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A STUDY OF INTER-DEPENDENCE built around a story entitled

THE ‘Y’ FILES By Miranda Armstrong with Julie Boyd A Middle School Integrated Unit National Curriculum - BAND C; LEVEL 6. Grades 7 - 8. • Studies of Society and Environment. • Science. • The Arts. • English. • Technology.

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Please note: These units are designed for educators who have some experience inIntegrating Curriculum and in Collaborative/Cooperative Learning. For those resources which may be able to assist you further. This unit may be used according to the needs of the teacher and class for between a six week and 12 month period. The unit is designed not to be sequential, but so that you can choose areas of interest and appropriateness.who are starting along this learning path we would be very happy to recommend

First published 1997 © Global Learning Communities Second Edition 2003 © Integral Learning Futures P.O Box 66, Hastings Point, NSW 2489 Australia. Australian Phone/Fax: 02-66764217 International Phone/Fax:-61-2-66764217 Email: Website:

info@julieboyd.com.au www.vision.net.au/~globallearning/ www.julieboyd.com.au

ISBN: 876153 03 2 Published simultaneously in Australia, New Zealand and the United States of America.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, including electronic transmission or copying, photocopying or other means, without prior written permission from the publisher.

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CONTENTS Introduction: • INTRODUCING INTEGRATED CURRICULUM FOR MINDFUL LEARNING • THE UNIQUENESS OF THE GLOBAL LEARNING COMMUNITIES APPROACH • LEARNING LINKS ACROSS NATIONAL CURRICULA • INTEGRATING MIDDLE SCHOOL UNITS: Becoming Learner Centered

Section 1: A UNIT OVERVIEW • SETTING THE SCENE. • CONCEPTUAL LINKS. • NATIONAL CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK LINKS. • MAKING THE UNIT MEANINGFUL - The ‘X’ Files.

Section 2: STRUCTURE OF THE UNIT: • THE STORY - “The ‘Y’ Files”. • ADAPTING THE UNIT TO YOUR OWN SITUATION • CONTENT AND CITIZENSHIP LINKS. • QUESTIONS ARISING FROM THE UNIT • ESSENTIAL & OPTIONAL LEARNING. • STRUCTURING THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT.

Section 3: IMPLEMENTING THE UNIT: • STEP 1 • STEP 2 • STEP 3 • STEP 4 • STEP 5 • STEP 6 • STEP 7 • STEP 8 • STEP 9 • STEP 10 • STEP 11 • STEP 12 • STEP 13 • STEP 14 • STEP 15

CAPTURING STUDENT INTEREST. CHOOSING A CHARACTER; CONSIDERING A SOLUTION. EXPLORING COOBER PEDY. COMMUNICATION (GLOBAL). LAW ENFORCEMENT AND NATIONAL SECURITY. FIRST THEME DAY ADAPTATION. MINING TECHNOLOGY. POLITICS. CATASTROPHIC EVENTS. SECOND THEME DAY COMMUNICATION (PERSONAL). ALIEN LIFE FORMS AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE. GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES EVALUATION and PERFORMANCES OF MOST WORTH.

Section 4: PLANNING AND REVIEW Suggested Timetable for a ten week term Personal Learning Planner Review and Notes

Section 5: APPENDICES • • • • •

APPENDIX 1 APPENDIX 2 APPENDIX 3 APPENDIX 4 APPENDIX 5

Background Information on Coober Pedy Character Profiles Ecological Principles Mallee Ecosystem National Curriculum Links

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INTRODUCING INTEGRAL CURRICULUM FOR MINDFUL LEARNING The challenge for teachers now and in the future is going to be to create co-ordinated and integrated learning opportunities for students. As we learn more about the process of learning, and use this to integrate our responses to a rapidly changing world, teaching is becoming a process of facilitation of effective learning rather than simply the transmission of accepted, imposed, compartmentalized curriculum. Over the past decade, every country has undergone massive changes in curriculum organization- from imposed, rigid syllabi to learning frameworks based on a more conceptual approach to learning. This has necessitated a move toward more interactive classrooms, which in turn has significantly changed the role of the teacher. This must inevitably impact on assessment, and thus reporting, procedures. At Global Learning Communities and Integral Learning Futures we believe that successful learning and development requires a purposeful approach to learning, facilitated by teachers who have strong philosophical, theoretical and principle-centered bases. These educators work to create a powerful alignment between the learning environment, an integrated approach to conceptually based learning in interactive classrooms, and an approach to assessment in which the individual ultimately learns to assess and challenge themselves. We envision a coherent curriculum that would do justice to the integrity of each subject and also bring each to bear on all the others in a way that reflects an integrated, as opposed to compartmentalized, approach to real life. To achieve this we have developed a framework for school change, and a range of services designed to assist educators and schools in their individual and collective on-going learning process This particular service is designed to provide educators with a series of detailed units of work which may be used as they are presented, or adapted to meet your own needs in content, demography, or culture.

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The Uniqueness of this approach to Integral Curriculum includes A. A conceptual learning basis based on key ideas and questions; focused on the learner, based on inquiry, questioning and experiential learning through participation in story. B. An emphasis on the processes of learning, as well as student retention and use of knowledge which seeks to develop student understanding. C. The incorporation of the most powerful learnings from the best researchers and advocate leaders in the field. These include Kieran Egan’s storyform (based on living within story), Susan Kovalik’s Integrated Thematic Instruction (based on brain-based learning), Renate and Geoffrey Caine’s focus on making connections and brain-based learning, Edward Clark’s circular matrix based on questioning, James Bean’s and Garth Boomer’s approach to negotiated curriculum, Briggs’ Problem-Based Learning, Lilian Katz’s project approach, Pigden’s use of process subjects as the focus for integration and Heidi Hayes Jacob’s emphasis on maintaining the integrity of the disciplines within an integrated context. D. GLC’s Integrated Curriculum with Integrity (ICI) framework aligns a conceptually based curriculum with interactive, experiential and cooperative learning, a range of learning styles, extended thinking and problem-solving, and numerous other strategies found to enhance learning effectively. E. All units incorporate local, Australian National and International Curriculum Frameworks and include references to specific subject area disciplines of maths, language arts, social studies, science, technology and design, and the visual and perfoming arts. F. GLC’s ICI framework provides strategies to aid the teacher in facilitating ongoing, multiple forms of assessment. Each unit describes ideas for monitoring and documenting student learning growth as well as ideas for ‘performances of most worth’ that could be used for summative authentic assessment. G. The units are developed around grade clusters, so that they may be used in muti-age classrooms and easily adapted to preceeding and successive grade levels. They are designed to be developmentally appropriate, while still being both flexible and adaptable. H. Each unit contains a matrix which outlines the major conceptual areas of the unit content, as well as key questions the students will study, debate or dialogue, problem-solve, research, develop projects about and/or become involved in ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


relevant community action. Units are presented in such a way that the teachers and students can together ‘peel back’ layer after layer and go deeper into the process of learning. I. Most importantly, each unit has as an overriding focus, the development of young learners as competent, considerate and positively contributing local and global citizens who: * respect and care for self and others * participate in and contribute responsibly to society * sustain learning throughout their lives * Are competent personally, socially, economically, ecologically, culturally and morally.

LEARNING LINKS. BAND A Topics suggested for the early years of schooling (prep-yr 3), introduces children to a sense of personal place within the world. Children learn to see themselves as social beings existing within complex and inter-connected environments. They are introduced to principles underlying the formation and operation of these groups and environments. They begin to understand their place in the inter-connected web of life.

BAND B During the upper primary school years (grades 4-6), students deepen their understanding of their place on earth, the structures and principles that ensure balance and sustainable existence and their roles and responsibilities in maintaining the balance. They look inside systems and organisms to gain an understanding of how things work. They begin to develop an understanding of Australia’s unique identity, Australia’s position globally, and earth’s position universally.

BAND C By early secondary school years (grades 7-9), students need to become actively involved as participating citizens, contributing to the improvement of their environments (school, community etc). They gain an understanding of how to be socially active, of how society functions, is reproduced and transformed. They begin to think globally of Australia’s place within the world and the global effects of things like resource use, economics, climate etc.

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INTEGRATING MIDDLE SCHOOL UNITS: Becoming Learner Centered An integrated curriculum develops knowledge across broad topics, promoting understandings, skills and values in an holistic way. The integrated curriculum process is learner-centered and encourages students to take responsibility by making decisions, solving problems, taking risks and engaging in an inquiry approach to learning. It encourages maximum input by students who can participate in the program development- such as planning the unit, suggesting activities and negotiating evaluation. Integrated curriculum places value on the development and recognition of thinking processes. Skill development and meaningful context are seen as essential elements to effective learning. For a long time it has been our practice in secondary schools to present lessons or topics in isolation. Individual subject teachers have independently been responsible for their classes with no necessity to discuss or integrate their learning agenda outside area meetings. This has been enough to fulfil schoolbased course outlines and to meet the needs for test scores, however the practice tends to be dictated by the logistics of secondary school timetables and staffing rather than by the learning needs of students. Using the National Curriculum Guidelines as an example we can elaborate on this phenomenon. In the Key Learning Area (KLA) of Science, the National document identifies 5 strands comprising of 18 sub strands. By way of illustration, the sub strand Natural and Processed Materials is reflected in the sub strands (5.10) Materials and their uses, (5.11) Structure and Properties, and (5.12) Reactions and Change. A suggested lesson for this strand appearing in the document is as follows: ‘Select different substances, test their reaction with acids and draw conclusions from the results’. Not only does a lesson such as this fail to integrate one complete strand across sub strands, it also fails to integrate several KLA’s. This is contrary to what we know about how children learn and how they perceive their world and make meaning of information. Children see things as wholes. They make meaning of what they perceive in terms of narratives. When they were younger, they saw the world as fairly black and white, and shaped meaning from ‘battles’ between juxtaposed binary opposites (it love/hate; hot/cold), and the resulting mediations (it love/hate/friendship; hot/cold/warm). In their middle school years their narratives are shaped by the ‘romantic passion’ swirling through their veins that allows them to perceive the world in terms of emotions and actions that are ‘bigger’ than humanity - the most courageous soldier; the scariest police investigation; the most daring mountain climber. Events that transcend the norm help children identify their limits, shape the risks they are willing to take and construct in their own minds just who they think they are. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


So the units or lessons or topics we present our youth must bear this in mind if we are to captivate our audience. Not only must we present material in ways that address their imaginative and affective development, we must also allow students to see a purpose to what they are doing. Ideally the purpose should be real and actively engage students in genuine projects and pursuits. However, since this is not always possible, it is essential to wisely marry the passion of fictional pursuits and purposes, with what we know about childrens’ developmental learning needs. What is suggested in this unit is a story that integrates strands and sub strands within independent KLA’s, across several KLA’s. The story is introduced as a vignette or summary that poses a mystery. The students are asked to provide evidence that will permit them to make informed statements relevant to the case, and these statements will eventually allow them to formulate a theory about the case. There is no one right solution. The purpose of the unit is not to discover ‘the answer’, but to research and defend the solution of their choice such that it stands firm in the face of questioning and cross examination. It must have integrity at the conceptual level. The unit is organised so that subject departments can conduct their lessons either separately, or at times in cooperation with other departments. Planning across departments is essential. It is recommended schools work toward restructuring the timetable to allow for class cluster groupings, or shared ‘theme study’ blocks of time.

