NAVOTAS NICOLAS | SHI | VALDERRAMA
NAVOTAS MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
NICOLAS, JANESSA SHI, SHIRLEY VALDERRAMA, JOEL BIENNE
TABLE OF CONTENTS 01 CITY PROFILE
04 NATURAL HAZARDS & DISASTER-PRONE AREAS
02 GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Topography and Slope
Sports & Recreation
Security and Safety
03 NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT
05 HUMAN AND CULTURE
Flora and Fauna
Water and Coastal Resources
Air and Water Quality
Solid Waste Management
TABLE OF CONTENTS 06 CITY ECONOMY
08 LAND USE AND URBAN STRUCTURE
Labor and Employment
Local Economic Programs
Plot and Building Patterns
Navotas Fish Port Complex
Elements of the City
07 TRANSPORTATION & INFRASTRUCTURES
CITY PROFILE 01
NAVOTAS CITY BRIEF PROFILE Navotas is a highly urbanized city in the Philippines that is known as the Fishing Capital of the Philippines. The city has the Navotas Fish Port Complex which is the premier fish center of the country and one of the largest fish ports in the Asian region. Although it was established in 1827, Navotas was only declared as a highly urbanized city in 2007. Nevertheless, it is an emerging and developing city that continues to progress. With its geographical characteristics, water has become an integral part of the city’s culture and economy. Navotas was initially a contiguous part of Malabon. It was not sperated from Malabon by a body of water either. However, the turbulent waters of Manila Bay caused the erosion of a weak strip of land between the town, now called Navotas, and the district of Tondo in Manila. Eventually, an opening was breached and seawater continued to flow in through it and caused the carving out of a channel. This channel developed into a regular waterway that is now known as the Navotas River.
The original name of the city during the time when it was still part of Malabon was “San Jose de Navotas”, in honor of its patron saint, San Jose. In 1827, two barrios, San Jose de Navotas and Bangkulasi, petitioned to be separated from the town of Malabon to form a new town.
This natural phenomenon seemed to be the origin of the name that today is associated with this town, continually referred to as “Nabutas” which literally meant “pierced through” in English. Over time, the named evolved into “Navotas”.
In 1901, Navotas was integrated into the newly formed province, Rizal through the Philippine Commission Act No. 137. Through this act, Navotas and Malabon was again merged.
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The town of Navotas was initially comprised of only four barrios. These are the barrios of San Jose, Bangkulasi, Tangos, and Tanza.
HISTORY OF NAVOTAS The date when the barrios of San Jose, Navotas and Bangculasi were separated from Malabon.
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1859 1859 16 FEB
The movement for separation of Navotas which was then a part of Malabon (Tambobong).
Navotas joined the revolutionary government of General Emilio Aguinaldo.
Cavada, the year when Navotas became an independent town.
1901 1898 06 AUG
Navotas was eventually incorporated into the newly created province of Rizal enacted Act. No. 137.
The town was again merged with Malabon. Bernardo Dagala, a native of Navotas, was elected municipal president.
Navotas finally became an independent municipality with the enactment of Act. No. 1442 which separated it from Malabon.
Navotas became a city after a plebiscite was conducted.
2007 24 JUN
Navotas celebrated its centennial
NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION
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Located on the extreme northwest shore of Metro Manila or the NCR. It is an elongated island strip having an aggregate shoreline of approximately 4.5 kilometers.
Navotas City has a total land area of 10.69 square kilometers or 1,069 hectares. This includes the reclaimed land currently used by the Philippine Fisheries Development Authority.
It is bounded on the north by Obando, Bulacan. On the east, it is bounded by a system of riverways. On the south, it is bounded by the city of Manila and on the west by Manila Bay.
View of Metro Manila from Navotas City Hall heliport (the highest point of the city)
View of Manila Bay from Navotas City Hall heliport (the highest point of the city)
Located at the edge of Metro Manila, Navotas CIty is bounded by and adjacent to many major cities and municipalities in the Philippines. These are the cities of Meycauayan, Valenzuela, Malabon, Caloocan, Manila, and the municipality of Obando.
MALABON NAVOTAS OBANDO
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The city is divided into 2 districts and is composed of 14 barangays, 11 of which are located along coast. These two districts are originally two barrios, San Jose and Bangkulasi. Eventually, the area was developed and land was reclaimed.
of the TOTAL LAND AREA of the City of Navotas
of the TOTAL LAND AREA of the City of Navotas
out of 14
out of 14
A stagnant fish pond in Tanza.
SAN ROQUE DAANGHARI SAN JOSE SIPAC - ALMACEN
Friday rush hour in Sipac-Almacen.
NAVOTAS EAST NAVOTAS WEST
BAGUMBAYAN NORTH BAGUMBAYAN SOUTH BANGCULASI NORTH BAY BLVD NORTH NORTH BAY BLVD SOUTH SAN RAFAEL VILLAGE Parked fishing boats in Bangculasi.
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GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS 11
TOPOGRAPHY AND SLOPE
Navotas City is a flat and narrow strip of highly urbanized coastal area with a 4.5 km of aggregate shoreline lying along Manila Bay. It has slope range of 0-3% with an elevation of 2 meters above sea level.
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ABOVE SEA LEVEL
LEGEND 0 - 3% SLOPE RANGE
GEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS
The geology of Navotas is of quaternary alluvium which is comprise of detrital deposits mostly silt, sand, and gravel. These are formed by the rivers mixed with faunas and corals. Under it lies the Pleistocene tuffaceous rock of the Guadalupe Formation which is characterized by thin - to medium-bedded, fine grained vitric tuffs and welded volcanic breccias with subordinate amount of tuffaceous, fine to medium-grained sandstone.
14 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
ACTIVE TIDAL FLATS
The landform of Navotas primarily consists of active tidal flats which can also be found in the nearby city of Malabon and municipalities of Paombong and Hagonoy. Its common land uses are fishponds, saltponds, urban areas and sometimes rainfed paddy rice. The soils are mainly composed of tidal mudflats with mucky and peaty materials ad alluvial sediments. The active tidal flat area is submerged, flushed with seawater at high and low tides, and is poorly drained and subject to seasonal flooding.
