communities, or at least is the perception that is providing for the government. However, risks and devastation's activity aren't disseminated. Colombia, is a country of highly diverse, cultural and biological; its hydric resources, provides the vitality and diversity, that should be enough to boast, compared with other countries, that don´t have it. Is known that mining extraction (legal and illegal, both of them, are very dangerous for the eco-environment, mostly the illegal mining), is

prejudicial for the environment, so, the leftover materials acidified and contaminate the water. Another danger, is the increased of lung diseases, not only the mining workers, but also, it's extend to surrounding areas. Boyaca mining BoyacĂĄ department is localized in the center-east of the country, over the Eastern range. Therefore, territory morphology is mountainous and includes high altitude areas, like la Sierra Nevada del Cocuy, 5.380 m.s.n.m; highlands which heights fluting between 3.000 and 3.800 m.s.n.m, and low vouchers, like the Magdalena's river and Arauca, with heights upcoming 200 m.s.n.m. Thereby, it protected big areas, rich in biodiversity, as: National park el Cocuy, SerranĂ­a El Peligro, forest reserve El Palmar River, among other. How it seen in the table 1, the main mining extraction products are: emerald, carbon, iron.

Mining Activity Mining contribution to the departmental economy is significant, since its participation percentage in the departmental PIB doubles the National participation. High contribution of mining activity to Boyacรก economy is supported mainly in the emeralds and carbon production. However , the other products role like iron mineral, limestone, rock phosphate, clays and many building materials, are vital in local economies of many department cities. Related to this economic activity, it is known that in Boyacรก, in the year 2012 there were 600 mining titles and nearby 500 pithead, where almost 100 of these pithead are illegal. Carbon industrialist which generates 14.000 direct jobs and nearby of 20.000 indirect jobs, in the department. Which suggest that this economic activity drives the region development, and

Activity drives the region development, and enables the growth, not only economic, of families that subsist of this activity development, But, what is the other side of the coin? An economic activity, driven by ecological devastation of the country, which unknown their true wealth Another Coin Side According to official data, in 2011 29 mining workers died in the department, mainly in mining carbon. The data wasn't consistent with the workers reality, because they have not accounted the deaths which are present as secondary effects from this activity. Also, the difficult recognition in the occupational disease involved directly in the mining production. And despite all this, the society is not reacting to this problematic, which not only affects to the eco-environment, but also, its impact goes beyond of the mine slopes; affecting the futures generations that will beliving in the department, and traditionally has been working and subsisted for the mines. Finally, are invited to colombians to react about the process that should be carry to transform a country, lined by its biological resource, and not only for economics interests, that only ends in the failure and deterioration of a territory, which wealth is not under their soil.

Water In Danger

Of Death

Water is essential for all forms of life, it is one of the resources of nature. The volume of water in the world is 1,360 million km3, (1,360 trillion liters). If we divide this figure by every human being, it would correspond 250,000 million liters each, equivalent to 400,000 swimming pools. In Colombia, Boyaca Department is rich in water. This land is surrounded by numerous rivers which are a potential hazard to the Department and the country. For example, The Chivor dam located in the province of Neira, has 22 kilometers long and

1,200 acres, with a volume of 815 million of water. This construction began in 1969 and ended in 1976 "with a total investment of ten billion dollars, financed by national companies, and granted by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the InterAmerican Development Bank (BID); some suppliers and commercial banks'. The rivers of the territory made ??up five watersheds carrying these waters to five major rivers such as: the Magdalena, the Suarez, Chicamocha, the Arauca, Meta and also for the sub-basins of the Guavio, Cravo Sur, LengupĂĄ, UpĂ­a, Cusiana and Pauto rivers. In the country, one of the main sources of water contamination, are the residuals components of the residences, factories, and mines. The increase in the water of sulfide, ammonia, nitrates and acidic substances may cause various diseases after consumption (high amounts of nitrates and fluorides, for example, the infant methemoglobinemia and chronic endemic fluorosis respectively). Also it is noteworthy the most common presence of hydrocarbon compounds and elements such as mercury, lead, copper, zinc, selenium and cadmium. Contaminated water carries bacteria, and nematode larvae that cause various gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases to animals and men. Water issues focus on both quality and quantity, the community must know the importance of the "quality" of this and the community must take care and preserve this. The first pollutants are pesticides, they led to the rivers by rain and soil erosion, this dust go in

