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Culture and the Economy of West Sussex Top Level Study for West Sussex County Council & West Sussex Arts Partnership

Consultation draft, June 2007

Produced by

tom fleming / creative consultancy / Informed by the seven district-level studies of the impact of the arts and heritage sectors in West Sussex, undertaken by sam (Sussex Arts Marketing) Commissioned by:


Contents Executive Summary

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1. Introducing the County: A Complex Arts and Heritage Landscape

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1.1 Existing Strategic Research 1.2 Recognising the distinctiveness; making connections: the arts and cultural landscape of West Sussex 1.3 Headline Profile Issues: Arts and Heritage across West Sussex 2. Developing the Cultural Economy in West Sussex

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27 2.1 Towards a Fabric of Cultural Infrastructure

3. Policy Directions 3.1 The adoption of a joined-up, at times cross-district approach to sector development and support 3.2 The mainstreaming of creativity across public policy 3.3 Establishing the 10 Infrastructural Conditions

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Selected References

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Appendix and baseline data

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Executive Summary The report offers a means to better understand the dynamics and profile of the arts and heritage Sectors in West Sussex, inclusive of Creative Industries; to identify opportunities for partnership and support; and to establish how, by working together, partners can maximise the social and economic value of creative processes and activities located across the distinctive areas of the County. Vital here is the establishment of a coherent, approach to creative planning, building partnership and connecting initiatives in ways that build a focus for a genuinely creative sense of place. As will be shown, this can lead to a real culture-led future for the County that maximises particular strengths (such as the heritage asset base), overcomes sector development challenges (such as a relatively weak base of Creative Industries businesses), and ensures arts and heritage sits at the heart of communities and the economy as international influences and connections have an increasing impact on this unique part of the UK. Commissioned by West Sussex County Council on behalf of the West Sussex Arts Partnership, the report builds on a set of detailed District Studies of the arts and heritage sectors throughout the County – including a focus on Creative Industries. These were undertaken by Sussex Arts Marketing (SAM). The data in these studies provides a basis for the strategic intelligence presented in this report, which identifies a set of ‘arts and heritage priorities’ for local authorities and their partners, including: -

The development of cultural infrastructure that links publicly-funded activities to the wider Creative Industries sector

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Business development plus diagnosis of the conditions conducive to sector growth, including issues of development/planning control. Driving cultural entrepreneurship is key

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Exploring potential synergies across different sectors, such as in cultural tourism (e.g. by supporting hospitality services to join together the different arts and cultural assets), or the value-adding role of design for ‘traditional’ industries. This includes making stronger links between the traditionally subsidised sector (the Creative Ecology) and the Creative Industries sector (the Creative Economy). It also includes maximising the arts and heritage contribution to and benefit from the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games, including a focus on its legacy.

Critical here is providing a strategic approach for arts and heritage that supports the Local Area Agreement, maximising their role for wider processes of place-shaping. With cross-cutting themes that include ‘Sustainable Communities’ and ‘Promoting Culture and Sport’, the Local Area Agreement (LAA) does recognise the importance of arts and heritage in West Sussex. Therefore, the opportunity exists to provide an ambitious and distinctive approach for arts and heritage that effectively builds upon key components of the Local Area Agreement, with this report offering a strategic way forward. In addition, there is recognition that the new LAAs to be introduced in 2008/09 provide an opportunity to enhance/update the economic components of the current LAA: culture and creativity may have a stronger role to play here.

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Indeed, there is much to build on: there are nearly 3,000 arts and heritage businesses in West Sussex, indicating significant local supply; weekly household expenditure in West Sussex places Recreation and Culture above housing and food and non-alcoholic drinks, at £62.20 – indicating a sizable local demand; and other sectors are increasingly looking to culture – such as through creative services – to raise productivity and improve innovation. That said, a considerable knowledge gap exists in West Sussex regarding the overall value of arts and heritage, not least how to maximise that value. Therefore, this report provides a step forward towards understanding the strategic potential of arts and heritage for West Sussex economy and local communities.

Framing Questions At the heart of this analysis sits a set of key framing questions with which partners in West Sussex are encouraged to establish positions, using the Local Area Agreement as a starting point: -

Is value from arts and heritage in West Sussex currently being maximised to its full potential?

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Do arts and heritage sit at the heart or to the margins of processes of change?

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Are different parts of the sector in different parts of West Sussex effectively connected?

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How can the sector play a stronger role in 'narrowing the gap' between affluent communities and those that are relatively deprived?

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Does the complexity of the County – from coastal to market towns; from globally-facing big businesses to cottage industries; render a coherent approach to strategic development overly complex?

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Without the economic and social challenges of other parts of the UK, is it imperative that the arts and cultural sector has a more prominent, bettersupported and more strategically valued role in processes of change?

This report considers these questions and, in response to the latter question, asserts that without stronger partnership, a more coherent approach, and a greater sense of urgency, the arts and cultural assets of the County will not perform to their potential and the value-adding role of culture will not be effectively exploited. In turn, this will weaken communities, undermine economic competitiveness, and adversely affect quality of life. In West Sussex, which is relatively affluent, rural in parts, and concerned to balance any economic growth with lifestyle and environmental considerations; maximising the added value that arts and heritage can bring - for those who work in arts and heritage, for quality of life and health, for places and communities, for other sectors - is an important consideration.

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3 Core Principles and 3 Main Aims The conceptual and practical development process outlined in this report is then supported through the identification of a set of recommendations for arts and cultural policy and intervention in West Sussex. There are 3 core principles here. These are used to inform the development of recommendations throughout this report: -

The adoption of a joined-up, at times sub-regional and regional approach to sector development and support. This includes building stronger strategic partnership for arts and heritage development initiatives. A strong and well-connected arts and cultural sector needs to be recognised as the major development opportunity for the County and a top economic development opportunity. It also needs to be valued as critical to the success of initiatives and areas – such as new large-scale housing developments, a better-performing visitor economy, a forward-thinking heritage sector, and a high quality public realm.

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The mainstreaming of culture across public policy, from education to planning, with a particular focus on how culture can contribute to other processes, enabling sectors such as the visitor economy to benefit from new processes of creative production and consumption. Culture needs to be recognised as a central feature of the various Master Plans and Local Development Frameworks underway, and as a critical connecting force for economic and social policy. Also, the heritage offer of West Sussex can be more productive and influential if it connects with other parts of the arts and cultural sector – such as by improving its take-up of contemporary design or in terms of improving the flexibility and connecting role of hospitality services.

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The development of a fabric of arts and cultural infrastructure. As the report will show, the Creative Economy and Ecology of West Sussex are currently under-connected, with various assets failing to contribute to an overall offer that operates as much more than the sum of its parts. Future interventions need to be recognised as critical connectors of creative infrastructure, providing West Sussex and its constituent Districts with a clear and accessible fabric of creative infrastructure. This complements the wider recommendations of the Department of Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) Creative Economy Programme, where the County has the potential to develop into a ‘Core Creative Place’1 with a fabric of creative infrastructure that reaches the quality and connectedness of that experienced in a major city. This can provide a set of very positive attributes for the County – combining the quality of life afforded by rural areas and small towns with the access to high quality arts and cultural opportunities normally out of reach in relatively rural areas.

Correspondingly, this report introduces 3 main aims for the future development of arts and heritage in West Sussex: -

That West Sussex is established as a recognisably creative place – a place to do creative business, a place to invest, a place with a high quality of

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The DCMS advocates that certain places be supported to develop as ‘Core Creative Places’ with a major role to play for the national Creative Economy.

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life, a place to enjoy arts and heritage, and a place that prioritises culture and creativity across every strategic agenda -

That West Sussex is established as a pioneering centre for creative learning and creative business development – with internationally recognised courses in the Higher and Further Education sectors, innovative approaches to incubation and knowledge transfer, and a pioneering approach to learning and skills and business acceleration. In addition, West Sussex will pioneer approaches to learning and skills that provide opportunities for relatively marginalised individuals – such as through innovative programmes that target young people not yet in employment

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That West Sussex is established as a Core Creative Place for the national and regional creative economy - offering a fabric of infrastructure that enables high growth alongside creative innovation and exploration. Here, West Sussex and its Districts will be recognised and valued as Core Creative Places alongside and complementary to higher profile creative centres such as Brighton.

It is also important in West Sussex to ensure connectivity between its own small centres and larger places on the region and beyond - for example between the South Coast Design Forum and clusters of designers elsewhere in the UK. This will allow the County to ‘borrow scale,’ by aggregating individual activities into networks and groupings that connect to major concentrations of activity elsewhere.

A Strategic Context: Towards a Creative Economy and Creative Ecology A Strategic Framework and Action Plan to support the Creative Industries across the South East Region has recently been published (Ancer Spa, 2007). It is important to note that this is concerned primarily with the economic development of the Creative Industries, rather than with arts and cultural activities particularly, and it only lightly connects with issues such as cultural tourism and heritage. Nevertheless, because of its high level status with regional partners such as South East England Development Agency (SEEDA) and Arts Council England, South East (ACE, SE), this Action Plan forms a framework for the creative infrastructure of the County, and is thus of concern to arts and cultural organisations and local authorities within West Sussex. In particular, regional funding for activities such as arts and cultural business needs and capacity building, is likely to be in part determined by the adoption of the South East Action Plan. The Action Plan recommends that public support focuses on the digital media sectors for Creative Industries growth. This may make sense at a regional level, yet the focus on these higher growth sectors and particularly on larger firms, could raise the fear that areas like West Sussex are being left out of the regional equation because of the prevalence of small-scale arts and cultural businesses and organisations in the County. Indeed, ACE, SE, in its response to the Action Plan (Arts Council England South East, 2007), argues that such an approach “excludes the critical mass provided by sole traders, free lancers and SMEs, and in

turn overlooks their role in the creative ecology.” ACE, SE and other commentators are concerned that a strategy of focusing on particular sub-sectors misunderstands the nature of the wider Creative Economy, 6

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which depends on a mass of often small-scale activity to supply the ideas and content that in turns drives creative products and services, both in the Creative Industries and in the wider economy. There is also a concern that the dense links between subsidised arts and cultural activity, the voluntary sectors and the commercial marketplace, are overlooked in such as approach. For West Sussex, where the market is small, but is underlain by relatively high levels of voluntary and publicly funded activity, understanding these links is vital. As it is hard to predict where success will come from, innovation in these sectors requires a diversity of activities. Thus policymakers need to look after the overall health of the system - in an ecological sense - rather than just focus attention on a particular part of the system. As West Sussex is home to a variety of smaller scale activity, a major task for partners is to understand, engage with, and support both the Creative Economy and Creative Ecology, where each is configured as dependent on the other for their success and sustainability. This is particularly important in a place where the Creative Industries sector is perhaps best described as ‘emergent’, whereas the wider voluntary arts and cultural sector is relatively ‘established’. For many creative businesses, the prime objective is developing products that have high sale commercial growth potential, which in turn enables growth and profit. Such businesses are disproportionately positioned within certain sub-sectors (such as advertising, media and a range of digital content activities). These are the main contributors to the high growth, globally orientated Creative Economy, much of which in West Sussex is concentrated around the ‘Gatwick Diamond’2. The Creative Ecology in West Sussex refers to the broad fabric of culture activities that spread across sub-sectors and locations and encapsulates organisations and practices as diverse as arts centres, galleries, individual practitioners, education institutions, public art programmes, events and festivals, cafes and bookshops. It provides the lifeblood of the Creative Economy by providing the ideas, energy and career opportunities upon which a successful, growth-orientated Creative Economy depends. It also provides opportunities for otherwise marginalised individuals and communities to actively produce and consume culture and creativity and helps to motivate social enterprise activities3 and greater participation amongst young people.

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See: http://www.gatwickdiamond.co.uk/ For example, the 2002 Department for Trade and Industry document, ‘Social Enterprise: A Strategy for Success’, highlights the linkages between the Creative Industries and Social Enterprise sectors by profiling a number of social enterprises working in areas including design and the performing arts.

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Arts and Culture in West Sussex: Some ‘Snapshot Figures’ The following provides a set of snapshot figures drawn from the mix of district studies undertaken by SAM, plus a wider set of research documents. -

The sector has an annual turnover of over £200 million

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The sector has an annual turnover of close to £50 million in Chichester District

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The Secondary Impact of the sector is at least £262 million per year

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Over 10,000 people are employed in the sector

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There are nearly 10,000 volunteers working in the arts and cultural sector in West Sussex

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Some 114,000 people are currently employed in the Creative Industries sector of the South East

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In June 2002, UK creative employment totalled 1.9 million jobs. In 2004, Creative Industries' exports totalled £13 billion – 4.3% of all goods and services exported.

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The Creative Industries is an innovative and transforming sector based on the development of new ideas and products with commercial potential. For example, wireless gaming, which has some presence in West Sussex, is poised for explosive growth over the next few years. It is estimated that there will be 107 million active wireless gamers worldwide by 2006 (Strategy Analytics, 2001).