LEGEND GUADALUPE FORMATION QUATERNARY ALLUVIUM
SOIL PROPERTIES NAVOTAS CITY HAS ONLY
MAIN TYPES OF SOIL
OBANDO FINE SANDY LOAM
Hydrosols are soils which developed from former tidal flats utilized for fishpond and salt beds. It is classified as miscellaneous soil type.
The Obando fine sandy loam is formed from recent coastal deposits in which the surface soil is colored brown, fine, sandy loamy, gritty loose and structureless.
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FILLED UP SOIL
The rest of the land of the City of Navotas are filled up soil due to the reclamation along the coast of Manila Bay.
OBANDO FINE SANDY LOAM
LEGEND HYDROSOLS OBANDO FINE SANDY LOAM FILLED UP SOIL RIVER
HYDROLOGY AND DRAINAGE RIVER SYSTEM
Navotas is traversed by the Navotas-Malabon River, which is part of the Navotas-Malabon-Tullan (NMT) river system that is 23 km long. The Navotas portion of the Navotas-Malabon River is referred as Navotas River which is approximately 6.6 km long. The NMT river system goes through Caloocan City and Valenzuela then down to Malabon and Navotas and drains to the Manila Bay. Other water bodies that passed through Navotas are: Tangos River, Tanza River and Sawang Creek. The river trifurcates from Malabon-Tullahan River flows both north and south, and is running parallel the coastline. The northern portion is the Navotas River while the southern part is the Navotas-Marala River, which flows depending on the tidal flow. 18 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
The drainage area of Navotas encompasses about 561 has. and is subdivided into four (4) sub-areas by Navotas River, Tanza River, and Muzon-Dampalit River. (The western section of Navotas sub-area flows into Manila while the eastern side flows into the Navotas River. The sub-area bounded by Navotas, Muzon-Dampalit and Malabon Rivers flows from south to north. For Tanza sub-area, water flows to Navotas and Tanza Rivers and in sub-area east of Muzon-Damapalit River, water flows directly to it.)
RIVER SYSTEMS MAP
DRAINAGE BLOCKS MAP
DAMPALIT DRAINAGE AREA
NAVOTAS DRAINAGE AREA
SPINE DRAINAGE AREA
BANGKULASI DRAINAGE AREA
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MAYPAJO DRAINAGE AREA
CLIMATE Navotas, belongs to the Type I climatic type. It is characterized by two pronounced seasons, dry during the months of November to April and rainy or wet the rest of the year. Maximum rain period is during the months of June-September. The dry season is further subdivided into (a) the cool dry season, from December to February; and (b) the hot dry season, from March to May.
TYPE I TYPE II TYPE III TYPE IV
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AVERAGE RAINY DAYS
MAXIMUM & AVERAGE WIND SPEED
WIND ROSE DIAGRAM
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AVERAGE MONTHLY SUN HOURS
Frequency of tropical cyclone occurrence in the Philippines is highest during the southwest monsoon season from the months of June to September. On the annual average, about 20 tropical cyclones affect the country. Most of the tropical cyclones occurred in the month of November. The frequency of tropical cyclone occurrence is 5 in 3 years as shown in the map on the right.
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5 CYCLONES IN 2 YEARS 5 CYCLONES IN 3 YEARS 1 CYCLONE PER YEAR 2 CYCLONES PER YEAR 3 CYCLONES IN 2 YEARS 1 CYCLONE IN 12 YEARS
NATURAL RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT 27
TOTAL LAND RESOURCE
APPROXIMATELY 50% ARE
ALIENABLE AND DISPOSABLE LANDS
LEGEND THE OTHER 50% ARE
ALIENABLE AND DISPOSABLE FORESTLANDS (For Fishpond Development) FORESTLANDS (Mangroves) GOVERNMENT PROPERTY (National Fishport)
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FLORA AND FAUNA
Mangrove stands can be found on the northwest section of the city with an approximate area 50 hectares. These mangrove stands mostly comprise of Bugalon and Bakauan species and accordingly was planted by the fishpond owners in the area to protect their areas against coastal salt water intrusion and other weather elements.
The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) study done in 2009 revealed the existence of Whiskered Terns (Chlidonias hybridus) that were seen flying in open sea and sometimes perched on boats and fishpens. The other avifaunal species observed include the Blackheaded Gull, Common Sandpiper, and Straited Heron.
WATER AND COASTAL RESOURCES
COASTAL /BAY RESOURCES
The rivers and creeks that crisscrossed Navotas comprise its surface water resources. Most notable of these are: the NavotasMalabon River which is part of the Navotas-MalabonTullahan-Tinajeros river system, the Sawang Creek and other smaller water bodies.
The shoreline of Navotas fronting Manila Bay has a total length of 12.5 kilometers. Twelve (12) of its barangays are situated along the coastline of Manila Bay. The Cityâ€™s municipal waters, on the other hand, have an approximate area of 9,300 hectares. Manila Bay is a shallow body of water with relatively flat bottom contour. It was known for the pelagic and demersal fish populations
30 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
that once abound in the area. It is also home to softbottom communities, in particular the windowpane oysters as well other species of shellfish and other invertebrates. Data showed that the following fishes can still be found along the coastal areas of Navotas: tunsoy, asohos, bicao, malakapas, sapsap and salinas as well as some shrimps (hipon and alamang)
Groundwater refers to water being held in the aquifer. Water that infiltrates the soil trickles slowly downwards or percolates through the pores and cracks in soil and rocks. The rock strata or layer capable of holding water is known as the aquifer. Groundwater availability is largely influenced by the geology, topography and soil type of an area. The northernmost portion is comprised mostly of fishponds. However, segments of this fishpond area slowly is being converted for other uses specifically, residential and solidwaste disposal facility.
AIR AND WATER QUALITY
Generally, the ambient air quality in Metro Manila is poor, including in Navotas City. The air pollution is brought by anthropogenic sources due to intensive urbanization and industrialization. Navotas exhibits poor ambient air due to air pollution. Air pollution in Navotas largely comes from mobile, stationary and area sources.