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Section 1: A UNIT OVERVIEW • SETTING THE SCENE. • CONCEPTUAL LINKS. • NATIONAL CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK LINKS. • MAKING THE UNIT MEANINGFUL - The ‘X’ Files.

SETTING THE SCENE Indigenous people tell us that all things are interconnected. This we know. They hold this core principle as essential to life. Whereas non-indigenous people may claim to grasp the concept in the context of Environmental Awareness by saying “I care passionately about what happens to the environment”, indigenous people live as the environment. What happens to the environment happens to them. Connection for indigenous peoples means being. It is a perspective shaped from the inside. Connection for non-indigenous peoples means an observed phenomenon. It is a perspective obtained from the outside. This fundamental difference in how we perceive not only the principle of interconnection on our planet, but indeed all ecological principles fundamental to life, is critical to how people view the world and the impact they will subsequently have on their planet. If we can better understand this process of interconnection, we have a chance of modifying or improving our interactions and impacts on the world in which we live. Achieving this requires both understanding and applying systems thinking. An understanding of ecology and ecological principles is fundamental to learning to employ systems thinking in our daily lives. Systems thinking and action means seeing the world in terms of relationships and integration and are essential for developing a sustainable planet. Interdependence is just one of the principles fundamental to ecology, but a vital one. It impresses upon us the reality that all members of an ecosystem are interconnected in a complex web of relationships. The success of the system as a whole depends upon the success of each individual member and part - yet equally critical - the integrity of the individual depends on the success of the whole. Students must be helped to look beyond mere content and be shown not only the reasons for core material being selected for study, but also the underlying conceptual understandings inherent in each study. It is these conceptual understandings that will provide meaning and context and purpose for our students.

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CONCEPTUAL LINKS This unit is a study of interconnections and interdependence and the conceptual understandings important as outcomes for this unit are ecological in nature. Our focus in this unit is systemic. Our young must be taught to think systemically, and to know how to act and live in this way. As David Suzuki says: " Biodiversity and ecosystem integrity are critical to salvaging some of the skin of life on earth.....We need radically different ways of relating to the support systems of the planet", and therefore new ways in which we construct society and function within societal contexts. The story looks at the principles underlying the integrity of any community, how these principles form a complex web, and how they determine the viability of any system built on ecological principles (be it human, environmental, political, economic etc). In addition, this unit explores layers of related conceptual understandings: • principles underlying group integrity; • what impacts on Nature and what Nature impacts upon; • prejudice and the need for inclusive attitudes and values at the communal level; • shaping and maintaining of human values in a technocratic society.

Through this study it is intended that students will be shown that existence on Earth is a complex, multi-layered web of relationships and this interdependence is critical to the integrity of our planet. Students will come to understand, at the conceptual level that: • living systems comprise relationships and integration • living systems reflect interconnecting patterns and are not random • the Earth is a living organism with which we are intimately connected • the essence of reality is unity and connectedness - (the assumption of wholeness) • at its most fundamental level, the Earth is a single, integrated system • the sustainability of any community depends on a limited resource base which defines the system’s carrying capacity • the greater the diversity within a community, the greater the stability • all living members of a community are engaged in a dynamic interplay of competition and cooperation involving partnership strategies • groups co-evolve through an interplay of creation and mutual adaptation • inter dependencies among members of communities involve the exchange of information in continuous cycles • all communities are powered by an external source of energy • prejudice frequently results from ignorance

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NATIONAL CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK LINKS The Australian National Curriculum statements are organised in 8 areas of learning, provide a framework for curriculum development for school. Each of the key learning areas is divided into strands which reflect the major elements of learning for that area. Strands are a way of reflecting understandings of a learning area's content, processes and concepts. Within each strand 8 achievement levels have been developed. The levels are clustered into 4 bands to correspond to the stages of schooling: - lower primary, upper primary, junior secondary, and post compulsory. Bands are the broad stages in a sequence for developing knowledge, understandings and skills in a learning area. Since the levels, strands and bands allow teachers to plan a layered scope and sequence of learning experiences catering for mixed ability classes, several levels and strands will appear in any one unit written to represent a particular band. The chart included in this unit will itemise the strands and levels covered as well as the numbers of strands still to be covered to satisfy all the learning outcomes for any given key learning area in a band. In this way teachers can monitor their own planning and assessment of both individual children and their own programs. (appendix 1). During the Middle School Years, students deepen their understanding of their place on earth, the structures and principles that ensure balance and sustainable existence, and their roles and responsibilities in maintaining the balance. They begin to understand in some depth the layers within society and the environment, the the underlying principles that shape these relationships.

MAKING THE UNIT MEANINGFUL - “The ‘X’ Files” To capture student interest we have based our story on the popular T.V. series “The ‘X’ Files”. This series explores authentic scientific speculation, science fiction and paranormal events and activities. Much of the content is based on genuine CIA and FBI files and events that actually occurred in America during the 60’s to ‘80’s. Students in this age group enjoy mystery and suspense and are captivated by intrigue. The ‘X’ Files are based on the main character, Fox Mulder who is an FBI agent working in a department dedicated to exploring extra-terrestrial events and paranormal happenings (resulting in crimes). The department is treated with skepticism by most colleagues, but there is one leading Government official prepared to leak leads and information in order to aid the search for truth. Mulder’s passion in this area has been sparked by the childhood disappearance of his sister while she was in his care. The disappearance, in his words, was the result of an alien abduction. Mulder’s skeptical yet ever loyal partner is an FBI forensic scientist named Dana Scully. A covert but highly supportive organisation is The Lone Gunmen, or the TLG. These underground members of the Cyberculture devote their time to ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


exposing government follies, printing their findings in an exclusive newsletter. They are conspiracy theorists passionate about progression in science and freedom of speech. They believe in the potential of extreme possibilities, love science fiction and high-tech gadgets. Their greatest cause is for decentalisation based on the belief that no one person should hold too much power. In the classroom story this vital role could be fulfilled by the Newspaper reporters. At the end of series 1 the ‘X’ files are closed down and Mulder and Scully are reassigned. At the beginning of series 2, in the episode entitled ‘Little Green Men’, Mulder speaks in these words. The speech is based entirely on fact: ‘We wanted to believe. We wanted to call out. On August 20th and September 5th, 1977, two spacecraft were launched from the Kennedy Space Centre, Florida. They were called Voyager. Each one carries a message. The gold-plated record depicting music, images and sounds of our planet arranged so that it may be understood if ever intercepted by a technologically mature extraterrestrial civilisation. Thirteen years after its launch, Voyager 1 passed the orbital planet Neptune and essentially left the solar system. Within that time there were no further messages sent, nor are any planned. We wanted to listen. On October 12th, 1992 NASA initiated the high resolution micro-wave survey - a decade long search by radio telescopes scanning 10 million frequencies for any transmissions by extra-terrestrial intelligence. Less than one year later, First term Nevada Senator Richard Brian successfully championed an amendment which terminated the project I wanted to believe, but the tools had been taken away. The ‘X’ Files had been shut down. They closed our eyes. Our voices had been silenced. Our ears now deaf to the realms of extreme possibilities.’ Use of series like ‘The “X” Files’ is appropriate for several reasons. • First, they are based in large part on authentic documented events, many of which raise startling questions about politics, leadership, security, rights etc. • Second, they capture student interest because they are written to appeal to what we know children this age love most - things that transcend human nature. • Third, they challenge students to analyse and assess what they believe, after informed consideration, to be fact and what they know to be fiction. • Fourth, they inspire youths to be passionate and involved - to take a stand and be active.

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Section 2: STRUCTURE OF THE UNIT: • THE STORY - “The ‘Y’ Files”. • ADAPTING THE UNIT TO YOUR OWN SITUATION • CONTENT AND CITIZENSHIP LINKS. • QUESTIONS ARISING FROM THE UNIT • ESSENTIAL & OPTIONAL LEARNING. • STRUCTURING THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT.

THE STORY - "The ‘Y’ Files" This unit is built around the following story. By investigating individual parts to the story, students will gain information necessary to suggest and defend a solution to the mystery. On June 19th 1996, investigators were called to Coober Pedy in South Australia, after an itinerate prospector known as Lightfoot Duddy failed to find any residents remaining in the township. The township was cordoned off from the public for a 100km radius with the media representatives retained in Boortbana, north of Lake Cadabarrawirracanna. The exceptional nature of these circumstances were intensified when the Central Investigation Bureau discovered a colony of ‘humanoid-like’ beings occupying the underground mine shafts under the town. The beings were noticeably timid, showing no signs of aggression. Physiological features of the beings suggested they had inhabited their underground abodes for a significantly long period. Further investigation revealed that an entire habitable ‘city’ had been constructed underground. There were energy efficient sleeping quarters, a water catchment area, communal facilities, nutrient and alternative energy sources, and recreation areas. Initially it was believed that the community represented an extremist right wing group. However, no meaningful means of communication could be established with the beings to confirm or deny these suppositions. Further, no evidence could be found to explain the disappearance of the entire above ground population of Coober Pedy. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


Agents from the elite American FBI UFO unit were flown to Australia to assist in the investigation. The Australian scientific community feared the colony could represent alien life forms acclimatised to Planet Earth, but the military and police remained skeptical. The Prime Minister listed the investigation as Top Priority and Top Secret and requested a comprehensive report by the end of June.