A Long Way to Go: 5 Major Challenges and 5 Major Opportunities If West Sussex is to achieve the aims introduced above, it must respond positively to a series of structural, strategic and sectoral challenges, as well as energetically and collectively pursue a set of major opportunities. Currently, as will be shown throughout the report, there is a long way to go if the arts and cultural sector is to reach its true potential for West Sussex, and in turn if West Sussex is to respond positively and progressively to its current asset base and potential. The headline opportunities and challenges for West Sussex are introduced below:

The 5 Major Opportunities: -

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West Sussex is home to an increasingly active, vocal and high quality Creative Ecology, with real advances made in recent years to develop networks, develop and showcase local talent4, and explore new opportunities (such as the role of digitalisation for the creative process). By building on these existing processes, West Sussex can become a confident and distinctive centre for new types of creative process, with the main strength being the convergence of activities – such as the fusion of underconnected activities in visual culture such as film, performing arts and animation. The County is also home to some world-class arts and cultural

Such as through Gravity: http://www.westsussex.gov.uk/ccm/content/leisure-and-tourism/arts-service.en?page=3

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assets – from Pallant House Gallery in Chichester to Arundel Castle; or from Petworth House to innovative pilot schemes in creative learning5.

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Parts of the County provide a unique physical terrain for culture-led development. For example, the coastal towns have significant potential for culture-led regeneration – the ‘end of the line’ location can for some be alluring (especially given proximity to London, Brighton, Portsmouth and Southampton), it provides an intimate and distinctive landscape attractive to in-coming creative firms, it mixes a fine coastal setting with diverse townscapes, and it therefore has the potential to be a very attractive location for creative businesses moving from major urban areas and open to opportunities to ‘leapfrog the suburbs’. This distinctive mix provides a real opportunity through ongoing Master Planning exercises. The opportunity exists for arts and cultural activities and initiatives to sit at the heart of development processes – as a binding force in the physical landscape and a generator of ideas and connections in the arts and cultural landscape.

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West Sussex is already changing in many positive ways. It is an increasingly diverse County, with the energy and innovation that this brings – from the global connections of the burgeoning Gatwick Diamond to the changing face of the coastal areas, with an increasing eastern European population. It is also located within the Greater South East, close to and increasingly connected (through networks and travel to work patterns) to the Core Places of Brighton, Portsmouth and Southampton. By linking to these places and building connections within the County, opportunities exist to develop across the County an emergent mix of what the DCMS has defined as the ‘infrastructural conditions for creative growth’.

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West Sussex and its Districts are benefiting from new levels of spirited leadership and partnership. For many years, the potential for innovative and value-adding culture-led approaches in West Sussex was overlooked, with intervention too often piecemeal, short-term and supported by fragile partnerships. This is changing. From the West Sussex Arts Partnership, to the coordinated approaches to the Cultural Olympiad, to current processes of Master Planning in most of the Districts; culture no longer sits to the margins of strategy and partnership. However, much progress is still required here, with recommendations in this report providing a major opportunity to bring partners together in a high profile, high quality and low risk cultural, economic and social opportunity for the County.

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West Sussex can benefit from a transformation in the conceptualisation and delivery of learning and skills. Institutions such as universities and colleges are no longer those ‘ivory towers’ with debarring characteristics such as inaccessible buildings, weak knowledge transfer and little attention to postgraduate progression routes. Parts of the County, such as Chichester and Bognor Regis, are set to benefit – indeed have the opportunity to shape – an agenda that prizes and invests in learning and skills facilities that connect to local communities, provide access to new flexible learning opportunities, connect production and consumption activities, go beyond knowledge transfer to knowledge exchange, prioritise graduate

Such as Creatability: http://wsgfl.westsussex.gov.uk/ccm/content/curriculum/art-design/schools-work/creatability.en

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retention and return, and work to incubate a sector and a place as well as individual businesses.

The 5 Major Challenges: -

West Sussex has an underdeveloped Creative Economy, with a lack of depth and breadth in sector activity. For example, it is SMEdominated, does not have any significant sector specialism (bar emergent software activity in Horsham and some larger globally-facing firms in Crawley), and has weak supply chain relationships across the County, into the region and beyond.

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West Sussex has an underdeveloped Creative Ecology, with weak networks and under-connected infrastructure. Low visibility, low level confidence and the under-use of arts and cultural infrastructure provide challenges, as does the lack of activity and opportunity for young people from relatively deprived communities. That said, there are concentrations of intensive and high quality activity, such as visual arts and crafts in Shorehamon-Sea, substantial theatre activity, or through the emergent connections driven through partners such as through the 5 Town Network on the Sussex coast.

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The arts and cultural sector in West Sussex suffers from low levels of self-confidence and, in some locations, negative stereotypes – proffered by both residents and non-residents. This represents a long-held challenge for the County that has had a detrimental impact on maximising the value of arts and heritage, business start-up rates, inward investment, visitor/tourist profiles, and social mobility.

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The arts and cultural sector has lacked strategic leadership and effective partnership. Until recently, strategic partners at County and District level have not recognised the role of arts and heritage as a critical transformer of parts of the County’s fortunes. Support for arts, culture and the Creative Industries, has been piecemeal, short-lived, and too often limited to narrow partnerships. Support must be established for the long term through multilateral partnership and it must be located as part of a much larger push for the ‘arts and cultural dividend’ across previously underconnected partnerships.

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West Sussex provides a challenging economic geography for the development of high energy, deeply concentrated arts and cultural and activity. It has 3 distinct geographies: the coastal, rural, and innerSouth East (focused on the Gatwick Diamond). For example, the coastal towns have poor transport connections, thus lacking ‘passing opportunities’; the County is circumscribed by water to the south, by the city regions of Portsmouth and Brighton to the west and east respectively, and by the globally-facing super-region of London to the north; and it is internally very complex, ranging from quiet rural commuter villages and towns to changing new-economy-focused settlements. However, these matters of physical and human geography are at once a real asset and critical marker of difference that bodes well for the role of culture in the County.

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Recommendations: 10 Infrastructural Conditions for a vibrant and value-adding arts and cultural sector The ongoing DCMS Creative Economy programme identifies 10 Infrastructural Conditions required for a strong, distinctive and competitive Creative Economy. This emphasises a place-based focus on arts and cultural infrastructure, connecting key assets, ensuring there is a productive relationship between the Creative Ecology and Economy, and thus developing a collaborative fabric of infrastructure where resources are better-used, ideas are quickly exchanged, and convergence is more likely to be achieved. The DCMS is actively encouraging different localities to assess their infrastructural conditions and to identify how they can be better connected and improved. This report provides an initial assessment of the West Sussex position:

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DCMS Creative Economy Programme: 10 Infrastructural Conditions

Policy Considerations for West Sussex

World class, high profile cultural infrastructure

Few individual assets other than in heritage; but this is unsurprising for a relatively rural area.

A wide range of specialist creative industries support services with a focus on growth

This is a neglected area, with much of the sector relying on a ‘self-help’ approach.

A wide range of specialist and accessible facilities for different parts of the creative industries

There is some evidence of a need for affordable and/or appropriate arts and cultural workspace; and other facilities such as media centres, accessible galleries performance/rehearsal spaces require development and greater connectivity.

A strong and specialised Higher Education Sector

With one HEI, this sector does not play a prominent role in arts and cultural development, but there is much potential to establish specialist provision that genuinely engages with processes of knowledge exchange for the locality as well as the wider sector.

An innovative further and school education sector, plus a strong informal learning sector

Informal learning schemes are showing innovative approaches to arts and cultural development, and the County has one specialist Arts-status institution. However, connectivity to the wider arts and cultural sector is underdeveloped and more could be done to support young people find employment either in the Creative Industries or through creative learning

Spaces of convergence and connectivity, where creative knowledge workers can meet, exchange and build relationships towards ideas generation and trade

Informal and independently-run spaces are uncommon and face-to-face networking opportunities though increasing are underdeveloped.

Global partnerships and trade initiatives

Apart from knowledge economy activities in the north of the County (such as in the Gatwick Diamond), activities, networks and supply chains are very local.

Diversity advantage

Crawley is relatively ethnically diverse and benefits from the global links offered by Gatwick and the wider ‘Global South East’. The rest of the County benefits from a different type of diversity – in physical and economic profile.

Strong spaces of cultural consumption connecting spaces of production

Too often – such as in the development of artists’ studios or in visitor economy initiatives – production is separated from consumption. In this sense, the heritage sector, which is a major strength for the County, is not fulfilling its potential.

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A vibrant night-time economy

The urban centres of West Sussex lack the diversity and depth of night time activities that the arts and cultural sector requires to thrive – from a production perspective (e.g. the lack of flexible and accessible performance spaces); and a consumption perspective (e.g. the need for a mix of facilities to attract and retain creative businesses and other knowledge workers – such as the ‘café culture’ approach). There is some evidence of increasing vitality in Chichester, with the influence of the Chichester Festival and the University, but the offer has a long way to go to match the dynamism and range of that in other comparable centres.

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1. Introducing the County: A Complex Arts and Heritage Landscape “Investing in cultural development can enrich the communities, the economy, the environment and the well being of individual citizens across West Sussex. Resources are, however, limited and will have to be carefully targeted on agreed priorities and areas of need...” “’Need’ in West Sussex is not as obvious or as easily identifiable as it is in many parts of the UK. The county is relatively affluent, the economy is strong and unemployment is generally low. Cultural provision and quality of life for the majority is excellent. But the county is not without its economic, social and health problems”. The Cultural Strategy for West Sussex 2003-2008 p.13.

The arts and cultural sector in West Sussex is perhaps larger, more developed and sophisticated, than immediately apparent, and thus its potential is perhaps greater than previously envisaged. This is because there is both a Creative Economy and a Creative Ecology: much of the activity operates ‘below the radar’. Many creative businesses are sole traders and SMEs that operate below the VAT threshold of £58,000 annual turnover, and are thus ‘hidden from view’ in mainstream datasets. Moreover, there are multiple emergent, often informally constituted creative and cultural activities across the County, some of which are seeking ways to operate as productive creative businesses, and each of which is operating according to the distinctive social, cultural and economic contexts of different parts of the County. It is clear that the diversity and quality of the Creative Economy and Creative Ecology (see Executive Summary) has the potential to play a significant and influential role in West Sussex, from a key value-adder to existing processes to having a catalysing presence. With a large further education presence and increasing higher education role that includes significant arts and cultural specialism; large-scale capital development initiatives such as new house-building; an expanding airport at Gatwick; a more diverse visitor economy profile; and an increasingly active Creative Ecology that ranges from nightlife activities to a strong community arts sector; opportunities to grow the Creative Economy and maximise the value of culture are palpable. In addition, processes of digitalisation and the increased fragmentation of larger creative companies are increasing opportunities for establishing knowledgebased industries outside of London, with connectivity achieved virtually rather than physically. Huge increases in home-working have been evidenced in recent years, as has the growth of creative clustering in regional cities and other core places across the UK. Critical here are access to complementary creative and commercial opportunities, appropriate supply chains and labour, and a set of ‘lifestyle factors’ that include the cultural ‘offer’ and quality of the public realm. For a successful and sustainable arts and cultural sector, it is vital that the breadth and depth of creative activity in West Sussex is both understood and supported: this requires an approach that recognises the relationship between the Creative Economy and Creative Ecology. This is important for economic growth considerations and to maximize the value-adding role of creative activities. Furthermore, other progressive relationships between different types of creative activity are also vital for sector

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growth – such as artists working with higher-growth animation firms in a direct supply chain relationship, or a strong local creative ‘scene’ offering the inspiration and motivation for individuals to set up creative businesses. However, the paramount concern for ensuring the arts and cultural sector is supported in ways that maximise its potential is one that recognises the distinctive geography of the sector in the County, and one that makes the link between geographical and sectoral patterns. For example, the Creative Ecology differs in the coastal towns, each of which is different; while equally the Creative Economy of Crawley and the wider Gatwick Diamond differs significantly from that of small market towns in the heart of the County. In this sense, a range of local approaches is required, with each approach effectively connected as part of a County-wide approach to culture that focuses on establishing an overall fabric of infrastructure for the County.

1.1 Existing Strategic Research Existing strategic research into the profile and dynamics of the arts and cultural sector, plus the wider Creative Economy of the South East and West Sussex, does not account for the complex variations in sector activity and potential in different parts of the County, nor the reasons for or implications of certain sector attributes. For example, the concentration of Creative Industries activities around Horsham is largely accounted for by a strong showing in computer games and electronic publishing (Ancer Spa, 2007), rather than, for example, in arts and heritage activities. Similarly, although the Sussex Coast is treated as one area on some subregional strategies, what is often striking is the difference between areas like Brighton and Hove, Hastings, and Bognor Regis. By contrast to the strongly economic drivers of the South East Creative Industries Action Plan, most local approaches to culture in West Sussex are instead concerned with issues of quality of life. For example, the West Sussex County Strategy sets out the County Council’s ambitions for the period 2005-2009. The Strategy identifies four key issues to be addressed: -

Improving the quality of our neighbourhood Enhancing and conserving the character and environment of West Sussex Developing services for children, young people and their families Supporting those in need

It is noticeable that economic development does not feature explicitly in this list, and while this is not to suggest that the County Council does not concern itself with economic goals (the Economic Strategy sets out aspirations around rural areas, coastal regeneration and Gatwick Airport), it emphasises again the importance of other considerations with which the cultural sector must engage if it is to attract policy attention and local support. The drive for ‘cultural regeneration’ in many parts of the UK, particularly the North West, North East, and Yorkshire, was a response to rapid de-industrialisation and the economic and social dislocation that followed from this. The significance of non-arts funding sources, such as the European Social Fund (ESF), the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), City Challenge, the Urban Programme and the Single Regeneration Budget, in enabling and driving these developments, cannot be underestimated in this regard, and historically very little of this money has been

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available in the South East. This, in part, explains the strongly economic ‘flavour’ that much debate of cultural policy and funding priorities has had in recent years across the UK.