Rivers or the sea and contaminates it. Also, the fields lose fertility, because of abuse farming techniques. Agriculture accounts about 70% of global water use. Over time, it has been found water pollution is caused by several factors, one of them in the particular case of the areas surrounding to Sogamoso is coal mining. It has been identified with several investigations those rivers and they were affected by the presence of toxic components as the ones mentioned above, so there are rules limiting Colombia levels for mining waste. Coal solid waste called ash has been considered as secondary material and so it has been treated, causing serious pollution problems in the areas near power plants. One of the most serious cases is Termopaipa (Boyacรก), where ash deposits were located on the old river Chicamocha. This means that increasing the flow of the water, it would drag ashes, flooding the thermoelectric; this could cause a lot of damage to the Sochagota

lake and cause black mudslide that could affect Paipa population. About the problem, a possible solution would be the proper disposal of waste, what implies to put it on land previously waterproofed, or with necessary measures depending of the material and the residue, so the objective is to prevent the contact of the soil with the storm water, because this affects to the water resources. If Colombia exploited these solid waste in the creation of new products, for example in the construction industry, 800 thousand tons of ash discarded by thermoelectric annually in the country, would help to prevent the deterioration of the environment because their use in cement factories would be used in concrete and brick production, preventing the waste remains in the tanks of the thermoelectric which are piled and located outdoors, this is dangerous because contact with water, soil or air, causes serious pollution problems, explains Alejandro Salazar, a researcher at the Valle University.

Determined by the type of material to go through, the time of contact with this and climatic conditions.

A water is acidic when its pH <7. The solubility of rocks and minerals, is affect by the pH of the medium, so than an acidic water, besides being detrimental for its pH, may be accompanied by numerous metals in solution, which provide significant toxicity to the effluent. Producing acidic water, is controlled by the following factors: -pyrite availability -oxygen presence -Existence of moisture in the atmosphere -availability of water to carry the oxidation products -Mine characteristics or sterile deposits The sulfides presence in many waste and the subsequent formation of acid mine drainage (AMD) has been widely recognized as one of the major environmental problems in many mining regions, a study done to tributaries Samacรก Township (Boyacรก) showed that the waters in the area have worrying levels of waste pollution from coal mining. Additionally the increasing activity of Fe-oxidizing bacteria during periods of temperature increase may be reflected in the relationships obtained between different forms of dissolved Fe, thus, there has been an increase in the contribution of the oxidized form. Climatic variations and rain levels in the region even further affect these values ??and issues. The quality of waste water is the end result of a combination of geochemical interactions suffering seasonal breaks that are involved in many different ion sources, primarily sulfide oxidation and hydrolysis accompanying minerals accelerated. The composition of these waters is

The best way to prevent the oxidation of pyrite materials is the storage in anoxic conditions, that is to say, low water (at least 1.20 m deep), this requires knowledge of the available volume in each reservoir, below the permitted water peak, the information may be accomplished by bathymetry. In any case, we must consider if there is a problem geotechnical stability and maximum evacuation of rain (water balance), which must be solved first. In conclusion the prevention of pollution from waste generating activities that alter water conditions is related closely with the mining methods, the contribution of water (surface and groundwater) and the treatment of them