ADAPTING THE UNIT TO YOUR OWN SITUATION. 1) For use in the Middle School, your story line needs to be divided into sections that can, if necessary, be implemented independently by subject teachers. 2) It is strongly recommended that two or more subject teachers share lessons. However, if this is logistically or philosophically impossible, it is essential to have planned the content across subjects. 3) What is offered in this unit is a framework - one way of extrapolating subject content from the story. The content suggested is a bare minimum. Teachers are encouraged to both add more content areas as well as expand suggested content.

POSSIBLE KEY QUESTIONS 1) Where is Coober Pedy; what is the geological and geographical profile of the region within a 250km radius from the town; what Aboriginal history exists in relation to this land? 2) What communication access exists for the media to disseminate news from Boortbanna to capital cities throughout Australia; what obligation or right do reporters have to discover and disseminate news; what impact would an investigation of this sort, and media releases have on indigenous peoples of the area? 3) In situations involving potential national threats, what roles do existing political and law enforcement organisations play in safeguarding the well being of Australians as well as observing the rights of intruders (if involved) (it police, government, military, ASIO, Red Cross etc)? 4) What physiological features would suggest long-term adaptation to underground living? 5) What features of underground mine shafts would lend themselves to construction of an underground city; how would the nature of an opal mine shaft shape your mental image of a humanoid-like being? ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


6) What would need to be known and mastered in order to build an underground city? . 7) What features of the simulation scenario would lead investigators to consider the inhabitants to be an extremist right wing group? 8) What communication methods and systems could be utilised to attempt to establish meaningful discourse with non-English speaking beings? 9) What events or circumstances could explain the complete disappearance of a community of people? 10) What evidence exists to support the theory that alien life could exist; what adaptations would need to occur to alien beings if they were to successfully habitat earth? 11) What local, national and global political ramifications might arise from the suspicion or confirmation of alien life on Earth? 12) In what ways does adaptation of a species to underground living reflect ecological principles and inter-dependence? 13) What changes would have to occur over time, socially and physically, for a species to adapt to new or changed climatic or geographic conditions? 14) In what ways does this study allow students to critically compare representations of people, events and issues? 15) How would the disappearance of an above-ground community and the genesis of a below-ground community illustrate variations in a place over time, by referring to processes that may affect natural and built features? 16) Explain the consequences of the underground community modifying the natural and built features of the area. 17) Predict the consequences of implementing particular attitudes and practices concerning the use of a place. 10 18) In what ways does this simulation allow students to analyse ways in which political and legal systems interact on a national and international scale to explain current events? 19) Explain the various ways of viewing this scenario and information associated with it. 20) Discuss the logic of, and evidence for the solution developed to answer the mystery. 21) What stages does each student assess they have gone through in order to reach an informed personal decision, considering viewpoints and evidence presented by others.

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22) Prepare evidence to support current theories on the formation and geological history of the Earth 23) Describe systems whose purpose is to obtain and transfer information efficiently 24) Using aspects of designing an underground city, apply ideas of energy conservation and efficiency to sequences and interactions 25) Using elements of the story, analyse the effects of environmental change on living things and ecosystems 26) Describe how genetic continuity is maintained from generation to generation 27) Through this study, plan procedures to investigate hypotheses and predictions for situations involving variables 28) Demonstrate the use of existing information as the stimulus for further investigation 29) Asses conclusions in relation to other evidence and sources 30) Show how this study allows students to analyse costs and benefits of alternative scientific choices about community problems.

ESSENTIAL & OPTIONAL LEARNING: 1) The unit is designed as a framework. From this teachers can develop either simple, or complex integrated units. 2) This booklet outlines one possible unit as an example of how to integrate learning through a story. 3) Learning experiences essential to this story will be outlined and labelled ESSENTIAL LEARNING. 4) Learning experiences seen as optional to this story will be listed as OPTIONAL LEARNING. 5) Conceptual links will be included.

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STRUCTURING THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT 1) Since small group work is central to this unit it is important to identify essential group skills and involve students in some practice sessions . This could include: a) listening b) taking turns c) communicating ideas d) compromising e) affirming and encouraging f) attaining goals 2) Moving desks to create small group modular work stations is important to this unit. Allow time to do this at the beginning of each session. 3) A central class resource/reference section may be necessary. This should be transportable, easily set up and comprehensive. Teachers may find light weight suitcases on wheels suitable for this purpose. 4) It is recommended you use a variety of approaches: a) for the learning environment this could include: • students working in the classroom • students working outside the classroom • field trips to gather expert information • work with mentors in the classroom • other........ b) for approaches to learning, this could include: • instruction by an expert to whole class • small group investigations • individual research projects • whole class brainstorming and discussion • inquiry, explorations and investigations • films, audio/visual materials • computers • other.............. 5) Some interaction between two or more tutorial groups/homeroom groups may prove advantageous. Teachers involved must plan together, negotiate shared and appropriate class space, allocate suitable time to implement lessons and thoroughly plan for the interaction and grouping of students.

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Section 3: IMPLEMENTING THE UNIT •A•B•C•D•E•F•G•H•I•J•K•L•M•N• O-

CAPTURING STUDENT INTEREST. CHOOSING A CHARACTER; CONSIDERING A SOLUTION. EXPLORING COOBER PEDY. COMMUNICATION (GLOBAL). LAW ENFORCEMENT AND NATIONAL SECURITY. FIRST THEME DAY ADAPTATION. MINING TECHNOLOGY. POLITICS. CATASTROPHIC EVENTS. SECOND THEME DAY COMMUNICATION (PERSONAL). ALIEN LIFE FORMS AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE. GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES EVALUATION and PERFORMANCES OF MOST WORTH.

A - CAPTURING STUDENT INTEREST CONCEPTUAL LINKS • living systems comprise relationships and integration • all living members of a community are engaged in a dynamic interplay of competition and cooperation involving partnership strategies • groups co-evolve through an interplay of creation and mutual adaptation • inter dependencies among members of communities involve the exchange of information in continuous cycles • all communities are powered by an external source of energy • prejudice frequently results from ignorance * It is important to engage students from the outset. So begin with something age appropriate, and something BIG. *Any activity designed to capture student interest will, by the nature of our storyline, raise questions about: a) Interrelating of life - to include: • diversity of life on earth • habitats ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


• niches • communities b) Changing of form - to include: • adaptation • succession • geological time • energy and entropy laws. * Discuss these generally as they arise, but maintain an element of mystery. * Allow the students to ‘run wild’ with their thinking.

THE BEGINNING - ESSENTIAL LEARNING 1) Since this study is based on the well known TV series ‘X-Files”, choose a short segment or a full episode and show it to the students. • It is important that the episode you choose has a clear link with the possibility of alien life visiting Earth. • Suggested episodes include: a. Ghost in the machine (about an Artificial Intelligence system that develops a mind of its own b. The Unanswered File (a 3 part episode ending season 2 and beginning season 3 – dealing with alien/human hybrids or humans disfigured by military experiments ) 2) Following the video viewing, read the storyline for this unit to the students 3) Students predict what they think has occurred, and why.

OTHER WAYS TO CAPTURE STUDENT INTEREST - OPTIONAL 1) Documentaries exist that raise questions about the possibility of alien life visiting Earth or U.F.O. sightings. Have your library prepare a catalogue of these. 2) An excellent example is ‘The Roswell Incident’ screened in Australia on channel 9 in 1995 (producer John Purdie). • This is a thorough & thought- provoking documentary retelling the events leading to the discovery of unidentified debris in the desert of New Mexico in 1947. • The discovery followed multiple sightings of what was termed a U.F.O. 3) Alternatively teachers could begin by involving students in informal debates over ethical issues it • what rights and responsibilities do military, government, law enforcement and other public officials have to inform the public of experiments, research, events etc that could impact on society? ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


B - CHOOSING A CHARACTER; CONSIDERING A SOLUTION CONCEPTUAL LINKS • the essence of reality is unity and connectedness - (the assumption of wholeness) • the greater the diversity within a community, the greater the stability • all living members of a community are engaged in a dynamic interplay of competition and cooperation involving partnership strategies • inter dependencies among members of communities involve the exchange of information in continuous cycles • prejudice frequently results from ignorance

CONSIDERING A SOLUTION * Each part of the story suggests subject-based investigations that provide essential background information to enable students to suggest informed solutions to explain the mystery. * As students begin to formulate their solutions, they must provide either evidence or ‘informed justification’ based on classroom research and investigations. * For example - the following solution has been proposed by a middle school student. Radiation experimentation had been conducted by the military on Aboriginals of the remote central desert, causing mutations. Over time the Aboriginals built considerable immunity to the toxic effects of radiation. However, the symptoms were increased by exposure to light, and so the mutant Aboriginals lived almost entirely underground. One startling experiment went very wrong, killing the above ground community of Coober Pedy. The military disposed of the bodies and the government ordered a cover-up of the project. However, the appearance of an itinerant prospector went unnoticed and the alarm was raised. * For this suggested solution to be justified, this student would need to provide information regarding: • Aboriginal occupation/heritage of the area. • Suggested or known evidence of military testing and/or experiments in central Australia. • Effects of radiation sickness. • Some known symptoms of other chemical warfare. • Genetics and mutations. • Photosensitivity. • Ethics of covert and overt military experimentation and actions. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


CHARACTER STUDY - ESSENTIAL LEARNING 1) Since much of this investigation requires researching and brainstorming complex abstract concepts, and constructing viable models to explain unusual phenomena, it is important students get support and inspiration from working consistently in small groups of 1-5 students. 2) Each group should assume the role of one character or organisation represented in the story. • The selection of this character will determine the perspective the group adopts and subsequent report they will justify for the government 3) Each group should name themselves. For example, if one group assumes the identity of the military they might comprise: • General Bill Burke • Major Miles O’Brien • Staff Sergeant John Vaughn • other 4) Some possible characters include: • ........... Scolder (a successful American FBI agent from the elite UFO division. • ............ Mully (a medical doctor who is Scolder’s partner) • Lightfoot Duddy (a camel-riding itinerate prospector who lives off the permanent residents of minefield throughout Australia • The South Australian Police • The Australia National Police • The Australian Military • Dr. ............. Kojinsky ( a scientist engaged in research relating to A.I; UFO’s and the existence of life on other planets) •............... Jennings (a Reuter reporter) • other.......... 5) By allowing students to fully develop their characters before commencing their research, you engage them affectively and give them a purpose to pursue, (see appendix 3 for character profile)

ROLE-PLAY CHARACTER- OPTIONAL LEARNING 1) To assist students in process of becoming immersed in the study, have them role-play situations using their character profile 2) Role-play can be done in class or with specialist drama teachers. 3) The more comfortable students become with the actions & reactions of their assumed character, the more authentic their appraisal of the mystery will be 4) Role plays permit students to see situations from a variety of perspectives.