The South East in general, aside from notable exceptions such as Brighton and Hove, has been a relative latecomer to this activity and the absence of large amounts of public funding for regeneration, a concern with over (rather than under) development, and an economy which continues to be one of the best performing in Europe, means that arts and cultural activities still struggle to be seen as drivers of economic performance, rather than simply beneficiaries of it. This may come as something of a relief to arts and heritage organisations in the County, which are perhaps under less pressure to deliver on regeneration or economic targets than in other parts of the country, though it also means a danger of continual under-funding and under-connectedness of what are still sometimes seen as ‘nice', rather than necessary activities. For West Sussex therefore, it is important to identify and establish the most critical policy drivers for culture. This includes an assessment of the risks of carrying on as usual, or the dangers or opportunities of attracting more tourists to the area. It is clear that any response must recognise these concerns and should, for example, be as preoccupied with the contribution of culture to the quality of neighbourhoods, as it is to the economic prospects of artists. But it is also clear that a ‘do nothing,’ strategy has its dangers. Many other rural areas, from North Yorkshire to Cornwall are increasingly using the arts and cultural sectors to develop a more dynamic cultural tourism offer. Rather than subsisting at a ‘maintenance’ level, arts and cultural organisations are increasingly being encouraged by public funders to innovate and such innovation requires links beyond the usual audiences and partners. The development of the Creative Economy Programme Green Paper and the first South East Creative Industries Action Plan, offer opportunities for West Sussex to develop its arts and heritage offer in a way that is in keeping with its broader social goals. As will be shown, this requires an approach that recognises the distinctive sector profiles and opportunities in different parts of the County – for example, in some locations the value-adding role of culture may focus on social agendas, whereas in others it might have a growth-orientated economic focus. This also requires an approach that effectively concentrates on connecting assets and opportunities as part of a fabric of creative infrastructure that – collectively – establishes West Sussex as a Core Place for the UK Creative Economy underpinned by a high quality, vibrant and inclusive Creative Ecology.

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The 2007 South East Creative Industries Action Plan This sets out a series of potential interventions including: -

Local and regional Creative Industries Support Hubs High Impact business support products, such as an Intellectual Property advice service, networks of mentors and an investment readiness programme A single signposting mechanism for support resources A programme of provision for affordable workspace

It identifies existing concentrations of Creative Industries activity around: -

Brighton and Hove Thames Valley Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Surrey, North Hampshire and Horsham district West Kent, Wealden (East Sussex) and Mid Sussex districts

It recognises scope to encourage development through growth and regeneration funded initiatives in: -

The Channel Corridor, Kent North and East Kent Coastal East Sussex Coastal West Sussex The Isle of Wight Portsmouth and Urban South Hampshire

For West Sussex, it is important to determine how these regional plans map onto more localised concerns. For many arts and cultural organisations, considerations of intellectual property or investment readiness, for example, may not be particularly pertinent; whereas support for mentoring or access to workspace will be highly relevant.

1.2 Recognising Distinctiveness, Making Connections: the Arts and Cultural Landscape of West Sussex West Sussex is a largely rural area of the UK, which boasts a wealth of lifestyle and heritage attractions, drawing on an affluent and highly educated population. While its economy is relatively small and productivity lower than in other parts of the South East, it is home to a high number of knowledge workers and to a population with relatively high levels of disposable income. However, within this broad picture, there are strong and distinct differences between parts of West Sussex, which any strategy for arts and heritage needs to take into account. In order to characterise the area, we have used the models of economic geographies used in the South East Regional Economic Strategy (RES, 2006). The surprising point is that, despite its small size, West Sussex features the characteristics of three types of sub-region identified in the RES: -

The Coastal South East - from Adur to Chichester The Inner South East: The Gatwick Diamond area (including Crawley) The Outer South East – largely in the rural areas of Mid Sussex and Horsham District.

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However, even within these categories, differences and distinctions are apparent and while these categories are a helpful way to approach economic development in the sub-region; they are by no means a watertight description of the reality on the ground.

Coastal Areas Though packaged by SEEDA as the Sussex Coastal Area6, within an overall ‘Coastal’ category within the Regional Economic Strategy, West Sussex coastal areas, have a quite different profile from Brighton and Hove (such as in terms of demographic ‘Mosaic’ profiling7), but also from parts of the Kent coast. In the first case, the population is older and often drawn to the area by retirement and seeking a better quality of life. What Mosaic refers to as, ‘Independent Elders,’ are the predominant group in the coastal areas of Arun and Worthing. These areas have traditionally been attractive to retired, independent people who have lower than average incomes but high discretionary expenditure. This differs from East Sussex, particularly around Brighton and Hove, where a younger population is drawn in part by the presence of universities, small firms and lively nightlife. In the second case, the coastal areas, have much lower levels of deprivation than, say, Kent – overall the County is of one of the least deprived sub-regions of England (Local Futures Group, 2006). Therefore, approaches to arts and cultural development in West Sussex coastal areas need not be as strongly driven by regeneration agendas as in others parts of the South East coast. The Economic Partnerships and the RES instead prioritise retaining quality of life and increasing the performance of the visitor economy as key to coastal economic development strategies. Given this, the Sussex Coast Regeneration strategy argues for a targeting of services on eastern and central coastal areas, while recognising that such targeting should not exclude other areas of the sub-region with pockets of quite severe deprivation from receiving the attention and investment that they also need. Indeed, the identification of the whole of the Sussex Coast as a Regeneration Area argues for the importance of taking action over a broader area.

Inner-South East The Gatwick Diamond, including Crawley, has some of the characteristics of the Inner South East: proximity to London, strong regional/national transport connections and access to global markets and supply chains through Gatwick Airport. According to Local Futures (2006), Crawley has the largest Knowledge Economy in the County and the 13th largest in Britain. However, this employment is concentrated in service sectors and activities like logistics and thus while there are high levels of graduate employment and a ‘digital economy,’ its profile is less strong in the Creative Industries – media, telecommunications, leisure software, and so on - than in other parts of the South East. In addition, Crawley’s economy is heavily dependent on larger businesses, with the highest average business size in Britain, making it the most dependent on large firms in the country. Given this and very low unemployment, this area is not a ‘natural’ home for smaller and less growthorientated Creative Industries activities, though this could change with an emphasis on building the conditions for sector development: i.e. a dynamic Creative Ecology. In this case, the importance of cultural investments and of lifestyle amenities in 6

See: SEEDA, South East Coastal Strategy 2006. Mosaic is a geodemographic segmentation system based upon sixty demographic characteristics. It is used to map the demographic profile of neighbourhoods as a basis for comparative analysis.

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attracting graduate labour is the primary economic argument for localised investment in culture.

Outer-South East Perhaps the most characteristic profile of West Sussex is that of the Outer South East, a relatively affluent area with high levels of economic activity and low levels of unemployment compared with national levels. The Mosaic profiles for West Sussex show the predominant groups in both Horsham and Mid Sussex as ‘High Income Families’ - affluent professionals living in large houses with comfortable lifestyles. This area is home to a relatively high number of arts and heritage businesses as described below, but equally importantly it is home to a higher proportion of residents in managerial and professional jobs than both the regional and national average. Developing the cultural economy in these locales is thus as much about unlocking this localised spending, as it is about stimulating local businesses. A similar profile is evidenced in some rural areas, particularly around Chichester and the Selsey Peninsula, including some whose main income comes from agriculture.

Vital is that these localised geographies needs to be understood from the bottom up and their particular characteristics requires a series of localised strategies.

1.3 Headline Profile Issues: arts and heritage across West Sussex It is important that the distinctiveness of the economy and ecology in specific places is used as a resource and that we avoid the danger of a ‘cookie cutter approach,’ with each place seeking to develop similar strategies. Each location has a different set of opportunities and thus requires a different mix. This localisation should not means fragmentation however, which is currently a danger, particularly for the rural parts of the County. The approach needs to build from the bottom up, but link these disparate activities to the wider economy of London and the South East through an overall fabric of arts and cultural infrastructure. A brief overview of each district is provided below:

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Adur The Adur District, which includes the coastal towns of Shoreham-on-Sea, Southwick and Lancing, hugged by rural areas to the north, is an area of significant arts and cultural change. In part this is because much of the District forms part of the wider Brighton and Hove conurbation – an area that has experienced something of a cultural renaissance over recent years, with a very vibrant Creative Ecology and well-performing Creative Economy (with a prevalence of innovative digital content businesses). The relatively expensive property costs of central Brighton and Hove, plus an increasingly vibrant and established arts and cultural ‘scene’ in Adur, has led to increased Creative Industries activity in the District. For example, the District has seen an increase in new media businesses (albeit from 10 to 29) between 2003 and 2006. Perhaps the major opportunity for Adur is to encourage further growth of the Creative Industries in ways that add value to the existing arts and cultural offer of the area and which support wider processes of regeneration that have been evidenced in locations such as Shoreham harbour, and a mix of new infrastructure developments. Key here will be: -

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Adding to the diversity, quality and profile of programming at the Adur festival – which is now in its 20th year Linking creative business and organisational development to the new arts centre in the Ropetackle Arts & Education Centre (a joint project between Berkeley Homes, SEEDA and the District Council).The 150 seat multi-purpose venue will be a major addition to the District’s arts and cultural infrastructure, with an expected mix of professional and amateur use. This has the potential, if effectively connected, to be a major driver of Creative Economy and Ecology activity at County and District level, repositioning the District as a creative place to live and work Making connections with the high levels of amateur or low economic growth creative activity, including the 30 visual artists identified by SAM. The production chain analysis undertaken by SAM indicates high levels of creation/making in visual arts (anecdotal evidence says they are migrating from Brighton & Hove), but very little infrastructure - e.g., galleries - to support them. The Ropetackle Centre in part responds to this agenda, but there is a further need to develop networks between, for example, the 3 largest areas of amateur activity in the District: Visual Arts, Performance and Audio Visual. This will help to raise competence and confidence, encourage innovative cross-art-form practice, and have the longer-term potential to develop more sustainable activities (such as artists as businesses) Boundstone Community College is the only Specialist Arts College in West Sussex. It provides a set of learning resources that could, over the longer term, raise the profile of creative career path development, build audiences, and increase demand for a wider fabric of creative infrastructure at District and County level. Key here will be connecting to the developing creative business and organisational activity in the District, highlighting to young people the types of opportunities they can pursue The Heritage sector is quite small compared to the rest of West Sussex – though the airport is Grade II listed arts deco building. Perhaps the greatest ‘heritage offer’ is the distinctive industrial landscape in central Shoreham. This could provide the type of physical mix and cultural ambiance attractive to creative businesses – provided workspace and activity space is developed as affordable and/or appropriate to the sector.

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Arun The District of Arun includes the key coastal towns of Bognor Regis and Littlehampton, the historic town of Arundel, and a mix of rural areas. By national standards, the district of Arun is not particularly deprived, though it is relatively deprived within the West Sussex context. Within Arun there are large differences in deprivation and wealth which, on some measures, place a number of wards among the most deprived and yet others among the least deprived areas in England. This presents a set of challenges and opportunities for the District, with arts and culture potentially central to a set of regeneration, economic development and planning agendas. For example, arts and culture has the potential to play a leading role in re-envisioning the physical landscape of the coastal towns, which perhaps is under-recognised in the Bognor Regis Master Plan and the Littlehampton Vision. In addition, links between the day-visitor-dependent visitor economy and cultural tourism opportunities that ‘widen the shoulder’ could be explored by connecting the heritage and leisure assets of the District. Furthermore, arts and culture can play a more prominent role in learning and skills agendas, building confidence in relatively deprived communities across the District. The Arun Economic and Cultural Development Unit is working to connect these agendas – as the title of the unit implies. Arun has a very strong and progressive approach to culture-led regeneration. In this context, key distinctive opportunities and challenges include: -

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The Arun Enterprise Gateway, which provides facilities and support to local high-tech firms, including some with a Creative Industries focus. This could become an important access and development point for start-ups in the sector. Given that research has identified just 13 new media organisations in the District (the lowest in the County), this is a critical development area if the Creative Industries are to establish a foothold. The leisure offer of Bognor Regis – including Butlins and a new ‘leisure heart’ (as defined in the 2004 Master Plan) can be diversified and improved through connected processes that attract new residents, attend to a public realm that requires investment, and focus on bringing a wider mix of energy to the town – such as through the proposed Café Quarter. New planning opportunities in Littlehampton – such as the regeneration of the East Bank and the new East Beach café - designed by Thomas Heatherwick. The waterside environment and the rise in water-based leisure activities could provide a major opportunity for creative convergence activities – such as in a distinctive water leisure offer, an innovatively designed public realm, and through the development of design-orientated marine businesses (such as those that focus on product design). The heritage sector, while less significant than for other areas of the County, still includes major draws – not least the magnificent Arundel Castle. However, the heritage offer is yet to be conceptualised in terms of how it complements and is complemented by the wider regeneration and place-making agendas of nearby coastal areas. Art and culture programming that mixes contemporary offer with a high quality heritage package could help to attract greater numbers and a wider mix of day-trippers. The Creative Ecology of the District has some key strengths and opportunity areas – not least the excellent ‘End of the Pier International Film Festival’ in Bognor Regis (which is a key repositioning tool for the town – a sign that contemporary independent arts and culture has a role to play).