The water of NavotasMalabon River is considered as one of the most polluted ones. The polluted situation of the Navotas-Malabon River can be attributed to the various types of solid and liquid wastes from industrial firms located along its banks.
Accordingly, the waste generated from domestic usage, including those from commercial establishments and industrial factories, are discharged into septic tanks, drainage canal or directly to the rivers. Partly treated domestic sewage from general public are discharged into the river and adds to the worsening condition of the said water body. `
Visual apperance of the river itself would reveal its murky color and noticeable odor emanating from the water including the solid waste and to some extent human excreta which finds its way to the river.
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
82.02 TONS/DAY 2014 ESTIMATED WASTE GENERATION
2010 ESTIMATED WASTE GENERATION
PER CAPITA WASTE GENERATION
CITY DENSITY WASTE GENERATION
In compliance with the provision of the Clean Air Act, the city of Navotas has a sanitary landfill located at the northwestern portion of Barangay Tanza. The area was formerly fishponds which have already been acquired by the City. The wastes that are collected are hauled by trucks to a holding area, treated and loaded to a barge and subsequently brought to the sanitary landfill.
32 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
NATURAL HAZARDS AND DISASTER-PRONE AREAS 33
Navotas is one of the flood prone areas in Metro Manila due mainly to perennial tidal inundations. The flooding hazard has gradually worsened due to continuous excessive siltation in the river mouth of this city. The flooding hazard is exacerbated further by the reclamation of large tracts of low lying fishponds which have previously provided natural storage for river flows during high tides. In addition, the proximity of Navotas to Manila Bay has also aggravated flooding.
LEGEND LOW FLOOD SUSCEPTIBILITY MILD FLOOD SUSCEPTIBILITY HIGH FLOOD SUSCEPTIBLITY VERY HIGH FLOOD SUSCEPTIBILITY
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Navotas has been assessed as being susceptible to liquefaction due to its location and geologic structure. Liquefaction is the process by which sediment that is very wet starts to behave like a liquid. It occurs because of the increased pore pressure and reduced effective stress between solid particles generated by the presence of liquid. Liquefaction is often caused by severe shaking, especially that associated with earthquakes.
LEGEND HIGH MODERATE LOW TO NONE
NAVOTAS CITY IS APPROXIMATELY
16 KM AWAY FROM THE WEST VALLEY FAULT
LEGEND FAULTLINE NAVOTAS CITY BOUNDARY MAJOR ROADS
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EAS T LUZON TRENCH
N ZO U L
INE IPP PHIL
THE CITY OF NAVOTAS HAS
HIGH POTENTIAL OF TSUNAMI
RO EG S TRE NC H
DUE TO HISTORICAL TSUNAMI ATTACKS
HISTORICAL TSUNAMI; POTENTIALLY HIGH POTENTIAL; LOCALLY GENERATED
POTENTIAL; LOCAL AND FOREIGN GENERATORS
C EN TR H
NAVOTAS CITY IS LESS SUSCPETIBLE TO STORM SURGE
60-140 KM PER HR MEAN WIND SPEED
LEGEND 5% AEP (1/20) MEAN KPH 60 - 100 101 - 140 141 - 170 171 - 200 201 - 230 > 230
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HUMAN AND CULTURAL 39
49.51% 123,184 FEMALES
100 FEMALES FOR EVERY 102 MALES
AGE DISTRIBUTION 18.0%
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AGES 0 - 14 AGES 15 - 44 AGES 45 AND 85+
249,463 TOTAL CITY POPULATION (AS OF AUGUST 1, 2015)
ANNUAL GROWTH RATE (AS OF AUGUST 1, 2015)
NORTH BAY BLVD SOUTH
MOST POPULATED BARANGAY (AS OF AUGUST 1, 2015)
LEGEND 0 - 5,000 5,000 - 10,000 10, 000 - 20,000 20,000 - 50,000 > 50,000
LEAST POPULATED BARANGAY (AS OF AUGUST 1, 2015) 41
234 PEOPLE/HECTARE TOTAL CITY POPULATION DENSITY (AS OF AUGUST 1, 2015)
HIGHLY DENSE BARANGAY (AS OF AUGUST 1, 2015)
LEAST DENSE BARANGAY (AS OF AUGUST 1, 2015)
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LEGEND 0 - 250 250 - 500 500 - 750 750 - 1,000 > 1,000 NOTE: Values are in Population per Hectare
119,040 TOTAL NUMBER OF REGISTERED VOTERS (MAY 2013 ELECTIONS DATA)
PERCENTAGE OF MIGRANTS IN TOTAL POPULATION (1990 CENSUS)
The proximity of the city to other towns and cities and the existence of the biggest fish port in the country may have caused the migration in Navotas. Currently, according to the locals, the number of migrants have been continuously increasing and the original settlers of the city have already moved to other cities.
PERCENTAGE OF TAGALOG-SPEAKING RESIDENTS
Due to the increasing number of migrants that causes the diversity of people in the city, various languages and dialects are also evident in the city.
PERCENTAGE OF OTHER LANGUAGES (ILOKANO, WARAY, CEBUANO, BIKOLANO, KAPAMPANGAN)
Navotas has a literacy rate of almost 100% since 1990s.
Most NavoteĂąos are high school graduates while only a few percentage degree holders.`
Navotas City offers vocational and technical education to the residents.
Education characteristics present the literacy level, educational attainment, education infrastructure, facilities, and teachers, student enrolment, and educational performance. These parameters show the capacity of the residents to be productive and innovative given the new developments in education and the intensification of knowledge-based economic activities in the city. There are 15 public elementary schools in Navotas: nine are located in District 1 and six are in District 2. There are five public schools offering secondary education. There are also two colleges in the city and a manpower-training center, which offers courses ranging from automotive to cosmetology classes.
44 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
Navotas Polytechnic College in Barangay North Bay Blvd South
PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS
LEGEND ELEMETARY SCHOOL
HIGH SCHOOL AND SENIOT HIGH SCHOOL COLLEGE
PUBLIC AND PRIVATE TERTIARY SCHOOLS
LITERACY RATE As of 1995, the literacy rate of the Navotas population 10 years and over is 98.92%. From 1990 to 1995, the literacy rate rose by 22.88%, which is higher than the NCR increase of 19.29%.