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C - EXPLORING COOBER PEDY CONCEPTUAL LINKS: • living systems comprise relationships and integration • living systems reflect interconnecting patterns and are not random • the Earth is a living organism with which we are intimately connected • at its most fundamental level, the Earth is a single, integrated system • the sustainability of any community depends on a limited resource base which defines the system's carrying capacity * If students are to place their suggested solution to the mystery in a suitable context, they must have an understanding of the geography and demography of the area. * To comprehend the logistics of creating an underground city from mine shafts, students must further grasp the technology and engineering underlying tunnelling etc. * In general, it would be helpful to have basic information about the geology of the region; soil, rock and mineral profiles of the area; and ways in which mining techniques might differ in each of the area. * This step focusses on the cycling of matter and individual teachers can select the extent to which they pursue any or all of the following a) soil cycle b) water cycle c) air cycle d) recycling of matter

'Y' - FILE LEARNING CHALLENGE • 'Y' - Why were the creatures called 'humanoid-like', rather than humanoid or non-humanoid? Does this imply anything? • 'Y' - Why did the community of Coober Pedy disappear?

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GEOGRAPHICAL PROFILE - ESSENTIAL LEARNING 1) Have students reproduce a map representing an area 250km radium from Coober Pedy. Include on the map such things: • scale • compass reference • contour lines • latitude/longitude • rivers/lakes/towns/roads etc. • key • other…… 2) From their research of the area, have students reproduce an 'artists impression' of the township of Pedy. 3) Everyone needs experiences in, of and with Nature. Select a suitable part of your school property where students will be able to dig and work without disrupting the ecosystem. Using their researched background information about Coober Pedy, have students reproduce small models of a typical opal mine and/or mining town. 4) Investigate ways in which the study of Coober Pedy's geography and geology illustrates current theories on the geology and history of the Earth (present as a wall chart, a mural, a written document, a computer program etc.) 5) Investigate and describe the following rock types: • igneous (intrusive/extrusive) • sedimentary (elastic/elastic) • metamorphic (foliated/non-foliated) 6) From the list provided, choose one individual or one family of rocks/minerals as the subject of your research. Present a comprehensive profile, either as a written-illustrated report, wall chart, drama etc. • agate • onyx • flint • chert • beryl • topaz • mica • emerald • quartz • jasper • gneiss • uranium ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


• thorium • aluminium • corundum • spinel • gypsum • citrine • amethyst • shale • tourmaline • olivine • peridot • serpentine • jade • eapis • lazuli • amber • aquamarine • chalcedony • graphite • diamond • fluorite • sapphire • purite • alabaster • dolomite • turquoise • pearls • coal

GEOLOGY - OPTIONAL LEARNING 1) Create a time line depicting Earth's history to include: a) the following categories • period • age • first life forms b) the following eras • Precambrian • Mesozoic • Cenozoic 2) Represent as a model or painting a cross section of the geological composition of our planet. This should include: a) the following levels: • lithosphere • mantle ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


• interior • core b) labels to indicate geological composition of each layer 3) The area around Coober Pedy is rich in Aboriginal heritage. This can be seen in place names such as: • Lake Cadibarrawirracanna • Pootnoura • Wirrida • Archaringa Using enlargement maps of the area list as many names of Aboriginal origin within a 250km radius from Coober Pedy. • contact an Aboriginal advisor for the area to establish the meaning of the place name 4) Directly west of Coober Pedy are Maralinga lands, and north-west are Pitjantjatjar lands. By contacting Aboriginal representatives, discover what, if any, Aboriginal links can be associated with Coober Pedy. 5) Explore the meaning of the place name Coober Pedy. 6) Have students divide into groups of 3. • one student represents a non-aboriginal opal miner • one student represents an aboriginal • one student is adjudicator Have both aboriginal and non-aboriginal represent their views on land use and mining practices in the area. The adjudicator will summarise both perspectives and suggest ways in which to accommodate both (or compromise).

D - COMMUNICATION (GLOBAL) CONCEPTUAL LINKS: • living systems comprise relationships and integration • living systems reflect interconnecting patterns and are not random • all living members of a community are engaged in a dynamic interplay of competition and cooperation involving partnership strategies • inter dependencies among members of communities involve the exchange of information in continuous cycles

* The story implies tension between different public service departments regarding the right of the public to be informed about events that might impact on their lives. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


* To understand the impact of tensions, students should discuss ethical issues relating to dissemination of news. * Students must have a broad, if basic, understanding of communication systems available for the dissemination of information.

'Y' - FILE LEARNING CHALLENGE • 'Y' - Why would the American F.B.I. - U.F.O. team be called in? • 'Y' - Why did the National Security organisation classify the incident Top Secret and Top Priority?

COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS - ESSENTIAL LEARNING 1) The relay of information is essential for the dissemination of news and critical to the media industry. 2) Divide the class into small groups of 5 members each. Assign each member of this home group a number from 1-5. 3) Group all students sharing similar numbers into expert groups, such as: • group 1 = telegraph • group 2 = telephone • group 3 = fax • group 4 = postal • group 5 = internet 4) Have each expert group research these areas: • technology • capability • system structure 5) Have students return to their home group and report their expert knowledge.

MEDIA - ETHICAL ISSUES - ESSENTIAL LEARNING 1) Conduct whole class discussions interspersed with small group brainstorming throughout this section 2) Discussion focus on: • rights • responsibilities ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


• obligations • retrieval & dissemination of news • media reporting ethics 3) Present to the class a selection of hypotheticals and encourage students to write their own, i.e. • in the case of violent crime that has implications for community safety or health, whose rights should be honoured - the accused (who seeks privacy) or the public (who seeks information)? 4) Concepts to be discussed include: • confidentiality • privacy • freedom • ethics • censorship 5) Good communication builds better community. Examine strong and weak points of communication systems within your school.

MEDIA - IMPACT ON INDIGENOUS PEOPLES - OPTIONAL 1) What are aboriginal attitudes, customs, lores regarding sharing information? Discuss these with aboriginal and invite them to depict this in song and dance for the class. 2) How would aboriginal react to the publicity of news reports relating to their lives at the opal fields. 3) Invite a speaker from the aboriginal community to discuss aboriginal methods of sharing news. Have students simulate this in class.

E - LAW ENFORCEMENTS & NATIONAL PROTECTION CONCEPTUAL LINKS: • living systems comprise relationships and integration • living systems reflect interconnecting patterns and are not random • the essence of reality is unity and connectedness - (the assumption of wholeness) • the greater the diversity within a community, the greater the stability ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


• all living members of a community are engaged in a dynamic interplay of competition and cooperation involving partnership strategies • inter dependencies among members of communities involve the exchange of information in continuous cycles • prejudice frequently results from ignorance * In any national crisis, decisions are made by officials about what is made public and what is hidden. These decisions are made for a variety of reasons, some political, some economic, some societal, some personal etc. * To comprehend the reactions of a variety of law enforcements organisations present, students must understand their fundamental charters and most likely political agendas and/or affiliations * Frequently the public is unhappy with decisions made by political leaders and/or law enforcement and national security officers. Students should learn ways to challenge and change actions that are unethical non-environmentally sound, non-sustainable etc. • how would you guide your students to positively question authority?

'Y' - FILE LEARNING CHALLENGE • 'Y' - Why was the underground community thought to be an extreme right-wing group? • 'Y' - Why did the law enforcement officials seem afraid that local radical upheaval could impact at the national level?

ORGANISATIONS FOR THE PROTECTION OF AUSTRALIANS ESSENTIAL 1) Brainstorm with whole class the different organisations that exist in Australia for national security and law enforcement e.g.: a) Military b) Police c) ASIO d) Drug squad e) ANZUS f) SAS 2) Establish what students already know about each organisation. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


3) Arrange for someone with the knowledge of the function of each organisation to visit the class. 4) Use 'X-File' episodes to demonstrate how different intelligence and security agencies often work independently and against one another (the episode 'Ghost in the Machine' clearly shows the tension between the Department of Defence, FBI, CIA & military). 5) Examine the process for providing national security • how are political and/or economic decisions made? • how could this be a problem and/or a benefit? 6) In our story, what Australian security and Law enforcement departments would most likely be involved in the defence of a mining town under attack from an unknown threat, and why?

ATTITUDES TOWARD AND PROCESSES FOR THE CONSIDERATION OF AGGRESSORS - OPTIONAL LEARNING 1) Discuss a variety of countries and their policies toward criminal offenders i.e. • guilty until proven innocent • innocent until proven guilty • right to a fair trial • aboriginal customary law • other……… 2) Discuss the rights of the accused in Australia. Invite a lawyer to class to talk. 3) The Red Cross have as a foundation principle the belief that both the victim and the aggressor have needs that need to be met. Discuss this concept of impartiality and how it applies to situations of extreme conflict (remember: there is no one right answer). • invite a member of the Red Cross Humanity Education division to talk to the class.

STEP 6 - FIRST THEME DAY - PREDICTING A SOLUTION * Theme days should create time for all the tute group and subject teachers to work together for one morning or one afternoon. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


* Let us assume that at year 7 the average school has 6 classes each with 30 students. There are 8 major characters in our story so that each class would have 8 character groups of between 3 to 5 students. * On theme day, students should be clustered according to characters. This will mean there will be 8 groups of between 24 to 40 students each. Eight classrooms and/or work spaces must therefore be made available by using drama rooms, art rooms, computer rooms, science labs etc. * Homeroom/tute teachers plus subject teachers will be assigned to one group. Some groups will have more than one teacher and this should be decided on the basis of the size of the group. The teachers act as facilitators, motivators, coordinators throughout this session. * One suggested format for the day is as follows: • Work in tute groups to brainstorm and discuss the most likely explanation for the story, given the information and research discovered so far. • Share these ideas with the whole group. Select or vote on the most preferred solution or agree to combine parts of several solutions to create one group solution. • Brainstorm and decide in group a way to dramatically present this solution to the whole year level. Provide rehearsal time. All students should in some way be involved i.e.. simple costumes, signs, background singing etc. • Using the school auditorium/performance centre/stadium etc. perform the suggest solutions for the whole year level.