Perhaps the key opportunity area for Arun is the extent to which arts and culture can be ‘mainstreamed’ into other areas of policy, without actually constituting that policy. This relates to the role of arts and culture in planning – establishing a high quality physical environment that is attractive to and supportive of creative people; and in regeneration – providing learning and skills opportunities, building new businesses and adding value to other sectors such as in the visitor economy.

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Chichester As a famous cathedral city with a world-class heritage offer, Chichester faces a dilemma regarding how to mix a heritage-focused approach to arts and culture with one that engages with contemporary arts and culture – such as through a Creative Industries agenda. The District centres on the City of Chichester, with its impressive mix of existing and forthcoming arts and cultural assets. These include: -

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Pallant House Gallery, which is home to one of the best collections of Modern British art in the world, including works by Blake, Bomberg, Caulfield, Nicholson, Piper, Sickert and Sutherland. Its new £8.6m extension, integrates contemporary design with the original Grade I listed Queen Anne townhouse. Seventeen galleries now allow the permanent collections and temporary exhibitions to be shown to their best advantage. The Gallery has been awarded the 2007 Gulbenkian Prize. West Dean – a distinctive mix of heritage (such as the estate and gardens), contemporary arts and craft facilities (such as the Sussex Barn Gallery and West Dean Tapestry Studio) and learning and skills provision (such as Diploma and MA courses in Visual and Applied Arts). Fishbourne Roman Palace – a significant heritage site with an increasingly contemporary approach to presenting this (such as through contemporary design and retail) The Chichester Festival Theatre - a regionally important theatre producing new and exciting work, and a significant economic contributor through visitor spend Studios4artists - A group of Chichester artists is working with the District Council to develop a studio complex for artists and designers, building a hub of activity in the city that seeks to address the apparent lack of affordable/appropriate studio accommodation A strong network of artists, led by Artel – which operates across the County to develop exhibition opportunities for artists The development of a new museum in Chichester – adding to the overall fabric of infrastructure The University of Chichester, with its specialist Creative Industries offer and increasing focus on knowledge exchange – driving Creative Industries growth in the city The many language schools – providing a multicultural dynamism and global profile to the city.

The District also includes rural areas, most of which are relatively affluent, all of which mix a strong visitor economy offer (such as through the physical beauty of Chichester harbour), within an emerging though under-developed Creative Ecology (e.g. an active crafts sector and initiatives such as Roots Around the World - a series of high-quality world music events in rural village halls). The major challenge for Chichester lies in balancing the heritage offer to a new economy, ‘contemporary culture’ approach to sector development. This cuts right through a range of strategic agendas. For example, the visitor economy is arguably too risk averse and dependent upon a mainstream of ‘cathedral city tourists’. It therefore lacks the energy and mix of a sector that combines a heritage draw with new types of attraction – not least a cultural tourism offer of contemporary creative experiences and a dynamic and varied night-time economy. This also relates to planning agendas – such as the potential re-use of old buildings for contemporary creative production (such as artists’ studio space), the imaginative use of public art and design, and the programming of cutting-edge content into, for example, local festivals and the theatre. Currently, these issues are not being confronted as progressively as they might, with key decisions on the arts and cultural direction of the city rather stalled somewhere between the ‘no change’ and ‘contemporary creative city’ approaches. The opportunity exists to establish Chichester as a leading Creative Economy city, utilising its learning and skills offer and high quality cultural infrastructure; and at the same time widening the profile and reach of its heritage sector – by making it more relevant to contemporary patterns of cultural production and consumption. If a progressive balance can be achieved, Chichester could combine and connect each of the strengths of the County – fulfilling its role as a County Town and Core Creative Place.

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Crawley As the main town in the Gatwick Diamond area of West Sussex and as a ‘new town’ developed largely in the 1950s and 1960s, Crawley differs significantly from the rest of the County. For example, it has a relatively youthful population, it is by far the most ethnically diverse part of the County, and it has a Creative Industries sector made up of predominantly large businesses. The town has a set of key arts and cultural assets – including the Hawth Theatre, one of the largest and most diversely programmed in West Sussex, with a mix of touring shows and innovative work programmed in the Studio Theatre; the annual Mela; significant public realm initiatives; the voluntary Museum facilities at Goffs Park House and Ifield Watermill; and craft units at Tilgate Park. Crawley will also benefit from a new library in 2008, a Heritage Strategy is under development, and opportunities for a university and teacher training facility are being explored as very serious propositions. Arts and cultural development in Crawley should be understood in a context where: -

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Employment levels in the town are high, though not through high-earning occupations. As indicated earlier, employment is in a relatively large-firm economy, with strong links to Gatwick Airport and the wider economy of the Greater South East. This means there that the small-firm Creative Economy present elsewhere in the County is largely absent, and where it does exist, the focus is predominantly on distribution activities rather than content creation. Therefore, it could be assumed that the Creative Economy lacks the diversity and flexibility of other parts of the County, which in turn could limit the robustness of the wider economy should the larger-firm activities decline. On a similar issue, the Mosaic Profile of Crawley shows that over a quarter of the population is in the ‘town houses and flats’ category, with the lowest in the County for the ‘stylish singles’ category (this is a narrow category that refers to relatively middle class, ‘metropolitan’ singles). This indicates the challenge of diversifying the Creative Economy and supporting Creative Ecology activities that in turn enable the development of more successful and sustainable arts and cultural businesses and organisations. This is because arts and cultural production is intimately linked to consumption practices, and Crawley does not currently seem to have the demographic mix attractive to a dynamic Creative Industries sector. The new town design means that districts were not built in high density and co-location in mind. This means that arts and cultural infrastructure is under-connected physically, and that it is difficult to establish dense concentrations of activity which in turn are attractive to creative businesses and organisations.

Over the longer-term, a critical challenge for Crawley is to build density and connectedness in arts and cultural infrastructure in a way that helps reposition the town as a creative and dynamic place. Major players are important here, such as a potentially refurbished Hawth Theatre. Also critical is the development of high density mixed-use developments at key sites – such as the town centre and Three Bridges. A mix of arts and cultural production activities that are networked into the rest of the County, improved public realm, and a real push to maximise the diversity advantage of the town, will combine to reposition Crawley as ‘far more than just another New Town’.

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Horsham A largely rural and small-town District, Horsham has a growing population which has an above-average young adult population aged (15-29) and an ageing population of over 50s. The dominant MOSAIC groupings are ‘High Income Families’ and ‘Suburban Semis’ reflecting an affluent population with money to spend on culture. Indeed, with high employment levels and strong quality of life indicators, there is perhaps a lack of urgency to invest in culture as a tool for change. However, with increasing connectivity to the global-facing Inner South East, and with development pressures within the district (such as new house building), the role of culture in strategic development and place-building requires careful consideration. For example: -

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With over 2,000 houses to be built in the District, questions of arts and cultural provision must be explored – focusing, for example, on the role of multi-purpose centres of education, health and arts/culture at the heart of new communities; on public art; and on the role of artists and other creative practitioners in the development of distinctive and inclusive places. Indeed, the distinctive mix of heritage and new economy uses for the arts and cultural landscape of Horsham perhaps provides a major opportunity to subtly increase and improve the arts and cultural ‘offer’ of the district without overly upsetting those who favour a ‘softer’ approach to sector development. For example, though plans to introduce small crafts units to the Town Hall were rejected, this does not mean that alternative sites for contemporary arts and cultural production cannot be established in new developments co-located with older sites. However, this does require a real commitment to establishing synergies of use: it is not enough to assume co-location will lead to the types of collaborative activity that genuinely animate a place through culture. Perhaps opportunities have been missed here with the new artists’ studios at Chesworth. The visitor numbers for the Horsham attractions that keep figures show a diverse picture. The Capitol (formerly Horsham Arts Centre) has seen an increase of 7,000 in theatre bookers due to a successful run of programming visiting companies but a significant decrease of 9,000 for the cinema possibly due to a less successful programme in that year. The main historic properties have remained fairly consistent in their visitors over the last two years, with a slight decrease at Leonardslee. With regard to museums, Amberley has seen an increase of 2,000 visitors whereas Horsham Museum has seen a significant decrease of over 4,000 visitors which may be due to the increase in parking costs and the amount of building work in Horsham Town. This mixed picture is perhaps a product of a low-profile approach to the visitor economy development and placebranding (indeed, the District does not have a Tourism Officer). This includes the absence of an approach to cultural tourism – which could provide the connecting themes for the significant ‘flagship’ attractions mentioned above and appeal to visitors intrigued by the arts and cultural landscape that they occupy as much as by their individual merits. Horsham District is home to a large number of visual artists and craftspeople representing well over a third of the total number of arts and cultural businesses in the District. They produce enough art to sustain an annual Open Houses programme which runs in July each year alongside a programme in Worthing. However, this Creative Ecology seems under-connected to a Creative Economy madeup predominantly of software businesses. With a strategic push, content and technology providers could be encouraged to consider Horsham as a place to develop new types of collaboration with both a creative and commercial emphasis. However, with such high levels of employment and economic performance in Horsham, the strategic rationale does not seem to exist to seek new type of knowledge exchange, even if they could be of regional significance. Indeed, a major factor informing this reticence to intervene lies in the relatively weak learning and skills offer for culture in the District: there are no large arts and culture education providers in the District, though there is a growth in courses for older people run by University of the Third Age.

The District is showing an increasing commitment to ‘mainstreaming’ culture as part of the place-building agenda, supporting the quality of life, rather than detracting from it. The successful implementation of the Arts Strategy in 1997 and the Cultural Strategy in 2006, have introduced a greater acceptance of the role of culture in agendas as diverse as planning and economic development. However, the task remains to genuinely embed culture within new developments, and to maximize the mix and connectivity of existing assets so that they ‘work together’ more effectively.

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Mid Sussex Mid Sussex is the most affluent and rural district in West Sussex. The Mosaic Profile shows that over a third of the population are ‘high income families’, with high levels of commuting to London, Brighton and Portsmouth/Southampton. The Economic Development Strategy is revealing here, emphasising safeguarding assets rather than a need to focus on regeneration as elsewhere: -

Safeguarding economic growth Promoting business development Training and skills development Safeguarding the economy of the towns Safeguarding the economy of the villages Safeguarding the economy of the rural area.

There are parallel issues in arts and cultural development: the quality of life in Mid Sussex is excellent, with a mix of heritage, natural landscape and arts and cultural features playing their role. These include the Royal Botanic Garden's Millennium Seed Bank at Wakehurst Place, a strong events programme, and the Chequer Mead Arts Centre (where a new Trust in 2005 has worked hard to increase visitor figures). Without compelling regeneration and social cohesion issues, it could be argued that the role for arts and culture is less significant than elsewhere in the County and beyond. Also important is the role of design in maintaining a high quality public realm in West Sussex. The Better Mid Sussex Partnership have appointed a high quality team of master planners for the three town centres of Burgess Hill, East Grinstead and Haywards Heath - to guide the revitalisation and future redevelopment projects. This will position an innovative and distinctive public realm at the heart of these places. However, the following do need to be considered if the components that contribute to a high quality of life and high levels of prosperity are to be retained: -

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Arts and Cultural provision is being mainstreamed into other agendas and could be more so. For example, for every house built in the District, £250 is provided by developers for arts and cultural purposes. If this could be increased and extended to other planning considerations (such as commercial developments), opportunities exist to develop new and innovative arts and cultural facilities and infrastructure. Mid Sussex is home to the largest number of media firms in the County, plus a range of small creative businesses (many of which could be categorised as ‘lifestyle businesses’), many of which are London and Brighton-facing. This Economy is little understood – not least its value to the wider Creative Economy of the County. Knowledge here could be valuable – for example, it could enable networks and supply chains to be developed that connect emergent businesses in areas such as on the coast with those more ‘metropolitan’ creative businesses in the District, Brighton and London.

In addition, The West Sussex Structure Plan (2004) identified land to the West and South West of East Grinstead as being suitable for major strategic development. This focused on an allocation of 2,500 homes. It is therefore critical that the role of culture is considered in the planning process – to ensure that new developments include the mix of cultural services and infrastructure that make a place distinctive, connect communities, and ensure that incoming communities share the quality of life of other Mid Sussex residents.

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Worthing The largest town in West Sussex, Worthing has a relatively large retirement community – for example, over 13 per cent of the population is 75-90; which some link to a perception that the town is relatively conservative, with under-developed provision in contemporary culture and a lower profile for culture as a value-adder (such as in regeneration and for social cohesion). However, the arts and cultural sector in Worthing has played an important role in the growth of the town and has left an impressive, if in some ways ‘faded’ infrastructure, with three theatre venues, the Museum and Art Gallery, gardens and the seafront promenade. The town has an active Creative Ecology with artists’ networks, regular events and, more recently, a growing number of what could be termed ‘new media’ companies working in the sector. It is widely perceived that here has been little strategic planning for or marketing of culture in Worthing and that the sector is under-valued by both policy-makers and audiences. This is perhaps backed-up by the relatively few resources that have been available for community-based or participatory work, such as a festival, and that relatively little ACE grants for the arts funding is attracted into the Borough. In January 2005, the Audit Commission undertook a review of Cultural Services in Worthing Borough, which, while offering positive feedback on individual services, staff commitment and public satisfaction, was critical of the strategic management of the Services, where it concluded: “The Council lacks strategic ambitions for heritage, arts and tourism. The Cultural Strategy makes limited reference to these areas and staff and partners were not clear how they fitted into the wider cultural services and council plans”. That said, there is evidence of an emerging Creative Economy and established Creative Ecology in the town starting to drive change and in turn raise expectations on the role of culture in Worthing. For example: -

Northbrook College in Worthing is the regional centre for arts education with extensive range of courses in music, dance, drama, performing and visual arts.