NUMBER OF LITERATE HOUSEHOLD POPULATION 10 YEARS OLD AND OVER BY AGE GROUP AND SEX: 2015
LITERACY RATE (2015 CENSUS OF POPULATION)
NUMBER OF ILLITERATE HOUSEHOLD POPULATION 10 YEARS OLD AND OVER BY AGE GROUP AND SEX: 2015
LITERATE POPULATION (2015 CENSUS OF POPULATION)
ILLITERATE POPULATION (2015 CENSUS OF POPULATION)
VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION As part of the initiative of the local government of Navotas, vocational and technical education is offered in various institutions to educate and train the residents for possible livelihood projects. The Navotas Manpower Training Center is t he p rimary i nstitution that provides skills training to out-of-school youth. 46 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
BUILDING WIRING INSTALLATION
TOTAL POPULATION 5 YEARS OLD AND OVER BY HIGHEST GRADE/YEAR COMPLETED:2015
OF THE POPULATION ARE COLLEGE GRADUATES (2015 CENSUS OF POPULATION)
OF THE POPULATION ARE HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES (2015 CENSUS OF POPULATION)
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT (2015)
OF THE POPULATION HAVE NOT COMPLETED ANY LEVEL (2015 CENSUS OF POPULATION)
SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING
REFRIGERATION & AIR CONDITIONING
As diverse as its people, the city of Navotas has a varied number of practiced religions.
Like the Philippines, Navotas is predominantly Roman Catholic.
The major events in the city are the fiestas which are in celebration of the patrons of the Roman Catholic churches.
The Church of Jesus Christ and Latter-day Saints in Barangay San Jose 48 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
San Jose de Navotas Parish in Barangay San Jose
ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCHES AND CHAPELS
UNITED METHODIST CHURCHES
LEGEND WORSHIP PLACE
IGLESIO NI CRISTO LOCALS
The Navotas City Hospital was only established after 8 years of becoming a highlyurbainized city.
Barangay Health Centers are integrated with the local barangay halls to be more accessible.
The health sector provides a general picture of the health condition of the residents of Navotas as well as the health infrastructure and service providers needed to provide quality health care. The health sector has implications on the productivity of the labor force and the fulfillment of the requirements of an increasingly complex economy and an advanced society. The Navotas Hospitalization Program or NHP, which started in 2005, provides medical assistance amounting to P5,000.00 as health care subsidy to qualified patients admitted at accredited government hospitals. For 2011, a total of P27M was allotted for the NHP by the City Government. All Philhealth (Philippine Health Insurance Corporation) cardholders qualify for the NHP. The card is subject to renewal every year and must be presented for identification and eligibility verification each time the member or his/her legal dependents avail themselves of the program. 50 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
Health care assistance are provided to qualified patients admitted at accredited hispotals.
LEGEND HEALTH CENTERS
ACCREDITED GOVERNMENT HOSPITALS
GOVERNMENT CITY HALL
Navotas City has 14 barangays and it is in Barangay Sipac-Almacen where the City Hall is located. The city hall, built in 2003, is a five-storey building with roof deck and heliport, and is said to be the highest building in the city. Near the city hall, there are the police station, fire station, sports complex, post office, and others. Located on one of the major road (M. Naval Street), the area is bustling with people and is near to commercial establishments that are relatively new (Jollibee, McDonaldâ€™s, Puregold, etc.). Not far from the city hall is the hospital, Navotas City Hospital, which was built in 2014. For every barangay of the city, there is one barangay hall. Each of the barangay hall is mostly two-storey with its office space usually located at the second floor, while some are on the ground floor. Usually on the ground floor, there is the health center and day care center. Each barangay hall looks unique, there are some that are simple looking, but what identifies them are the Philippines flag and signage with their specific barangay written on it. 52 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
DAY CARE CENTERS
LEGEND BARANGAY HALL CITY HALL COMPLEX
SPORTS AND RECREATION SPORTS FACILITIES
MALLS AND PARKS
There are many basketball courts found around the city. There is also the sports complex located near the city hall. Asides from sports, the people are also fond of dancing and bonding, thus there are such open spaces for them to use. There is the Navotas Citywalk and Amphitheater, located along C-4, that is one of the cityâ€™s famous landmark where the residents can enjoy clean and green environment in the middle of the busy roads intersecting the two districts of Navotas. It also serves as venue for the residents who wish to showcase their talents and skills and express their thoughts. Another open space is the Navotas Centennial Park that runs along the R-10 Bridge. For the children, there are also playgrounds in the city for them to play. There is one near the City Hall and another one along C-4. Having the commercial establishments such as Jollibee, McDonalds, and Puregold only popped out just few years back, there is still no malls in the city. The residents will have to go outside the city if they want to go to mall, and one of the nearest to the city is the Malabon City Square, located along C-4 in Malabon City. Another one is SM Sangandaan at Caloocan City, which is also along C-4. 54 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
LEGEND SWIMMING FACILITIES SPORTS COMPLEX PARK & OPEN SPACE SHOPPING MALL
The average NavoteĂąo household is only 4.1 which is a small family size for a highly dense city.
Majority of the households live in small and makeshift housing. Commonly, these shanties are located near the waterways.
A socialized housing project was developed in the Barangay of Tanza and has given the relocatees new home.
The rise in population of Navotas is so apparent that there is a need for a socialized housing project. The Local Government of Navotas has allocated 8.4 hectares in Barangay Tanza solely for the purpose of socialized housing. The general objective of the project is to convert the area, currently a fishpond with earth dikes, into a socialized housing settlement for some of the indigent and homeless families of the city through containment and reclamation. The socialized housing settlement will have all the basic utilities and other components to support human habitation.
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NUMBER OF HOUSEHOLDS (2015 CENSUS OF POPULATION)
AVERAGE HOUSEHOLD SIZE (2015 CENSUS OF POPULATION)
LEGEND INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS WITH PLANS OF BEING RELOCATED CURRENT RESETTLEMENT (PABAHAY) AREA
SECURITY AND SAFETY POLICE SERVICE
The Navotas Police Station is located beside the City Hall.