STEP 7 - ADAPTATION CONCEPTUAL LINKS: • living systems comprise relationships and integration • living systems reflect interconnecting patterns and are not random • the Earth is a living organism with which we are intimately connected • the essence of reality is unity and connectedness - (the assumption of wholeness) • at its most fundamental level, the Earth is a single, integrated system • the greater the diversity within a community, the greater the stability • groups co-evolve through an interplay of creation and mutual adaptation ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


* Since students are being asked to reflect on ways in which individual components interact with each other and their environment, students must have an understanding of the structure and function of ecosystems

'Y' - FILE LEARNING CHALLENGE • 'Y' - Why were scientists and environmentalists discouraged from raising questions about genetic engineering, mutation and ecological imbalance?

ADAPTATION - ESSENTIAL LEARNING 1) A species' ability, past or present, to adapt to their environment is critical to survival. For example, the fish that have managed to survive in the Arctic contain an anti-freeze which lowers the freezing point of their blood. 2) Adaptation is the process whereby, over time, populations of organisms become structurally, functionally and behaviourally adapted to a particular environment. 3) Adaptation is the result of natural selection - the process where individuals with features most suited to their environment are most likely to survive and produce more off-spring with the same favourable features in time. In time, creatures with less favourable features die off and fail to breed and the unfavourable features die out. 4) Through use of a variety of references, find and list a variety of clear examples of adaptation and natural selection. 5) In groups consider both of the following: a) what adaptation would need to occur for an alien to live on Earth?, and b) what adaptation would need to occur for a creature to live underground? 6) As a whole class, research and discuss concepts of eugenics and euthenics. • what, if anything, do these concepts have to do with theories and application of natural selection and adaptation? • How could such knowledge be positively and adversely applied?

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ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES - ESSENTIAL LEARNING. 1) Students begin by defining certain concepts essential to the understanding of ecosystems: • habitat • environment - i.e. a) of fresh water ecosystem = water nutrients, temperature, light, pH etc. b) of soil = texture, nutrients etc. c) other…… • living communities • cycles of change - i.e. a) daily b) seasonal c) other…… • succession • other…… - This would be most powerful if teachers could compile examples within the school or local natural environment. Students could then explore Nature with this focus in mind. 2) In small groups, represent each of the following principle underlying Ecology as a Frozen Image (tableaux) or mime. This can be done in class or with drama specialist. Refer to Appendix 4 for definition of Ecological Principles: • interdependence • sustainability • diversity • partnership • co-evolution • fluctuating cycles • energy flow 3) Individually or in small groups have students prepare a written response to the following question: • In what ways does the adaptation of a species to underground living reflect ecological principles in general, and interdependence specifically?

GENETIC CODING - OPTIONAL LEARNING 1) In order to better understand the process of adaptation, it would help students to conduct superficial investigations of all or some of the following concepts, which in some way affect the passing on or modifying of genetic coding; • chromosomes ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


• genes • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) • RNA (ribonucleic acid) • meiosis • mitosis • sexual reproduction • asexual reproduction • heredity • genetic diseases (i.e. Cystic Fibrosis, haemophilia, Huntingtons disease, galactosaemia etc.) • genetic engineering • other………

ECOLOGICAL STUDIES - OPTIONAL LEARNING 1) Explore the concept of ecosystems, i.e. systems formed by organism interacting with one another and their physical environment. • list examples of simple and complex ecosystems familiar to the students. 2) An issue is a matter over which there is a difference of opinion. Ecological issues may for example, involve; • a problem i.e. water pollution, salinity • a proposal to change something • both a problem and a proposal for change. 3) Issues arise when people disagree over what should be done about a proposal or problem. Look at the description of the Mallee ecosystem in appendix 5. Choose an ecological issue relevant to the Mallee and suggest strategies for attaining a solution.

STEP 8 - MINING TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTUAL LINKS: • living systems comprise relationships and integration • living systems reflect interconnecting patterns and are not random • the Earth is a living organism with which we are intimately connected • the sustainability of any community depends on a limited resource base which defines the system's carrying capacity • all communities are powered by an external source of energy * To be able to propose the building of an underground city, students must have some basic understanding of mining technology and urban planning ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


'Y' - FILE LEARNING CHALLENGE • 'Y' - Why did the humanoid-like creatures go underground?

TUNNELLING - ESSENTIAL LEARNING 1) Digging shafts is essential for underground opal mining, but shafts are structurally not he same as tunnels build for roadways or coal mining etc. Investigate the different types of tunnel technology. • how are they similar? • how are they different? • what are their similar or different uses? 2) Invite a civil engineer into class to talk about construction of large underground spaces. Following the talk, design and build a model of an underground communal meeting hall: • show draft plans, discussions and sketches relevant to the process of designing the model • give a written justification for the functional, aesthetic, social and environmental choices suggested • use symbols, graphics and technical language to describe plans • set and meet specified standards of safety and quality during construction • demonstrate efficient use of resources • evaluate the plans and product 3) Explore the cost and capabilities of a variety of civil engineering equipment. These could be displayed as posters i.e. • tractors • bulldozers • excavators • scrapers • drills • others 4) Build a model or draw a plan of a cross section of one of the following. Provide label that describe construction and engineering features of the structure: ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


• underground coal mine • opal shafts • road tunnel. 5) Take students into a large sandpit of back to your opal-mine digging site. Using materials available in the natural environment (but without damaging Nature), have students build tunnels. What do they observe/discover about the process?

DAM CONSTRUCTION - ESSENTIAL LEARNING 1) The underground city described in our story has an underground dam that, amongst other things, acts as the main water supply. 2) Designs and plans for dams are drawn by draughtsmen in consultation with engineers. 3) To prepare a dam site the land is surveyed (using a theodolite), the soil tested and earth moved. 4) Design the dam for the underground city. a) Using the steps listed below, make initial written plans and suggestion for the dam. • give a written justification for the functional, aesthetic, social and environmental choices suggested when planning the dam • use symbols, graphics and technical language to describe the plans • set and meet specified standards of safety and quality during construction • demonstrate efficient use of resources • evaluate the plans and product b) Draw a cut-away plan of the dam to be built in the underground city. Include on your plans the following: • will your dam be an embankment or concrete dam and why • of the following, which will it be and why a) arch dam b) buttress dam c) gravity dam d) cupola dam e) earthen dam f) coffer dam c) Write detailed instructions for the construction i.e. • what equipment would be used • when and how would excavation occur • would you use concrete, cement, soil, rock etc. d) What is the purpose of the dam and how will that purpose be fulfilled? ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


5) Find out something about one or more of the following internationally famous dams: • Lake Volta, Ghana • New Cornelia Tailings Dam, Arizona • Grand Coulee Dam, State of Washington • Nurek Dam, Vakhsh River USSR • Yacyreta-Apipe Dam, border of Paraguay and Argentina, South America. 5) Return to the sandpit or digging site with a variety of materials and equipment and have students build their model dams in Nature. 6) Occasionally we hear stories of bitter battles to prevent construction of large dams • Opponents may contest because people will lose housing or precious natural land will be sacrificed • Supporters may see economic gain or the solution to providing a necessary resource to large numbers of people 7) Resource use and distribution is frequently determined by the demand and perceived (or real) needs of people. What lifestyle changes could occur to alter the demand for a dam? 8) Find examples of construction of major dams and try to determine if the building of the dam was the only solution to the problem. Remember the saying: - 'The only thing we need to change is man!'

CAREERS - OPTIONAL LEARNING 1) Many varied careers are related to dam and tunnel construction i.e. • geologist • graphic designer • geophysicist • hydrologist • civil engineer • other…… 2) Choose one of the above, or a related career of your choice and develop a profile that you can role-play in class.

ENERGY SOURCES - OPTIONAL LEARNING. 1) Buildings underground have energy requirements unlike above ground buildings. Look at the energy needs listed below and list the ways these would differ above and below ground. • heating ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


• lighting • cooling • air circulation • cooking • refrigeration 2) Divide into small groups: a) research the feasibility of the following as the main source of underground energy supply: • water • wind • solar power • uranium • plant & animal energy • geothermal energy • oil • coal • natural gas • other b) report back to class and discuss the most feasible choice, given the following criterion: THAT THE ENERGY SOURCE BE ENVIRONMENTALLY AND ECONOMICALLY SUSTAINABLE 3) When discussing alternative energy sources, students should use correct terminology, i.e. when discussing solar energy, use terms such as: • solar collectors • generators • condensers • evaporators • absorbers • recuperators

URBAN PLANNING - OPTIONAL LEARNING 1) Using the following design outline, write instructions for the building of a model of an underground city a) design brief • written justification for the functional, aesthetic, social, & environmental choices suggested when planning an underground city • use symbols, graphics and technical language to describe the plans • list materials to be used • list construction instructions and safety practices ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


• project cost of model • evaluate plans and product b) the city must include: • sleeping quarters • communal areas • recreation areas • water catchment • nutrient supply • entry and exits • energy sources c) The city must in part occupy or utilise existing opal mines 2) Have students list in written note form the things they would need to know, and skills they would need to master in order to build a real underground city. 3) In what ways would the building of an underground city modify the natural and built features of the area • represent your area as a cartoon 4) Consider the following a) Examine each of these groups • local politicians • opal miners • humanoid-like beings • aboriginals • conservationists • large mining company b) what would their reactions be to the conversion of mine shafts into an underground city for an unknown community? c) conduct a mock council meeting where each viewpoint can be heard

STEP 9 - POLITICS CONCEPTUAL LINKS: • living systems comprise relationships and integration • living systems reflect interconnecting patterns and are not random • the essence of reality is unity and connectedness - (the assumption of wholeness) • at its most fundamental level, the Earth is a single, integrated system • the sustainability of any community depends on a limited resource base which defines the system's carry capacity • the greater the diversity within a community, the greater the stability • all living members of a community are engaged in a dynamic interplay of competition and cooperation involving partnership strategies ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


* The investigating organisations claim that the community discovered is an extreme right-wing group that have gone underground for security reasons * For students to make an informed judgement they must know something about political process and the nature of extremist groups

'Y' - FILE LEARNING CHALLENGE • 'Y' - Why (or why not), would the existence of an extremist right-wing group be plausible in the Australian outback?