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There is a strong small-business cultural ecology. Two thirds of culture workers are sole traders, with significant potential to complement the few larger businesses and organisations – including Splash FM, the Museums and Art Gallery, and the Theatre Group. In recent years, artists in Worthing have come together to establish two networks of artists. SWAG (Sunny Worthing Arts Group) and RAG (Revolutionary Arts Group) are artist-led networks that provide support and opportunities for individuals and companies within the broad creative sector. Both are active groups and claim significant numbers of artist members from Worthing and the surrounding areas. Both groups are also involved with the new Worthing 1st Creative Sector Group, looking at economic and cultural regeneration in the town.

It is this wider perspective for culture that perhaps provides the most potential for Worthing as a changing coastal town. The physical infrastructure of the town – with the impressive sea front, the theatres and the gardens – could prove to be an attractive location for culture businesses and organisations displaced from an increasingly expensive Brighton and Hove or even attracted to Worthing as a primary destination (such as from London). This is because it offers a distinctive environment with a potential to change through the agency and activity of creative people: as evidenced elsewhere (from East London to Cornwall), creative people are attracted by a place that presents itself as a ‘creative project’. This is a place that welcomes creative people, allows them to network, ensures they have physical space (such as affordable and appropriate studios), and invites them to contribute to the changing vision and plan for the town. ‘Worthing Evolution’ – the town centre and seafront master plan (2006) recognises the need to improve the physical quality of Worthing, to connect key assets, and integrate the town’s overall offer. Culture can play a lead role here – connecting, animating, and providing for a strong and distinctive identity. Current considerations for establishing a ‘cultural quarter’ in Worthing need to carefully consider how this connects with the aspirations and creativity of the existing arts and cultural sector; while building a distinctive proposition for the town that will offer a fabric of opportunities for potential incoming businesses and organisations. This level of strategic thinking is as yet under-developed in the town.

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2. Developing the Cultural Economy in West Sussex Given the overall economic and social profile of the County, we would expect to find variation within the arts and cultural economy. However, the ‘cultural profile’ of the area is perhaps more consistent across the County that one would expect from looking at its different economic characteristics. The picture that emerges from the district-level surveys of arts and heritage is one that can perhaps be best summarised as ‘unexploited potential’. There is a good deal of activity in the arts and cultural sector across the County; a strong, if traditional, arts and cultural infrastructure; and an outstanding heritage offer. However, there is little evidence of serious endeavour to innovatively develop these assets or to connect them to a County-level approach to culture and the value-adding role of the sector – such as through the visitor economy offer. Local councils are undoubtedly becoming more active and there is evidence of an increasingly strategic approach being taken by some of them, but the lack of ‘consumer demand’ and indeed resistance, particularly to capital developments aimed at tourists or new types of creative producer, may prevent or slow-down innovative developments. Chichester and Worthing stand out in terms of their arts and cultural employment (SAM, 2007), while Crawley, for the reasons discussed above, has very low levels of employment in these sectors, but considerable globally-facing knowledge economy activity. Beyond these obvious ‘hotspots,’ employment in arts and heritage is more or less spread evenly across the County. The primary reasons for this seem to be the importance of both the subsidised and voluntary cultural sectors, with large numbers of volunteers supporting activities across the County. The question for policymakers is how far this public and voluntary sector has the potential to contribute to other aspects of the County’s economy, notably the development of Creative business, but also economic activity in other areas, such as the visitor economy, food or design. However, the apparent lack of interest in developing the added-value role of culture provides one of the key messages of this report. For example, the potential of cultural tourism promotion and activities to connect the heritage offer to the contemporary Creative Ecology and Economy, seems under-explored. This is particularly surprising when compared to other predominantly rural areas, such as North Yorkshire, Dorset or Cornwall, all of whom have made cultural tourism a priority and many of whom are currently seeking to renew their visitor economy offer in line with changing tastes and demographics. The seemingly inexorable rise of the ‘boutique’ hotel and the potential of climate change fears or carbon taxes to increase ‘holidaying at home’ has seen many parts of the country renew their efforts to attract younger and higher spending British visitors, particularly for short breaks and in the shoulder season. Yet, Local Futures (2006) found the proportion of employment in hotels and restaurants in West Sussex to be low when compared both nationally and regionally, indicating the lack of a significant coherent visitor economy offer in the area, an issue which should be of concern in terms of the economic development of the region.

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2.1 Towards a Fabric of Creative Infrastructure The DCMS, in their ongoing Creative Economy Programme, emphasise the significance of establishing a fabric of creative infrastructure that connects the Creative Ecology and Economy and mainstreams creativity as a core constituent of ‘place’. It states that: “For most sectors, location is a primary factor in determining comparative advantage and achieving growth and competitiveness. For the Creative Industries, location matters, but place is the major influence on growth and competitiveness. Place differs from location because it encapsulates a set of social, environmental and cultural factors in addition to locational factors such as distance to market and the availability of appropriate labour. Creative businesses develop and grow through place and in turn help to transform place. Cultural and creative infrastructure – from a gallery to a university incubation project; from a museum to a specialist network initiative – contributes meaningfully to the combination of factors that comprise a Creative sense of place. It is the fabric of infrastructure available to Creative businesses that informs their Creative sense of place, which in turn affects their ability to innovate and grow. It is also the ways that infrastructure is connected together (through networks, colocation, a high quality public realm) as a single ‘infrastructure offer’ that influences the confidence and capacity of Creative businesses” (CEP p.7).

This report has shown that infrastructure in West Sussex is not sufficiently connected, especially between different Districts. For example, the learning institutions are not effectively connecting outwardly to support the development of the local Creative Industries sector (such as by driving local business networks); or large-scale infrastructure (such as theatres) is physically detached from and is not complemented by a rich landscape of production and consumption activities; or joint cross-District programming initiatives are rare; or creative workspace opportunities are not considered by many as an appropriate contribute to a high quality town centre ‘offer’. This lack of connectedness is the major barrier to nurturing a genuine creative sense of place in the County. Moreover, it is the key reason for the lack of critical mass in the key urban centres: the current infrastructure offer – rich, varied and impressive as it is – is not connected in a coherent and strategic way to ensure that the County operates as a ‘Core Creative Place’. Indeed, a major danger for both cultural businesses and wider amenities (such as theatres, arts centres etc.) in West Sussex is that they become solely driven by local markets and ideas, some of which are conceived to be relatively conservative, and connected to local supply chains, with less extensive connections on the national and global connections offered by the Inner South East and London. In this case, markets will be smaller, networks relatively under-developed and less commercially orientated, institutions will be more risk-averse and less innovative. Therefore, without a strong and connected approach to arts and cultural planning in West Sussex, linking local assets to a wider County offer, the arts and cultural sector will not have the impact it might on the economic and cultural vitality of the sub-region. The Creative Economy Programme introduces a set of guidelines for developing a successful competitive fast-growing Core Creative Place. It does this by outlining 10 Infrastructural Conditions and asks that regional and local partners consider ways of establishing these Conditions as a basis for Creative Industries competitiveness. Critically, these Conditions make the connection between Creative Ecology and Creative Economy, recognising that without one, the other will suffer. Below, provides a brief overview of the ten conditions, matching them to a West Sussex context: 28

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A: A world class, high profile cultural infrastructure – such as galleries, museums, concert halls and events programmes. There are pockets of very strong arts and cultural infrastructure in West Sussex, notably around Worthing with its range of theatres and resort entertainments and in Chichester. The Pallant House Gallery, for example, has recently re-opened after a complete re-build. In addition, Wakehurst Place and its Millennium Seedbank facility8 in West Sussex provide an example of a world class heritage facility driving a very contemporary agenda. However, Local Futures (2006) found West Sussex to be performing relatively poorly in terms of the range and quality of its of its cultural amenities, though, as it argued, this is not surprising for a largely rural area. Yet, West Sussex has an outstanding heritage offer – a wealth of historical sites and beautiful countryside. In the LFG audit, the only cultural indicator where West Sussex scored above the national average was in the number of national heritage sites per sq km, where it had almost double the national average. Thus an issue for West Sussex is not necessarily one of numbers (one would not expect a largely rural county to have many ‘world class’ galleries and concert halls), but the quality and connectedness of the existing cultural infrastructure. In this case, for example, Worthing has impressive infrastructure: three theatre venues, the Museum and Art Gallery, gardens and the seafront promenade; but is appearance of one of faded grandeur and the perception is that it needs updating if it is to develop a stronger Creative Economy and cultural tourism offer. B: A range of specialist creative industries support services, some with a focus on growth such as business acceleration and investment programmes. Impressively for a rural area, West Sussex has the beginnings of a ‘self-help’ culture for small creative businesses and individual creative practitioners. The South Coast Design Forum is an example of the tight, self-starting networks that can develop in small towns and rural areas. Based around Chichester, it brings together product and interior designers, designers-makers, fashion designers and architects with the aim of raising the profile of this ‘hidden’ creative workforce. The Forum is backed by Chichester District Council, but like many practitioner-developed networks, it has very little public funding and sustainability is an issue. In addition, there are several informal, artist-led networks, such as ARTEL and RAG Artists and Makers, based in Worthing. ARTEL, a contemporary artist-led group that creates exhibition opportunities for professional visual artists across a range of media is based in Chichester, but importantly has links to Hampshire, East Sussex and London. As the new media sector becomes more embedded in the County, (there are well over 200 new media companies in West Sussex), there will be a need for networking and support groups to support this sector. Wired Sussex is undertaking this role to a certain extent but it does not always have the expertise to support across the Creative Industries. The development of such networks, often on little or no public funding, needs to be encouraged and supported. Thus far, such networks have however been overly dependent on the energy and application of self-designated intermediaries - often the businesses themselves. In the future, increased public support should be considered for such initiatives.

8 The Millennium Seed Bank Project is an international collaborative plant conservation initiative. This worldwide effort aims to safeguard 24,000 plant species from around the globe against extinction. It has already successfully secured the future of virtually all the UK's native flowering plants. See: http://www.kew.org/places/wakehurst/seedbank.html

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C: A wide range of specialist and accessible facilities for different parts of the creative industries – such as through media centres, rehearsal space, studio space, and workspace. One of the major constraints for both arts and cultural amenities and creative business across the South East is the high costs of property and, in a rural area with strong planning controls, the difficulties in obtaining any properties at all. According to Local Futures, and supported by the research that informs this report, West Sussex is one of the least affordable parts of the country to buy a house, and workspace is similarly both difficult to get and expensive. Throughout the individual district surveys undertaken for this report, visual artists and craft makers have consistently reported the difficulty in finding exhibition space in West Sussex. Gallery space is limited and difficult to access. And indeed recent attempts to convert the town hall in Horsham into a folk arts centre met with limited public support, as did the idea of small crafts units. Artists and makers have responded to this difficulty by seeking new, unconventional spaces and by actively developing an Open House network. Amateur artists in the south of Mid Sussex have developed their own programme of Open Houses that are popular locally but do not provide development opportunities for artists who wish to broaden their audience base. Similarly in Adur, although there are a growing number of visual artists, there are very few galleries or exhibition spaces. A small thriving group of sculptors in the North East of the County work with colleagues in Surrey, but have little contact with artists in other parts of West Sussex. This fragmentation in the presentation and exhibition of visual arts and crafts across the County makes it difficult for a visitor or a resident to appreciate the quality and range of work produced. County-wide networks and a marketing strategy drawing together the various strands would benefit visual artists and allow the sector to develop. Contemporary West Sussex Arts & Crafts could be grouped with established galleries and the antiques sector (based mainly in Chichester & Arundel and Petworth respectively) as part of a destination ‘brand.’ According to the Sussex Coastal Strategy, 290 hectares of land within the Sussex Coast is earmarked for industrial and commercial development but only around 50 hectares of this total is readily available – the vast majority of which is located in the West Sussex coastal districts. Poor transport links, access problems and other constraints are also significant barriers in some areas to the delivery of industrial and commercial development. It is vital that the sub-region finds ways to use the opportunity that these sites present, which may mean the introduction of other uses as part of mixed-use schemes to help fund the provision of otherwise unviable employment space.

D: A strong and specialised Higher Education Sector, with outward-facing knowledge transfer, incubation and convergence programmes, strong links across creative and non-creative sub-sectors, and a commitment to interdepartmental approaches to creativity. University of Chichester (one campus in Chichester – one in Bognor Regis) has several relevant departments including Dance, Fine Art, Music, Performing Arts, Media and Tourism Management. The well developed Higher and Further Education infrastructures create a confidence in the arts and cultural sector, a pool of talent, and a focus for continuous professional development opportunities. With a strategic focus on connecting these institutions to the business and cultural landscape of the County, there is a real opportunity to establish Chichester and environs as a hub of new creative business start-ups and as

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an attractive location for returning graduates. However, this requires an attendance to the other 9 Infrastructural Conditions, plus a re-assessment of knowledge transfer and incubation models – they do not currently reach out and connect with the distinctive profiles of the local sector to raise productivity and instil innovation through genuine collaboration. In addition, there is a significant need to push a creative learning and skills agenda as a means to bridge the gap in attainment and employment levels for different communities. While overall West Sussex is a relatively affluent county, it has pockets of deprivation that lack cultural opportunities and are not accessing creative learning and skills programmes (partly because there is an under-provision of such programmes).