The protective services sector maintains the security and public order in the locality. The sector facilitates the effective operations of government and secures the residents as they go about their daily lives.
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The Navotas Fire Station is locate along M. Naval Street, adjacent to the playground.
Several CCTVs are installed in various areas of the city.
CRIME RATE (AS OF AUGUST 2016)
UDRUG-RELATED CRIME (AS OF AUGUST 2016)
LEGEND SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM
POLICE STATION /PRECINT FIRE STATION
TOTAL FIRE INCIDENCES (FIRE INCIDENCE REPORT 2015)
REHABILITATION PROGRAMS Bidahan is a community-based treatment, and rehabilitation program led by the Navotas Anti-Drug Abuse Council (NADAC). The Bidahan program started in October 2016 and has since had seven batches of participants. Participants who completed the program were given certificates.
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06 CITY ECONOMY 61
LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT LABOR FORCE
Defined as the people who are willing and able to work. The size of the labor force is used to determine the unemployment rate.
LABOR PARTICIPATION RATE
Percentage of the unemployed in the labor force
The labor force as the percentage of the total population over the minimum working age
Labor and employment plays a big role in the analysis of the cityâ€™s economy. It is the key factor that determines how jobs are created for the productive age population (ages 15 to 64). Labor and employment determine how the city is able to provide opportunities for its constituents. It shapes the demographic and affects the culture of the place. The three terms above are commonly used in the computation of the statistics for the labor force and employment scenario. The Labor Force includes both employed and unemployed, but not bounded by age restrictions. The Labor Participation Rate is the formula that takes into consideration the minimum working age. Statistics reveal that both have increasing trends, which is gives the city both more workers leaving it to the city to be able to provide to this demand. 62 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
EMPLOYMENT DATA Following the trends of Employment Data in the past decade, it can be seen that the labor population as well as labor for population is increasing. Despite this, data also reveals that along with the increase of workforce is the increase of unemployment rate, and decreasing employment rate.
Interviews revealed that both residents and local government officials believe that livelihood is an current issue that needs to be addressed by providing opportunities for the residents, especially the out-ofschool-youth. The local government has also been launching several Livelihood Caravans to assist the residents and boost up the employment rate once again.
LABOR POPULATION Population can be divided into three categories with regards to labor and employment. The first group is called the Child Youth Population which range from newly born children to 14-year-olds. In this category, the males exceed the females. The second group is called the Productive Population, better known as the Working Age group which range from 15 to 64 years old. This is the population where the labor participation rate is based on. In this category, the males exceed the females in ratio as well. The last group is called the Dependent
64 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
Population which range from 65 years old and above. It is in this category that the females exceed the males in ratio. Navotas has a productive population of 164, 118 as per 2015, which is 65.8% of the total population. The cityâ€™s Child Youth Population is at 75, 962 which is 30.5% of the population. Lastly, Navotas has a Dependent Population of 9, 383 which is only 3.8% of the population.
EMPLOYMENT PATTERNS GAINFUL WORKERS 15 AND OVER BY MAJOR OCCUPATION GROUP
It can be observed from the data that Navotas offers various job opportunities. Despite Navotas being known for itâ€™s large fishport, the statistics reveal that fishing is only the sixth on the occupations undertaken by its residents. Of the major occupation groups, Service and Sales workers are the highest (23.1%) only followed by those with Elementary Occupationsâ€”which consist of tasks that are simple and routine and require the use of physical work and/or hand-held tools.
Of the total gainful workers (15 years old and above), statistics have also revealed that there are more male workers (64.3% of total) than female workers (35.7% of the total).
ECONOMIC SECTORS PRIMARY SECTOR
The fishing industry serves as the predominant economic sector and the cityâ€™s main source of livelihood for the 14 coastal barangays of Navotas City. In 2010, Navotas City registered 5% to 10% economic growth rate. Ten percent (10%) of this came from the high-income group, 20% from the average income group, and 70% from the low-income group. Based on the assessment of the three (3) major economic sectors of Navotas City, it can be inferred that the local economy of the city is dominated by commerce and trade followed by the services sector. Thus, the economic growth of Navotas City can be propelled not only by he Cityâ€™s envisioned role of becoming a regional fishing industry hub but also in promoting, developing, and managing the tertiary sector particularly commerce and trade. This will address the continuous growth in employment as well as in addressing the poverty condition of Navotas City. 66 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
PRIMARY SECTOR The primary sector covers the economic activities that involves direct utilization of natural resources like agriculture (crop production, poultry and livestock raising), fishery and forestry. It also includes activities such as hunting, trapping, and game propagation. Navotas City, given its huge municipal water, is primarily engaged in fisheries production. On the other hand, backyard crop production and livestock raising are considered secondary agricultural activities and are intended for home consumption only due to lack of space. SUPPORT FACILITIES FOR FISH PRODUCTION Based on the 2011 SEP, Navotas City has 7,538 marginal fisherfolks and among the 12 barangays involved in fishery production, Barangays Tangos, Tanza and San Jose had the most number of fishing boats. Barangay Tangos has more than half (60%) of the fishing boats in the city which is equivalent to 1,041 units. Of this, 1,000 are motorboats and the rest (41) are â€œde-sagwanâ€?.
FISH PRODUCTION INITIATIVES
The strengthening of the Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management Councils (FARMCs) is done through regular meetings and orientation of all Bantay Dagat personnel. Mayor John Rey Tiangco had also requested the Barangay Captains to designate Bantay Dagat personnel in their respective barangay to ensure safety of Manila Bay to dynamite fishing. The reactivation of FARMC at barangay level, BFARMC, facilitated the activeThe participation reactivation ofof fisherfolks FARMC atinbarangay the management level, BFARMC, and conservation facilitated the of marineparticipation active and aquatic of resources fisherfolks as well in the asmanagement the implementation and conservation of all fishery of marine laws, rules andand aquatic regulations resources bothasatwell localas and thenational implementation levels. of all fishery laws, rules and regulations both at local and national levels. 67
SECONDARY SECTOR The secondary sector encompasses economic activities that involves the processing of materials from the primary sector. This include: a) mining and quarrying of metallic and non-metallic products; b) manufacturing of all types of products; c) generation of electric power, production of gas and steam, and development of waterworks system; and d) construction.