EXTREMIST GROUPS - ESSENTIAL LEARNING 1) The underground community is described as possibly being an extreme right wing group. Have students investigate: a) What is a right wing extremist? b) What would they stand for in Australian society and politics? c) Choose a foreign country and discover what a right wing extremist would stand for there. d) What is a left wing extremist? e) What would they stand for in Australian society and politics? f) Choose a foreign country and discover what a left wing extremist would stand for there. 2) Through research, discussion, examination of archival records of news reports etc., list recent examples of extremist activity and define the cause for which the group was/is fighting i.e.. • Waco Texas • Oklahoma bombing • Israeli/Palestine fighting 3) What reasons can you suggest might cause a group to turn to extreme actions in order to be heard or bring about change (consider what issues, constraints, influences etc. drive political decisions). 4) Suggest possible reasons fro an extremist group taking radical action in Australia 5) What features of the unit story would lead the investigators to believe that the underground inhabitants might be an extreme right wing group? ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


• given the geography and history of the area, give reasons why you think this suspicion is justified or unjustified.

POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY - OPTIONAL LEARNING 1) Throughout the world many different political philosophies are reflected in the way countries, states, provinces etc. are governed. Each political philosophy is: a) shaped by the society it represents b) shapes the society it represents c) is constructed by outside influences (like economics) d) is shaped by religion e) other…… 2) Some of the learning political philosophies reflected throughout the world include: • communism • socialism • democracy • dictatorship/fascism • monarchy 3) find out the following about each of the political philosophies listed a) basic philosophical policies b) countries where these policies are strongly represented c) main influences on the political philosophy i.e.. religion, economics 4) Discuss in class: In what ways does the unit story allow students to analyse ways in which political and legal systems interact on a national and international scale to explain or hide current events?

STEP 10 - CATASTROPHIC EVENTS CONCEPTUAL LINKS • living systems comprise relationships and integration • living systems reflect interconnecting patterns and are not random • the Earth is a living organism with which we are intimately connected • the essence of reality is unity and connectedness - (the assumption of wholeness) • at its most fundamental level, the Earth is a single, integrated system • all communities are powered by an external source of energy * The disappearance of an entire above-ground community raises enormous alarm once discovered. But the simultaneous discovery of a totally peaceful, but in many regards alien community underground proves just as alarming. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


* For students to consider plausible explanations they must understand the likely effects of naturally occurring physical catastrophes, and medical and other disasters. * Debate the following statement: “Human’s desire to tame and control natural events is indicative of the human perspective that as a species, they are outside Nature. Natural catastrophes in fact serve to create or maintain balance. They are to do with the flow of energy, the cycling of matter, the interrelating of life and the changing of form. To interfere with natural events, whether catastrophic or not, could well perpetuate imbalance on Earth.”

'Y' - FILE LEARNING CHALLENGE • ‘Y’ - Why would the discovery of an unusual community trigger reactions of fear and concern amongst public investigators?

NATURAL CATASTROPHES - ESSENTIAL LEARNING 1) Group students for jigsaw group work a) Divide the class into ‘home groups’ of 5 and number the students 1-5. b) cluster the class such that all students bearing #1 group together and make an expert group etc. c) Have each group select 1-3 of the natural catastrophes listed and study d) when completed, students leave their expert group and return to their home group

HUMAN INDUCED CATASTROPHES - OPTIONAL LEARNING 1) Human impacts on this planet have left as a legacy a wide range of ‘catastrophes’ • discuss in class the effects of all or some of the following a) formaldehyde b) lead c) asbestos d) carbon monoxide e) dioxin f) cigarette smoke g) herbicides h) insecticides i) mercury ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


2) List and discuss any other human induced catastrophes you can think of. 3) What are the symptoms or evidence that a particular human catastrophe has struck 4) What human catastrophe could explain the disappearance of the above ground community at Coober Pedy 5) What human catastrophe could explain the existence of the underground community?

STEP 11 - SECOND THEME DAY - MODIFYING THE SOLUTION * Theme days should create time for all the tute groups and subject teachers to work together for one morning or afternoon. * Let us assume that at year 7 the average school has 6 classes each with 30 students. There are 8 major characters in our story so that each class would have 8 character groups of between 3-5 students. * On theme day, students should be clustered according to characters. This will mean there will be 8 groups of between 24 - 40 students each. Eight classrooms and/or work spaces must therefore be made available by using drama rooms, art rooms, computer rooms, science labs etc. * Homeroom/tute teachers plus subject teachers will be assigned to one group. Some groups will have more than one teacher and this should be decided on the basis of the size of the group. The teachers act as facilitators, motivators, coordinators throughout this session. • Work in tute groups to vote on the most likely solution to the mystery, given the information and research discovered so far. • Share these solutions with the whole group, and list different solutions on the board. • Each tute group gets a set amount of time to prepare a dramatic performance of their choice representing each of their different solutions • Using the school auditorium/performance centre etc perform the suggested solutions for the whole year level.

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STEP 12 - COMMUNICATION (PERSONAL) CONCEPTUAL LINKS • living systems comprise relationships and integration • living systems reflect interconnecting patterns and are not random • the greater the diversity within a community, the greater the stability • all living members of a community are engaged in a dynamic interplay of competition and cooperation involving partnership strategies • inter dependencies among members of communities involve the exchange of information in continuous cycles * Determining whether the humanoid-like creatures have lost their capacity to communicate as we understand it, or whether they never had the capability will be vital to determining the ultimate nature of the creatures. * Students must have an understanding of processes of communication.

'Y' - FILE LEARNING CHALLENGE • ‘Y’ - Why would the military and law enforcement agencies be suspicious of individuals unable to communicate using known communication systems?

COMMUNICATION - PERSONAL - ESSENTIAL LEARNING 1) The human ability to communicate verbally is unique among certain primates, but many systems of communication exist in Nature. Brainstorm in class and list as many organisms as possible that communicate in some way (i.e. social insects, whales, humans, gorillas) 2) List the communication systems that you know humans can use (i.e. computer, braille, signing, speech, binary etc) 3) Invite to class people who can demonstrate alternative communication systems i.e. • seeing eye dogs or police dogs • computing specialists (voice activated programs) • deaf (signing) ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


4) Have students write a creative story from the perspective of someone who finds themselves in the midst of a group of people whom they cannot understand i.e. • lost on a bushwalk in central Australia and end up with a nomadic Aboriginal clan; or lost overboard at sea and rescued by a foreign freight ship • students must include: a) short description of the events leading up to the situation b) in-depth description of the feelings experienced c) steps taken to attempt to communicate d) resolution

ALTERNATIVE COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS - OPTIONAL LEARNING 1) Have students divide into groups of between 4-6 students. 2) Have each group develop for themselves a simple system of communication 3) To test the validity of the system, send one member of each group out of class • remaining group members are instructed to direct the returning member to do something using the alternative system • evaluate how effective or ineffective the system was • make modifications and re-trial the system with a new task 3) After several trials, have students determine what was most important about the design and implementation of the communication system. (what made it work)

STEP 13 - ALIEN LIFE-FORMS AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONCEPTUAL LINKS • living systems comprise relationships and integration • living systems reflect interconnecting patterns and are not random • the Earth is a living organism with which we are intimately connected • the essence of reality is unity and connectedness - (the assumption of wholeness) • at its most fundamental level, the Earth is a single, integrated system • the greater the diversity within a community, the greater the stability • prejudice frequently results from ignorance ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


* If students are to seriously discuss the possibility of alien life, they must explore the nature of other planets and indications of life-sustaining characteristics. * If students are to consider life forms adapting to life on Earth they must understand the fundamentals of life on our planet and the principles of adaptation. * If students are to discuss the possibility of unexplained life forms being Artificial Intelligences rather than ‘aliens’, they must understand something of current research in Robotics and AI.

'Y' - FILE LEARNING CHALLENGE • ‘Y’ - Why do humans inherently fear the thought of alien life on earth.? • ‘Y’ - Why do some people argue that AI’s could not have souls?

LIFE ON EARTH - ESSENTIAL LEARNING 1) To live on Earth, organisms must be adapted to the planet’s particular ecosystem a) For example, in order to live on Earth an organism would need to be: • adapted to the gaseous environment (naturally occurring) • able to produce energy (i.e. what nutrients enable organisms to produce energy)? • able to survive in a particular habitat (i.e. adapted for terrestrial, aquatic etc living) • able to survive gravitational force • able to survive in a niche within the web of life • other...... b) Consider the case of a humanoid. Using the categories mentioned above, list the specific ways humans are adapted to Earth (i.e. able to breathe oxygen while at the same time processing other gasses such as nitrogen, methane etc 2) Create a passport of essential attributes necessary for life on Earth. 3) The following statements are taken from the book ;Save the Earth’ by Jonathan Porritt. Each statement alerts us to the kind of imbalance that can occur when human inhabitants ignore the necessity to create balance with Nature and live sustainable lives. Divide into small groups and: a) identify the major problem portrayed in the quote and project the global effects, and ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


b) turn each of these statements into a positive action plan showing a way to correct the problem and live ecologically sound lives on Earth. • the rainforest of Madagascar contains 12000 different plant species, over 60% of which are unique to the island. The tropical rainforest is being burned and bulldozed at the rate of 160000 square kilometres each year. • there are 79 hydroelectric dams planned for Amazonia over the next 20 years threatening over 150000 square kilometres of pristine rainforest with flooding • the Sahara Desert is expanding southwards, engulfing degraded grasslands, at a rate of 50 kilometres every year. • some 24000 million tonnes of topsoil are eroded worldwide each year. This is equivalent to all the topsoil on Australia’s wheatlands, and represents a loss of 9 million tonnes of potential grain harvest. • a gain in grain harvest of 28 million tonnes a year is needed to keep pace with projected population growth. The Worldwatch Institute estimates that just half this increase can be achieved in the ‘90’s. • the Copaiba Iangsdorfii tree, which grows in the Amazon basin, produces a sap so similar to diesel oil that it can be poured straight into the truck’s fuel tank. • with seeds taken from the feathers of a single bird Charles Darwin was able to grow 82 plants. • the serendipity berry, found in West Africa, is 3000 times sweeter than sugar, yet has a lower calorie content. 4) What adaptations would need to occur if your ‘alien’ being was to successfully habitat Earth? a) to answer this question you must first make the assumption that the humanoid-like creatures are alien b) Next, you must generate a clear profile of the alien’s characteristics, to include: • biological systems (if any) • non-biological systems (if any) • behaviour • physical attributes • other.... ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