E: An innovative further and school education sector, plus a strong informal learning sector. According to Local Futures (2006), the County does perform well in respect of education and skills, ranking 15th out of 54 English subregions on their indicators, and scoring over the national average, though below that for the South East. The proportion of those residents with qualifications below NVQ 2 is lower than average but the proportion of those with graduate-level skills is also lower than average, suggesting some concern about graduates retention and fitting in with the overall age profile of the sub-region. However, levels of skills are perhaps the area where conditions within the County are most varied. The highest ranking district, Horsham, has the 10th best skills profile in Britain; while Adur is ranked 334 out of 408 districts nationally - a difference of 324 places. Looking at school performance, West Sussex’s GCSE attainment is good nationally but below the South East average. Once more, there is huge variation between districts: Horsham and Mid Sussex have exceptional GCSE pass rates, but Adur’s are the second lowest in Britain. In terms of Further Education, Northbrook College’s music technology courses have a strong and growing national reputation, attracting students from across the UK. It has three campuses in Worthing (a further two in Horsham and Shoreham) and provides education opportunities from evening classes up to post-graduate level. It’s School of Art and Design offers a range of courses and has developed a strong reputation in certain subject areas such as music technology. In addition, Central Sussex College (Haywards Heath campus)has attained specialist Performing Arts status and is currently building a performance auditorium as part of a £20m project. However, retention of students after completion at Northbrook College and the development of Central Sussex College is an issue for West Sussex. After studying, there are few employment opportunities in the County for the number of students who complete their training at College.

F: Spaces of convergence and connectivity, where creative workers can meet, exchange and build relationships that can help with ideas generation and trade. In a largely rural country, with few large towns, those cultural spaces that do exist – such as the Chichester Festival Theatre, the Capitol (formerly the Horsham Arts Centre), the Chequer Mead Theatre and Arts Centre, and the newly-opened Ropetackle Centre, are vitally important in stimulating arts and cultural activity. Multi-functional spaces such as the Capitol are particularly important, offering as they do the potential for crossover, both for performers and audiences, and between film and performing arts. For crafts producers and visual artists, West Sussex's wealth of festivals from the Adur community arts festival to the

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Mela in Crawley, can provide opportunities for the development of wider economic activities, for both performers and traders. However, the lack of independently-run arts and cultural spaces – offering scratch nights, live music and comedy – is apparent across the fabric of infrastructure in the County, with the town centres not housing the types of evening and night time activities undertaken in established Core Creative Places. G: Global partnerships and trade initiatives – with the most effective being based on the facilitation of business to business relationships. The most ‘globalised’ parts of West Sussex’ economy is undoubtedly around Crawley, in the Gatwick Diamond. For many of the County’s smaller cultural attractions or practitioners, such concerns may seem remote, but dependence on entirely local markets can makes these entities unsustainable in the longer term. H: Diversity advantage – where complexly diverse communities are supported to project themselves as a major feature of the creative asset base of a place. In terms of ethnic diversity, the non-white population in West Sussex is relatively small, with nearly 97 per cent of the resident population classified as white, well above the national figure of 91.9 per cent, and also higher than the regional average. However, this white population is increasingly diverse, with high levels of Eastern European in-migration of– particularly along the coast. West Sussex’s BME population is predominantly located in Crawley, with 11.5 per cent of its population classified as ‘non-white’. However, diversity should not just be taken as referring to ethnicity. West Sussex is a very diverse County, moving from largely urbanised area around Crawley, to the heavily rural, and displaying a variety of types of ‘rurality’ (both affluent retirees and professional workers and those employed in primary industries). In this case, the diversity advantage is the presence of different types of economy, population, age and geography in such as small physical space. I: Strong spaces of cultural consumption connecting spaces of production. Consumers play a vital role in the development of the Creative Industries, and most practitioners are consumers first and foremost. Critical for a healthy Creative Economy is the development of highly networked, high energy concentrations of arts and cultural activity, where processes of cultural consumption are symbiotic with processes of cultural production. Such processes undertaken in such places breed innovation and in turn lead to competitive creative businesses capable of attracting the highest quality creative workers. In a relatively affluent area like West Sussex, one of the challenges in linking production to consumption is unlocking local discretionary spend and directing it towards locally produced cultural goods and services. There is some anecdotal evidence that concern about ‘carbon footprints,’ and the prestige associated with locally-produced food can and is being transferred to other sorts of goods such as homewares. Given this, it is of concern that the major heritage sites, which are important visitor destinations, often act as self-contained sites with their own shops and restaurants, often selling goods that are centrally sourced. In these cases, the wider impact of these sites may not be as large as it could be. Similarly, it appears from the studies that inform this report that the County is keen to increase the amount of artists’ studios and workspaces. While this is clearly important, it needs to be matched by and mixed with opportunities for consumption if it is to achieve greatest impact. Farmers markets, festivals and events are obvious places to try and bring consumers and producers together, but the development of workspace, where

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it is publicly supported, should also try to take market development and consumption opportunities into account. J: A vibrant night-time economy. This last infrastructural condition may seem the least appropriate to rural areas, drawing as it does on the largely urban notion of a leisure infrastructure of bars, restaurants, clubs and a vital street scene. However even rural areas and small towns can develop night-time economies of a relevant size and scale. The role of market towns and resorts like Chichester, Worthing or Shoreham, become particularly important in these cases. Here, the needs of visitors and tourists do need to be carefully balanced against the needs of residents - in the case of Worthing in particular, the concerns of often elderly residents are sometimes perceived to be given priority.

3. Policy Directions This report introduces 3 main aims for the future development of arts and heritage in West Sussex: -

That West Sussex is established as a recognisably creative place – a place to do creative business, a place to enjoy arts and heritage, and a place that prioritises culture and creativity across every strategic agenda

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That West Sussex is established as a pioneering centre for creative learning and creative business development – with internationally recognised courses in the Higher and Further Education sectors, innovative approaches to incubation and knowledge transfer, and a pioneering approach to learning and skills and business acceleration. In addition, West Sussex will pioneer approaches to learning and skills that provide opportunities for relatively marginalised individuals – such as through innovative programmes that target young people not yet in employment

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That West Sussex is established as a Core Creative Place for the national and regional creative economy - offering a fabric of infrastructure that enables high growth alongside creative innovation and exploration. Here, West Sussex and its Districts will be recognised and valued as Core Creative Places alongside and complementary to higher profile creative centres such as Brighton.

These are now re-introduced through a focus on 2 priority policy directions for partners:

3.1 The adoption of a joined-up, at times Cross-District approach to sector development and support As discussed, much progress has been made in establishing a joined-up approach to supporting the Creative Economy and Ecology across the County, not least through the West Sussex Arts Partnership. In addition, some progress has been made in raising the profile of and making the case for supporting creative agendas across a range of strategic agendas – such as in planning. However, there is significant scope

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for progress here – progress that is necessary if the County is to be recognised as a genuinely vibrant ‘Core Creative Place’. Indeed, it is only through a cross-District and in some instances sub-regional and regional approach to partnership and delivery that the individual localities of the County, will maximise the potential of arts and heritage and thus in some cases rise to the fore as leading centres of creativity. This is because: -

Creative businesses and organisations do not, in most cases, recognise the political boundaries that separate different Districts

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Taken as individual Districts, they are too small to establish a critical mass of infrastructure and skills – not least because they are joined together as part of the same economic region

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For diverse and dynamic audiences and markets, a cross-District and subregional approach is required, conceptualising of the County as sitting at once within the creative city regions of Brighton, Portsmouth/Southampton and London

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Inward investment, cultural tourism and graduate retention schemes need to expose a County-wide offer: otherwise an incomplete and misleading perspective of local opportunities is being projected.

This issue can be linked to wider policy debates on local government reform, where it is recognised that some economic and social policy concerns are best addressed through an approach that takes account of how urban (and rural systems) can most effectively operate, rather than be limited to political and administrative boundaries. Much good practice is being developed in other parts of the region and UK – such as the Hastings and Bexhill Cultural Sector Group, which is leading on ‘mainstreaming’ culture within a set of policy agendas; or Bournemouth and Poole, two unitary authorities that have a Joint Prospectus for Culture. Policy implications here might include: -

The establishment of a County-wide or even district-level ‘Creativity Executive(s)’, charged with mainstreaming creativity across key strategic agendas and establishing the implications of policy decisions from a creativity perspective.

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Developing a Cultural Planning Toolkit for the County. This should follow the approach currently undertaken by the DCLG ‘Creating Cultural Opportunities’ Programme, where a set of parameters is established for gauging the appropriate scale, focus and location of future cultural and creative investment. This provides a clear and actionable set of guidelines for establishing an appropriate cultural and creative dividend in new-build developments, it provides a framework for developing better connections between existing and new infrastructure, and it ensures that culture is mainstreamed across strategic agendas – such as education and social cohesion - rather than added-on afterwards.

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A Creative Workspace Commission to fast-track dedicated arts and cultural workspace and activity space within new developments and

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encourage the re-use of old space for creative purposes. With appropriate action, the Commission can lead an agenda where West Sussex will be home

to a diverse and sustainable mix of arts and workspace and activity space. This will include a significant provision of dedicated creative space, a strong presence of commercially viable and commercial rent-paying Creative Industries businesses, a distinctive mix of visual artists, and a range of small and large creative businesses and cultural organisations that contribute to a rich creative ecology for the development and environs. This should also focus on smart growth issues – linking to environmental issues. To meet the overall provisions, new strategic allocations are likely to be required on additional brownfield sites in Adur. Elsewhere, new greenfield allocations will need to be made as sustainable extensions to existing towns, notably in Arun and Chichester. Such extensions will also need to incorporate appropriate allocations for employment uses, associated facilities and services and open space to ensure that these new development areas can offer residents a high quality of life.

3.2 The mainstreaming of creativity across public policy Too often, culture is supported as an add-on, a luxury that follows ‘more important’ interventions in education, economic development, health, and so on. However, it is increasingly recognised that there is a clear role for culture in competitive economic development, progressive learning and skills, effective regeneration, sustainable communities and place-making. Culture must be positioned to play a lead role in new approaches to planning and policy if West Sussex is to operate coherently as a sustainable, inclusive, innovative, distinctive and competitive place. This is particularly important in a place without an existing strong and diverse Creative Industries sector, and in a place that struggles for attention, resources and business alongside other places in the South East, London and the increasingly vocal and confident English ‘core cities’. Critical to success will be an approach that effectively positions approaches to culture and creativity at the heart of public policy, and in turn positions different parts of public policy at the heart of cultural and creativity agendas. For example, education developments should be positioned alongside cultural developments – both physically and conceptually. There are a series of possible policy directions here, including the establishment of a Cultural Tourism Strategy for the County that sets out key actions to reposition creative production and consumption to the heart of the transforming visitor economy offer. This should consider the impact of existing heritage offer in supporting creative business growth and cultural tourism as a ‘dual outcome’; the potential for adding value to leisure and hospitality sectors through convergence opportunities with high quality design firms; and opportunities to introduce more independent retail and fringe cultural venues. This could also focus on the role of the hospitality industry – developing services and products that connect the more nuanced cultural tourism offer. This would complement and be complemented by a more connected approach to Public art, design and the animation of the public realm. This should hold an ambition for every area of West Sussex to be home to a very high quality public realm, where iconic projects are complemented by an accelerating programme of diverse cultural and creative activity – from festivals to screenings, installations to

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literary competitions. Such approaches will animate spaces, enrich the landscape, enhance local distinctiveness, attract greater visitor numbers, and intensify the commercial potential of residential, leisure and workspace propositions. Also required is an approach that situates culture at the heart of a sustainable communities agenda. Projects such as 'Laying the Foundations' which is part of Action for Communities, show how culture provides pioneering ways to engage adults in learning and skills, particularly the most disadvantaged. Culture and creativity can work to bridge the gap between affluent and relatively deprived communities, such as by engaging adults who lack qualifications back into first steps learning. The newly formed Personal, Community and Development Learning Partnership will work to identify gaps in learning and skills provision across the County. This partnership has the potential to exemplify the joined-up approach recommended in this report, and it can do this by focusing on the potential for new learning and skills providers (e.g. arts-based organisations) to provide innovative and creative learning and skills provision by working together. In addition, a coherent approach is required to maximise the potential of both anticipated and surprising opportunities. For example, the DCMS has moved to establish a network of experienced regional representatives to move forward plans for an inspiring Cultural Olympiad in the run up to the 2012 Olympics and Paralympics. Each of England’s eight regions outside London is to have its own ‘Creative Programmer’ who will: -

Encourage and enable arts and cultural bodies to get involved, and create opportunities for ordinary people to take part Become a dynamic link between the regions and London’s 2012 organising committee (LOCOG) Assess whether local projects meet the criteria to become part of the Cultural Olympiad Ensure that each region’s heritage is as well represented as its 21st century technology.

This task connects each of the agendas identified above and provides a key opportunity for West Sussex to express, through strategic partnership, how its arts and cultural infrastructure forms a unified offer; how it complements the regional offer; and how it can flexibly adapt to change – whether it be economic, cultural, or in this case through the largest event in the world.