BUSINESS ESTABLISHMENTS RELATED TO FISHING The establishments relevant to the fishing industry represent a meager 8.0% (153) of the total number of establishments of Navotas City. Food manufacturing industries include those small-scale business establishments that venture into the processing of fish sauce, dried smoked fish, fishmeal and bagoong. Shipyards are the primary economic contributors of the past but the numbers declined coupled with the deterioration of the condition of a number of shipyards causing water, air, and noise pollution. These industries cover shipbuilding, repair and maintenance. SERVICES 42%
FISHPOND INDUSTRY 3%
68 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
COMMERCE & TRADE 50%
MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY 31%
FISHING INDUSTRY 59%
TERTIARY SECTOR The tertiary sector deals with economic activities that are related to the provision of services such as a) wholesale and retail trades; b) transportation, storage and communication; c) finance; d) insurance and related activities; e) real estate; f) personal and community services; and g) tourism.
COMMERCE AND TRADE
NAVOTAS FISH PORT FARMC at barangay level, BFARMC, facilitated the active participation of fisherfolks in the management and conservation of marine and aquatic resources as well as the implementation of all fishery laws, rules and regulations both at local and national levels.
OPEN-AIR PUBLIC MARKET
LOCAL ECONOMIC PROGRAMS
VEGETABLE GARDENING PROJECT
LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT
MUNICIPAL FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT
70 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
ANIMAL DISEASES PREVENTION & CONTROL
COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
CAPABILITY BUILDING OPLAN KABUHAYAN NG BARANGAY
POVERTY INCIDENCE Based on 2003 city and municipal level small area poverty estimation of NSCB, Navotas City has a poverty incidence of 7.41%. This proportion is relatively higher than the 2.60% poverty level of CAMANAVA Area and 5.0% for the NCR. In the same year, Navotas City has the highest poverty incidence among the cities clustered under the 3rd District of Manila (CAMANAVA) to include Caloocan City (5.2%), Malabon City (5.1%) and Valenzuela City (4.4%). In 2005, the magnitude of poverty of Navotas City surged to 18.13%. This level had exceeded the poverty level of NCR of 7.71% by 11.02 %.
POVERTY INCIDENCE (NAVOTAS CITY)
POVERTY GAP AND SEVERITY Poverty gap, defined by NSCB in 1997 Philippine Poverty Statistics, refers to the total income shortfall (expressed in proportion to the poverty line) of families with income below the poverty threshold, divided by the total number of the families. From 2003 to 2005, the income gap in Navotas City has widened by 2.86% from 1.37% in 2003 to 4.23% in 2005 and had exceeded that of NCR. This mean that the income of the families living in Navotas City should be increased by 2.86% of the poverty threshold or about Php2,800.00 to fully eradicate poverty or make the poverty incidence zero.
Poverty severity determines the level of inequality among the poor and gauges how poor the poor are. Between 2003 and 2005, poverty becomes less severe from 3.90% in 2003 to 1.42% in 2005 despite the fact that the magnitude of poverty went up during the same periods.
72 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
POVERTY GAP (CAMANAVA)
POVERTY SEVERITY (CAMANAVA)
POVERTY AND FOOD THRESHOLD POVERTY THRESHOLD (CAMANAVA) Poverty Threshold. Poverty threshold or poverty line refers to the cost of basic food and non-food requirements. The latter includes the non-food expenditure items of the Total Basic Expenditures. It is also viewed “as the minimum income required to meet the food requirements and other non-food basic needs”. (1997 Philippine Poverty Statistics, NSCB)
FOOD THRESHOLD (CAMANAVA) Food Threshold. Food threshold refers to the cost of the food required to satisfy nutritional requirements for economically necessary and socially desirable physical activities. It is based on 100% adequacy for the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for protein and energy.
TOURISM Last Sunday
FIESTA OF SAN ROQUE
74 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
FIESTA OF SAN JOSE
April or May PANGISDAAN FESTIVAL
FIESTA OF SAN ILDEFONSO
FIESTA OF NAVOTAS WEST
NATIONAL TOURISM WEEK
PASKONG PINOY SA NAVOTAS NAVOTAS CITY WALK CHRISTMAS TREE LIGHTING
FISH INDUSTRIES 2
BAGOONG ALAMANG DEALERS
PATIS MANUFACTURING FACTORIES
LEGEND BAGOONG BUSINESS
76 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
PATIS MANUFACTURING SHIPYARDS SHIPYARD LINES FISH RELATED RETAIL NAVOTAS FISHPORT LARGE FISH RELATED CORPORATIONS CANNING INDUSTRIES
NAVOTAS FISH PORT COMPLEX
78 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
TRANSPORTATION AND INFRASTRUCTURE 79
ROAD NETWORKS M.
DA AN G
NA VA LS
GO V. A
ET LO S
M. NAVAL STREET
The City of Navotas is served by a network of roads, mostly concreted, and provides internal access within the city to all the barangays. Several roads serve as important linkages of the city to the rest of Metro Manila and other nearby municipalities and cities. Table 5.2 shows the list of all National Road Network by length and width.
M. NAVAL STREET
GOV. A PASCUAL STREET
NORTH BAY BOULEVARD
NAME OF THE ROAD
80 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
R10 RO AD
NO RT H ROA D
BA YB OU LE VA R C-3
AP UA VEN
UA VEN UE
GO V. A
D OA R 4
JEEPNEY The common public utility vehicle that traverses through different routes
TRICYCLE A motorcycle with a sidecar which functions like a padyak.
82 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
BUS Both ordinary and airconditioned buses that pass through C-4.Road.
PASSENGER BOAT A small and narrow boat that is used to move across the rivers.
PADYAK A manually-powered sidecar that can pass through alleys.
BARGE Rarely used by locals, barges are used to transport goods and dump.
TO HULO, MALABON
TO DAGAT-DAGATAN, CALOOCAN
LEGEND MAJOR ROAD (METRO MANILA) MAJOR ROAD (NAVOTAS)
TO STA. CRUZ, MANILA
MINOR ROAD (NAVOTAS)` PASSENGER BOAT
TO TONDO, MANILA TO ROXAS BLVD
JEEPNEY ROUTES NAVOTAS - DIVISORIA ROUTE This PUJ route connects Manila and Navotas through H. Lopez Blvd. and North Bay Boulevard.