PLANETS IN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM - OPTIONAL LEARNING 1) To assist students in their endeavour to argue that the humanoid-like creatures living underground at Coober Pedy could be alien life forms adapted to Earth, it may be necessary to briefly study everything in our solar system i.e. • Sun • Mercury • Venus • Mars • Jupiter (and moons) • Saturn (and moons) • Uranus (and moons) • Neptune • Pluto 3) Students must present an argument itemising their reasons for saying life could exist on selected planets. The arguments must be based on existing fact or informed speculation, but not on science fiction. 4) Students must consider the distance of the chosen planet from Earth and suggest ways in which the creatures travelled to Earth, and plausible reasons why 5) Students may choose to work in groups and present this information as large wall cartoons 6) Artificial intelligences are different from alien life forms in that they are the creation of humans. An artificial intelligence is a machine with the capacity to think. Examples of some AI’s include: • SMART bombs (in use) • Thinking computerised chess program (in use) • Neural networks (experimental) • Robotics (experimental) 7) If the community underground was a collection of individual AI’s or a collective AI, suggest a reason for their existence. Include: • who made it/them? • how were they used? • what would the future plans for their use be? • why had the above ground community disappeared? • other..... 7) Students may choose to imagine themselves as astronauts on a ‘Hubble or Galileo-type’ space craft which has recently found evidence of lifeforms on ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


other planets, and develop a theory as to what this means to the way earth’s history and future is viewed. 8)

STEP 14 - GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES CONCEPTUAL LINKS • living systems comprise relationships and integration • living systems reflect interconnecting patterns and are not random • the Earth is a living organism with which we are intimately connected • the essence of reality is unity and connectedness - (the assumption of wholeness) • at its most fundamental level, the Earth is a single, integrated system • the sustainability of any community depends on a limited resource base which defines the system’s carrying capacity * Every ecological system co-evolves through a dynamic interaction with the larger systems of which it is a part. In cultural terms students must come to understand that: • this is a grass roots process • local and regional communities will co-evolve together to create new and dynamic social, economic and political systems for regional, national and global cooperation

'Y' - FILE LEARNING CHALLENGE • ‘Y’ - Why would countries outside Australia show an interest in a national disaster involving aliens?

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES - ESSENTIAL LEARNING 1) Imagine that the existence of an alien life underground at Coober Pedy is confirmed. a) what would be the local political and social ramifications? b) What would be the national political and social ramifications? c) What would be the international political and social ramifications? 2) What responsibility would a government have to reveal details to the public, and what purpose would this serve? 3) How would the disappearance of an above ground community and the genesis of an underground community illustrate variations in a place over time, by referring to the processes that may affect natural and built features of an area?

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4) Imagine that the existence of an underground community is discovered and it is confirmed that the members of the community have all suffered genetic and biological experimentation at the hands of the military. a) what would be the local political and social ramifications? b) What would be the national political and social ramifications? c) What would be the international political and social ramifications? 5) What responsibility would a government have to reveal details to the public, and what purpose would this serve? 6) Choose a novel by one of the following authors and read it with the view of preparing a literature report. When writing your report draw analogies to the story followed in this unit at both the factual, conceptual and feeling levels: • Robert Heilein • Isaac Asimov • Philip K. Dick • Harlan Ellison • other.....

STEP 15 - PERFORMANCE OF MOST WORTH CONCEPTUAL LINKS: • living systems comprise relationships and integration • living systems reflect interconnecting patterns and are not random • the Earth is a living organism with which we are intimately connected • the essence of reality is unity and connectedness - (the assumption of wholeness) • at its most fundamental level, the Earth is a single, integrated system • the sustainability of any community depends on a limited resource base which defines the system’s carrying capacity • the greater the diversity within a community, the greater the stability • all living members of a community are engaged in a dynamic interplay of competition and cooperation involving partnership strategies • groups co-evolve through an interplay of creation and mutual adaptation • inter dependencies among members of communities involve the exchange of information in continuous cycles • all communities are powered by an external source of energy • prejudice frequently results from ignorance

* Assessment and evaluation should be done in such a way that it demonstrates a student’s mastery of the learning outcomes. * Some student characteristics that indicate mastery of learning include: ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


a) If a student can teach something to another student, they demonstrate mastery of the subject matter b) If students can produce a video/play/musical etc reflecting the key concepts of the study/unit/story, they demonstrate synthesis of information and mastery of concepts. c) If students can produce an Internet Web page or bulletin board page related to a particular pursuit or topic, they show mastery of of concepts, analysis of data and synthesis of information d) If students can plan and produce major mural or piece of art depicting a particular topic or issue, they demonstrate mastery of the concepts e) If students can design, build, trial and use a game reflecting concepts integral to a story, they demonstrate mastery of the concepts f) other

'Y' - FILE LEARNING CHALLENGE • Why is solving the case of the appearance of an underground humanoid-like community and the disappearance of an above ground mining community at Coober Pedy an excellent way to show that all things are interconnected? 1) For ‘The “Y”- Files’, students can be challenged to demonstrate mastery of understanding at the conceptual level by preparing a Prime Ministerial report to be presented in parliament. Each home/tute group should prepare their own reports with each ‘character’ presenting their report to parliament. • Each report must detail the final solution, any questions or concerns this raises and recommendations if applicable • Once the small group character reports are written, each group should select one representative to present the report to parliament • Divide the remainder of the class into the following roles: a) Prime Minister b) Leader of the Opposition c) Speaker of the House (possibly a teacher since they will control question time, time keeping, decorum etc) d) Camera crew (to video the procedure) e) Media representatives

• Conduct a simulation parliamentary session. Following each report questions will be asked by both government and media representatives • Individual home/tute group videos can be shared with other tute groups and critiqued and discussed

2) Within small character groups students should be asked to evaluate the following: • their own input into finding a solution • the positive and negative aspects of the group functioning and ways to improve group effectiveness ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


• the positive and negative aspects of the unit content and relevant recommendations • the positive and negative aspects of implementation of the unit and relevant recommendations.

Section 4: PLANNING AND REVIEW When Planning Learning Journeys please remember that: . Integrating learning for middle school students requires dedicated planning time for staff and students involved. . It is important to begin with specific learning outcomes and a time frame in mind, yet be constantly aware of and acknowledge additional outcomes for individual students and groups of students. . The outline below is only one suggestion, and should not be seen as prescriptive. For this reason it is not divided into specific lesson plans. Planning the overall outcomes and flow between learning areas first is most important. . Regular periods of reflection and evaluation are necessary to enable modifications and changes to learning paths to be negotiated and developed. . A blank planner is provided to enable you to both plan your own unit outline and to record the plans of your colleagues in relation to this unit. . A review page is also available for your own notes to enable the basis for ongoing dialogue and planning with your colleagues and continuous improvement of your own learning plan.

REVIEW PAGE This page is provided so that you might keep notes for yourself on what... . worked well . didn’t . you would emphasise next time you work with this unit . resources you found useful including additional resources . you would change next time . structural changes you would recommend . etc...

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Section 5: APPENDICES APPENDIX 1 - BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON COOBER PEDY Most of Coober Pedy is on a plateau. To the east is a gentle, long slope but to the west is a sudden drop that creates the beauty of the Stuart Range. All the area is desert, however, occasionally after rains water holes fill briefly and wildflowers spring into bloom The impression of Coober Pedy is of endless flat desert with brown rocks, red dust, a few low grey bushes, blue sky and very occasionally, sparse white clouds. At all times of the day the sandstone glares in the shimmering heat. Central Australia, of which Coober Pedy is part, still belongs to the Aborigines in the religious and tribal sense based on the sacredness of the land through legends. The relationship between Aborigines and non-Aborigines in the area is fairly noncommittal, non-aboriginal seeming more interested in ‘conning’ Aborigines into revealing good opal-bearing land, rather than establishing a partnership of shared habitation. The rocks of the region were originally deposited as sediment in the beds of lakes or seas. In some places a layer of special rock known locally as ‘sandstone’ was deposited. On top of this a layer of darker muddy looking material was deposited for a thickness of several centimetres. This became the opal-bearing level.. In turn it was covered by another layer of sandstone which was covered by another level up to about six or more levels until the total depth of about 30m. To prospect for opals, the following must be searched for. First, sandstone must be found. This can be from the surface down to about 21m. Second, levels must be found. Third, rising levels are needed - that is, levels moved by shifts in the earth’s crust. It is in these ‘shift’ and ‘slides’ that opal will form. To get at the opal, miners have to sink shafts and expose the slides at different levels. Opal occur in seams and ‘verticals’. Shallow country can be worked from the surface but deeper ground requires the use of bulldozers, trench diggers or shafts.. Shafts may be sunk by hand using picks and shovels, with the aid of gelignite, hand drills, air compressors, drills and jack-hammers, electric drills or giant mechanical drills. Air supplies in shaft-worked claims can be ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


obtained by connecting two shafts with a horizontal drive thus creating a draught. Mechanical pumps can also be used.

APPENDIX 2 - CHARACTER PROFILE 1) Your character profile should provide a written description of you under the following headings: physical description, family details, personal habits and occupational details. 2) Your written description should provide enough information for your reader to know you without needing to clarify details. • PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: - (could include) Height Facial details Distinguishing marks Weight Posture Body cues Hair colouring Distinctive walk Other....... • FAMILY DETAILS: - (could include) Marital status Siblings Ages Address Children? Type of house Pets Lifestyle

Family tree (3 generations) Ancestral heritage Customs/traditions Other........

• PERSONAL HABITS: - (could include) Likes & dislikes Favourite foods Things you care about Hobbies What makes you happy? Recreation What makes you sad

Anecdotes Other.......

• OCCUPATIONAL DETAILS: - (could include) General description of job (i.e. police force responsibilities) Specific personal job description (i.e. geomorphologist in a university science department) Daily and weekly schedules Recollections of past assignments. Other............. 3) You may wish to include additional details, for example: • Personal Portrait • Passport • Official clearance card ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


• Family photograph album • other......

APPENDIX 3 - ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES INTERDEPENDENCE: All members of an ecosystem are interconnected in a complex web of relationships. The success of the systems as a whole depends upon the success of each individual member or part, while simultaneously, the success of each member depends upon the success of the whole system.

SUSTAINABILITY: The long-term survival (sustainability) of any ecosystem depends on a limited resource base. These limited resources define the system’s carrying capacity i.e. its ability to sustain itself indefinitely on the given resources.

DIVERSITY: The successful maintenance and stability of an ecosystem depends substantially on the degree of complexity and diversity of its network of relationships. In general, the greater the diversity the greater the stability.