Tota Lagoon Endangered Tota Lagoon is located in Boyacá, department of the Colombia's Andean, it region characterized by the greenness of landscape, fertility of the land and nobility of its people. Tota is accessed by road, and the easier way to arrive is from Bogotá, through the North highway which leads to Tunja, Boyacá's capital, that allow to give you a tour that involves many cities. After you arrive to Sogamoso, from where start the road to the colorful lagoon of. Tota means “plough land”, in indigenous language. The lagoon is a very immense natural formation with 60 Km2 of freshwater whose greater depth is about 61 meters. The temperature of its waters is among the 0º any 12º C. in the middle of this lagoon there are three protruding little islands called Cerro Chiquito, Santa Helena y San Pedro, also it had been known as “el amor”, “la ballena” y “san Pedro”. If you go across the same arrival way, you find around the lagoon other towns like Tota, Cuitiva e Iza, all towns are quiet and typical of Boyacense region. They are characterized by their traditional architecture, between peasant and colonial. In the central park of Cuitiva is emphasized the Bochica monument and Tota lagoon replica, while in Iza it is essential to enjoy of thermal; to know and buy its crafts, also taste new “trucha” presentations, and enjoy the green landscape, that is provided by de Boyacá's department. However, the big concern for peasants is the exploration of petroleum that Maurel & Prom multinational started, for the possible secondary effects which could affect the lagoon. Due to this exploration has been produced with explosive and seismic techniques that according to the resident around the lagoon, could affect agricultural and fishing crops, who depend of water quality of Tota lagoon; because from this animals and humans drink by equal.

But, which are the effects of a possible oil exploration in the slopes of the lagoon that concern to the people of the region? Two effects are possible caused by the oil. First, photic effects caused by the oil spill, which stops sunlight penetrating the waters, it doesn't allow photosynthesis, and the development of green plants. Secondly, toxic effects, by the chemical properties of oil, which can cause damage to the live organism, and also the water contamination, it causes water poisoning. The fight by Tota hasn't had much national reverberations. But a few weeks ago the BBC made an extensive report. According to the channel, oil had put in checkmate “the only lake in the world that smells like onions". This year, before of the people talked of oil exploration, the lagoon won the globe gray a prize for dishonorable water bodies endangered. For that, whose are living in its waters doesn't feel that they have won the lottery to have black gold under their land. “We're terrified if they find oil, here the things going to change", said a person of region. However, the company that started oil exploration says that the exploration is making in land remote from the lagoon, and those fears are unfounded, because their exploratory techniques do not cause any damage to the ecoenvironment, present in the lagoon. For their part, they say that have approval for that about 15,000 properties to perform it, and the missing properties are those in which there isn't clarity about who is the owner of the land, so there are certain misunderstandings with families. Finally, as a conclusion, we have to clarify the situation, looking at the advantages and disadvantages of it, and why not, we give more weight to the conservation of biodiversity living in the lake, the tradition cultural, and the protection of region cultural assets .

Colombia has 60 percent of the world's moors and Boyacรก department has the 18.23 percent of these areas throughout the country. More than 600 000 hectares of the total land area of the department are covered by moors, According to calculations by the National University, 30 percent of them have been devastated by the cattle, the increase in crops of potato and vegetables and these joined the coal mining, increasingly profitable in areas of paramo, have caused what could be considered as an ecological tragedy. Mining is another cause of the destruction of flora and forest fires and burning, which later will manifest in soil loss processes. The Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, environmental corporations and mayors of Boyaca signed an agreement to join forces to preserve rural acres of the department. This project will be implemented in 16 municipalities Corpoboyaca's jurisdiction and it will

Have an investment of approximately $ 3,000 million, these money will be managed by the present administration, it will restore 686 acres agriculture department. It will invest 2,600 million pesos in 3,086 hectares of moorland La Rusia, Guantiva, La Cortadera and El parque Nacional del Cocoy. During this year these organizations will built a protective fencing and they will continue with the areas' reforestation. And in 2014 to 2015 they will do a maintenance of native plants seeded. The labor for the protection and planting of trees and plants will come from the communities of the region to ensure permanent protection. This agreement will benefit the provinces of North and Gutierrez, which surround the Eastern Cordillera near the Department of Boyaca. In general, this area is characterized by being framed in paramo ecosystems, Andean and high Andean forests. (MINAGRICULTURA allocated $ 8,000 million to expand dam in Boyaca).

1) Blog, la minería en tu vida. Disponible en: 2)

Información de minería en Colombia: LA MIMERÍA EN BOYACA.

3) Documento en línea: Boyacá, Segundo en minería Ilegal. Disponible en: 4) La minería en Boyacá más que un problema social. Disponible en: 5) Artículos de prensa El tiempo en línea. Disponible en: 6) 7) 8)


Universidad Nacional 2013

Revista Riki