GASAK - DIVISORIA ROUTE This PUJ route passes through Navotas to connect Malabon and Manila.
84 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
NAVOTAS - RECTO ROUTE This PUJ route connects Navotas and Malabon through Dagat-Dagatan Avenue, C-3 Road, and Rizal Avenue.
NAVOTAS - MONUMENTO ROUTE This PUJ route connects Navotas and Caloocan through C-4 Road.
DAGAT-DAGATAN - PIER ROUTE This PUJ route connects Caloocan and Manila and passes through Navotas through LapuLapu Avenue and R-10 Road.
NAVOTAS - MALABON ROUTE This PUJ route connects the adjacent cities of Navotas and Malabon through Estrella Bridge.
86 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
WATER SUPPLY The supply of water in the city is administered by Maynilad Water Services, Inc.
ELECTRICITY Power is supplied by the Manila Electric Company (MERALCO).
Water Supply. The water source is the La Mesa Dam, where water is filtered and treated before it is distributed to the entire franchise area. Almost all barangays in Navotas are covered by distribution lines of Manila Water Company with barangay North Bay Boulevard South as the largest consumer of water at 10,154 cubic meter per day. Electricity. Electrification statistics from Meralco show that residential, commercial and industrial are the main patrons in the city with people in the residential area being the dominant consumers. This also indicates that the people in the residential area are the majority who will be affected by power problems.
COMMUNICATION Several telecommunication companies render services to the city.
Telecommunication. Access to National and International Distance Dialing as well as National and International Operator Assisted Long Distance services are available via any of the major networks. Public payphones and loading stations can be found in many sari-sari stores across the city. Express Communication. Access to National and International Distance Dialing as well as National and International Operator Assisted Long Distance services are available via any of the major networks. Public payphones and loading stations can be found in many sari-sari stores across the city.
The construction of pumping stations in different parts of the city has greatly helped every Navoteño. At present, there are a total of 39 “Bombastik” pumping stations in Navotas. These pumping stations benefited majority of the population by eradicating the problem of perennial flooding. It has definitely improved the living condition of the residents.
88 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
LEGEND PUMPING STATIONS
LAND USE AND URBAN STRUCTURE 89
OF THE TOTAL LAND AREA OF METRO MANILA
SMALLEST LAND AREA IN THE NATIONAL CALTOAL REGION
TOTAL LAND AREA
PRESERVED AND PROTECTED AREA
90 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
NORTH BAY BOULEVARD SOUTH
SAN RAFAEL VILLAGE
NORTH BAY BOULEVARD NORTH
LAND USE LAND USE DISTRIBUTION
BODIES OF WATER
MAJOR LAND USES IN THE CITY OF NAVOTAS
92 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
PARKS AND OPEN SPACES
LAND USE TRENDS After the implementation of its first Comprehensive Land Use Plan in 2003, the city of Navotas has gradually transformed and developed. With these changes, the land use of the city has also been affected. According to their Socio Economic Profile report in 2011, the land distribution to the following land uses have either increased or decreased.
PARKS AND OPEN SPACES
EXISTING LAND USE
LEGEND RESIDENTIAL / MIXED-USE INSTITUTIONAL INDUSTRIAL COMMERCIAL CEMETERY PARKS AND OPEN SPACES CONTROLLED DISPOSAL FACILITY DUMPSITE
94 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
COMPREHENSIVE LAND USE PLAN 2003
LEGEND RESIDENTIAL / MIXED-USE INSTITUTIONAL INDUSTRIAL COMMERCIAL CEMETERY PARKS AND OPEN SPACES CONTROLLED DISPOSAL FACILITY FISHPOND AREAS PROPOSED HOUSING PROJECT PROPOSED CEMETERY
URBAN PATTERNS When you try to observe the architectural character of Navotas, the settlements would seem amorphous or very organic. The houses and the zoning of the buildings even seem unplanned. However, once you look at the city in a macro scale, say, look at how the streets and the barangays connect, observe how the buildings sizes differ from each other; you would realize that the urban patterns of the city are diverse and interesting to study. In order to identity and analyze the urban patterns of the City of Navotas, it can be broken down into the following elements: street patterns, plot pattern, and the building structures.
The streets of the city will be evaluated according to its size, form, and context. 96 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
The plot patterns will be identified throught the relationship of the mass and void.
In connection with the plot patterns, the density and the urban cores will be identified.
STREET PATTERNS The street patterns of a place influences the other urban elements and socio-economic aspects of a city. Navotas City, given its geographical characterstics has very diverse and interesting street patterns. The diagrams on the right are the plotted road networks of the city which show the difference between the urban patterns of the 1st District and 2nd District of Navotas City.
98 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
In the 1st District, it can be observed that the configuration of the streets is dominantly formal. Moreover, most of the major thoroughfares of the city pass through this district namely C-4 Road, R-10 Road, North Bay Boulevard, Lapu-Lapu Avenue, and C-3 Road.
On the other hand, the 2nd Districtâ€™s street patterns are more organic and linear. Two two-lane roads that traverse the length of the island, M. Naval Street and Gov. A. Pascual Street, serve as primary roads to the secondary narrow alleys. These street patterns are integral to the plot patterns and settlement patterns of the city.
A STREET IN TANZA
M. NAVAL STREET (TANGOS AREA)
GOV. A. PASCUAL STREET
M. NAVAL STREET (MUNISIPYO AREA)
PLOT AND BUILDING PATTERNS
With the different street patterns of the city of Navotas, various plot patterns and building patterns are identified. These plot and building patterns are not very evident on ground but when you look at the city from an aerial perspective, you will notice the differences of the plot sizes, the density of the buildings, the distribution of buildings, the sizes of the structures, and the relationship of the buildings with one another. The diagrams on the following pages will show the different plot and building patterns in the city of Navotas. These figure-ground diagrams are 25 hectares plots of the city.
100 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
Formal plot configurations and medium density of buildings are seen in the central area of Barangay Tanza.