3.3 Establishing the 10 Infrastructural Conditions Embedded within the above opportunity are the tensions between heritage and new economy; social agendas and the attraction/retention of knowledge workers; cultural diversity and demographic stasis; and lifestyle and growth. It is critical that partners in West Sussex face-up to these tensions in a progressive process that seeks, wherever possible, to connect the arts and cultural offer of the County through an overall Fabric of Infrastructure that allows for local difference, encourages specialism, but advocates connectivity so that the strongest parts are interwoven to form a stronger whole. This joined-up approach, which conflates multiple agendas

and allows for several often conflicting strategic priorities to be pursued at once; provides the major opportunity and challenge for culture – indeed place-making – in West Sussex.

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An opportunity exists here to adopt the DCMS 10 Infrastructural Conditions and use them to frame partnership and decision-making processes. By connecting, for example, an agenda that supports learning and skills institutes to establish strong knowledge transfer activities in the Creative Industries; to an agenda that seeks to support a high quality and distinctive public realm; the key contributors to a successful creative place will, for the first time, be effectively aligned. This presents the opportunity for a strategic approach that establishes West Sussex as a Core Creative Place – for stakeholders that range from local residents to national government. The table below provides an overview of the opportunities for West Sussex through a focus on the 10 Infrastructural Conditions:

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A wide range of specialist and accessible facilities for different parts of the creative industries – such as through media centres, rehearsal space, studio space, and workspace.

A range of specialist creative industries support services, some with a focus on growth such as business acceleration and investment programmes.

A world class, high profile cultural infrastructure – such as galleries, museums, concert halls and events programmes.

The 10 Infrastructural Conditions

- Encourage specialist Creative Industries developers to establish an interest in West Sussex as a commercial proposition.

- Focus S106 resources towards this agenda

- Low levels of clustering – in a sector where colocation is so key - Emergent commitment to this agenda and an awareness of its value to both sector development

- Undertake a demand and supply study for creative industries workspace in the key town centres of the County

- Establish better networks and connect them regionally.

- Seek to bridge gaps in provision

- Connect businesses more effectively to specialist support providers

- Promote the offer as a unified proposition and secure partnership on these terms. - Undertake a diagnostic of Creative Industries growth opportunities: build a detailed profile of supply chains, networks and growth opportunities

- Introduce new links to creative content and service companies – such as a design programme for museums

- Develop a modernisation programme for the identity and experience of the heritage offer

Recommendations to Meet the 10 Infrastructural Conditions

- Weak provision of specialist appropriate workspace and activity space – especially for early stage businesses

Challenge: To increase business to business connectivity, peer learning opportunities, and access to specialist support offered by providers in the County and beyond.

- Under-connectedness with the offer in major urban centres – e.g. connections to markets, knowledge exchange and convergence opportunities

- An emergent ‘self help culture’, but a lack of specialist and growth-orientated support

Challenge: It requires modernising, lacks breadth, and is under-connected.

- Concentrations of cultural infrastructure – e.g. central Worthing and Chichester and surrounds

- World class heritage offer

The Current West Sussex Landscape


An innovative further and school education sector, plus a strong informal learning sector.

A strong and specialised Higher Education Sector, with outward-facing knowledge transfer, incubation and convergence programmes, strong links across creative and non-creative sub-sectors, and a commitment to inter-departmental approaches to creativity.

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- Under-developed opportunities in the Creative Industries and cultural employment market

- A strong mix of further education institutions, some specialist and high performing schools, and an increasingly partnership-driven and progressive informal learning sector

Challenge: Due to, for example, weak networks and an under-developed Creative Industries sector, graduate retention and re-attraction is weak. In addition, more could be done to really advance knowledge transfer and exchange processes in the County: drawing on the expertise of the local business sector and the higher education sector.

- There is increasing focus on knowledge transfer and incubation activities

- University of Chichester has a considerable cultural and Creative Industries specialism

Challenge: Establish public and private sector commitment to the provision of appropriate and affordable workspace as an integral feature of town centre environments.

and place-shaping

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- Establish a Creative Learning and Skills Manifesto for the County that draws support across the sector, from informal providers to the Higher Education sector. This will ensure complementarity of provision, help beneficiaries and students to navigate the range of opportunities, and reduce disparities in provision.

- Establish much more interdisciplinary creative learning within the academy – driving outwards the boundaries of innovation and creativity.

- Establish incubation infrastructure that genuinely opens-out connections between business and learning, with the higher education sector sitting at the heart of the cultural and creative offer of the County. Good practice is abundant here – such as the new Cultural Hub in Southend

- Develop a series of knowledge transfer networks between the Higher Education Sector and local businesses

- Develop a coordinated approach to using redundant space on a temporary basis, focusing primarily on animating coastal towns.

Specialist developer relationships are being brokered with success in other parts of the South East and in London


Spaces of convergence and connectivity, where creative workers can meet, exchange and build relationships that can help with ideas generation and trade.

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Challenge: Existing spaces need to be supported to become more open and connected (from programming to the use of café and social spaces); greater joint working needs to be encouraged; and new public-private partnerships should be encouraged to enable different types of consumption and production activities to flourish.

- More could be done to increase the openness of some venues and spaces – in line with those ‘porous’ models supported by the DCMS Creative Economy Programme

- Such spaces are relatively isolated and underconnected

- Some high quality mixed art-form venues and spaces, such as the Capitol and the Ropetackle Centre.

Challenge: Build greater connectivity to the Higher Education sector, establish a more bespoke approach to learning that is employer-focused, and do more to introduce opportunities across the Creative Industries supply chain (rather than focusing predominantly on hard-to-access content creation career paths).

- Significant disparities in opportunity and performance for people across the County

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- Develop a strategic approach to cultural provision through local development frameworks, with such ‘convergent spaces’ a priority.

- Asses how increased digitalisation may impact upon the ‘bricks and mortar’ offer of the County

- Assess the current role and openness of venues and spaces – in line with the methodology currently being employed by a UK Film Council Study

- Establish a cross-disciplinary creativity working group for learning and skills in the County – even as a short-term push to make the existing offer work more effectively and to increase the reach and impact of national and regional programmes.


Diversity advantage – where complexly diverse communities are supported to project themselves as a major feature of the creative asset base of a place

Global partnerships and trade initiatives – with the most effective being based on the facilitation of business to business relationships.

own terms.

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Challenge: Improve access to the Creative Industries sector for diverse communities; and promote participation in the heritage and cultural sector. This is a long-term process that requires exploring the creative aspirations of diverse communities on their

- Expanding diaspora connections are not being explored as an opportunity for creative-focused market development (as they are in London and other parts of the UK)

- An increasingly diverse population, yet a relatively homogenous cultural sector

Challenge: Develop organisational capacity and expertise to make constructive overseas links; explore the supply chains that currently connect the Gatwick Diamond and seek ways to exploit their creative potential; and think internationally to reconceptualise the potential tourism offer.

- The cultural tourism offer is UK-facing

- Few heritage and cultural organisations have strong overseas partnership arrangements

- International links are weak within the cultural and Creative Industries sector, with the connectivity of Gatwick under-explored

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- Ensure that this agenda forms a key part of the proposed Learning and Skills Manifesto

- Utilised profile research (see above) to understand in more detail the demographic profile of the Creative Industries sector

- Improve business network and strategic links to the city regions of Brighton, Portsmouth/Southampton, and of course London.

- Explore how the global links of the Higher education Sector can drive business links – as an integral part of the knowledge exchange process

- Utilise the sector profile research (recommended above) to explore how global connections can be improved for local creative businesses. This may lead to targeted outward missions, but stronger links to existing initiatives (such as those led by UKTI) are more likely


A vibrant night-time economy.

Strong spaces of cultural consumption connecting spaces of production.

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Challenge: Encourage a richer mix of entertainment opportunities within town centres, with a mix of consumption and production spaces (see above) a key ingredient for a balanced night time economy where activities such as work and play intermingle.

Challenge: To encourage mixed-use developments through the planning process and support commercial developers and operators (such as cafes) to explore the benefits of co-locating multiple complementary uses/activities. - An under-developed offer across the County, with issues of quality, range and the challenge of balancing the sensibilities of different communities of interest.

- There is a danger that critical mass can be forced through overly instructive ‘cultural quarter’ initiatives – building the conditions for ‘organic development’ will be more sustainable over the longer term.

- Public/private partnership is under-developed, with most of the County lacking the depth and diversity of consumption and production activities experienced in larger urban centres

- Spaces are emerging – such as through the improving festivals offer and the mixed-use approach of some planners

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- Undertake a review of the current nighttime economy offer in each of the major town centres. This should identify existing strengths and gaps in provision.

- Undertake feasibility for the imaginative re-use of space – such as in central Worthing.

- Encourage more cross-art-form programming and showcase work in ‘unlikely’ locations (such as contemporary dance in heritage buildings

- Explore planning solutions where possible – encouraging co-location and mixed-use


Key References Adur District: Counting the Creative Sector, Sussex Arts Marketing, 2007 AIF Annual Performance Plan 2007/2008 – 2009/10 A Study of the Arts and Heritage Sector in the Economy of Horsham District, 2004-2005 A Local Area Agreement for West Sussex 2006 – 2009, West Sussex Strategic Partnership A Study of the Arts and Heritage Sector in the Economy of Worthing District, 2003-04, Sussex Arts Marketing A Study of the Arts and Heritage Sector in the Economy of Horsham District, 20042005, Sussex Arts Marketing A Study of the Arts and Heritage Sector in the Economy of Worthing District for the year 2003-04, Sussex Arts Marketing An Economic Strategy for West Sussex County Council, SQW 2003 Creative Economy Programme – Infrastructure Working Group Report, DCMS 2007 Review of Economic Outcomes for West Sussex Local Authority Area Agreement Report on Phase 1: compiling evidence, understanding the context and discussing the findings, April 2007, SQW. Socio-Economic Baseline Analysis Report for Rural West Sussex, Economic Strategy Group, West Sussex County Council, 2006 South East Coastal Strategy. 2006, SEEDA South East Regional Economic Strategy, 2006-2016, SEEDA Strategic Framework and Action Plan for Development of the Creative Industries in South East England, Ancer Spa, 2007 Strategic Framework and Action Plan for Development of the Creative Industries in South East England, ACE South East Response, 2007 The State of the County - An Economic, Social and Environmental Audit of West Sussex, Local Futures Group, 2006 VisitChichester, Key Strategic Objectives, 2006 – 2008, Chichester District Council Strong and Prosperous Communities, 2006, West Sussex County Council West Sussex County Council Arts Service Arts Action Plan 2005-2006.

43


Appendix: Baseline Data The District Level Reports on the Impact of Arts and Heritage in the West Sussex Economy Introduction Between 2003 and 2006 West Sussex County Council, in partnership with the Borough and District Councils and Arts Council England, funded detailed surveys of the arts and heritage sectors of the economies of the seven Borough and Districts in West Sussex. The surveys spanned the financial years 2001/02 to 2004/05 and were published as follows: 2003 A Survey of the Arts and Heritage Sector in the Economy of Chichester District 2004 A Survey of the Arts and Heritage Sector in the Economy of Adur District 2005 A Survey of the Arts and Heritage Sector in the Economy of Arun District A Survey of the Arts and Heritage Sector in the Economy of Worthing Borough 2006 A Survey of the Arts and Heritage Sector in the Economy of Mid Sussex District A Survey of the Arts and Heritage Sector in the Economy of Crawley Borough A Survey of the Arts and Heritage Sector in the Economy of Horsham Borough Additional Survey commissioned by Adur District Council – Counting the Creative Sector The seven surveys, undertaken by sam, were based on a combination of primary and secondary research involving a questionnaire sent to all arts and heritage businesses within the sector and telephone based research. The data gathered through the Studies forms the audit of the sectors and the evidence base which informs the Top Study. Key comparators are included in this appendix. Full data is available in the individual district reports.

44


Comparative analysis of the arts and heritage sector in West Sussex The seven surveys gathered substantial data on the arts and heritage sector in each district or borough. Below -

is comparative data by district showing: combined turnover in Arts & Heritage Sector size of organisation; number of employees capital expenditure in Arts & Heritage Sector employment population

Combined Turnover in Arts & Heritage Sector by District 50,000,000

45,000,000

40,000,000

35,000,000

ÂŁ per year

30,000,000

25,000,000

Combined Turnover

20,000,000

15,000,000

10,000,000

5,000,000

0 Adur

Arun

Chichester

Crawley

Horsham

Mid Sussex

Worthing

District

From the survey, and using the model devised in association with Sussex Enterprise, based on the Sussex economy, the full turnover data at District level is shown in the chart above. In the chart below, the audit data on employment in the arts and heritage sector is shown as a comparison between districts. This is then broken down in more detail to indicate numbers of people employed.

45


Employment in Arts & Heritage Sector 3500

Number of people working in sector

3000

2500

2000

Full Time Part Time Voluntary Commissions

1500

1000

500

0 Adur

Arun

Chichester

Crawley

Horsham

Mid Sussex

Worthing

District

Size of Organisation / Number of Employees by District 70

60

Number of employees

50

40

Individual Practitioner 1-10 employees 11-49 Employees 50-999 employees

30

20

10

0 Adur

Arun

Chichester

Crawley

Horsham

Mid Sussex

Worthing

District

Chichester has the highest turnover and full time employment figures in the arts and heritage sector in West Sussex. However, Worthing and Horsham districts both have more individual practitioners than Chichester. Larger organisations employing over 50 people in the sector are more likely to be found in Chichester and Mid Sussex; Adur and Arun have no organizations employing more than 50 people in the sector. Although Crawley has many established larger companies it has comparatively few in this sector reflecting its reliance on other types of businesses. The voluntary sector is strongest in Chichester probably reflecting the overall importance of volunteers in supporting and underpinning the arts and heritage sector. This is a national trend and not unique to West Sussex. Comparison in Capital Expenditure between the seven districts is summarised on the following chart:

46


Capital Expenditure by District 4,000,000

3,500,000

3,000,000

ÂŁ's

2,500,000

2,000,000

1,500,000

1,000,000

500,000

0 Adur

Arun

Chichester

Crawley

Horsham

Mid Sussex

Worthing

District

Chichester has the largest Capital Expenditure, more than twice Mid Sussex which has the next highest. Arun has a very low Capital Expenditure. The difference between districts here is very marked with a new artists’ quarter and the refurbishment of Pallant House benefiting Chichester in the period surveyed.