PARTNERSHIP: All living members of an ecosystem are engaged in a subtle and dynamic interplay of competition and cooperation, involving countless forms of partnership.

CO-EVOLUTION: Within an ecosystem, species (groups) co-evolve through an interplay of creation and mutual adaptation. Ecosystems also co-evolve with the larger systems of which they are part.

FLUCTUATING CYCLES: The interdependence among the members of an ecosystem involve the exchange of information (i.e. matter and energy), in continuous cycles. These cycles act as feedback loops maintaining the healthy balance required in a system.

ENERGY FLOW: All ecological systems are powered by an external source of energy. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


Fritjof Capra, Ed Clark, ‘Guide to Ecoliteracy’, Berkley, Elmwood Institute, 1993.

APPENDIX 4 - MALLEE ECOSYSTEM. The Mallee in Northwest Victoria is a semi-arid ecosystem. Mallee refers to a species of Eucalyptus distinct for being multi-stemmed. A mallee eucalypt has a large lignotuber which is underground swelling with dormant buds from which the plant can resprout after it has been damaged by drought, fire or insects. The Mallee region includes a great diversity of plants of different communities that are referred to as scrub, heath and woodland. These different vegetation types are habitats for kangaroos, emus, parrots, malleefowl and rare species of lizards and marsupial mice. Fire is a natural part of the environment of the Mallee, but the frequency of fire has increased with European settlement. Other human influences on the wilderness area include : • grazing by domestic stock • introduction of rabbits • weeds • sheep trampling lichens that normally crust on the soil and prevent surface erosion • harvesting of broombrush for fencing and housing • commercial bee keeping with introduced bees competing with native bees.

APPENDIX 5 - NATIONAL CURRICULUM LINKS ENGLISH SPEAKING & LISTENING 6.1: - Conveys detailed information & explores different perspectives on complex issues through interacting with known social groups (peers) in structured and unstructured situations. 6.2: - Identifies ways in which listeners’ sociocultural backgrounds, knowledge and opinions influence the meaning they obtain from spoken texts. 6.3: - Experiments with knowledge of linguistic structures and features, and draws on this knowledge to explain how speakers influence audiences. 6.4: - Critically evaluates others’ spoken texts and uses this knowledge to reflect on and improve own.

READING & VIEWING 6.5: - Explores different perspectives on complex issues through reading & viewing a range of texts, & contracts written & spoken responses relating these perspectives to personal understandings of the contemporary world. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


6.6: - Considers the contexts in which texts were or are created & how these are reflected in texts. 6.7: - Compares linguistic structures & features of texts to highlight their similarities & differences in form & meaning. 6.8a: - Draws on a repetorie of strategies to maintain understanding through dense & extended texts. 6.8b: - Gathers, selects & organises information effectively for specific purposes.

WRITING 6.9: - Conveys detailed information & explores different perspectives on complex, challenging issues through writing for specific & general audiences. 6.10: - Predicts some of the likely characteristics & expectations of particular audiences & tries to accommodate or resist these expectations as appropriate. 6.11: - Uses & experiments with a range of linguistic structures & features designed to influence audience. 6.12: - Revises own writing for meaning and effectiveness.

STUDIES OF SOCIETY AND THE ENVIRONMENT TIME, CONTINUITY AND CHANGE 6.1a: - Describes & explains lasting & changing aspects of Australian society & environments. 6.2: - Categorises different types of historical change. 6.3: - Critically compares representations of people, events and issues.

PLACE AND SPACE 6.4: - Explains & predicts variations in places over time by referring to processes that may affect natural and built features. 6.5: - Explains consequences of human modifications of natural and built features of place. 6.6: - Predicts consequences of implementing particular viewpoints on an issue concerning the use of a place.

CULTURE 6.8: - Analyses the ways societies or communities maintain cohesion and allow diversity. 6.9: - Analyses the core values of groups & societies.

RESOURCES 6.10: - Explains relationships between specialisation of production, exchange & resource use. 6.11: - Analyses occupational pathways & their education & training requirements to develop possible career plans.

NATURAL AND SOCIAL SYSTEMS 6.13: - Explains the ways in which various natural systems interact on a global scale and the ways people affect them. 6.14: - Analyses ways in which political & legal systems interact on a national & international scale to explain current events. 6.15: - Explains features of the international economy and how they impact on national systems.

INVESTIGATION, COMMUNICATION AND PARTICIPATION 6.16: - Explains various ways of viewing an issue and the information associated with it. 6.17: - Discusses the logic & evidence for an argument or viewpoint. 6.18: - Comes to an informed personal decision through discussion & considering viewpoints & evidence presented by others.

SCIENCE EARTH AND BEYOND 6.1: - Explains scientific techniques used in monitoring the Earth from space. 6.2: - Prepares evidence to support current theories on the formation & geological history of the earth.

ENERGY AND CHANGE 6.4: - Describes systems whose purpose is to obtain and transfer information efficiently. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


6.5: - Relates observed changes in a receiver to the quantity of energy transferred. 6.6: - Applies ideas of energy conservation & efficiency to sequences of interaction.

LIFE AND LIVING 6.7: - Analyses the effects of environmental change on living things and ecosystems. 6.8: - Explains how living things obtain, store & transport nutrients, transform energy and manage waste. 6.9: - Describes how genetic continuity is maintained from generation to generation.

NATURAL AND PROCESSED MATERIALS 6.10: - Describes techniques and underlying principles used in the production of some useful materials. 6.11: - Relates physical & chemical properties to underlying structure within families of chemicals. 6.12: - Identifies & explains chemical reactions important in the environment.

WORKING SCIENTIFICALLY 6.13: - Plans procedures to investigate hypotheses & predictions for situations involving few variables. 6.15: - Uses information as a stimulus for further investigation and analysis. 6.16: - Assesses conclusions in relation to other evidence and sources.

THE ARTS DRAMA 6.7: - Uses drama elements, skills, techniques & processes to structure drama appropriate to chosen styles and forms. 6.8: - Rehearses, presents & promotes drama in ways appropriate for specific audiences.

VISUAL ARTS 6.21: - Explores visual arts of different cultures to generate & develop ideas for making art. 6.22: - Uses art elements, skills, techniques & processes to structure art works appropriate to chosen styles and mediums.

TECHNOLOGY DESIGNING, MAKING AND APPRAISING 6.1: - Analyses how needs, resources & circumstances affect the development & application of particular technologies. 6.2: - Creates & prepares detailed design & production proposals that • show how the ideas have been developed • justify the functional, aesthetic, social and environmental choices made • use symbols, graphics & technical language adapted to the needs of the audience 6.3: - Organises, implements & adjusts production processes involving: • achievements of specified standards of quality and safety • efficient use of time and resources • collaboration with others on tasks carried out in specific sequences. 6.4: - Prepares and presents evaluation reports using information from impact studies, product testing, market research and from comparisons with similar work done by others.

INFORMATION 6.5: - Explains how the form and structure of information products and processes are developed and can be influenced by particular cultural values & experiences. 6.6: - Creates, transforms & processes information using procedures, conventions & languages associated with particular information technologies.

MATERIALS 6.7: - Matches the physical, chemical & aesthetic properties of materials to design, production and service requirements. 6.8: - Selects and uses techniques & equipment to suit particular work situations & to work materials to specified standards of safety, accuracy & presentation. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


SYSTEMS 6.9: - Explains the principles, structures, logic, organisation & control of systems, & the impact of systems on communities and environments. 6.10: - Uses specialised procedures & techniques to construct & operate systems, control & optimise outputs, & organise & adjust sub-systems.

MEDIA 6.12: - Uses media elements, skills and techniques to structure media productions appropriate to chosen styles and forms.

REFERENCES Roads, Bridges & Tunnels - MacDonald Junior reference library, B.P.C. Pub. Ltd, London, 1969 Solar Energy; a Biased Guide - William Ewers, Aust & NZ book company, 1977 An Introduction to fossils and minerals; seeking clues to the Earth’s past - John Erickson, Facts on file, NY 1992 Dams, How We Build Them - Neil Ardley, Macmillan Publishing Co, 1989 ULURU and Kata Tjuta, a Geological History - Aust Geological Survey Organisation 1992 Australian Precious 0pal, Archie Kalokerinos, Nelson 1971 Nature Facts - Rocks and Minerals - Len Cacutt, Bramley books 1992 Silent Killers - Kathlyn Gay, Franklin Watts, 1988 Save the Earth - Jonathon Porritt, Angus & Robertson, 1991 Ecology and issues - Steve Malcolm, STAV publishing, 1991 Heinemann Biology in Context - Book 1 - Evans, B., Ladiges, P., & McKenzie, J., Heinemann Educational 1992 Heinemann Biology in Context Book 2 (authors as above) - 1992

APPENDIX 6 - SUGGESTED TIMETABLE - 10 week term WEEK 1 - 4 - (Core Theme Studies plus subject specific instruction) HUMANITIES Documentaries ‘X” - File episodes Films Discussions Government Law enforcement ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


ENGLISH Character Studies Biographies Autobiographies Diaries SCIENCE Geological studies Communication Sound Geography THE ARTS Role Plays Media END OF WEEK 4 FIRST THEME DAY - Predicting a Solution (all tute groups together) WEEKS 5 - 8 - (Core Theme Studies plus subject specific instruction) HUMANITIES Ecological principles Urban planning Politics Catastrophic events ENGLISH Literature studies Written reports Speeches SCIENCE Adaptation Genetic coding Mining Technology Energy sources Catastrophic events THE ARTS Model making Cartoons Murals Role plays ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730


END OF WEEK 8 SECOND THEME DAY - Modifying the Solution (all tute groups together) WEEK 9 - (Core Theme Studies plus subject specific instruction) HUMANITIES Communication Global effects Rights & responsibilities ENGLISH Written reports Speeches SCIENCES Artificial intelligence Solar System THE ARTS Role Play Media WEEK 10 Evaluation through presentation (in Prime Ministerial report) to parliament.

________________________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright ©Global Learning Communities  2002 All material on this site is for personal use only. Reproduction or on­sending of any material held under Global  Learning Communities or Integral Learning Futures is strictly prohibited ACN089 544 730

Profile for Julie Boyd

Curriculum Unit for MIDDLE SCHOOL : The Y FIles: A STUDY OF INTER-DEPENDENCE  

Curriculum Unit for MIDDLE SCHOOL : The Y FIles: A STUDY OF INTER-DEPENDENCE  

Profile for jboydedu
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