The difference in density of the industrial and residential areas are evident in the Barangay Daanghari.
The density of the settlements become highly dense in the areas near the river like the informal settlements along Tangos River.
Despite the high density of the builings, San Roque and Daanghari have more formal plot configurations as compared to Tangos.
Being the most dense barangay in the city, Barangay Tangos has very dense and informal plot patterns and building patterns.
The density of the houses in Barangay San Rafael Village is low and the plots are more formal and bigger compared to the other barangays.
NORTHERN FISHPOND AREAS
This occupies almost half of the land area of the city.
102 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
MIDDLE RESIDENTIAL ENCLAVES
SOUTHERN INDUSTRIAL CORES
This core is the center of the city, geographically and politically.
The major fishing industry centers are located here, including the Navotas Fish Port.
NORTHERN FISHPOND AREAS
From the street, plot, and building patterns, the city can be broken down into three cores. These are the Northern Fishpond Areas, the Middle Residential Enclaves, and the Southern Industrial Cores. In line with that, the said urban cores can be compared to the three major land uses of the city; the protected fishponds area, the residential area, and the industrial area.
MIDDLE RESIDENTIAL ENCLAVES
ELEMENTS OF THE CITY
The cityâ€™s paths range from major highways to narrow alleyways.
The city of Navotas is bounded by several bodies of water.
The landmarks of the city vary from person to person.
The nodes of the city are commonly the major intersections.
The districts of the city are classified according to their use and density.
104 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
PATHS AND EDGES 105
DISTRICTS AND NODES 106 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
COASTAL SETTLEMENTS As a coastal city, the river systems and the Manila Bay have been integral not only to the industries in the city but also to the urban character of the city. From the diagrams on the left, it can be observed that there are two ways on how the people use the coastal areas of the city; one as an industrial zone and the other as an informal residential area. The shoreline of the Manila Bay is occupied by several informal settling communities. It is also used as a docking area for the fishing boats of the fishermen of the communities. On the other hand, the Navotas Riverbank is commonly occupied by large shipyards.
MANILA BAY SHORELINE
108 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
A SHIPYARD ALONG NAVOTAS RIVER
LEGEND SHIPYARD INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS
INFORMAL SETTLEMENT NEAR A FISHPOND IN TANZA
SENSORY Our senses are significant in placemaking. The way we perceive our surroundings are influenced by our senses; sight, hearing, smell, and kinesthetics. In this section, the several key elements of the city that is related to one’s senses is shown. The first is the several views from the site that show the city’s boundaries and visual barriers. The second one is the plot of the noise intensity in the major areas of the city. Lastly, the several areas with distinct odors are plotted.
VIEWS AND VISUAL BARRIERS
110 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
SOURCES OF SMELL
AUDITORY 112 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
LEGEND FOUL ODOR DUE TO WASTE ODOR DUE TO FISH/SEAFOOD
ISSUES AND GENERAL AGENDA 114 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
116 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
One of the major issues that the people have raised is the lack of job opportunities for the locals. Despite the several industries in the city, they need more facilities that can create jobs and livelihood.
Being the â€œFishing Capitalâ€? of the Philippines, Navotas City has been known for its various fishing industries. However, the people need a well-designed facility for the manufacturing of their products.
Even though the city has a lot of schools and colleges, it still lacks with the educational support facilities that can either help the student with their studies or encourage the out-of-school you to go back to school.
The city has already facilitated a rehabilitation program for the drug users in the city since October of 2016. However, the city does not have its own facilities that can accommodate to the needs of the rehabilitation program.
With the various transportation modes in the city, the mobility of people is still not as efficient as possible because of the existing conditions of its roads. Moreover, the river can be utilized as a thoroughfare.
The lack of open and public spaces for the people is problematic in a city that is continuously growing and urbanizing. The connecitivity of the people and the building can be enforced with the use of architecture. 117
118 NAVOTAS CITY: MACRO SITE ANALYSIS
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Navotaas: Itaas ang antas ng buhay Navoteño [Brochure]. (n.d.). Navotas City Navoteño AKO!. (2017a). Boodle Fight, 111th Navotas Day [photos, Facebook]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook. com/pg/Navoteñoako/photos/?tab=album&album_ id=1616080411752261 Navoteño AKO!. (2017b). Mangingisdang Navoteño, 111th Navotas Day [photos, Facebook]. Retrieved from https://www. facebook.com/pg/Navoteñoako/photos/?tab=album&album_id=1619932314700404 Navoteño AKO!. (2017c). Pangisdaan Street Dancing Competition 2017 [photos, Facebook]. Retrieved from https://www. facebook.com/pg/Navoteñoako/photos/?tab=album&album_id=1622754134418222 Navoteño AKO!. (2017d). Grand Parade, 111th Navotas Day [photos, Facebook]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook. com/pg/Navoteñoako/photos/?tab=album&album_ id=1626539724039663 Navoteño AKO!. (2017e). Sagalahang Bayan 2017 [photos, Facebook]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook. com/pg/Navoteñoako/photos/?tab=album&album_ id=1782308918462742 NSCB. (2009). 2003 City and Municipal Level Poverty Estimates. Retrieved from https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/ files/2003%20SAE%20of%20poverty%20%28Full%20Report%29_0_0.pdf NSCB. (2013). 2006 and 2009 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates. Retrieved from https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/2006%20and%202009%20SAE%20Report%20 FINAL.PDF NSCB. (2016). 2012 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates. Retrieved from https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/ files/2012%20Municipal%20and%20City%20Level%20 Poverty%20Estimates%20Publication%20%281%29.pdf Ocon, R. (2006). Common Sandpiper [photo]. Wild Bird Club of the Philippines. Retrieved from http://www.birdwatch. ph/html/gallery/csandpiper1.html Ocon, R. (n.d.). Whiskered Tern [photo]. Wild Bird Club of the Philippines. Retrieved from http://www.birdwatch.ph/html/ gallery/whiskered_tern.html Pagunsan, S. (2015). NHA Housing Programs and Technologies [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved from http://creba.ph/pdf/ NHA_AttyPagunsan.pdf
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