47


Adur 106 121 461 153

28,102 2,296,945 3,675,112

349 261

408

253

43,541

10,984,680

17,575,488

Arun

139,200,000

86,836,064

9,000

1,551

3,218

Chichester 2,295 1,294

8,540,581

5,337,863

50,000

701

1,667

Crawley 35 87

* Based on the standard multiplier of 1.6 (as devised by Sussex Enterprise)

Full time jobs Part time jobs Volunteers / Members Artists/perfor mers contracted No. of economically active people Turnover Secondary Impact*

Table showing key dimensions of the arts and heritage Sector in West Sussex

18,022,691

11,264,182

65,500

942

1,603

Horsham 71 304

14,519,019

9,119,387

66,320

666

1,241

Mid-Sussex 247 339

43,281,779

27,051,112

49,000

1,994

998

Worthing 1,164 190

48


Adur

Arun

Chichester District

Crawley

Horsham

Mid Sussex

Worthing

9

www.westsussex.gov.uk West Sussex: Estimates and Projections derived from the 2001 Census

Note: This chart uses Mosaic GB data as this was used for the district reports to ensure the data was standard across all areas. The later Mosaic UK system was introduced during 2003 /4 – when some of the district reports had already been compiled.

0

20,000

40,000

60,000

80,000

100,000

120,000

140,000

160,000

Population in West Sussex by District

In 2006 West Sussex has an estimated population of 770,300. This is projected to grow by 6.49% in the next 10 years, reaching 803,300 by 20169. This growth is projected across all areas, bar Adur where standstill or a small reduction in population is forecast.

The Demographic Context

Number of residents

49


Adur Arun Chichester Crawley Horsham Mid Sussex Worthing

District

8.79 9.36 18.02 16.01 20.42 34.68 9.82

13.47 6.22 14.68 4.00 20.07 18.62 9.95

6.69 9.65 2.07 7.38 1.52 3.85 1.64

6.16 4.77 3.20 19.80 2.07 0.61 3.24

1.25 0.83 1.25 3.75 0.61 0.98 0.76

5.94 5.26 1.22 2.36 0.35 1.57 7.23

25.23 11.09 15.34 27.72 12.41 12.38 22.53

Mosaic Group 34– 671 High 2Blue Low 5Victorian Town Income Suburban Collar Rise Council Low Houses Families Semis Owners Council Flats Status & Flats

Mosaic Profile of West Sussex by District or Borough (The largest MOSAIC group in each District is shown in bold).

0.09 2.93 0.13 0.01 0.47 0.98 6.09

8Stylish Singles 23.05 37.17 14.79 5.80 9.08 7.73 33.37

9.09 7.19 5.58 11.35 15.92 9.29 4.35

0.24 5.42 23.23 0.93 17.09 9.25 0.90

50

0.00 0.11 0.50 0.90 0.00 0.06 0.12

910 1112 Independent Mortgaged Country Institutional Elders Families Dwellers Areas


51

Country Dwellers consists of genuinely rural areas beyond the commuter belt of villages with newly-built estates, where houses have names rather than numbers and where agriculture remains a significant source of local employment. Such areas vary considerably in their levels of affluence, from the gentrified villages of the New Forest and Sussex Weald to the impoverished hamlets of the Celtic fringes.

Independent Elders. As the nation’s population ages, this group is rapidly increasing. It includes retired and soon-to-be-retired people who can look after themselves, and who typically own their houses, purpose-built flats or sheltered accommodation. Household income is low, but low expenditure on rent, mortgages and children leads to quite high levels of discretionary expenditure.

Town Houses and Flats are typically areas of lower and middle income housing, often occupied by junior administrative and service employees. Such areas are found typically in small market towns and service centres, in the older areas of towns where large houses have been divided into small flats and in early turn-of-the-century areas of high density terraced housing designed for clerks and the junior managers in the service industries of large cities. These areas today house people who typically use inter-personal rather than craft skills in their work, and who are well-informed and sociable in their lifestyles.

High Income Families. These are found in the more affluent and leafy suburbs, where professionals and wealthy business-people live in large and expensive owner-occupied housing. These are typically family areas, where houses have four or more bedrooms and generous gardens. Such areas are frequented by two-income, two-car households where children as well as parents are performance and achievement oriented

A full description of the mosaic classifications is below.

The second highest group in Adur are Independent elders, continuing the concentration of older people along the coastal areas of West Sussex

The urban sections of the county in and around Crawley and Adur (including Shoreham by Sea and Lancing) have the largest concentration of lower and middle income housing; people here tend to work in service occupations in the local conurbations. Chichester has the largest concentration of Country Dwellers as the District includes a number of attractive small villages and the Selsey Peninsula as well as the town of Chichester. Country Dwellers are the second highest group in Horsham which co-joins Chichester District on its western boundary.

The Mosaic profiles for West Sussex show the predominant groups in both Horsham and Mid Sussex are High Income Families, affluent professionals living in large houses with comfortable lifestyles. By contrast in the south of the County, Independent Elders are the predominant group in the coastal areas of Arun and Worthing. These areas have traditionally been attractive to retired, independent people who have lower than average incomes but high discretionary expenditure.


Arts and heritage provision across the County

52

Worthing

Mid - Sussex

Horsham

16

29

51

8

5

22

28

3 0 1 1 5 4 15

4 0 8 0 8 3 29

7 6 13 21 12 2 66

3 0 1 0 2 1 6

12 1 5 0 2 1 122

1 0 11 0 4 11 72

0 0 4 0 1 3 31

0 2 1 2

0 11 6 4

1 15 0 12

1 15 0 0

1 49 1 1

1 17 3 1

0 15 2 12

2 0 2

1 2 11

4 2 11

0 2 7

0 1 13

2 3 6

1 3 5

3 2

6 3

2 6

0 4

12 1

6 11

5 1

0 1 0 12

0 14 3 34

3 7 4 62

0 4 5 12

0 6 2 55

2 8 7 50

2 7 6 40

Arun

Crawley

VISUAL ARTS Crafts People: Barge Art, Batik, Bookbinding, Ceramics, Embroiderers, Enamellers, Furniture / Wood, Glass Engravers / Handblown, Handmade paper, Hand painted silk, Jewellery, Metalwork, Musical box restoration, Pewter, Potters, Pyrography, Textiles, Timber framers, Upholsterers, Weavers, Wrought Iron Crafts: Centres & Retailers Crafts: Groups Galleries / Studios: private / commercial Heritage Industry: Jewellery Design/retail (commercial) Heritage Industry: Picture Framers / Restoration Specialist Suppliers: eg: Arts & Crafts Materials Visual Artists: eg: batik, collage, designers, illustrators, mixed media, painters, printmakers, sculptors, textiles, visual artists PERFORMANCE Arts Centres Dance & Drama: Schools & Groups Dance & Drama: Professional practitioners & companies Drama / Theatre: Performing Arts Management & Services, inc entertainers, makeup artists / designers Dedicated arts venues for hire Drama / Theatres Festivals and arts events (inc carnivals, open studios) BOOKS & PRINT Literature: inc writers' groups Specialist Publishers AUDIO VISUAL Film / Video: Cinemas & film centre Film / Video: production Media: radio, TV, press Music: Agencies, Groups, Musicians, Composers, Instrument repairs/retailers, Sheet music retailers, Music Management, Teachers, Folk, Disco, Piano Tuning/Repairs, Sound Equipment Hire / Installation, Recording Studios

Adur

An Audit Summary of the Arts & Heritage Provision in West Sussex

Chichester

The table below uses the original audit of provision undertaken in the seven surveys to provide comparative data on arts and heritage provision in the County.


Worthing

Mid - Sussex

Horsham

Crawley

Chichester

Adur

Arun

An Audit Summary of the Arts & Heritage Provision in West Sussex New Media: Graphics & Multi Media Designers (inc website designers) Photography HERITAGE Archives Community Arts & Heritage Organisations: Heritage Industry: Antiques: Centres, Dealers, Restoration, Auctioneers; and specialist furniture retailers / French Polishing Heritage Industry: Bookshops: Antiquarian, Rare Books Heritage Sites Museums / Galleries EDUCATION Arts Education & Training: Visual Artists’ Groups inc. NADFAS etc Arts Education & Training: Organisations / colleges / adult education

36

17

21

30

27

55

45

4

5

14

9

8

10

20

1 4 10

0 3 25

2 0 105

0 5 5

0 1 9

0 0 27

2 0 13

2 3 1

3 5 3

8 15 18

0 2 1

1 11 5

4 10 3

0 2 1

0

0

10

2

1

1

2

0

4

6

3

8

5

1

Total number of arts organisations / practitioners

13 3

241

480

119

36 0

345

25 2

53


10

Sources: Data provided by the attractions and from Tourism South East

Heritage: Historic properties (including gardens), Museums and Archives Wakehurst Place (NT) Mid Sussex 387,875 Nymans Gardens (NT) Mid Sussex 175,606 Chichester Cathedral Chichester 150,000 Weald and Downland Open Air Museum Chichester 130,250 Arundel Castle Arun 122,327 Petworth House (NT) Chichester 90,207 Arundel Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust Arun 73,499 Borde Hill Gardens Mid Sussex 50,000 West Dean Gardens Chichester 57,409 Fishbourne Roman Palace (Sussex Past) Chichester 86,127 Standen (NT) Mid Sussex 75,112 Amberley Open Air museum Arun n/a Worthing Museum and Art Gallery Worthing 54,697 Leonardslee Gardens Horsham n/a Horsham Museum Horsham 35,919 Parham House Horsham 27,963 Tangmere Military Aviation Museum Chichester 22,644 Highdown Gardens Worthing 20,000 Bignor Roman Villa Chichester 21,592

2003 - 4

420,831 153,492 150,000 126,945 124,000 85,632 78,041 50,000 52,258 79,575 68,435 58,083 38,961 51,000 36,912 23,821 24,058 20,000 21,956

2004 - 5

428,770 164,692 150,000 136,214 115,148 91,369 82,290 50,000 72,658 71,227 69,202 60,518 36,196 49,000 32,686 24,045 23,539 20,000 19,126

2005 - 6

Visitors to Key West Sussex Arts and Heritage Attractions10 (Included are visitor attractions with visitor numbers of 15000+ per annum) District/Borough Visitor Numbers

Visitor numbers at arts and heritage attractions across the County


Uppark (NT) Chichester District Museum Visual Arts Pallant House Gallery Cass Sculpture Foundation Oxmarket Centre, Chichester Performance Chichester Festival Theatre Worthing Theatre Group - Totals - Connaught Theatre - Ritz Cinema - Assembly Hall - Pavilion Theatre Windmill Entertainment Centre * includes Cinema admissions The Hotham Arts Centre (Alexandra Theatre) The Hawth The Capitol (re-opened mid 2003) The Martletts Clair Hall Chequer Mead Arts Centre Attractions and Events Tulleys Farm Harbour Park Family Entertainment Tilgate Park & Nature Centre

50,000 26,646 closed 12,000 23,712 156,854 419,406 110,833 58,775 87,928 161,870 21,000 n/a 151,627 108,181 59,826 n/a 25,575 500,000 400,000 260,000

Chichester Chichester Chichester Chichester Chichester Chichester Worthing Worthing Worthing Worthing Worthing Arun Arun Crawley Horsham Mid Sussex Mid Sussex Mid Sussex Crawley Arun Crawley

2003 - 4

490,000 395,000 275,000

n/a 144,455 179,608 51,238 12.036 24,669

162,162 388,097 109,719 50,599 85,339 142,440 <35,168*

closed 12,000 24,182

50,000 29,020

2004 - 5

500,000 415,000 280,000

35,000 152,218 185,198 43,772 12,180 31,177

159,669 425,566 117,460 74,551 82,540 151,015 35,168*

35,000* 12,000 25,621

50,000 29,835

2005 - 6

Visitors to Key West Sussex Arts and Heritage Attractions10 (Included are visitor attractions with visitor numbers of 15000+ per annum) District/Borough Visitor Numbers

55


2004 - 5

2005 - 6

Fishers Farm Park Chichester 169,961 155,478 141,943 Earnley Gardens Chichester 21,770 22,793 20,802 Festival of Speed at Goodwood Chichester 158,000 150,000 150,000 * Pallant House re-opened in July 2006 after major refurbishment. Before refurbishment the gallery attracted 25,000 visitors per annum. In the period July 2006 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; December 2006 there were 35,000 visitors. Projected visitor figures for July 2006 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; June 2007 is 70,000.

2003 - 4

Visitors to Key West Sussex Arts and Heritage Attractions10 (Included are visitor attractions with visitor numbers of 15000+ per annum) District/Borough Visitor Numbers

56


Working together to raise the profile of the arts across West Sussex


Culture and the Economy of West Sussex